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# BFC 31701

FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2

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OBJECTIVE 1.1 To observe the effect of redundant member in a structure and understand the method of analysing type of this structure.

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LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 2.2 Aplication of engineering knowledge in practical aplication. To enchance technical competency in structure engineering through laboratory aplication.

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THEORY 3.1 In a statically indeterminated truss, static equilibrium alone cannot be used to calculated member force. If we were to try, we would find that there would be too many “unknows” and we would not be able to complete the calculations 3.2 3.3 Instead we will use a method know as the flexibility meethod, which uses an idea know as strain energy. The mathematical approach to the flexibility method will be found in the most appropriate text books.

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**Figure 1 : Idealised Statically Indetermined cantilever Truss
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Basically the flexibility method usues the idea that energy stored in the frame would be the same for a given load wheather or not the redundant member whether or not. In other word, the external energy = internal energy. In practise, the loads in the frame are calculated in its “released” from (that is, without the redundant member) and then calculated with a unit load in place of the 1

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You should be able to calculate these values from Experiment : Force in a statically determinate truss -250N 0 354N 250N 354N -500N 250N F=250N Figure 2: Force in the “Released” Truss • Figure 3 shows the loads in the member due to the unit load being applied to the frame. The redundant member is effectively part of the 0 structure as the idealised in Figure 2 1 1 • 2 0 . The value fo both are combined to calculate the force in the redundant member and remaining members.BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 redundant member. P = Redundant member load (N) L = length of members (as ratio of the shortest) n = load in each member due to unit load in place of redundant member (N) F = Force in each member when the frame is “release” (N) • Figure 2 shows the force in the frame due to the load of 250 N. • The redundant member load in given by: P= ∑n l 2 fnl • The remaining member force are then given by: Member force = Pn + f Where.

BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 Figure 3: Forces in the Truss due to the load on the Redundant members 4.0 PROCEDURE 3 .

BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 1. re-zero the load cell and carefully zero the digital indicator. Apply loads in the increment shown in table 1. 5. 4 . 3. Carefully apply a load of 250N and check the frame is stable and secure. Never apply loads greater than those specified on the equipment. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload). Apply the pre-load of 100N downward. 2. Do not use any tools to tighten the thumbwheel. recording the strain readings and the digital indicator readings. Wind the thumbwheel on the ‘redundant’ member up to the boss and hand – tighten it. 4. Recheck and re-zero the digital indicator.

The calculation for redundant truss is made much simpler and easier if the tabular method is used to sum up all of the “Fnl” and “n2l” terms. 7. 8. 11.0 RESULT Member strains (με) 5 . Calculate the equipment member force at 250 N and enter them into table 3. Enter your result in to Table 3.BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 6. Subtract the initial (zero) strain reading (be careful with your signs) and complete table 2. Refer to table 4 and enter in the values and carefully calculated the other terms as required. Deflection from Table 1 on the same axis as Load vs. 5. Plot a graph of Load vs. deflection when the redundant ‘removed’. 9. 10.

9 -250 -374.09 375.481 -368.68 -237.1 -124.9 6 .BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Digital Indicator reading (mm) 124 132 140 149 157 166 204 195 185 176 168 158 -33 -42 Table 1: Strain Reading and Frame Deflection Member strains (με) Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 13 26 41 53 65 0 5 -9 -13 -16 -21 0 -8 -17 -24 -32 -40 0 -13 -28 -38 -49 -62 0 5 10 16 21 25 0 -7 -14 -19 -24 -31 0 13 27 41 53 65 0 7 15 24 31 37 Table 2 : True Strain Reading Member 1 2 3 4 Experimental Force (N) 385.91 Theoretical Force (N) -124.

