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Chapter 15


I Evolution: process where organisms change over time.

A) Changes among organisms of the same kind are called


B) Fossils: remains of organisms long ago.

II 2 main theories of Evolution

A) 1809 Jean Baptiste Lamarck – his theory is based on 2


1) Organisms develop traits or characteristics by their use

or disuse of body parts.


2) Inheritance of acquired characteristics – traits an

organism develops during their lifetime are passed from
parents to offspring.


B) 1822 Charles Darwin – 5 year study on the ship HMS Beagle

as a naturalist studying nature on the Galapagos Islands.

1) Darwins four theories of evolution

2) Overproduction: each species produces more offspring than

can survive.

3) Competition: beacause of overproduction of offspring,

competition for food and H2O is limited.

4) Variations: differences occur among members of the same


5) Survival of the fittest: those who have traits to make

them better adapt to the environment will survive and
reproduce = natural selection

(a)These traits help them survive and pass them on.

6) Environment deter mines which variations will be selected

III Evidence from Living Organisms

A) Comparitive Anatomy: likenesses in anatomy among different

kinds of organisms

1) Homologous structures: structures embryologically similar

(skeletal) but have a different function.

2) Analogous structures: structures serve similar functions

but differ in structure.

B) Vestigial organs: remnants of functions less parts in


1) Humans: tail bone, appendix

2) Boa constrictors: hind legs

3) Whale: hind legs

C) Biochemistry: organisms have similarities in chemical


IV Causes that change evolution are:

A) Natural selection: those that are well adapted survive and

reproduce less fit – die

B) Mutation: a change in the gene or chromosome can cause a

change in the organism.

C) Migration: movement of members of a species in or out of an


D) Geographic isolation: when a group of organisms become

separated or isolated from the rest.

V Rate of Evolution

A) Gradualism: show change over long periods of time.

B) Punctuated equilibrium: species remain unchanged for a long

period then many die and others appear.

VI Patterns of evolution
A) Adaptive radiation: many related species evolved from a
single ancestral species.

B) Divergent evolution: where two or more related species

become more dissimilar.

C) Convergent evolution: unrelated species become more and

more similar in appearance due to the same environment.