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YOU

CAN
LIVE
YOU CAN LIVE THROUGH AN
ATOMIC EXPLOSION IF YOU LEARN
AND PUT INTO PRACTICE THE FEW
SIMPLE COMMONSENSE PROTEC-
T v E MEASURES OUTLINED IN THIS
BOOKLET. THE ATOMIC BOMB IS NOT
THE ULTIMATE WEAPON--NOR WILL
IT DESTROY ALL LIFE ON EARTH.
TACTICAL AIR COMMAND
RADIOLOGICAL DEFENSE SCHOOL
LANGLEY A. F. BASE . VA.
CHAPTER PAOE
lHTRODUCTI0N . .... ... ... .. . ... ..... ; ..... . ...... . ... . ..... ...... .. iii
PRACTICAL PROTEcTiVe M& .... R ~ I . .... . .... .. 1
II Httliltli8ltR THellt THING! . ................ . ... . ... .. . . .......... . .. 1
III CONveNTIoNAL BOM1ls VItRSUS ATOMIC BOIiBS II
IV Spec,,.,c E,.,.eCTI 0,. AN ATolUC BOMa IS
V CHANCItI 0,. SURVIVAL ........................ ... ... . ...... . ...... 21
VI DaTttCTloN 0,. RADIATION . ..... . . . ....... ....... . .. . . . . ... . .... . .. 27
VlI QueSTIONS ................... . .. .. ..... ........ .. ............. . .. .. 3 1
RItSTRICTItD
INTRODUCTION
Ove!' five yeara have elapaed since the detonation of the fil'8t atomic bomh at AliUDogordo heralded
the begianin@:ofthe Atomic Ase-Cive years in which we have made unparalleled prosrea. io explorio@:
aod otitiziq. for the Modit of all mwiod, .ome of the power locked within the atom. This same five
ye.,. h .. al80 seflQ the prospect of a lastio@: world peace undefSO a cootinuing deterioration.
The private life of the stom haa hecome public. Thi. unveHin@: of the uakoown hlUl reeulted in
tl'elllflndoue advucee in medicine and industry which give promiI5e of a looger and fuller life for the
bwnao race. The spotlight of publicity also revealed another IlIId le88 cheerful aapect of the Atom's
printe life-the improvements which have made atomic weapons more desirable than ever for military
purposes.
The . eventa of tile put five years are sign posta pointing out the imminent denger to our futu.re
secarity for:
0) We. asld Olll" mende, no 10ngeT are. the 80Ie possessora of the atomic know-how.
(2) The complscency reaulting from the tbeOl"etical aecurity afforded by our distance from a poten-
tia! asgt'eeaor h .. been made invalid by the contilllain@: development of modern long r4ll@:e air-
cralL
(3) The "one aircraft. one bomb. ODe city" alos-n shoald point up the prellent need for an adequate
atomic defenae orp.aiaation for both the military asld the civilian.
The be" -,Uote for fear i. Irnowletlte. This pamphlet will attempt to pa .. on to you ~ e benefit.
of the put ezperieDce of othera in protection againat the hazanls of an atomic explosion. If you
thoronsbly leana ud noderataod all the le..ana tausht here. you will survive_ad slrVive to help otbers
Ie .. fortlUlate tbaD YOUfllelf.
RltSTR1CTIJ0
NED" AWAY FaOM
lEMPORA.ay BVlLDlNOS
R ltlTJtICT ED
PRACTICAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES
1. IS-Minute Warn ing
l. During duty hours
( I) Tum off all stoves
(2) Close all door. and windows to keep out radioactive
dUBt.
(3) Draw blinds. Tbis is a protection Dot O1lly ' hm fire
and spms and glll8s splintefll but allJO rom radiation
.d radioactive dust. I
(4) Draw driokiog water and put in de. covered con-
lainel'8 for use alter the attack.
(5) Pllt on protection dothing and draw you pocket cham-
bere and fim badges.
(6) Tale shelter. In a building, the but shelter is the
baaement. Lie next to the wall, away from windows
or against th e base of It strong supporting cnluma. Do
RCSTRICTltD
RaSTRICTED
HOllE oa ON DUTY
Jf'S ALL THE SAME.
DON'T LOOK UP
RESTRICTaD
not take refuge 011 the upper floors sillce they might
collapse IllId sillce tbe dllllger of radioactive contam-
inlltioll ia mucb grellter.
(7) If you are in tbe open, take refuge in a ditch, gutter
or agaioat the hue of a sub.taDtial atl'llcture. Keep
away from treee or temporary buildings that might
collspse.
h. Oft Duty Hours
All the various measllles you would take i(ytlu were 011
duty would also be taken ilYOIi are lit home. Since no protective
clothing would be available to you, put on loose littiag, light-coio!'-
ed clothing. Tuck the bottom of your trollaere or slacka i ~ t o socks,
put OD gloves, wear a hat, brim down, moi s ten a bandkerchief aDd
put over the face as a milK for uae ae a duat filter to protect
aguiut breathing radioactive dUllt IIDd ae a protection IIgainet fl y-
illg gleee or splinters.
Theae eame precnutioDs are valid for other members of
yOIll family.
2. No Waming
a. Lie flat on etomach with fnce er..ned in arms, eyee tight-
ly doeed. Do not look up immediately ~ r di.e explosioo. Remain
prone lor at l east ten aecoode.
,
DON'T EAT. D R I N ~
OR SMOKE _No.E IN
A CONT.4.MIN.4.TID .4.KE.4..
R .. ITRfCTED
b. If on tbe poat, report immediately to your duty alatioo aod
sland by '"or further iOSU>lctioos.
AFTER BLAST
1. Contamillated Areas
It is wise to aasultle that the area that you .. e io durillg the
eaplosioo, is or will aooo be coolalllillated by radioactive dual.
