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Solutions Manual for Linear Done Right

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Linear Algebra Done Right
Solutions Manual
Sheldon Axler
7 July 1997
© 1997 Sheldon AxlerThis solutions manual provides answers to all the exercises in my book
Linear ‘Algebra Done Right. It is distributed (without charge) only to in-
structors who are using Linear Algebra Done Right as a textbook. If you
are such an instructor, please contact me (preferably via e-mail) to obtain
the appropriate version of the solutions manual. This version of the solu-
tions manual is intended to accompany the second edition (1997) of Linear
Algebra Done Right.
This solutions manual is copyrighted by me, but instructors using Linear
Algebra Done Right as a textbook have permission to modify and/or abridge
this solutions manual and to distribute copies only to students enrolled in
their courses (if students are charged for copies, the price may not exceed the
cost of materials and reproduction). If you want to modify and/or abridge
this solutions manual, you can request (via e-mail) the TEX file from me
(or from Springer if I am no longer around).
Some instructors may not want to distribute any of these solutions to
students; other instructors may want to save class time by distributing to
students solutions to some or even many of the exercises. Obviously students
should not see the solution to an exercise until they have attempted the
exercise themselves. Please do not distribute solutions needlessly, especially
if there is a danger that many solutions will get passed down to next year’s
class. I will not distribute this solutions manual to students, so if neither
you nor colleagues in your department make copies for students, you can be
reasonably confident that your students are working the exercises without
benefit of these solutions.
This solutions manual has not been subjected to the same amount of
scrutiny as the book, so errors are more likely. I would be grateful for
information about any errors that you notice. If you know nicer solutions
to any of the exercises than the solutions given here, please let me know 50
that T can improve future versions of this solutions manual.
Please check my web site for errata and other information about Linear
Algebra Done Right. I welcome comments about either the book or the
solutions manual.
Have fun!
Sheldon Axler
Mathematics Department
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, CA 94132, USA
email: axlor@nath.sfsu.edu
www home page: http: //math.sfsu.edu/axlerCHAPTER 1
Vector Spaces
Suppose a and 6 are real numbers, not both 0. Find real numbers ¢ and d
such that
I(a+bi) =c+di.
SoLuTioN: Multiplying both the numerator and the denominator of the
left side of the equation above by a — bi gives
SS ctdi.
‘Thus we must have
a —b
ro a
because @ and b are not both 0, we are not dividing by 0.
ComMENT: Note that these formulas for c and d are derived under the
assumption that a +-bi has a multiplicative inverse. However, we can forget
about the derivation and verify (using the definition of complex multiplica-
tion) that
(e+ (ata area) =
which shows that every nonzero complex number does indeed have a multi-
Plicative inverse.

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