9 125.1 Calculation of real force.707 -176.9 Pn + f 250 -250 -250 -500 0 0 354 354 -0.1 0 125.9 354 177.707 176.06 P = -Total Fnl Total n2l = -854.1 -124.56 0.5 0.05 385.75 0 0 -0.06 4. F B C 24cm D 7 .828 375.5 0.828 = -176.5 0 0.9 N Table 4: table for calculating the Forces in the Redundant Truss 6.414 0 1.707 0 1 0 0 0 1 500.1 -176.75 -0.BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 5 6 7 8 148.1 -176.67 125.43 -184.1 Table 3: Measured and Theoretical in the Redundant Cantilever Truss Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Length 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 -0.9 -250 -374.0 CALCULATION 6.1 125.414 F n Fnl n2l Pn 125.414 1.5 1.707 353.1 Total 854.1 125.91 219.9 0 -176.414 4.1 -176.414 1.9 354 177.

BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 A 24cm E 24cm 250N m=8 j=5 r=3 m = 2j – 3 8 > 2(5) – 3 8 > 10 – 3 8>7 So.RBX = 0 500 . the structure is statically internal indeterminate.RBX = -500 RBX = 500N JOINT METHOD CALCULATION FBA C 3 1m D 250N 2 7 1m 1 E 5 500 4 FBC 8 .RBX = 0 . CALCULATION FOR THEORETICAL FORCE (N) RAY RAX A 8 5 6 RBX B 4 1m ∑MA =0 250 ( 2 ) .

FDC .414) = 0 FDC = -250N MEMBER 7 ∑Fy = 0 -250 + FDE(1/1.354 (1/1.414) – FDC = 0 .BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 MEMBER 4 ∑Fx = 0 500 + FBC = 0 FBC = -500N MEMBER 5 ∑Fy = 0 FBA = 0 FBA = 0 FDE 7 FDC 3 250 D MEMBER 3 ∑Fx = 0 -FDE (1/1.414) = 0 FDE = 354N FCA FCA FCE 88 22 FCB 4 C 3 FCD 9 .

250 + FCA (sin 45°) = 0 FCA = 250N Sin 45° = 354 N 500N A FAC Sin 45 FAE FAC Cos 45 FAB FAC 10 .BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 MEMBER 2 ∑Fy = 0 250 + FCE = 0 FCE = -250N FCA FCA Sin 45 FCA Cos 45 8 C FCB 4 MEMBER 8 ∑Fy = 0 .

FAE = 0 500 .354 (Cos 45°) = FAE FAE = 250N CALCULATION FOR n B 1 C 1 A E D POINT A FAB 1 A FAE 11 .BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 MEMBER 1 ∑Fx = 0 500 –FAC (Cos 45°) .

0.707N Σfx = 0 FAE + (1 / 33.707 .941) = 0 0.941) = 0 FBC + FBE (0.FBE (0.0.707 POINT C FBC 1 FCD FEC Σfx= 0 12 .0.707N POINT B FBC FAB FBE Σfy =0 FAB – FBE (24 / 33.941) x 24 = 0 FAB = .941) x 24 –= 0 FAE = .707) = 0 FBC = .707) = 0 FBE = 1 Σfx =0 FBC + FBE (24 / 33.BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 Σfy = 0 FAB + (1 / 33.

941) x 24 – FCE = 0 0.BFC 31701 FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER TRUSS GROUP 2 FBC + (1 / 33.0.707 – 0.707 = 0 0 = 0 (CHECKING) Σfx = 0 FAE + FED – (1 / 33.707) + FCD (0.0.707) = 0 FCD = 0 Σfy = 0 -(1 / 33.941) x 24 = 0 0.707 .941) = 0 0.941) x 24 + FCD (24 / 33.FCE – 0 = 0 FCE = .707 + (.707 + FED .707 POINT D = Zero Bar POINT E FEC FBE FAE FDE Σfy = 0 (1 / 33.0.941) x 24 – FCE – FCD = 0 .0.707 = 0 FED = 0 13 .

75 N.5 cm Pn = (-176.3 Calculation of Internal Forces AC P value. L = 1cm Force.707N Area. A = πd²/4 = π(6)²/4 = 28.0.828 = .cm n2l = (0.9 N (compression ) 6.06 4.176. internal forces AC = P = = Σ F’nl / AE Σ n2 l / AE 854.9)(-0.4 Example of calculation for member 1 (Pn + f) Given. n = .707) 2(1) = 0.0. Length.274 mm² = 0.1 Pn + f = 125 + 250 = 375 N = Theoretical Force (N) .BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 6.707) = 125.283cm² Fnl = (250)(. F = 250N Load in each member due to unit load in place of redundant member.707)(1) = -176.