Therefore, tbere are certaiu precautions you should take.
a. Do oat eal, do IIOt drink or do not amMe while ill thia lU'ea.,
b. Moiateo a haodlr.erchief by allY means available aod place
over the mouth to prevent inhalation of radioactive dust.
c. Get out of the area .. rapidl y a. po .. ible and report to
your duty atatioo wale .. you are io an apprD"Ved air raid uelter.
In auch case, remain tbue until tbe all deu aipal ia IIOUDded.
d. When you bave arrived in ISO uncOD\lUllinated. IU'es, throw
away all cigarettes and food you may bsve i ~ your po .. esaion,
since it probably ia COlltaminaled. Do not eat" driH or amoke any
thillg until you have been checked by a mOllitor to malte sure th,t
you and your dothing ate not contaminated.
3
RaSTlucTao
R...ITIIIC"I:&D
TAKE" oooD BAlli
08 SHORR TO REMOVE
CONT"MIN"11ON.
Fortunately, decontlllllination of personnel i. a ailllple matter
lIiDce it involves Domin! more lhlUl taking a good shower.
Upon reportiD! to your post, you Will be directed to person-
nel decontllllliution station which will, in all probability, be noth-
ing more than a .bower in a barTack. or s temporary ia the
open. A thorough .crubbing with lIOap IlDd wllter and a few Iich
with II G. I. brueh will, in moet cues, all personnel.
At the end of your .hower. you will he checked by a qualified
peraonnel monitor and a medic.u corpamao to iu.1lf't that you have
heen to aafe level and that you have received DO
injuries whicb require immediate medical attentioo: Cleu clothiug
will then be issued to yon.
If YOIl are uaable to decoDt.a.minate YOlu"lJelf to a ..Ie level.
you will be sent to the hospital for further treatment.

POlNTS TO .EIlIE.BIE.
2. Never look up immediattiy after GIl e::rrplo.rion.
3. The ordirwry clothing wAich you hllVe tUo/Uid tlae /wl.,re .ill
protect you the flash oM also ogaullt
by radioactive dlUt.
4. Deeontaminot.ion of personnti rw,/aing more t.\an a
thorougA seruMin!.
,
Ih:STRI CTED
REME111BER THESE THINGS
1. Doublins the destructive power of the bomb does nol double the
area destroyed.
2. Both conventional and atomi c bombs produce de.vuction by
blast and heat.
3. 'An air burst is the most probable type of burst to be used since
it would deslJoy lhe larsest area.
4. In surface or sub-surface bursts thue i s ma%imum desvuction
fJlId lastins radioactive contamination but ONLY IN THE SMALL
AREA. IMMEDIATELY AROUND THE EXPLOSION.
5. Shielding from the flash heat is easily attained because of its
e%I,emely s horl duralion. Light colored matericJs will offer
effective protection.
6. Nillety-five per cellt (95%) of the rat/iation is emitted at the in-
stant of dewnation . Only minor amounts of radialion arc present
one minute afur the instant of delonation. (Air burs t)
RItSTIUCTED
R TRtCTap
1. Cl. If you are within the area inclosed by a ciTcle of mile
rodius from me zero point, you have one cAance Olll of tell
of s,,",ivin&.
b. Fro", mile Olll '0 a mile from tAe zero point you willitave
a 50-50 cluusce of S,,",il1in&.
c. BerOM the one mile limit you will have nearly 100% chance
of sUMIivins.
8. TAe percenwse of cosrwlties will be sready reduced by ode-
. qlUJte and an odeqlUJte defense pro&fGm.
10. A"ytAi"S wAich will protect you from 'he biost will also pr<l-
tee,' you from me [ltJ$h heat.
11. RaJialioD is of minor importance in the production of casualties.
12.
13.
You do not need to know how to operale a Ceiter-Mueller
cOUAter:tTained personnel are alreody available for sueA
sp.eci;oli,zed work' os area and persOtlllel monitorint.
mal none of your nonnal senses will detect rCJdiatioll,
so pay GUelitioli to the radjolotical monitor when he tells YOll
it is dan&erolU to enter or to remain i.n an areCl.

RESTRICTED
14. Remlljll prone for III letJ&' len seconds Ilfter Ihe explosion,
15. Never look up immediately after /III uplosion.
16. TAe ordinary clothin which you luwe ato/Uld the house will
protect you agllinst the {lllsh a.nd cdso a.a.inst contamination
by radioactive dust.
17. Decontomination of personnel enl4ils nothin more thCJll Il
thorough scrubbin.
9
li. ItST RICT ItD
CONVENTIONAL BOMBS VERSUS ATOMIC BOMBS
Firat nf all, leta cnmpare cnoventiooal bombs with atnmic bombs. Both depead for their de-
atruct ive effect on the aame things-Malt and heat. Tbe definition of lUI explo.ion, "s rapid re-
leaae of a large amount of energy in s ahort t ime and in a emall space", appliel equally well to
both typell of bomba.
Type of
Reaction
Equivalent
S i ~ e
Heat
TNT
In explnsive. auch aa TNT the "oomph"
is produced by a rapid <: hemi <:a1 re-
adinD io whi <:h the moleculea IlIId a-
tome of the TNT ~ re8n'allsed.
For tlie pntpose of this <:omparillOD. we
shall consider th e resuitll produced by
tbe deto.nation of a ooe ton TNT Bomb.
Temperaturn 811 high all SOOOo. CeJI-
tigTade are produced in the fire ball
which ill formed at the momeot of
detosstioc..
11
ATOMIC
In the atomic bomb the explosios re-
sulta &om the fissioo or -plittwS nf
the atom! of the Urui1llll or PllltooilUll
whi <:h make up the bomb'! expln.ive
chlUge.
An atomi<: bomb nf the type dropped is
Japan i! considered to be equivaleot
to. 20,000 to88 of TNT. Sioce tltue are
the ooly types nf atomic weapons for
whidl. ac<:urate infnrmatinn .. to their
dutructive capabilitiu ia available.
we will ~ e the reault. produced by
.nch a bomb througbnDt thi a pamphlet.
