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closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertzdemonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902. Nikola Tesla In addition to Marconi, two of his contemporaries Nikola Tesla and Nathan Stufflefield took out patents for wireless radio transmitters. Nikola Tesla is now credited with being the first person to patent radio technology; the Supreme Court overturned Marconi's patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla. Growth of Radio - Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (morse code) used in a telegraph. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. This was a way of communicating between two points, however, it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Wireless signals proved effective in communication for rescue work when a sea disaster occurred. A number of ocean liners installed wireless equipment. In 1899 the United States Army established wireless communications with a lightship off Fire Island, New York. Two years later the Navy adopted a wireless system. Up to then, the Navy had been using visual signaling and homing pigeons for communication. In 1901, radiotelegraph service was instituted between five Hawaiian Islands. By 1903, a Marconi station located in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, carried an exchange or greetings between President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII. In 1905 the naval battle of Port Arthur in the RussoJapanese war was reported by wireless, and in 1906 the U.S. Weather Bureau experimented with radiotelegraphy to speed notice of weather conditions.
which several months later. Peary. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector.S. Fessenden started his own company where he invented the modulation of radio waves. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debateable. the first transpacific radiotelegraph service linked San Francisco with Hawaii. after the government released its control of all patents. The earlier spark-gap transmitters did not allow for this. Fessenden. thus. enabled an escaped British murderer to be apprehended on the high seas. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and theDe Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. In 1910 Marconi opened regular American-European radiotelegraph service. Robert E. Kentucky. in 1892.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. Lee DeForest . radiotelegraphed: "I found the Pole". True Broadcasting Begins . Fessenden is best known for his invention of the modulation of radio waves and the fathometer. In the early 1900s. The U. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. Fessenden worked as as a chemist for Thomas Edison during the 1880s and later for Westinghouse. Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly.S. all radio development was controlled by the U. Reginald A. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". Lee De Forest provided that detector.In 1909. the "heterodyne principle" which allowed the reception and transmission on the same aerial without interference. In 1912. which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. Reginald A. When the United States entered the first world war in 1917. the triode amplifier and the Audion. much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. in 1906. The result of Lee DeForest's work was the invention of amplitude-modulated or AM radio that allowed for a multitude of radio stations. Stubblefield to a test partner near Murray. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. arctic explorer. Fessenden Canadian. In 1919.
British colonial government approved a license to a private company. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labour and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation.com/37/history_indian_radio. Radio technology has grown significantly since its early development.htm Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington. In 1947. On November 2. and with South America three years later. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.indianetzone. 1920. a direct radiotelephone circuit was opened to Paris. However. . In 1954. the Indian Broadcasting Company. Until 1936. In 1935 the first telephone call was made around the world. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio programs. all American transatlantic telephone communication had to be routed through England. FM Radio Edwin Howard Armstrong invented frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933.In 1915.S. a then small Japanese company called Sony introduced the transistor radio.500 miles of shore. At that time telephone contact could be made only with ships within 1. In that year. When India became independent in 1947. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. Telephone connection by radio and cable is now accessible with 187 foreign points. the first Master FM Antenna system in the world designed to allow individual FM stations to broadcast simultaneously from one source was erected on the Empire State Building in NYC. it was not until 1929 that high seas public radiotelephone service was inaugurated. FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphe. 400 miles at sea. New Jersey. http://www. The first ship-to-shore two way radio conversation occurred in 1922. FM Antenna System In 1965. Commercial radiotelephony linking North America with Europe was opened in 1927. In the very same year. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. Today there is the ability to telephone nearly every large ship wherever it may be on the globe. Virginia. America. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. In 1936. using a combination of wire and radio circuits. and the S. between Deal Beach. Bell Labs scientists invented the transistor.
but owing to financial difficulties gave it up in 1927. including both English and Indian language papers. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. The Club worked a broadcasting service for three years. In the same year (1927) some enterprising businessmen in Bombay started the Indian Broadcasting Company with stations at Bombay and Calcutta. the West Zone in Mumbai. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. This company failed in 1930. Assam. in 1932 the Government of India took over broadcasting. who is assisted by several Deputy Directors and a Chief Engineer. Radio Broadcasting was pioneered in India by the Madras Presidency Club Radio in 1924. Akashvani is a government-owned. according to a recent . Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai. in its significance. as a medium of information and education is particularly great in a vast and developing country like India where the reach of the printed word is not very wide or deep. While the total circulation of all the newspapers in India. is around 8 million. The AIR is controlled by a Director General. A separate department known as Indian Broadcasting Service was opened. reach and impact.Government of India controls the radio broadcastingin India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. there are. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. Broadcasting. constitutes the most powerful medium of mass communication in India. English. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. The Service was later designated 'All India Radio' (AIR) and was placed under a separate Ministry-the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The government-owned network of Indian radio provides both national and local programs in Hindi. and sixteen regional languages. Its importance. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. and the South Zone in Chennai. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. the East Zone in Kolkata.
