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Chapter 22-Imperialism and Colonialism 1870-1914 Imperialism-the extension of a nations power a d influence over less powerful nations Imperial

l power was not a new concept-Greeks, Romans Ottomans, Spanish, and British o Industrial Revolution created new rules European countries wanted direct control as opposed to trading posts and agreements (old) European expansion, competition, and trade into Asia and Africa in the 19th Century Contributing factors-nation building, rise of liberalism, industrialization, democratic revolutions Causes-wanted direct control of raw materials, new markets, acquire colonies to gain advantage over other countries(national pride), civilizing mission Effects-loss of independence and self-government, no industrial development, improved infrastructure, modern economic systems, created a new entrepreneurial class, European rivalry Imperial Culture-defined European nations sense of purpose and dutyo Rudyard Kipling-Take up the civilizing aspect of imperialism-white mans burden, original published during the Spanish-American War o Imperialism and Racism Racism Count Arthur de Gobineau- The Inequality of the Races o Humans divided into three races-white, black, yellow o Whites were superior because they preserved purer blood lines Social Darwinism Imperialism was an exercise in survival of the fittest Weaker nations were racially inferior Moral obligation to civilize the savages of the weaker nations (Christianity) Francis Galton-coined the term eugenics-controlled breeding to improve racial qualities Asia o

India

East India Company-company of London merchants established in 1600 Became an instrument of colonial government for British in India Great Mutiny, Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858) Uprising against British rule in India Led by Sepoys (Indian soldiers in British army) Started over refusal t grease bullets with pig and cow fat

Seized Delhi, spread to other areas of India Mutiny failed, British restored order-British immediately tried and convicted all surviving rebels Replaced control by East India Company with British Crown (1858) British Raj (Hindu-rule) Term used for British rule in India after 1858 Represented highest degree of imperialism o Queen Victoria-Empress of India (1877) o Viceroyalty-Lord Curzon (1899-1905)-believed India was the most important colony of the British Empire The sun never sets on the British Empire Used the Indian upper class to rule India Indian National Congress founded in 1885 to counter British Raj Mohandas Gandhi worked to create an Independent India o Fought for legal independence in South Africa in his early career

China British establish the colony of Singapore in 1819, became major port for trade to and from China Opium-highly addictive drug Trade restricted through two ports Guangzhou and Canton Britain was importing more that it was exporting from China After attempts failed to increase trade with China-Grew Opium in India and sent to China-dramatic increase in silver from China to Britain Triangle trade centered around opium Opium made illegal, banned Opium imports; China tried to appeal to British morality, but when Britain refused to stop the trade China seized Opium in Guangzhou British responded with force-began the Opium Wars (1839-1842) British navy dominated China who were forced to negotiate a peace Treaty of Nanjing (1842) o Opened five ports-European resident not subject to Chinese law (extraterritoriality) o Limited taxes of British goods o Hong Kong given to the British o Chinese had to pay reparations o Began period of Western dominance in China-ports opened to British as well as other European countries Spheres of influence-areas of control developed by European states Boxer Rebellion Boxer-Society of Harmonious Fists Anti-imperialist movement

o Russia

Rebelled against Western influence in China-especially Christian missionaries and Christian converts-killed Christians and foreigners Coalition force of Western and Japanese forces attack Beijing in 1900 Chinese forced to pay indemnities for costs associated with ending rebellion China forced to make new trade concessions with the West

Expansion through conquest and treaty-only areas bordering itself Georgia in 1801 (war with Persia) Bessarabia and Turkestan(Turks), Armenia(Persians) Great Game Political espionage, plotting, and support of puppet governments by Britain and Russia British feared Russia was encroaching on their sphere of influence in the Middle East, threat to India Russo-Japanese War (1904) o Crushing defeat to Russian army and navy by Japan o Led to revolt in Russia and questioned tsars power

Frances Civilizing Mission o Jules Ferry republican leader, proponent of French expansion, spreading superior notions of which we are the guardian, right {responsibility} to civilize o Demonstration of the greatness of the French nation o Results-improved infrastructure, water and sanitation, biggest problem-forced labor of indigenous people, low profits Africa-began before new imperialism movement (1830s) Large French settlements in Algeria (Northern Africa) o Settler states(socialists looking to create utopian societies, farmers; Italians, Spanish) o Used to supply France with raw materials o Contradiction to the civilizing mission based on treatment of European settlers, Arabs, Berbers, and Jews Asia Forced Vietnam to accept French protection in 1857, became an official protectorate in 1880 French protectorates established in SE Asia by 1884-Cambodia, Laos, Annam, Tonkin Thailand remained independent as a buffer zone between British and French holdings