The fire ball of aD atomic apln.inn
RESTRIC TitD
RIlSTJlICTIlD
R.diua of
BI .. t DlUllage
Th" radiua of blut damar &om a
oae-toll TNT bomb ill approximatel,..
391 h. nia rMi.a iadudea tha
lU'ea wlaere IIIOre damase i. dODe to
huildiDp th .. met'ely breakiuS wilt"
dow. or crackiDg plaater.
BlutAna
Shock W.ve
The b1aat .. ea for a one-ton TNT bomb
ia ..,ptOxilll&lely 460,000 aCE' ft. or
approximately 1/60 of aCE. mile.
AS.iD, thia ia tbe 1U'e8 ill whicb tbet'e
ia aevere to moderate damae:e ,doDe to

The extreme temperatW'ea rllented
withill the fire ball produce a rapid
elI:panaioll of the ga"", .Ild the aur-
roUD.diDg air. Thia aa"lid waH of air
which mabea outward at velocitiea up
to 500 MPH tro'm the cellter of the
exploaioD ill called a abock wave. III
the Tt-fT exp1oai!lD ahod!. wave
. 1l!-lIta at .. y olle poillt abo.t oDa
lDiliiolltA of a aecoDd. The Nault of
thia ahock wave 8trikiag a bllilding
can be compare.d to. a ahatp, quick
blow of the hammer.
"
atwlla temperaturea of over- 1,000,0000
Ceotipe, .t tile i .. tu.t of deloit"
&lion. Aa thia .. at.h.iug _a of fire
e%pllDda. tile temperatD..l'e drop. rapidly
eo that., oae tell tholla_dth of a aee-
olld .Iter tile detoa&lio., the telllp""
atare Ia .. dropped: ' ", 30,000
0
Ceati-
pe. Perhapa a better id .. of the
temperature cao he saiaed froID the
ract that at thia .IIIOmeat (OlSe teo
tlaoua .. dtll of a aecoDd after the de-
toaatioa) t.h.e ball of fire wollld appear
approximately olle b .. dred tim.
bripter til .. dr.e SIlII to .. ONe1"Ver
ais mile. diat .. t.
na ram.a of blut d_age &om Il.II
aw.ic ellJ'loaioll wowd be aboat Z7
tiID. greater or approxi.atel,.. 10,560
r ....
Til. daatn.Jctive .. aa of the atolllic bomb
wowd be ItOme 700 tim .. aa sreat ..
that of the Olle ton TNT bolllh .. d
would affect .. area of 80me 335,000,
000 aq. ft. or approximately 12 aCE.
.i1ea.
RESTRICTII:D
The duration or the 8hock wave in aa
atomic explosion i8 80mewhere be-
tween 1/10 aad 1 second or at leaat,
100,000 time. the duration of a TNT
sbock wave. The eHect on a building
can be cOlllpared 10 a long IIteady
prea8ure, Many stnlcture8 capable
of withatu.dillg a ~ . t 8bock or very
ahor\ duration will fail waen 8ub-
jected to a comparatively lOllS puah.
This partially accoun18 for the great
destnlction of Hiroshimll and Naguaki.
NOTE: EveD though the atomic bomb is 2D,OOO times as powerful as the TNT bomb, it does not
destroy an area 20,000 timea a8 great.
RII:STRtCTI:D
13 .
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
1. Doublin& the power o{ 'he bomb does /lOt double
the area destroyed.
2. 80th conventi01l(jl and awmic bombs prodllCe destruction by
bla.&t and heal.
"
TIDLEE DIFFERENT
KL'roS OF BURSTS
1 ....
2. SvaFACE
3. SUB-SURF.4.CE
.. Lo\ND
b. W.4.n:Jl
SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF AN ATOMIC BOlllB
There are three main eflecte which cause the widellipread dell-
!ruction produced by an atomic explosion - the blast, the heat,
and the radiation. Radiatioo is the phenomenon which distin-
guishes an atomic explosion from the usual high explosive burst .
Atomic explosions have heen claS!lified as air bW'8ts, surface
blJl'St!I and sUHurface burst!l. This classification depends on the
position of the ball of fire in relation to the earth's s urface; thus ,
an air b ~ t ie one in whi ch the ball of fire does not intersect the
l!I urface, a surface bUnlt one in which the ball of lire touches the
surface, and a aub-tlurface bunJt one in whi ch the ball of fire ia
below the surface. Tbis latter type may be either under water or
subtelT8nean.
The Alamogordo detonation was classified as a surface bW'8t
sioce the fire ball touched the earth'a aurfac:e even tbough the
bomb itaeU was aUl!lpended from a tower some 100 ft. in height.
The greatest overall destructive effect!l may be expected from an
air burat and the following tabulation of blaat and incendiary
effeCt!l is based upon the reaulte of such a burs t.
IS Ra.STRICTItD
Rr;ITRICTItD
SEVERE D.4.!4AGE
OUT TO ONE MD...E:.
MODEJL\TE D.4.MAOE
our TO TWO MILES.
LIGUT DA.M.4.0E OUT
TO DGHT MILES.
naES ST .4.BTED
BY THE FlASft
OUT TO 10,000 FT.
RZIT5IICTZD
0
1/2
1
15/8
2
1/2 mile
1 mile
1 5/ 8 mile
2 miles
Bum Effects
Virtually complete . deatructioo of all
structurea.
Severe damage whicb would result in tbe
collapae or liability to collapae of the
building.
Moderate damage to atructurea, aufficient
to ren<ler them unusuable until repaired.
Partial dUlllge to buildings, something
more than mere window or plaster deatruc-
tion.
8 miles Ligbt dsrnage whicb is mainly plaster dam-
age and window breaksge.
Incendi.ary E (feels
At Hiroshima the initial flash started fires ss far distant IilIJ
21/2 miles 170m the ground .tero (,Ae pO/lit 011 8roulld immedifUely
IlelolU IlIe cellkr of IlI e e"plo$joll). At Nsga8ski, due to tbe dif-
ference in ten-ain, tbe range of these primary fires was reported
to bave uceeded >10,000 feet. It bas been utimated that in tbe
atomic explosions in Japan where the bombs were detonated
2,000 feet above the lIurface of the earth, the temperature on the
ground immediately below the point of detonation was probably
between 3000
0
and 4000
0
Centigrade.