Broadcasting in India is a national service. one at Chandigarh and the other at Kanpur. Bangalore. Ranchi. Delhi. With two more stations that will start working soon. South Zone: Alleppey. Indore. Today the radio network has spread to the remote corners of India. These cover all the important cultural and linguistic regions of the country. Port Blair. Programmes for Special Audiences (like Youth. there are three auxiliary studio centers at Vado. Dharwar. Dibrugarh.estimate. Vijayawada and Vishakhapatnam. News and Current Affairs. Raipur. Farm and Home Broadcasts.dara. Mysore. Vividh Bharati and its Commercial Service. developed and operated by the Government of India. Gulbarga. India's broadcasting network would cover 89 per cent of the population. grouped into five zones. Jabalpur. Tawang and Tezu . Cuddapah. Madras. All India Radio seeks to represent in its national and regional programmes. Cuttack. Bikancr. Udaipur and Varanasi: East Zone: Agartala. the AIR today has a network of 82 broadcasting stations. the attitudes. Nagpur. The 82 radio stations. Parbani. Jeypore. Patna. Rajkot and Sangli. Pondicherry. Gauhati. Hyderabad. Spoken Word. In addition. As a national service. Simla. Kohima. Sambalpur. Calicut. AIR Network: Starting with 6 broadcasting stations in 1947. Panaji.74 crores. a zonal service from each of the four metropolitan centers (Delhi. Leh and Srinagar. Today there are as many as 82 AIR stations. Jodhpur. Aligarh. Lucknow. AIR's programme pattern combines three main elements: a national channel providing programmes of countrywide interest and significance. Coimbatore. Features. Calcutta. Till the end of 1976 radio licenses had reached a colossal figure of nearly 1. Rampur. and Kashmir Zone: Jammu. Pasighat. Bhopal. Calcutta and Madras). Shillong. catering to the complex needs of a vast country. as fully and faithfully as possible. West Zone : Ahmedabad. . Siliguri. Jullundur. Kurseong. Imphal. Commentaries and Discussion. Allahabad. are the following: North Zone: Ajmer. Pune. Gwalior. The expansion of the broadcasting facility remained limited till independence. All India Radio (also known as Akashvani) operates this service. Gorakhpur. over a network of broadcasting stations located ail over the country. nearly 400 million (out of a total population of 625 million) potential listeners to All India Radio. Bhadravati. which fetched revenue of Rs. Aizawl. Dramas. and regional services from individual stations each catering to the needs and interests of its respective area. Trichur. It is now possible to bring sense of unity not only political but also cultural among the diverse traditions that enrich our land. Silchar. Bombay. Trivandrum. 23. the richness of the Indian scene and the reach of the Indian mind. Jaipur. aspirations and attainments of all Indian people and attempts to reflect. Darbhanga and Shantiniketan and two Vividh Bharati/commercial centers. Tirunelveli. Bhuj. The principal ingredients of AIR's programme output are Music. Mathura. In 1947 there were only six radio stations in the country. Bhagalpur. Tiruchirappalli.51 crores. Bombay.
Delhi and Madras-Tiruchirapalli (1969). provides accurate. Patna.shik desk in Delhi) broadcast in 22 languages and 34 tribal dialects with a total duration of 15 hours every day. Commercial advertising was introduced on AIR in November. with a daily duration of 10 hours 3 minutes.Bangalore. Of these. Cuttack. with duration of 32 hours 17 minutes. Ahmedabad-Rajkot. The total duration of broadcasts of the Vividh Bharati service is now 12 hours 45 minutes. It has also started originating programmes. Industrial Workers and Tribal Population). Jaipur. known as Vividh Bharati was started in October 1957 to meet the growing demand for popular music and light features. the External Services of AIR beam their programmes to listeners all over the world in 24 languages. 57 external bulletins (from Delhi) broadcast in 24 languages for a duration of 7 hours 14 minutes and 15 regional bulletins from 34 regional centers (including the Prade. 1967. Of these. Indore. Jodhpur. It was gradually extended to Calcutta (1968). AIR has a total of 206 correspondents. the news agencies and the monitoring services. To enable AIR to reach all sections of the Indian people. Today the External Services of AIR broadcast in 25 languages for about 50 hours daily round-the-clock. 1939. 67 are Central bulletins broadcast from Delhi in 19 languages. Dharwar. commentaries and discussions. Hyderabad-Vijayawada (1971) and Bhopal. External Services: AIR made its first broadcast to listeners outside India on October I. New Services: The News Services Division of AIR through its central and regional news bulletins and its current affairs. The major sources of news for AIR are its correspondents at home and abroad. reaching listeners in widely scattered areas of the world. now forms a part of the Central Sales Unit of the Commercial Broadcasting Service. from the Bombay-Nagpur channel of Vividh-Bharati on an experimental basis. Advertisements are accepted in any language as tape-recorded 'spots' of 15 seconds or 30 seconds duration. Vividh Bharati: A self-contained service of popular entertainment. objective. Children. . In addition. Chandigarh-Jullundur. The network covers 29 full-fledged centers and seven partial centers. its programmes in the Home Service are broadcast in 20 principal languages. an alternative national service of All India Radio. Kanpur-Lucknow-Allahabad (1970). and Programmes for Overseas Listeners broadcast in the External Services. Ranchi and Trivandrum (1975). Vividh Bharati.Women. Bombay and Madras. speedy and comprehensive coverage of news to listeners at home and abroad. 111 are part-time. AIR now broadcasts a total of 239 news bulletins a day. Vividh Bharati is also radiated through two powerful shortwave transmitters from Delhi. on week days and 13 hours 20 minutes on Sundays and holidays.
