Green Remodeling and Home Performance Improvements

Presented by Tony Grahame Co-presented by Rich Peterson March 21, 2009 CAZREN Workshop

Credentials
• Program Director, Yavapai College Residential Building Technology Program • Certified Master Builder (Energy & Environmental Building Association) • National Trainer for “Houses that Work” (Energy & Environmental Building Association) • AZ Registered Contractor
– Global Building Technology LLC (Home Performance and Green Building Consulting)

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Presentation Outline
• Building Science Fundamentals • What are the Green Building Criteria to Follow in a Remodel? • Green Building Criteria Applied to
– Kitchen Remodel – Bath Remodel – Room Addition

• Green Remodeling Discounts: An Overview of Available Rebates and Tax Incentives

Building Science = Green Building
What is Building Science?
 The science of making buildings that work

What are Green Buildings?
 Buildings that work… well
Safe Comfortable Healthy Affordable Resource Efficient Durable Energy Durability Materials Environment

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Fundamentals of Building Performance
What is our goal? – Create an enclosure that separates the indoors from the outdoors. – Construct the “house as a system”
• Thoughtful design and building techniques • Minimize energy consumption • Contribute to the safety and health of its occupants, and the environment.

Building Science Fundamentals that Affect Performance
–Thermal Control (surface radiant temperature) –Moisture Control (vapor and water mgmt) –Air Flow Control (pressure differentials) –Climate Zone (Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry) –Ultraviolet Radiation / Lighting / Daylighting –Acoustics (noise control)

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8 Building Science Rules
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Heat flows from warm to cold Moisture moves from warm to cold Moisture moves from more to less Air out equals air in Air behaves like a fluid Rain follows gravity Everything gets wet … let it dry It all happens at the surfaces and the connections

Building Science is About the Flow of Three Things

Heat Air Moisture

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1. Heat Flows from Warm to Cold
All surfaces of the building envelope must be air sealed and properly insulated to control heat flow

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2. Moisture Moves from Warm to Cold
Select materials and wall systems that: – Reduce water vapor flow through the building envelope – Reduce the potential for condensation in building cavities

3. Moisture Moves from More to Less
Select materials that reduce the flow of moisture through the building enclosure by controlling: – Bulk water – Water vapor

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4. Air Out Equals Air In
For each volume of air that leaves the building envelope there is an equal amount of air that enters.

5. Air Behaves Like a Fluid
To effectively manage a high performance home, air must be controlled with as much attention as water is in plumbing pipes

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6.

Rain Follows Gravity
• Drain the site • Drain the assembly • Drain everything • Install gutters and downspouts

7. Everything Gets Wet…Let it Dry
• Design and construct the building envelope to dry to the interior, exterior, or both • Keep siding out of the dirt and off the roof

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8. It All Happens at the Surfaces and the Connections
• Assure that components are contraction differences between dissimilar products • Compatible with each other and their environment • Allow for expansion and counter-flashing is essential for durability

Building Science Principles Applied to Mainstream Construction Practices
What can you expect? More energy efficient Increased comfort Healthier houses Increased durability Reasonable payback period for upfront costs Reduced long-term operation & maintenance costs

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Where are We in the Presentation?
• Building Science Fundamentals What are the Green Building Criteria to Follow in a Remodel? • Green Building Criteria Applied to
– Kitchen Remodel – Bath Remodel – Room Addition

• Green Remodeling Discounts: An Overview of Available Rebates and Tax Incentives

Green Remodeling Guidelines Regional/Local Programs
Alameda County Home Remodeling Green Building Guidelines San Mateo County Smart Ideas for Home Improvement City of Scottsdale Green Building: Home Remodeling Guidelines

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Green Remodeling Guidelines National Program
ASID & USGBC Regreen: Residential Remodeling Guidelines

Green Remodeling Guidelines Reference Book
See handout for book title and ISBN

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Green Building Categories
• Important to pick one or more programs and use it as a guide !! • Most green building programs have similar essential categories:
Building site factors Energy efficiency Resource efficiency Indoor air quality Water efficiency