16
FLASH LABfS
ABOUT nlRf.E
'lECONDS SO
PROTCI1ON 15
FAIRLY EASY
PROl!IPT RADIATION
ACCOOPn'S FOR
~ O F TOTAL
RESTRICTED
Thousands of fires were also lltarted by the secondary effecta
of the blast - disruption of gall mainll. e lectric wiring. and over-
turned heating appliancell. These 8econdary firu will probably
produce as much or more destructinn than the firell II tarted by tbe
flasb itself. An important point in connection with tbe flash effect
of In atomic explosion is tbe fact tbat nearly all of thill tremen-
dOlla amOUI)! of heat ill released in an extremely sbort time. about
three seconds after the initiation of tbe explosion. Thill ill an
important factor in protection from the flallh. lIince IIhieiding for
lIuch a IIhort period ill eallily attained. Ligbt colored cloth, white
painted metal, or eYen beavy wbite cardboard will offer protectioo.
Radiotion
Of t b ~ total amount of radiation produ::ed in an atomic explo-
aion, approximately 95% is given off the inlllant of detonation.
Such radiation is termed prompt or immediate radi ation. Tbe re-
maining 5% (U",eri'" o. delayed ,odill/io .. ) is derived from three
sources -
1. UniIJllioned bOlllb material - the atomic bomb is relative-
ly inefficient IImce it is imponible to hold all the t!ranium or
Plutonium together loog enough for sll of it to fisllioo. (Spliui .. ,
of the A 10", '). A considerable amount of this original bomb mate-
rial ill not fissioned but is divided by tbe force of the blallt into
. amali particles, each emitting deadly alpha aDd gamma radiation.
2. Tbe fillsioIl fragmenta - the elements into wbich the
original bomb material bas been changed by tbe finion proce!lll
17 " RlEaTatCTI:D
RsTRICTED
UNGERING oa
DELAYED RADIATION
SOURCES
1. VNFISSIONED
80M" MATERIAL
Z. FISSION FRAGMENTS
3. INDUCED R,\[)IOACTIl'rTY
PROMPT RADlAnGN
IS DOTTED AT HIGH
INT'F.NsnY OUT L"srs
ONLY" snORT TNE
HI!:STRICTED
are aleo radioactive, and emit bOIl. beta and gamma radiation.
3. loduced radioactivity - a neutron is the atomic bullet
",I.ich causes an atom of Uranium t o fission. An average of
three neutrons Sf1! released per fission, thu., tbe reaction i., ,elf
auataining. Siuce all of tbe Vranium doe., not get a chance to re-
.act, tbue neulfons have no target to strike. The reault ill ao itl-
tense field of neulfons or a neutron flux . When this neulfon flux
comes into contact with certain elements receptive to neUIfOD
captlin'! (,"ch ' " ,old or .0J,,,", ), they cause tbat material to
become artificslly radioactive. Such materials, in which radio-
Ilctivity has been induced by exposure to the neutron flux, emit
mainly bets and gllmm"a radiation.
In Iln air bUNt, the major radiati on danger is from the prompt
radiation which, like a fluh, is emitted at higb intensity but last8
only a short period of time. The other radiation produced by an
air bUl'llt is of minor importance. In a s unace and sub-eunace
burst tbe possibility of wide spread danger from the prompt radia-
ti on decrea&es since it is confined to a relat ively smali Ilrtll. On
the other hand, the delayed radiation - produciug agents are also
confined in a relatively small "'pllce QDd would produce a I.igbly
contaminated area immediately around the burst. Radiation int en-
sity in this area would moat certai nly be highly da.ngerous for
some time after the expl osion occulTed.
We can compare the eUecla of the three different type s of
atomic explosions aa follows:
18
RESTIUCTED
AIR SURFACE SUB-SURFACE
AlIt auasT MOST De&ru 01 SEVERE MORE SEVER I: MOlT SEVERE
API' TO BE USED Dul,"elio" 01
SINCE A lARGER Immedi4k Arell
AltA IS AFF'ECfEO
Bkul Artll L ARGE'T MEOW"
LEAST
IAcendiary
f/lecl DUlr"C- SEVERIt MOII" SI!lVl!lR" MO'T SEVERE
lioll oll",me-
;liIIlt Area
E"uII' 01 A'eII
LAROI!.ST MEDWIIII LEAST
olDuu"cljoi/;
Rodilllo,iclli SLIGHT Ml!lOIUIIII EXTREIIIIE
COnla .. illOlioll
I'
RE'TRICTED
RUTR1CTD
HSTRICTED
POINTS TO REMEMBER
1. An air burst is the most probabk type of burs t to be used
since it would destroy Ihe [wges' wea.
2. In surface ar sub-surface bursts there is nuu:imWII destruction
and Lasting radioactive COnlammatjon but ONLY IN THE
S,l/ALL AREA IMMEDIATELY AROUND THE EXPLOSION.
3. Shieldift! from the flash heal iseasily auained because of it s
utremely dort duration. Light colored makria[s will offer
effective protection.
4. Ninety-five percent ( 9 S ~ ) 0/ tAe radiation is emitted ,Ill the
instant of detcnatioll. Ollly mi1lOr amounts of ,adiOlion we '
present one minute alter the i/lStant of detonation. (Air burst)
",00Iil FATALmES
IN AN lJNPIlOTECTt:n
CJ1'Y OF UI,OOO
OF CASUALTIES
.ui PitOOOttD BY
BlAst AND FLASH
RI!. !TRICTI!.D
CHANCES OF SURV/JI Al.
