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# Title: ANTENNA AZIMUTH POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM MODELLING, ANALYSIS

## Course: CONTROL SYSTEMS IV (SECOND SEMESTER 2012)

DEPARTMENT: (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING)

INTRODUCTION

## This will include everything in page 1415 (Include the diagrams)

CHALLENGE 1
Evaluation of the transfer function of subsystems
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(

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(
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Parameter
Kpot
K
a

Configuration2
3.18
150
150
0.8
1.32
0.2

)
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( )

CHALLENGE 2
State space representation of each dynamic subsystems
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(

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(

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)]

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CHALLENGE 3
a. Prediction of the open-loop angular velocity response of the power amplifier, motor, and
load to a step voltage at the input to the power amplifier.
b. Finding the damping ratio and natural frequency of the open-loop system.
c. Derivation of the open-loop angular velocity response of the power amplifier, motor, and
load to a step-voltage input using transfer functions.
d. The open-loop state and output equations.
e. Using MATLAB to obtain a plot of the open-loop angular velocity response to a stepvoltage input.
a.

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(

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s

)(

a.

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b.
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(
c.
(

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)(

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d.

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e.
num=24
den=poly([-150 -1.32])
G=tf(num,den)
Step(G)

CHALLENGE 4
a. Finding the closed-loop transfer function using block diagram reduction.
b. Representation of each subsystem with a signal-flow graph and finding the state-space
representation of the closed-loop system from the signal-flow graph.
c. Using the signal-flow graph found in (b) along with Mason's rule to find the closed-loop
transfer function.

d. Replace the power amplifier with a transfer function of unity and evaluate the closedloop percent overshoot, settling time, and peak time for K = 5.
e. For the system used for(d), derive the expression for the closed loop step response.
f. For the simplified model in (d), find the value of preamplifier gain, K, to yield 15%
overshoot.
a.

)(

b.

[ ]

10

150

( )

1
0 .2

0 .8

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1 ( )

2 ( )

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1 .3 2

150

10
-

10

c.

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d.

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e.

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f.

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## For 15% overshoot

)
(

CHALLENGE 5
Finding the range of preamplifier gain required to keep the closed-loop system stable.
( )
Routh table
1

198

151.32

76.39K

29961.36-76.39K

76.39K

Therefore
29961.36-76.39K=0
K=392.22
For stability 0< K < 392.22

CHALLENGE 6

a. Find the steady-state errors in terms of gain, K, for step, ramp, and parabolic inputs.
b. Find the value of gain, K, to yield a 20% error in the steady state.
a.

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)(
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b.

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## For stability 0< K < 392.22

CHALLENGE7
a. Find the preamplifier gain, K, required for an 8-second settling time.
b. Repeat, using MATLAB.
a.
( )

)(

Closed loop pole= -0.5+ 6.4 the gain value yields 76.39K=6210.507

Therefore K=81.3
b.
Program
numg= 1;
deng=poly([0 -150 -1.32]);
G=tf(numg,deng)
rlocus(G)
axis([-2,0,-10,10]);
grid on
[K1,p]=rlocfind(G)
K=K1/76.39
Computer Response
Transfer function:
1
----------------------s^3 + 151.3 s^2 + 198 s
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-0.5134 + 6.0735i
K1 =
5.5870e+003
p=
1.0e+002 *
-1.5025
-0.0054 + 0.0607i
-0.0054 - 0.0607i
K=
73.1383

CHALLENGE 8
a. For your solution to the challenge in Chapter 8, evaluate the percent overshoot and the
value of the appropriate static error constant.
b. Design a cascade compensator to reduce the percent overshoot by a factor of 4 and the
settling time by a factor of 2. Also, improve the appropriate static error constant by a factor
of 2.
c. Repeat Part b using MATLAB.
a. Closed loop poles=-0.5+ 6.4
( )

(
(
(

b.

)(
(
)

))

)
(

## Dominant second order pole is -1+

Assuming a zero at -1.5 yields -56.69 which is the angular contribution required from
compensator pole
(

( )

)(

)(

## Lag compensator design

K=9.53 for the lead compensated
(
(

Choosing

therefore

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)
)

( )

(
(

)(

)
)
)(
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c.
Program and computer response
>> num=76.39
den=poly([0 -1.32 -150])
G=tf(num,den)
rlocus(G)
zun=0.078
sgrid(zun,0)
numld=[76.39 114.585]
den=poly([0 -1.32 -150])
Pn=-1+1.925i
angle_Pn=angle(polyval(numld,Pn)/polyval(den,Pn))*(180/pi)
O=-angle_Pn-180
den1=poly([0 -1.32 -2.265 -150])
Gld=tf(numld,den1)
rlocus(Gld)
z=0.461
sgrid(z,0)
numlg=[1 0.002581]
denlg=[1 0.0001]
Glg=tf(numlg,denlg)
Gllc=series(Gld,Glg)
rlocus(Gllc)
z=0.461
sgrid(z,0)
K=8.61
T=feedback(K*Gllc,1)
step(T)
num =
76.3900
den =
1.0000 151.3200 198.0000

Transfer function:
76.39
----------------------s^3 + 151.3 s^2 + 198 s
zun =
0.0780
numld =
76.3900 114.5850
den =
1.0000 151.3200 198.0000

Pn =
-1.0000 + 1.9250i
angle_Pn =
-123.3133
O=
-56.6867
den1 =
1.0000 153.5850 540.7398 448.4700
Transfer function:
76.39 s + 114.6
-------------------------------------

