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BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

1.0

OBJECTIVE 1.1 To observe the effect of redundant member in a structure and understand the method of analysing type of this structure.

2.0

LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 2.2 Aplication of engineering knowledge in practical aplication. To enchance technical competency in structure engineering through laboratory aplication.

3.0

THEORY 3.1 In a statically indeterminated truss, static equilibrium alone cannot be used to calculated member force. If we were to try, we would find that there would be too many unknows and we would not be able to complete the calculations 3.2 3.3 Instead we will use a method know as the flexibility meethod, which uses an idea know as strain energy. The mathematical approach to the flexibility method will be found in the most appropriate text books.
1 8 5 6 4 3 2 7

Figure 1 : Idealised Statically Indetermined cantilever Truss

Basically the flexibility method usues the idea that energy stored in the frame would be the same for a given load wheather or not the redundant member whether or not. In other word, the external energy = internal energy. In practise, the loads in the frame are calculated in its released from (that is, without the redundant member) and then calculated with a unit load in place of the 1

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

redundant member. The value fo both are combined to calculate the force in the redundant member and remaining members.

The redundant member load in given by: P=

n l
2

fnl

The remaining member force are then given by: Member force = Pn + f Where, P = Redundant member load (N) L = length of members (as ratio of the shortest) n = load in each member due to unit load in place of redundant member (N) F = Force in each member when the frame is release (N)

Figure 2 shows the force in the frame due to the load of 250 N. You should be able to calculate these values from Experiment : Force in a statically determinate truss
-250N

354N

250N

354N

-500N

250N

F=250N

Figure 2: Force in the Released Truss

Figure 3 shows the loads in the member due to the unit load being applied to the frame. The redundant member is effectively part of the 0 structure as the idealised in Figure 2
1 1

2
0

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

Figure 3: Forces in the Truss due to the load on the Redundant members

4.0

PROCEDURE

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

1. Wind the thumbwheel on the redundant member up to the boss and hand tighten it. Do not use any tools to tighten the thumbwheel.

2. Apply the pre-load of 100N downward, re-zero the load cell and carefully zero the digital indicator.

3. Carefully apply a load of 250N and check the frame is stable and secure. 4. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload). Recheck and re-zero the digital indicator. Never apply loads greater than those specified on the equipment.

5. Apply loads in the increment shown in table 1, recording the strain readings and the digital indicator readings.

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

6. Subtract the initial (zero) strain reading (be careful with your signs) and complete table 2. 7. Calculate the equipment member force at 250 N and enter them into table 3. 8. Plot a graph of Load vs. Deflection from Table 1 on the same axis as Load vs. deflection when the redundant removed. 9. The calculation for redundant truss is made much simpler and easier if the tabular method is used to sum up all of the Fnl and n2l terms. 10. Refer to table 4 and enter in the values and carefully calculated the other terms as required. 11. Enter your result in to Table 3.

5.0

RESULT Member strains ()

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

Digital Indicator reading (mm)

124 132 140 149 157 166

204 195 185 176 168 158

-33 -42

Table 1: Strain Reading and Frame Deflection

Member strains ()

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

0 13 26 41 53 65

0 5 -9 -13 -16 -21

0 -8 -17 -24 -32 -40

0 -13 -28 -38 -49 -62

0 5 10 16 21 25

0 -7 -14 -19 -24 -31

0 13 27 41 53 65

0 7 15 24 31 37

Table 2 : True Strain Reading

Member
1 2 3 4

Experimental Force (N)


385.91

Theoretical Force (N)

-124.68 -237.481 -368.09

375.1 -124.9 -250 -374.9 6

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

5 6 7 8

148.43 -184.05 385.91 219.67

125.1 -176.9 354 177.1

Table 3: Measured and Theoretical in the Redundant Cantilever Truss

Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Length 1 1 1 1 1 1.414 1.414 1.414

Fnl

n2l

Pn 125.1 125.1 0 125.1 125.1 -176.9 0 -176.9

Pn + f

250 -250 -250 -500 0 0 354 354

-0.707 -176.75 -0.707 176.75 0 0 -0.707 353.5 -0.707 0 1 0 0 0 1 500.56

0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 1.414 0 1.414 4.828

375.1 -124.9 -250 -374.9 125.1 -176.9 354 177.1

Total

854.06

P = -Total Fnl Total n2l = -854.06 4.828 = -176.9 N Table 4: table for calculating the Forces in the Redundant Truss 6.0 CALCULATION 6.1 Calculation of real force, F

24cm

D 7

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

A 24cm

E 24cm 250N

m=8 j=5 r=3

m = 2j 3 8 > 2(5) 3 8 > 10 3 8>7

So, the structure is statically internal indeterminate. CALCULATION FOR THEORETICAL FORCE (N) RAY RAX A 8 5 6 RBX B 4 1m MA =0 250 ( 2 ) - RBX = 0 500 - RBX = 0 - RBX = -500 RBX = 500N JOINT METHOD CALCULATION FBA C 3 1m D 250N 2 7 1m 1 E