It bas been eatimatedthat in a modem American city of 250,000
population, at least 180,000 casualties will renlt from a single
atomic bomb. Remember tbat a casualty is ddioed as any indivi-
dual wbo is unable to perform his normal duties because of some
i njury to bis body, whether it be from a bullet, frost bite, di sease,
elc. Probably there would be 40,000 fatali ties in t he modern
American city, but theae estimates are based 00 8 condition of
total 00 defeasive organization aod flO waroiog
wllataoever. In all probability, moel citiea would receive at leaat
a IS-minute advlloce ootice, aod if proper facilities were availllble
f(lf" al ertiog the populace, the casualties would be reduced COD-
siderably. If sll indi viduals know what to do and wheo to do it,
there would be a further reductioo io the Dumber of casualtiee from
an atomic bombing.
The causea of death from an atomic aUack cao be broke n down
aa follows :
20%
'5>
21
60% Seeo"do,y blo ll elleeu (/Io,! deb,; s , efe. )
30% F /t" 11 bur" ..
R ESTRICTED
RESTRI CTED
WITI1IN A HALF Mft.E
YOUR CIIANCES OF SURVIVING
ARE ABOlfI' ONE OUT OF TEN
NO DANGER OF BEING
CaUSIlED BY ntE
BLAST PRESSUaE
RItSTRICTP.:D
The number of fa taliti es can be compared witb tbe distance of
the victim from the :tero point, or the point on the ground imme-
diately be low the burst. Thus:
0 1000 ft.
."
_Wild
1000 2000 ft. 920 Irill"d
2000 3000 ft. 860
killed
3000 1 mile ... IrUl"d
Let us consider by type of inj ury, the various factors involved
i n producing thie huge number of casualtiea.
1. 8wst: Two types of blBlI injuries, name ly direct and in-
direct may be considered. Direct blast injuries resulting froDl the
poaitive pressure phase of the s hock wsves, acting on the body
ao as to cauae injury of the lunga, stomach, intesti nes, elll' drums
and interoal hemOlThages. At Naguaki and Hirosbima, the dire ct
blast effect WIUI not a signifi cant primary clluse of fatality, s ince
those near enough to the explosion to suffer injury in thi s manner
were either burned or crusbed to death. A pressure of ahout 3S
Ihs per square inch or more is required to couse direct harm to
the human being, and the peak pressure of the shock .... ave from
an a tomic homb would attain such values onl y at a distan ce of
1000 feet or less from ground loero, assuming a height of burst of
2000 fee t.
"
SECONDARY BLAST
EFFECTS PItODVCE
sa,. OF THE Tar AI.
FATAUllES
zo - 30% OF
FATALrrlES DUE
TO FLASI! BURNS -
RUT PROTt::CTIOS
IS SIMPLE
RESTJtfCTI:D
More important than the primary blaat injury ia the Japaaeee
bombillp were the illdirect or the aecondary eUccta, due to col-
Japlling buildillp and to timber aEld otber debtia flung about by
the blut wave. The oature of the indirect iIIjory from blut varie.d
from cOlllplete crullhiog, aevere fractures, and serions cot. to
minor acratches and bruises. It haa been estimated that approlti-
mate Iy 60% of the deaths in the Japaaese bombiogs were doe to
secoadary blaat effects.
2. Fi(Js" B/U'I1s: Two typea of bums were ohllerved a' H i r ~
abima and Nagasaki: (1) fire or flame bU"1l8 and (2) n .. b bunas
doe to thermal radiatiou rom the bomb buntt. Exposure to the ,io-
itial f1asb oa a fairly clear day would lead to more or less aeriOUI
altia bUfOa withiJI radius of aboat 10,000 feet frOQl gOllod zero.
However, despite its great fRlIge, protectioll from this flaah radia-
tioll is eaaUT achieved. Sbelte .. behind almOllt aoy object in the
interior of a hone, away from wip.dowa, of cOUJ"Se, or behind a
tree, or even prolectiOIl of one part of tbe body by aoother 110 aa
to avoid direct exposure to the atomic ball of fire. would be effec-
tive. Oaly fairly c1011e to grouod zero would the n .. b radiatioa
be expected to peaetrate clothing, aad so parts of the body cover-
ed in tbis way are genef'ally aafe from nub bunas. It baa been
eatimaled tbat 20% to 30% of the fatal cIIIJuahiea in Japao were
due to nash burna. Another effect of the n .. h u. the extreme tanll-
ing of tbe akin by the tremeudous quantities of ultra-violet radia-
tion emitted at the moment of detooation.
"
RESTRICTED
ONLY 111- 20'10
OF DEATIIS OUt: .
TO. aAOlATION
RItS'J',nCTItD
Some pt:rI!Ioonei in Japan were temporuily blinded .iDee they
chanced (0 look directly at the a_t with it. intan.e flaah' of
visible light. All of theIR: c .... hiu ree:overed from the effee:t.
of oveMixposure t o Iigbt. TiliI. te.parry blindoull ill simil., to
"that 'whie: h would be prodaced by lookin, for a period of tUne into
the light oC an eliectZ"ic arc weldiDg tore:h
. ..
The Lhree c::omponeCilUi of the nallh wbich caue all tbe per-
aouloel iDjurie. are the nldiation or heat, the viaihle light
aDd ultr.a-violet.
3.' /ladioUOII: The majority t)f e:aaualtiea from
among those upoaed to the prompt radiation frOID .Lhe exploaion
il8elf. Howeve.f, it ahould be noted that if the b..,.t, bad been
aurlace . or eUMuriace, the perceut.ge of ca ahie. frozn, radia.
tiou alona would bave riaeu. It ia eatimated that oaly 15% to 20%
of the death. in, Japu were due to radiation effe cta. III japu,
radiation ptOyed let"1 for au average radi of 3000 feet from
Tb.e oaly effeetive protectiou from gam_ radiation
, ia either distance or' ahielding or a combination of both. MallY ill-
diyidual . will receive 811fficiellt high dosagea of radiation to
maka them aiek - but they will reeover alld recover to lead I. .. e_
. fuUik.