With FM ruling the roost the airwaves are a constant tribute to Bollywood fare. A youth news bulletin is also broadcast by the youth themselves. for the armed forces (daily). Programmes for the youth in Yuva Vani are broadcast from Calcutta.There has been a steady rise in the gross revenue earned by the commercial services. programmes based on recordings of old masters are also featured in this programme. A division of Trump It Entertainment and Creative Services. The . The medium of the drama is utilised for popularising the Economic Programme. Hyderabad. It has helped in a better understanding of the two systems prevalent in the North and the South. as often as possible. agriculture and other matters (twice a week) and programmes on Family Planning in all the National languages and in important dialects. Once a month an outstanding play from one of the main Indian languages is selected and translated into all the other regional languages of the country r id broadcast simultaneously by all stations in their respective regional languages. Dowry and anti-Casteism are regularly broadcast. Family Planning. This competition was held during the year and prizes were awarded. for hill tribes in their own dialects which number around 135 for rural audiences and consist of plays. 6. a fad surprisingly that hasn't caught on in India in spite of our technology savvy ways.96 crores in 1970-71 to Rs. the restaurant and bar that has been a space for music and musical activities for the last five years also owned by the same group.21 crores from its commercial services. the weekly National Programme of Music provides an opportunity to listeners to hear well-known exponents of Hindustani and Karnataka music. The radio station was launched in Bangalore on Tuesday amidst much fanfare. discussions interviews. Jammu. . 2. This service provides a forum to the youth between the ages of l5 and 25 years. National Programme: Started in July 1952. youth programmes etc. It is this uninitiated market that internet radio hopes to capture with the launch of myopusradio. features and music. skits. Internet radio is one of the most popular ways to listening to music world wide. The Special Programmes include programmes for women (once a week) for children (two or three times a week).000 plays are broadcast from the different stations of AIR annually on an average. music. At suitable intervals. for Industrial Workers (4 days in a week). who present their viewpoint by participating in a wide range of programmes-talks.original broadcast of this feature might be in Hindi or English. plays. The National Programme of Features attempts to mirror the progress made in different spheres of development in the country and to project various aspects of its social and cultural life. All India Radio instituted in 1975 the annual Akashvani Awards for plays. A special series of short plays on various themes including the Economic Programme. In the interest of improvement of radio programmes.com. the radio station is named as a tribute to Opus. 38.25 crores in 1975-76 and Rs. It went up from Rs. Delhi. Since inception and till March 1977 AIR had earned total gross revenue of about Rs. Nearly 4. but these are invariably translated into all regional languages and presented from the regional stations. Patna and Srinagar stations.6. The most significant achievement of AIR in the field of Radio drama is its National Programme of Plays. features.50 crores approximately in 1976-77.
com will play international music.intoday. com plays International retro. Opera. internet radio might be the only option. which can be downloaded from the Adobe site. Rap. For everyone suffering from an overdose of Bollywood and Punjabi on the FM channels. Blues.in/story/India+gets+its+first+Internet+radio+station/1/18302. Jazz. currently streamlining at 64K which is the same as the FM quality of sound on the radio. Electronic Dance Music. Soul. country. Myopusradio.Opus which started in Bangalore will shortly expand to other cities as well. Rock and Roll. Hip Hop. RnB. Myopusradio. Rock. Independant music and chart busters. Funk.html . All that is required for listeners is to tune into the 24 radio station is a broadband internet connection and the latest flash player from Adobe. Disco. Read more at:http://indiatoday.
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