Major Project

Guide: Dr. K. S. Sivanandan

Submitted by Sairam A Vinayak R Kartha Vivek Nandakumar Sachin J Fernando Vineeth Sathyan

In order to provide physical support and speed up their activities of daily life. In this project a driving circuit is designed.ABSTRACT For many people with disabilities. . many people are using walking supporting devices. developed and controlled in a more implantable form with minimum resources and affordable cost. The DC motors employed are series DC motors which are bidrirectional and can be rotated in forward and backward directions. In this a microcontroller is used to control two stepper motors for locking and unlocking the knees and also to drive 4 DC motors for the rotation of the hips and knees. assistive technology is an essential condition to For them to do their activities of daily life.

This process is continuously repeated in alternating legs so that the person can walk. DESIGN Micro-Controller The microcontroller used is 8051. The mechanism of walking is as follows: When one leg is moved forward the corresponding motor in the hip moves in the anti clockwise direction and the one in the knee moves in the clockwise direction. . The hip movements can be achieved by using a DC motor. This device can be used for simple wakling.WORKING OF PROSTHETIC LEGS The knee movements are achieved by using a DC motor for rotaion of the knee and a stepper motor for locking and unlocking the knee. During this process the steper motor in this leg is unlocked and one in the other leg is locked. 6 interrupt sources. It is an 8 bit micro-controller with the following specifications: • • • • • • 128 bytes of RAM 4K of on chip ROM Two timers One Serial Port Four I/O ports each 8 bits wide.

To change the direction of the motor. The five wire unipolar motor has one wire connected to each of the four poles and one common wire. there is approximately 30% less torque available compared to a bipolar winding. However. Torque is lower because the energized coil only utilizes half as much copper as compared to a bipolar coil. The Unipolar stepper motor sequence is as indicated in the following table.The stepper motor Unipolar stepper motors are used as actuators for the supervisory control unit to control position of assistive devices with fixed angular rotation and fixed speed. which means one complete revolution. speed and number of rotations. So if we limit the number of pulses applied to the motor. Speed can be varied by giving a delay between each step in the program. . The pulse sequence for clock wise and anticlockwise rotation is shown in the table. we have to change the sequence of pulses applied to its coils. This means that if you apply one pulse. ‘0’ and ‘1’ indicate low logic and high logic respectively. The speed of the motor can be changed by varying the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). In the table given below. PRF is the frequency of pulses that are applied to the motor coils in sequence. If we apply 48 pulses in series. Number of rotations : The step resolution is 7. the motor will rotate only 7.500.500/pulse. you can restrict it to rotate for the desired amount of times. the motor will rotate 3600. There are three parameters of the stepper motor that can be controlled: direction.

The direction of the rotation can be changed by using an H bridge converter using which the volatge applied to a load can be changed. C. . Series Motor is a variable speed motor. It means that the speed is low at high torque and vice-versa. The series motor gets its name from the fact that the field winding is connected in series with its armature.DC Motor D.

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