' At ,thie. point, 80met biog should be !!laid cOllcenlliDg the re-
power of tae three different type. of radiatioD
prod:llced by an atomic exploaion.
,.
ALPHA AND BETA
aADl.4.'I1ON AU NOT

."'rCa OUT roa 'I'IU:
MITl'IlI8. RIORLY
o.vl<jo(Js IF TAXDi
INTO THE BOOY.
RESTRICTED
Alpha radiation, since it is composed of large partidea, hlUl
very little penetrating power and normal dothing or at least the
outer layers of skin will stop thia type of radiation.
Beta partidu are more penetratiog than alpha but still cao
be cOlllpletely stopped by a few thin she eta of alulIlinum. Such
partides, wheEl striking the wOIiId, do little damage out-aide
all they would penetrate .. ' . ', ou-icmh of an inch 01' 110
into the tiasue. . ." , ' . . .
GBPllIla radiation, on h811d,.- ilJextrelDllh' ,P.enetrating
and requiree lJeversl leet of ' lea4 Such
radiation .will completely: practically
apeaking, ,it is '}Mltsonoel from
gamma radiation. .
Ii mi&hl be mentioned t/Uil .If;,e -lo doe:;
no' ,eMU" body -'
. ',-
Still another i. the r"diation emitting sub-
lltance (emiltu&). Theee emitters are the particles of the unfis-
. sioned bomb material , Uranium or PlutoniulIl, the filii ion frag-
menta lind the substancee which hllve been made arlifically radio-
active by exposure 10 the neutron flux. All these lIlaterials are
present ill. varying quantities ill the crater formed by a surface or
8uHurflice bw.sl, immediately under the point of detonation of an
... ir blllWt, and in the cloud produced by the atnmi c explosion.
25 RE,TIt ICTED
RlttTltl CTItD
ftz l Tal CTI.D
POINTS TO R fMEMBER
1. a. If you are within the area inclosed by a circle of 1/2 mile
radiull from tbe zet o point. you one cbance out of teo
of surviving. providing YOIl adequate protection.
b. From mil e out to a mile from the zero point you
wil1 a 5O-S0 dance of s urvi vi ng.
e. Beyond the ooe mile limit you will have nearly l()()% chance
of sW'Viviog.
2. The percentage of c .... !tie. will be greatly reduced by ade
quate wlU'Ding lind an adequate ddep.se program.
3. Protectiop. from the blast is a matter of distance aDd ahielding.
4. Anythiog whi ch will protect you from the blast will 111.0 pro--
tect you fr om the nash heat.
5. Radiatiop. i. of minor importance io the prodllction of casualties.
26
/110 HtlMA. ... SENSE CAN
DTECT RADIATION.
WE IIItJST D E P ~ D ON
INnatlENTS FOa
.,....;cnoN
QIIiIE&.MUELLEa
......, ..... ....,
VE&Y Ii:N5D'IVE TO LOW
1N1OI8ITD Of' 8ADL\TION.
)lOIn' UIIEf'tIL Faa
, ~ IIONITORlNO.
RCSTRICTD
OTECT!ONOF RADI.4TION
Both the hl .. t and flaah are convent ional hazardll whi ch eIl n
be detected by the various human lIe nll es . TILey caD be heard. can
be reh. Radialion, on the other hand. ill an insidious type of hrz
ard and can be detected by Done of the humlUl IIenaes . For detec-
t ion of rad iati on, we muet, therefore, depend upon iaatnlmentll to
tell ua if radiati on is present, how much of it ia there and how
dangeroua it ia to UII.
The", are t wo general types of aurvey iUlltrumenta-the Geiger.
Mueller type (lad the Ion Cbam.ber Iype, each baving ila own par
ticular ulllge and Iimitationa. The GeigerMue ller type instrument
is by f., the mOllt aensitive Bad i. used primarily to detec t low
illteoaitiea of radiatioa. Thia very aeeait ivity limits ita uae ss
lin area survey iastrufllllat, but readers it particularly valaable ia
detectins amall a mounta o{'coalllminlltioo oa the body.
Geiger-MltIIller iaatfumenta, tben, are used maiely ia pe,.oaoel
1II000ilorillg a lld for 1II:lremely aC(,lII'ate surveyi ag of amall arllaS
cCHItamillsted by low intenaity ud by small amouol.a of radio-
active _terial.
"
RltlTR1CTltD
RESTRICTIED
ION CHAdD INSTRUMENTS
AU USED '1'0 DETreT HIGH
IN'JENSrry BADlAnON.
TREY .utE MOST USEFUL
FOR UEA MONITOItING.
THE PRINCIPLES OF
SURVEY lNff('RlIMENT
CONITRVCTlON ARE
SIMPLE.
ReSTRICTED
The Ion Chamber. on the other hand. becaulle of ita lellllor lIen-
sitivity. clln not be uaed lIucce_fully in personnel monitoring.
but beCiluse it can be easily made to measure inteDlllitiell lUI high
1111 250 R/ hr. it is particularly useful in the rllpid aurvey ing of
large areae which are highly contaminated.
All survey inatrumenta are cODllltructed in 'generally the same
way. Two platee. one charged negatively ond the "otber charged
poeitively. (like the two poles of a bauery) are connected' to "a
battery and 0 meter. All long aa we have a gap betwectf the two
oppotliteiy charged plates. DO cnrrent will flow from the battery
and so we will b .. ve no re .. ding on the meter. If. by aome means,
we can produce charged particlell (iolls) which will trave l betweeo
the platea, we will then have a flow of current ud the meter will
register the amount of CUlTellt f1owiDg. Radiation atriking the air,
or other g .. which filla tbe apace between the two platea ' in oW"
inlltrument produce8 theee charged panicles (iolii.:iuwn)"so"d eo
cOlUle a cUJr'ent to flow between the platu. The 1II0re'r.:di atiotl,
the gester tlumber of cbarsed particlea. the more CarTeDt flowilig
between tbe platee aod tbe h i g b ~ the readiDg 00 the meter. . -
Tbie ia .. aimplified explanation of bow an elD"Vey illatrUlllCtita
won.. The main difference betweetl the two typea , Geiger-Mueller
and Ion Cbambu, ia the voltage of the battery uaed. III tbe Geiger-
Mlleller type , we use batleriell which give a total potential of 900
volta _d in the Ion Cbamber type, batteries which produce 671 / 2
vo"s. 28
POCKET CIIAMnEftS AND
FILM BADGES ARE USED
AS PERSONNEL PROTECTlVE
DEVlCES
RESTRI CTED
Pockel Chambus and Film Radgu
This type of rodiati on detection instrument is used primarily
for the protection of personnel and will be worn by all personnel
who ore bein/l: , or will be , exposed to the hazarda of radiation.