## s^4 + 153.6 s^3 + 540.7 s^2 + 448.5 s

z=
0.4610
numlg =
1.0000 0.0026
denlg =
1.0000 0.0001
Transfer function:
s + 0.002581
-----------s + 0.0001
Transfer function:
76.39 s^2 + 114.8 s + 0.2957
--------------------------------------------------s^5 + 153.6 s^4 + 540.8 s^3 + 448.5 s^2 + 0.04485 s
z=
0.4610
K=
8.6100
Transfer function:
657.7 s^2 + 988.3 s + 2.546
-------------------------------------------------------s^5 + 153.6 s^4 + 540.8 s^3 + 1106 s^2 + 988.3 s + 2.546

CHALLENGE 9
a. Find the range of gain for stability. ___
b. Find the percent overshoot for a step input if the gain, K, equals 3.
C. Repeat Parts a. and b. using MATLAB
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(

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Parameter
Kpot
K

Configuration3
3.18
100
a
100
0.8
1.32 and 100
0.2
a. Phase response is -180 at w=11.8 rad/s
The magnitude plot is -48.9dB
(

## Therefore the system is stable if 0 K 278.61

b. If K=3
The magnitude curve is moved up by 20log3 = 9.54 dB
The adjusted magnitude curve goes through zero dB at w=1
The phase angle ( ) is -128 yielding phase margin 53.96

c.
Program and computer response
num=50.88
den=poly([0 -1.32 -100])
G=tf(num,den)
bode(G)
grid on

num1=152.64
den1=poly([0 -1.32 -100])
G1=tf(num1,den1)
bode(G1)
grid on
[Gm,Pm,Wc,Wcp]=margin(G1)
num =
50.8800
den =
1.0000 101.3200 132.0000

Transfer function:
50.88
----------------------s^3 + 101.3 s^2 + 132 s
num1 =
152.6400
den1 =
1.0000 101.3200 132.0000
Transfer function:
152.6
----------------------s^3 + 101.3 s^2 + 132 s
Gm =
87.6195
Pm =

53.9644
Wc =
11.4891
Wcp =
0.9414
>> for z=0:.01:1
Pme=atan(2*z/(sqrt(-2*z^2+sqrt(1+4*z^4))))*(180/pi);
if Pm-Pme<=0;
break
end
end
z
percent=exp(-z*pi/sqrt(1-z^2))*100
z=
0.5300
percent =
14.0366

CHALLENGE 10
Gain Design
a. Find the value of K to yield 25% overshoot for a step input.
b. Repeat Part a using MATLAB.
a.
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)(

Let K=1
%OS=25%
Phase margin= 43.63
Therefore the phase angle=-180+43.63=-136.537 at w=1.34 rad/s where the gain is -13.9
dB
(

b.
Program and computer response
OS=0.25
z=-log(OS)/sqrt(pi^2+(log(OS))^2)
Pmc=atan(2*z/sqrt(-2*z^2+sqrt(1+4*z^4)))*(180/pi)
phase_angle=-180+Pmc
num=50.88
den=poly([0 -1.32 -100])
G=tf(num,den)
bode(G)
grid on
K=10^(13.9/20)
K=4.95
T=feedback(K*G,1)
step(T)
OS =
0.2500

z=
0.4037
Pmc =
43.4630
phase_angle =
-136.5370
num =
50.8800
den =
1.0000 101.3200 132.0000
Transfer function:
50.88
----------------------s^3 + 101.3 s^2 + 132 s
K=
4.9545
K=
4.9500
Transfer function:
251.9
-------------------------------

## Cascade Compensation Design

a. Design a lag-lead compensator to yield a 15% overshoot and Kv =20. In order to speed up
the system, the compensated system's phase margin frequency will be set to 4.6 times the
phase-margin frequency of the uncompensated system.
b. Repeat Part a using MATLAB.
( )

)(

%OS=15%
(

## Therefore the phase margin=53.17 and the phase angle=-180+53.17=-126.83 therefore

phase frequency w=0.945

)(

## Phase angle =-165 at new phase margin frequency

Phase margin=180-165=15
Therefore 53.17-15+5=43.17
Upper break =
(

## Lower break frequency =

=0.082
(
(

)
)

(
)(

)(

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)(

b.
Program and computer response
OS=0.15
z=-log(OS)/sqrt(pi^2+(log(OS))^2)
Pmc=atan(2*z/sqrt(-2*z^2+sqrt(1+4*z^4)))*(180/pi)
phase_angle=-180+Pmc

)
)(

K=51.89
num=2640.1632
den=poly([0 -1.32 -100])
G=tf(num,den)
bode(G)
grid on
numc=poly([-0.4347 -1.8])
denc=poly([0 -1.32 -100 -0.0748 -10.475])
Glag_lead=tf(numc,denc)
Kc=51.89*50.88
T=feedback(Kc*Glag_lead,1)
step(T)
OS =
0.1500
z=
0.5169
Pmc =
53.1718
phase_angle =
-126.8282
K=
51.8900
num =
2.6402e+003
den =
1.0000 101.3200 132.0000

Transfer function:
2640
----------------------s^3 + 101.3 s^2 + 132 s
numc =
1.0000 2.2347 0.7825
denc =
1.0e+003 *
0.0010 0.1119 1.2017 1.4720 0.1034

Transfer function:
s^2 + 2.235 s + 0.7825
----------------------------------------------s^5 + 111.9 s^4 + 1202 s^3 + 1472 s^2 + 103.4 s
Kc =
2.6402e+003
Transfer function:
2640 s^2 + 5900 s + 2066
----------------------------------------------------s^5 + 111.9 s^4 + 1202 s^3 + 4112 s^2 + 6003 s + 2066

DISCUSSION
The objective of the report has been met, however some challenges that were encountered
while doing the report were that some of the formulas required to solve some of the
problems are not clearly easy to identify and the Matlab responses sometimes give
different answers to the examples given on the prescribed book just by a little. Another
challenge was to find mistakes done as a single mistake can make the entire system fail.