Elements of the Green Building Categories Building Site Factors • Design for natural and solar resources • Minimize slope and soil disturbance • Manage storm water • Limit water and energy demand • Wildlife habitat • Minimize vegetation and soil disturbance

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Elements of the Green Building Categories Energy Efficiency
• Improved insulation systems • Tighter building envelope and ducts (draft free) • Efficient HVAC, ventilation, and filtration systems • High-performance windows • Energy efficient lighting and appliances • Energy efficient hotwater delivery • Commissioning/testing

Elements of the Green Building Categories Resource Efficiency
• • • • • • • • • Floor Plan Building Material Optimization Building Material Selection Entry and Overhangs Termite Protection Water Management Material Durability and Longevity Use Recycled Materials and Recycle Waste Materials Use Renewable and Resource-Efficient Materials

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Elements of the Green Building Categories Indoor Environmental Quality
• Minimize Potential Pollutants
– – – – – – – – Combustion Systems Indoor Materials Ventilation Systems Humidity, Radon, and Exhaust Bathrooms House and Materials Plumbing HVAC and Enclosed Spaces

• Moisture Management

• Noise Management

Elements of the Green Building Categories Water Efficiency
• Hot Water Distribution • Water Conservation
– Indoor – Outdoor

• Rainwater and Wastewater

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Where Are We in the Presentation
• Building Science Fundamentals • What are the Green Building Criteria to Follow in a Remodel? Green Building Criteria Applied to
– Kitchen Remodel – Bath Remodel – Room Addition

• Green Remodeling Discounts: An Overview of Available Rebates and Tax Incentives

Green Building: Kitchen Remodel

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What are the Existing Design or Performance Problems to Be Addressed?
• Water leaks • Long hotwater delivery • Kitchen too hot or cold (air leakage, thermal comfort) • IAQ hazards (lead, asbestos, radon, interior humidity, mold, carbon monoxide) • Noisy and inefficient exhaust fan • Outdated appliances • Outdated cabinetry • Poor lighting • Outdated paint

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Issues Re-arranged by GB Category
• Indoor Environmental Quality
– – – – – – – – – – Water leaks IAQ hazards (e.g., mold, CO) Ventilation and exhaust Noise (acoustic comfort) Cabinetry Paint

• Energy Efficiency

• Water Efficiency

Air leakage Thermal comfort (too hot, too cold) Outdated appliances Poor lighting

• Resource Efficiency

– Long hotwater delivery – Water leaks – Donating rather than dumpster – Recycled content materials

Kitchen Strategy – IEQ Water Management and Mold
• Conditions for mold growth
– Moisture – Food source – Suitable temperature range

• Eliminate one of these and mold dissipates Fix plumbing leaks!!! If possible, design to locate plumbing lines within the conditioned space

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Kitchen Strategy - IEQ Kitchen Ventilation

Ducted to Exterior!!!

Kitchen Exhaust Ventilation Concern • Improved ventilation = house depressurization potential • If any combustion appliances (hotwater heater, furnace, wood stove), then noxious gasses may be drawn into the home • Consider installing carbon monoxide detector The house components act interdependently!! i.e., “House as a System”

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What is Wrong Here?

Kitchen Strategy - IEQ Range Hood Exhaust Fan Noise
Sone Level Versus Common Noises Background Sound Level Rustling Trees Evening Outdoors In Suburbs Open Office TV & Radio Traffic Noise Quality Range Hoods Typical Sones 0.5 1 1.5 to 2 3 to 4 5 to 8 3 to 6 Comfortable Verbal Conversation Noticeable Background Noise Comfort Level Noise Free

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Kitchen Strategies – IEQ Kitchen Cabinets
What are the cabinets made of ? …outgassing concern

Kitchen Strategies – IEQ Paint
Specify low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) paint and flooring adhesive VOC Guidelines

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Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Appliances
Always select EnergyStar kitchen appliances: • Dishwashers • Refrigerators • Freezers • Hotwater heater Look for the Energy Guide Label !!!

Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Lighting
• Select CFL bulbs and EnergyStar light fixtures • Fluorescent tube lighting available in various color renderings

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Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Recessed Lighting
CFLs available for recessed lighting

Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Air Leakage Around Recessed Lighting
• Potential heat, air, and moisture loss / gain to the attic • Recommended solutions:
– Use air tight (AT), insulation contact (IC) rated fixtures – Seal recessed-light ceiling fixtures with mastic – Seal ceiling penetration with caulk

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Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Windows
• Windows can be the cause of significant heat loss or gain • Solution: Install a highperformance EnergyStar window

What Defines High-Performance Windows?

Heat gain & heat loss reduction
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Energy efficiency Four technologies are common:
• • • •

Low emmissivity coatings Insulated spacers Argon gas filled Better frame technology

• • •

UV light reduction Durability Wind and rain resistance

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Window Performance

DP 30

Images © Efficient Windows Collaborative Website, www.efficientwindows.org

Windows – U Factor
• Rate of heat loss = U Factor • Lower U-factor =
– Window has a greater resistance to heat flow – better insulating value.

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Windows - Solar Heat Gain / Low E
• SHGC = amount of solar radiation admitted through a window • SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1 • Higher SHGC value = more solar heat admitted

What Window Ratings are Appropriate?
IECC 2006 Code Compliant

* EnergyStar windows required to qualify for federal tax incentives

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Kitchen Strategies – Energy Efficiency Solar Domestic Hotwater
• On average, 20% of annual energy usage is for hotwater heating • Central Arizona climate is ideal for this renewable resource

Kitchen Strategy – Water Efficiency Low Flow Fixtures and Appliances
• Water efficient faucets less than 2.5 gpm • Optional aerators can further reduce flow rate

• EnergyStar dishwashers use less than 6.5 gal per load … look for the label !!
\

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Kitchen Strategy – Water Efficiency Efficient Hotwater Delivery Systems

Tankless HW Heater

Recirculation Pump

Kitchen Strategy – Resource Efficiency • Durability - by fixing plumbing leaks, wood materials have a longer life • Recycled content materials – concrete countertop, recycled glass floor tiles • Reuse materials - consider donating used materials rather than dumpster to landfill

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Bathroom Remodel

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What are the Existing Design or Performance Problems to Be Addressed? • • • • • • • • Poor lighting Long hotwater delivery IAQ hazards (interior humidity, mold) Noisy and inefficient exhaust fan Outdated and inefficient fixtures Outdated cabinetry Outdated paint Tub or shower wall is cold

Issues Re-arranged by GB Category
• Indoor Environmental Quality
– – – – – IAQ hazards (e.g., mold) Inefficient exhaust fan Noisy exhaust fan (acoustic comfort) Cabinetry Paint

• Energy Efficiency
– Air leakage – Thermal comfort (too hot, too cold) – Poor lighting

• Water Efficiency
– Long hotwater delivery – Inefficient fixtures

• Resource Efficiency
– Salvage rather than dumpster – Recycled content materials

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Bathroom Strategy – IEQ Mold
• Conditions for mold growth
– Moisture – Food source – Suitable temperature range

• Eliminate one of these and mold dissipates Solution… stop feeding the mold! Specify paperless drywall in high-humidity areas

Bathroom Strategy – IEQ Ventilation
Specify higher quality bathroom ventilation fans •Effective (50 – 100 cfm) •Quiet (<0.3 sones) •Energy efficient (EnergyStar rated) •Can be motion-sensor activated

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Ventilation Effectiveness… Dependent on Proper Installation
Right

Wrong

Bathroom Strategies – IEQ Vanity Cabinets
What are the cabinets made of ? …outgassing concern

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Bathroom Strategies – IEQ Paint
Specify low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) paint and flooring adhesive VOC Guidelines

Bathroom Strategies – Energy Efficiency Lighting
• Specify EnergyStar light fixtures • Install CFL lighting • Consider solar tube lighting for baths without windows

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Bathroom Strategies – Energy Efficiency Air Leakage Around Recessed Lighting
• Potential heat, air, and moisture loss / gain to the attic • Recommended solutions:
– Use air tight (AT), insulation contact (IC) rated fixtures – Seal recessed-light ceiling fixtures with mastic – Seal ceiling penetration with caulk

Bathroom Strategies – Energy Efficiency Thermal Comfort
• Tub/shower unit on an exterior wall needs particular attention… “thermal bypass” potential • Before tub or shower is installed, the exterior wall must be insulated and an air barrier installed If insulation is not installed properly, the tub or shower wall (and you) will feel cold !!