The pocket chomber is nothing more than a miniature ion cham
ber, but in this case, no batteries are used. One plate of this
chamber ie gi ven a definite charge. Radiat ion entering the cham-
ber and producing charged particles in t he air wi ll al10 w this
charge to lesk acrOS9 to the other plate, thus gradually neutruliz
iog the chcmher. To read tbe chamber, we attach it to a meter
wh ich teUs us how much of the origi nal charge is left in the
chamber. Thi8 residual charge is subtracted from the original
charge on the chamber aod tells U8 how much radiation has paas
ed through th e chamber, aod 80 how much radiation tbe indivi dual
has received while weariog the chamber.
The film badge ie nothing more than one or more email pieces
of X ... ay film, protected from light by a light.proof paper covering.
All photographi c films s re sensitive to rsd istioll whether it be ill
the form of visible light or some of the invi8ihle lype8 of radis
ti oll auch as X ... adiati on, gamma radiat ion or beta radiation.
On developing tbe film, we con determine the amount of ex
posure to radiation by comparing the deosity, 01' hlackness, of the
29
RESTRICTED
Ih.STRICTED
FILM BADGES TV&."l BLACK
WilEN EXPOSED TO RADIA-
TlOS. TIlt-:: 8l.ACIiER TilEY
ARE TIlE MORE RADIATION.
Ih:STRICTI!D
rilm with other filmll whieh have been expOfted to a known inten-
s it y or ra.diation. Like the pocke t cb'\mber, film badges will he
ia. aued to all pereonnel and worn or clUTied somewhere on the
body a!!l an addi li ona! mea ns or mealluri ng tbe amount of radial ion
10 which the individual has hcen expoled.
rilm bod gel have one seri ous drawback -- the t ime it takes to
proceaa rhem and the extreme care whieh must be exe reised in
their process ing, si neeone degree of temperature difference in the
developing solution and one minute more or leaa in tbe develop-
ing time will throw off the dosage reading by as much as 1(1,1..
POINTS TO RM/:.',V8R
I. You do not need to know how to operate a coun-
tertrained peraonDe l are already available for auch
ed work aa aTea and personnel monitorinfil:.
2. Remember that none of your normal aensea will delec l radi a-
ti on, 10 pa y attention to the radi ologica l monitor when he tells
you it is dangerous to enter or to remain in an area.
3.
PJUJ1'renvE CLOTBINO
CAN BE. PIJ"IlOVaED
FROM NORMAL WEAaI:NGl
APPAIIEL.
QUESTIONS A.ND A.NSIFERS
After reading thill little PllJllphlet, there are no doubt IItill many
quelltion8 in yoW' mind, ao we will attempt to anllwer a few.
1. What ill protective clotbing?
The gener..l purpolle of protective clothing ill to ",olect the
wearer from coming into contact phYllically with radiation ~ u l l i t
ters, either by inhalation or ingutioll of the radioactive materiala
into the body, or by actual depOllition of thue materialll on the
lIudace of tlie d;in. Adequate protective 'clothing ill a oearly com-
plete shieldiog from alpha radiation itllelf and a partial ahielding
againllt beta radiation. It ia of ahaolutely no value in protecting
the hody from gamma r..diation.
Typical equipment which will be included i set of protec-
tive clothing ill (1) gall manit (2) gloves (3) hooties (4) hood and
(S) permeable protective clothmg similar to that used lor protec-
tion againllt chemical warfare agents. 10 tbe eveDf"iuch clothiog
ill not available, normal C.I. clothiog which completely covert!
the body, with the paot legs tucked uno the sock.. IIhilt .leovtll
tucked into glove cuffs, a hat of 1I0me type snd a duet rtllpirator
or even a wet handkerchief will be a aati.factory substitute.
2. What effect will radioactivity have 00 radio eommonications?
31
REST. feTED
R..sTRJCTao
aAIlOACTlVrrV WILL NOT
AFFEcr yooa RADIO.
a.4.DlA1JON IS
ALWAY!, B.4.JtMFVL.
Ih:STRICTD
Absolutely none. The exploaioo itself would produce a tr'e.
meodous burat or atatic but radioactive part idea would have 00
effect wbataoever 00 oonnal COmOllloic:atioll8 equipmeot. A bat
tery operated radio would cootiDue to work, and telep bone, tele
U-ph aDd radio equipment if power ia still available, would also
cootinue to operate.
3. Is all .. adiation harmful?
Yes. But remerober exposure to radiation doea not neceallarily
tbat you will die or evea become sick. EveD if yOll an! ex.
. 'poeed to a aufficieut quaatity of radiation to make you aick, you
have an excelleDt cbance of recoveriug with D.O ill eHecta wbat-
aoeve.'.
4. Wbat about aterility?
If yOll receive a a ufficieDt doaage of you
pennaoentiy sterile, the poaaibilitin of living are., .. :Jigbt. Jap-
aneac caee biatoriea ahow&d tbat even tlr.oue;b some
were made temporarily aterile by expoll_ to radiarioci .. all re-
gained their fertility at aome later date. little poem will
p083ibly be of Bome comfort. ;" >
32
, 1I'0rry not about skrilit1.: ;
Life won't be oil futility.