500 4

FBC 8

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

MEMBER 4 Fx = 0 500 + FBC = 0 FBC = -500N

MEMBER 5 Fy = 0 FBA = 0 FBA = 0

FDE 7

FDC 3 250

MEMBER 3 Fx = 0 -FDE (1/1.414) FDC = 0 - FDC - 354 (1/1.414) = 0 FDC = -250N

MEMBER 7 Fy = 0 -250 + FDE(1/1.414) = 0 FDE = 354N

FCA FCA

FCE

88

22

FCB 4 C 3

FCD

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

MEMBER 2 Fy = 0 250 + FCE = 0 FCE = -250N

FCA
FCA Sin 45 FCA Cos 45

C FCB 4

MEMBER 8 Fy = 0 - 250 + FCA (sin 45) = 0 FCA = 250N Sin 45 = 354 N

500N

A
FAC Sin 45

FAE
FAC Cos 45

FAB

FAC 10

BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

MEMBER 1 Fx = 0 500 FAC (Cos 45) - FAE = 0 500 - 354 (Cos 45) = FAE FAE = 250N

CALCULATION FOR n B 1 C

1 A E D

POINT A FAB 1 A FAE

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BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

fy = 0 FAB + (1 / 33.941) x 24 = 0 FAB = - 0.707N

fx = 0 FAE + (1 / 33.941) x 24 = 0 FAE = - 0.707N

POINT B FBC

FAB

FBE

fy =0 FAB FBE (24 / 33.941) = 0 0.707 - FBE (0.707) = 0 FBE = 1

fx =0 FBC + FBE (24 / 33.941) = 0 FBC + FBE (0.707) = 0 FBC = - 0.707

POINT C FBC

FCD FEC fx= 0

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BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

FBC + (1 / 33.941) x 24 + FCD (24 / 33.941) = 0 0.707 + (- 0.707) + FCD (0.707) = 0 FCD = 0

fy = 0 -(1 / 33.941) x 24 FCE FCD = 0 - 0.707 - FCE 0 = 0 FCE = - 0.707

POINT D

= Zero Bar

POINT E FEC FBE

FAE

FDE

fy = 0 (1 / 33.941) x 24 FCE = 0 0.707 0.707 = 0 0 = 0 (CHECKING) fx = 0 FAE + FED (1 / 33.941) x 24 = 0 0.707 + FED - 0.707 = 0 FED = 0

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BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

6.3

Calculation of Internal Forces AC P value, internal forces AC = P = = Fnl / AE n2 l / AE 854.06 4.828

= - 176.9 N (compression )

6.4

Example of calculation for member 1 (Pn + f) Given; Length, L = 1cm Force, F = 250N Load in each member due to unit load in place of redundant member, n = - 0.707N Area, A = d/4 = (6)/4 = 28.274 mm = 0.283cm Fnl = (250)(- 0.707)(1) = -176.75 N.cm n2l = (0.707) 2(1) = 0.5 cm Pn = (-176.9)(-0.707) = 125.1 Pn + f = 125 + 250 = 375 N = Theoretical Force (N)

BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

6.5

Calculation of Experimental Force (N)

250N

(True strain reading for load 250N)

Strain for load 250N 0N 1 153 218


65

0N 250N 250N

2 243 222
-21

3 -27 -67
-40

4 -48 -110
-62

5 125 150
25

6 27 -4
-31

7 22 87
65

8 8 45
37

Given; Area, A = d/4 = (6)/4 = 28.27mm Modulus young, Esteel = 2.10 x 105 N/mm2 AE = 28.27 x 2.10 x 105 = 5.937 Member 1, F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (65 x 10-6) =385.91 N Member 5, Member 2, F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (-21 x 10-6) = -124.68 N Member 6, Member 3, F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (-40 x 10-6) = -237.481 N Member 7, Member 4, F = AE F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (-31 x 10-6) = -184.05 N F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (25 x 10-6) = 148.43 N F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (-62 x 10-6) =-368.09 N

BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

= (5.937 x 106) (65 x 10-6) = 385.91 N Member 8,

F = AE = (5.937 x 106) (37 x 10-6) = 219.67 N

6.0

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

1. From table 3, compare your answer to the experimental values. Comment on the accuracy of your result From the table 3, the experimental and theoretical forces are not accurate. We can see that there are huge difference value between experiment and theory. It is mean that, the accuracy of the result is not exact but for the compression and tension member, we can conclude that the following tension and compression is same with the value of the force is different. The experiment value is different compared to the theoretical value. Only member 2 for experiment value is near with theoretical value. Its probably because of the error while setting the apparatus of the experiment laboratory. Since the equipment is under the air conditioner, the factor of wind and human mistakes will be taken in this experiment, so we can assume that the apparatus are not calibrated. 2. Compare all of the member forces and the deflection to those from statically determinate frame. Comment on them in terms of economy and safety of the structure. For the determinate truss it has extra member and for the indeterminate truss it has extra member. From that, for the determinate truss it safety for the structure however for the indeterminate truss it more safety for the structure. In the economy, the indeterminate truss will cost more expensive than determinate truss because the indeterminate truss has more member than the determinate truss. 3. What problem could you for seen if you were to use a redundunt frame in a real life aplicatioin. (Hint: look at the zero value for the strain reading once you have included the redundant member by winding up thumnut).

BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

Redundant member is use to make beauty for the truss. When they are redundant in truss it will rising the cost because there are redundant member in that truss. 7.0 CONCLUSION From what we have learn and get form the experiment we can say that, the statically indeterminate structure can be classified if the equilibrium equations were not adequate to calculate the external reactions of all the internal forces. However there are pro and contra in this statically indeterminate analysis. The advantages of statically indeterminate are: The maximum stresses and deflections are smaller than statically determinate counterpart. Can support loads with support loading on thinner members with increased stability. Have a tendency to redistribute its load to redundant supports in the case of faulty design or overloading occurs. The disadvantages of this truss are: Redundant structures can induce problems such as differential displacement High cost of statically indeterminate structure compare to determinate structure.

REFERENCES 1. Yusof Ahmad(2001), Mekanik Bahan dan Struktur: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim

BFC 3051 TRUSS

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4

2. Bambang Prihartanto(2008), Structural Analysis:Universiti Tun Hussein Malaysia. 3. Structural Use Of Steelwork In Building:British Standard. 4. Plane Frame Example http:// www.amazon.com