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Bathroom Strategies – Energy Efficiency Thermal Bypass Example

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Bathroom Strategy – Water Efficiency Low-flow Fixtures
• EPA WaterSense Program … parallel program to EnergyStar • Look for the label
– Toilets (1.28 gal per flush or less) – Faucets – Showerheads (max 2.5 gpm)

Bathroom Strategy – Water Efficiency Efficient Hotwater Delivery Systems
• Water heaters are EnergyStar labeled • Hotwater lines are insulated Other options include: • Tankless hotwater system • Undersink recirculation pump

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Bathroom Strategy – Resource Efficiency • Wood resources – FSC certified wood products • Recycled content materials – concrete countertop, recycled glass floor tiles • Reuse materials - consider salvaging used materials rather than dumpster to landfill

Room Addition

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Major Addition

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Where Are We in the Presentation
• Building Science Fundamentals • What are the Green Building Criteria to Follow in a Remodel? • Green Building Criteria Applied to
– Kitchen Remodel – Bath Remodel – Room Addition

Green Remodeling Discounts: An Overview of Available Rebates and Tax Incentives

Tax Incentives and Rebates
• • • • Federal Tax Credits State Tax Credits Local Rebates Utility Company Rebates

Definitive Information Resource: Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIREUSA.ORG)

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Tax Incentives and Rebates: Federal
• Energy-efficiency upgrades (existing homes only, effective 1/1/09 through 2010)
– Windows and doors – Insulation – Roofs (metal and asphalt) – Heat pumps and air conditioners – Water heaters (non-solar) – Biomass stoves (wood, pellets, plants)

• Items must meet federal efficiency criteria to qualify • Eligible for a tax credit of 30% of qualifying costs up to $1,500 aggregate • Applies to materials only… not installation costs

Tax Incentives and Rebates: Federal
• Renewable-energy systems
(existing homes and new construction, through 2016) – geothermal heat pumps – Solar panels – Solar water heaters – Small wind energy systems – Fuel cells

• Eligible for a tax credit of 30% of qualifying costs with no upper limit • Includes material and installation costs

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Tax Incentives and Rebates: State
• Residential Solar and Wind Energy Systems Tax Credit
– – – – – – – – – Passive Solar Space Heat Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Wind Solar Ovens Solar Cooling Solar Pool Heating Daylighting

• 25% of the cost with a $1,000 maximum credit

Tax Incentives and Rebates: State
• Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption
– No added value for property tax assessments

• Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption • Converting wood fireplace to qualifying wood stove
– Purchase and installation deductable up to $500

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Tax Incentives and Rebates: Local
City of Prescott WaterSmart Conservation

Tax Incentives and Rebates: Utility
• APS - Energy Efficient AC Rebate Program
– – – – Air Conditioner: SEER 14 / EER 11.5: $250/unit Air Conditioner: SEER 16 / EER 12.25: $400/unit Duct Test: .75 X cost of test (up to $75) Duct Repairs: .75 X cost of repairs (up to $175)

• APS - Renewable Incentive Program
– Solar Water Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Solar and many others – PV: 50% of project costs; Up-front incentive limited to $75,000 – SWH: 50% of system costs

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Tax Incentives and Rebates: Utility
• UES – Efficient Home Heating
– rebates for qualifying high-efficiency natural gas equipment, replacing older, inefficient furnaces. – Rebate amount $200 - $325 dependent on AFUE rating

Home Performance

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Home Performance
Energy Testing Combustion Safety Testing Insulation Air Sealing HVAC (Fresh Air Exchange, Filtration) Radon Testing Moisture Management Home Owner Education Lighting

Home Performance with Energy Star Energy Audit Includes:
Home Owner Interview Consumption History Appliances, Lighting, Controls Building Information Attic Insulation Wall Insulation Basement/ Crawl Space Insulation Heating and Cooling Systems Domestic Hot Water Distribution System/Duct Work Notes