True. you'll lose yOUI' fertility.
But the but will be left - ability.
CON'r.u.NA'11ON IIY
UDIOACTIVE 1IA1'EUAL8
CAN II.\. VE SEIIIOVS
CON8I!QVENCD.
IlEIP YOUR IIOC1S ntEE
Of' IHn.A.IOIABlE TLtSB.
KNOW IIOW TO 1118N OF'
D..ECfUCrry, GAS; nJEL
OIL. TC.
RaSTRICT&!)
5. What apont a futun face of monllter.?
To date in Japan no radical changes have taken place. No six
headed, one lesged, four eared monater. have heeo hom and Ihey
won't he. Rellearch I. .. indicated that tbe probability o( a radical
chllllge in the human fona, becaaae nf expoeure t4 radiation, ia
extz'enuily llligbt. . .
6. Wby ahoald I won')' about contamiution?
If radioactive mllteriala are allowed to remain in contact witb
the body they can call1le serious IIkin burns, lose of hair and other
disabling injW'ies. Fortunately, as mentioned previously, it is re
lalively easy 10 remove lI uch radioactive dust from tbe body mere
Iy by a good and a thorough IICT'Uhbiog. Particular attention should
be paid to removing all tbe dirt collected uoder lbe fingernails
and from tbe bair. Particular care abould be taken in "'&8aing
arouad body openings 110 as not to introduce any of this "bot"
material inside tbe body where it can do mucb greater damage.
7. What can I do to protect my bouse?
If YOUf house is withm a ooe mile radiu. from tbe ... enter of the
blaat - very little. However, bere are lIeveral tipe waich will
help protect YOD and your bouse.
s. Clean out all inflammable trash.
33
lUaTRICTaD
R.n.leTSD
A CA& UTILI:
nOTllCTDN MiL\IN8T
'1'11 BlAST.
b. You and yo ... wile IIbould become thOn)agbly fllftliliar
witb the location of the muter ewitcb for the electricity aad fuel
and wateT yalvell eo aa to be able to IIbut off imme-
ediately "ben all alert ill lIounded.
c. Good supplies of caDDed and glaall protected fooda
eboliid be kept on halld Ill! an emergency food lIupply. If care is
ulled iD openiDg these CODtainers, allY radioactive duat wbich may
uve .ewed nD ",em cau be kept oat of Ibe food.
d. Alway. keep II flub light handy lIioce the power will
undoubtedly be disrupted.
e. keep a Inlaid kit bandy III aillimell.
8. CaD I eat food wbicb baa been expoeed to radiation?
Yes, if it baa beell protected from COlltarninatioa by fadioactive
dUBio Mere eXpoIIlft to radiation doeB not reDder a material radio-
active DOf does it ma.e it unfit for buman cooaumplioll.
9. What if lam in a car?
If YOIl bllve lIufJicieot wlII'Dillg it would be advisable, to lIeek
IIbelter ill a well conlllructed bllilding or if 1I0De .., available, lie
down i. the sutter with your face cradled in yo. _. If yOIl are
in the Ope'li country Beek IIhelter in a ditch or bebiocl a bauk.
34
KEO' YOU. RFAD
AND SAVE YOW NEca.
Wben driving tltrongb coul.-miuted ~ .. .after doe nploaina bep
a ll tbe windows and ve.ulaton dosed siDee t..U. will protect T-
frOID cootalllillatioQ by radmctive d .. t. R.dioactiYity will !MIt
affect the operatioll of YOIIIIs.u.-bile.
10. What .bMld I do .fter the exploei()8;?
Keep yow bealll. re-u. calm .. d if yM _ ill s.llef- or
yOIII' I a ~ . sley doCIle ustil.otified by proper s..u.onliaJ. 0...,
spre_ "..... ami flo "'" dart pa.Uc.
Rlt STRICTItD
..........
,\.CTlOli
AI UUT or A To'"e .ou
1'01' IUlsr
.................. ...... .... ......... .. " . ....... .. c .... .
-r.... . ... . ...... .. .. _ .... ....... ....... II_ .. .
"'
, ..
..

, D 'Ttl. Uf
I. TAL[ ... ,-"us.
""IIt'K,_ uu..-u.
U". UJI.""-
O'H' Anou "".,. r, ..
... un tu.oc.u _ HOncr_.
I. nc . "n U,,_ 01 UI cem. ,0 u n /MIT .., UI" "(M t'fJJ-
UTIL .Lon N .. IS .u 'U_ "Ud. uu "0,, Cot"U"
'ALUM:.
d O """ ., ....... u .., ., .... 'fl'Q
..."" III llil1l. 'ALL 'U,,, 1'0 '.OUC'1OIf
II .r.,u.u:.
i!
.. ... IHIt ... Tn ' AI .".... U OW,.. cn t oea ,... ' 011.
."" U UADt '01 0111>1"111 '"'' MUCIC, ......
..
" AfLt. /llJVAOLr n"",o \W'lT,'" M Alii .A/It
AU-.t
,. MUl'or,.. ...
./1'11 ..... ID 'lOW,
i-
oil. U'U.t ............
, . 1lI1 , . , DIt No' .. OnID " OUI'C.

'''I:u If . . .. l<.KHt .....
P
tODuTr ... r_. If .reus ., ,0 U .l)<lCI Uf

."un .., ,., ,01<1 ... to ' Uf""
,11.,.,,,, " 1<.'"1'0". 'NfI
. 0 . .... ,...
I<IUO IAUII' U"""
. _" 10"" A""
eI."'" ""(..UfO, . ,...., " LL ..........
..... D ....... 11;'" cu." " CO""Ol.. 1(1', tot .. n.
,. .. 'OC. ro . ... .n, A/ill __ r II<IAK.I
011 . ... , t<W.U.'_ O,.,IU.
... ..,,. . Tn .. o. c .... . u . . .. ,AU' .. _Ln _ ......... . . .
. . ........ ... .... _ ..... ...... _ L.., ' . ' ............ .
..........