937 x 106) (25 x 10-6) = 148.937 x 106) (-40 x 10-6) = -237.68 N Member 6.937 x 106) (65 x 10-6) =385.937 x 106) (-31 x 10-6) = -184.10 x 105 = 5. A = πd²/4 = π (6²)/4 = 28. Member 3.27 x 2. F = AEε = (5.27mm² Modulus young.43 N F = AEε = (5.10 x 105 N/mm2 AE = 28. Member 2. F = AEε = (5.937 x 106) (-21 x 10-6) = -124.937 x 106) (-62 x 10-6) =-368.481 N Member 7. Esteel = 2.BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 6.09 N . Area. Member 4.937 Member 1.5 Calculation of Experimental Force (N) ε 250N (True strain reading for load 250N) Strain for load 250N – 0N 1 153 218 65 0N 250N 250N 2 243 222 -21 3 -27 -67 -40 4 -48 -110 -62 5 125 150 25 6 27 -4 -31 7 22 87 65 8 8 45 37 Given. F = AEε F = AEε = (5. F = AEε = (5.91 N Member 5.05 N F = AEε = (5.

BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 = (5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION . F = AEε = (5.67 N 6.91 N Member 8.937 x 106) (37 x 10-6) = 219.937 x 106) (65 x 10-6) = 385.

Since the equipment is under the air conditioner. It’s probably because of the error while setting the apparatus of the experiment laboratory. Comment on the accuracy of your result From the table 3. the factor of wind and human mistakes will be taken in this experiment. the accuracy of the result is not exact but for the compression and tension member. What problem could you for seen if you were to use a redundunt frame in a “real life’ aplicatioin.BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 1. 3. Compare all of the member forces and the deflection to those from statically determinate frame. From table 3. so we can assume that the apparatus are not calibrated. . for the determinate truss it safety for the structure however for the indeterminate truss it more safety for the structure. (Hint: look at the zero value for the strain reading once you have included the redundant member by winding up thumnut). the indeterminate truss will cost more expensive than determinate truss because the indeterminate truss has more member than the determinate truss. we can conclude that the following tension and compression is same with the value of the force is different. The experiment value is different compared to the theoretical value. Comment on them in terms of economy and safety of the structure. For the determinate truss it has extra member and for the indeterminate truss it has extra member. compare your answer to the experimental values. In the economy. Only member 2 for experiment value is near with theoretical value. the experimental and theoretical forces are not accurate. 2. We can see that there are huge difference value between experiment and theory. It is mean that. From that.

Have a tendency to redistribute its load to redundant supports in the case of faulty design or overloading occurs.BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 Redundant member is use to make beauty for the truss. However there are pro and contra in this statically indeterminate analysis. Yusof Ahmad(2001). the statically indeterminate structure can be classified if the equilibrium equations were not adequate to calculate the external reactions of all the internal forces. REFERENCES 1.0 CONCLUSION From what we have learn and get form the experiment we can say that. “Mekanik Bahan dan Struktur”: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Skudai. Can support loads with support loading on thinner members with increased stability. 7. The advantages of statically indeterminate are: • • • The maximum stresses and deflections are smaller than statically determinate counterpart. When they are redundant in truss it will rising the cost because there are redundant member in that truss. The disadvantages of this truss are: • Redundant structures can induce problems such as differential displacement • High cost of statically indeterminate structure compare to determinate structure. Johor Darul Takzim .

BFC 3051 TRUSS FORCE IN A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE CANTILEVER GROUP 4 2. Plane Frame Example – http:// www. “Structural Use Of Steelwork In Building”:British Standard.amazon. 3. Bambang Prihartanto(2008).com . 4. “Structural Analysis”:Universiti Tun Hussein Malaysia.