The Scramble for Africa-1880-1890 Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal fueled by rivalry to colonize Africa The Congo o David Livingstone-explored interior of Africa for 30 years beginning in 1841 o Henry Stanley-young reporter sent to find him, Dr. Livingston, I presume? Sailed down the Congo River Convinced King Leopold II of Belgium to colonize Central Africa (Congo Free State) Partition of Africa-driven by strategic advantage, diamonds, European pride o Berlin Conference-1884 Britain, Germans, and Portuguese divide up East Africa; no African representatives present Ground rules for a new phase of European expansion o Germany Competed with the British in East Africa Colonialism was not a focus of Otto von Bismarck until later in the Africa movement Wanted to give Germany national prestige and make Germany a great power Controlled Togo, Cameroon, German SW Africa France Goal was to assimilate rather than preserve African culture Move west to east across continent Dominate country in West Africa Establish protectorates in Tunisia and Morocco French settlements established North of Congo River Italy Ethiopia Early victories against Eritrea and Somalia led to invasion of Ethiopia Italians attempt to take control of Ethiopia; Italians defeated in 1896 by Emperor Menelik II Captured Turkish Tripoli renamed Libya-1911-1912 Mussolini captures Ethiopia 1935-1936 Britain The Suez Canal-lifeline to India East of Cairo Connects the Med to the Red Sea Completed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1859-1869;abandoned Panama Canal

Cut travel time to India in half British buy out Egypts share of canal; Egypt becomes British protectorate in 1915 1874-Annexed Western Africa (Gold Coast) Occupy Sudan South of Egypt (1898) South Africa The British population grew in South Africa at a tremendous rate by 1865 (200,000 settlers) The Boers (Afrikaners) were original Dutch settlers from the Netherlands who inhabited the area of Cape Town; also believed white supremacy was ordained by God Boers moved North when British took control of the lands in the 1830sestablished the Transvaal (South African Republic) and Orange Free State republics. Native people sent to reservations Zulu Nation were the indigenous people who fought the Boers and British Cecil Rhodes-directed South African affairs for Britain in the 1880s, owned 90% of world diamond production o Imperial goals Rhodesia-create an African empire named for himself (present day Zambia and Zimbabwe) Cape-to-Cairo railroad-Provide British presence throughout East Africa o Removed as Prime Minister of Cape Colony after plan uncovered to overthrow the Boer and take control of South African Republic; led to conflict between British and Boers The Boer War 1899-1902 o Boers used guerilla warfare to fight the British o British burned crops; Many Boers died in British concentration camps (26,000 women and children) o 1910-British would create Union of South Africa (Cape Colony and Boer Republics) Self-governing republic within the British Empire Only whites could vote (appease Boers) Opposition to Imperialism o Began in the ruling classes o Peasant revolts-anger over commercialized plantations o Twentieth Century-Nationalism movements led by Western educated urban middle class (result of colonial rule-assimilation) would end Imperial control o Anti-imperialists believed movement was one of greed and arrogance

Pan African Conference (1900)-applied the arguments of anti-slavery movement to imperialistic motives WEB DuBois (US civil rights leader, co founder of the NAACP)-wrote introduction to the groups proclamation-To the Nations of the World Declaration against British subjugation of people of Africa Colonial Cultures o In 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remaining independent states in Africa o Indirect rule-local officials stay in power, but decisions handed down from parent country; people retain most culture and tradition o Direct rule-official from the parent country are sent to control government affairsannexation and subjugation o Dramatic population growth o Hybrid cultures emerged as western influence intertwined with existing tradition o Both sides concerned with preserving their own traditional beliefs Indigenous people experienced a breakdown of tradition Indoctrination religious and social beliefs o Inadequate labor system

Crisis of Empires-imperial tension can become international tensions Fashoda o Conflict between British and French o Both armies meet in Fashoda-came close to war o Solved diplomatically-France withdrew under the pretenses of no further British expansion The Boer War United States Imperialism o Spanish American War-splendid little war Conflict between the US and Spanish over independence of Cuba and economic interests Mysterious explosion of Maine in Havana harbor blamed on Spanish Theodore Roosevelts Rough riders fought in Cuba and Puerto Rico Commodore George Dewey defeats the Spanish in Manila Bay, Philippines President William McKinley believed the US had a moral responsibility to civilize the world Philippines come under US control (1901)-$20 million Prevent Japanese take over Strategic port for trade with China Opposition movement led by Emilio Aguinaldo Puerto Rico ceded Cuba becomes a protectorate Guam ceded

US becomes dominate world power, control Caribbean China John Hay propose an Open Door policy-notes-equal access to Chinese markets for all nations Feared Chinese weakness, as a result of Sino-Japanese War 1894-95, would hinder US trade with strict Japanese spheres of influence Attempt to preserve open markets and counter spheres of influence where countries would dominate areas; balance of power among Western powers Japan Japanese isolated from western influence prior to US arrival Commodore Matthew Perry and four US warships arrive in Edo Bay in 1853 Letter from President Millard Fillmore stated the US wanted to bring the isolated people into the family of civilized nations and open relations Japanese agreed when Perry returned for answer with more ships; display of military technology Treaty of Kanagawa Better treatment of US shipwrecked sailors Open two ports to the West US consulate in Japan

Effects of Imperialism o o o Increased Western control over the world-political and economic Territorial Expansion based on Nationalism and empire building Western powers would be unopposed, but the outbreak of WWI would weaken these holds as native people strive to recapture their independence from European Imperialists