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Home Performance Assessments Who to Contact in North Central Arizona
Global Building Technology LLC Tony Grahame 928.848.0126 E3 Energy Inc. Justin Erickson 928.226.0056

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Residential Building Technology Program

YC Residential Building Technology
Program mission is to teach students to … – design, manage, and build – crafted, healthy, safe, durable, comfortable, affordable, energy and resource efficient, environmentally responsive houses – incorporate appropriate (climate specific) building materials, systems and technologies – based on current applied building-science principles and sustainable design/green building practices.

www.yc.edu / rbt

Residential Building Technology Program

Most Popular RBT Courses
– Solar and Renewable Energy – Alternative Building Materials and Designs – Energy Efficient Building and Design – Sustainable Design/Green Building – Residential Building I and II – Residential Technology I and II – Weatherization for New and Existing Homes

www.yc.edu / rbt

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Residential Building Technology Program

Degrees/Certificates Offered
Residential Building Technology (Degree and Certificate) Residential Construction Management (Certificate) Residential Design (Certificate) Green Building (Certificate – forthcoming)

www.yc.edu / rbt

Course Schedules
Most RBT courses are offered in the evening or online – Fall ’2010 Schedule available soon at www.yc.edu

Summary Reasons to Build Green
Comfort and Security Affordable Housing Durability Resource Efficiency High Performance Welfare of the Planet Our Children Health and Safety

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Green Building – Local and Global Impacts
With Green Building… we can satisfy all of our housing needs, conserve limited resources, and protect our natural environment for the long-term health of our planet and future generations.

Green Building Remodeling Resource Guide CAZREN Presentation, March 21, 2009

Building Design and Performance
Builders Guide series, by Joe Lstiburek, Building Science Press, ISBN 09755127-0-6 Builder’s Manual, Canadian Home Builder’s Association, ISBN 0-86506-062-2 Green Remodeling, Your Start Toward an Eco-friendly Home, Creative Homeowner Press, ISBN 9781580113960

Green Building Magazines
Environmental Building News, www.BuildingGreen.com Home Energy, www.homeenergy.org Solplan Review, published by the drawing-room graphic services ltd. Builder, www.builderonline.com Energy Design Update, www.cutter.com/energy Eco-structure, www.eco-structure.com Green@work, www.greenatworkmag.com

Green Building Products
Green Building Products, The GreenSpec Guide to Residential Building Materials, ISBN 0-86571-543-2 Greenspec Directory, Produt Listings & Guideline Specifications from BuildingGreen, ISBN 978-1-929884-18-6 Green Building Materials, A Guide to Product Selection and Specification ISBN 0-471-70089-4 Your Green Home, A Guide to Planning A Healthy, Environmentally Friendly New Home, ISBN 978-0-86571-555-4

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Green Building Remodeling Guidelines
City of Scottsdale GB Home Remodeling Guidelines, www.scottsdaleaz.gov/greenbuilding

LEED Regreen, www.regreenprogram.org/

San Mateo County Smart Ideas for Home Improvement, www.recycleworks.org/pdf/Green-It-Yourself-091305_1.pdf Alameda County Home Remodeling Green Building Guidelines http://www.stopwaste.org/home/index.asp?page=488

Green Building Websites
www.buildingknowledge.net www.BuildingScience.com www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america www.buildinggreen.com

Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Indoor Air Quality Internet Resources
-Appliances www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=appliances.pr_appliances -Lighting www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lighting.pr_lighting -Windows www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=windows_doors.pr_windows www.efficientwindows.org/ -Water Efficiency www.epa.gov/watersense/ -Indoor Air Quality www.healthhouse.org/build/2007-2008HHbuilderguidelines.pdf -Building Science Video Series (multiple relevant subjects) www.bestofbuildingscience.com/

Tax Credits and Rebates
City of Prescott www.cityofprescott.net/services/water/conservation.php Federal and State www.dsireusa.org Utility www.aps.com/ http://uesaz.com/Green/Home/index.asp

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