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Whereof the firste is, when one nomber is equalle vnto one other. And the seconde is, when one nomber is compared as equalle vnto .2. other nombers. Alwaies willyng you to remêber, that you reduce your nombers, to their leaste denominations, and smalleste formes, before you procede any farther. And again, if your equation be soche, that the greateste denomination Coßike, be ioined to any parte of a compounde nomber, you shall tourne it so, that the nomber of the greateste signe alone, maie stande as equalle to the reste. And this is all that neadeth to be taughte, concernyng this woorke. Howbeit, for easie alteratiô of equations. I will propounde a fewe exâples, bicause the extraction of their rootes, maie the more aptly bee wroughte. And to auoide the tediouse repetition of these woordes: is equalle to: I will sette as I doe often in woorke vse, a paire of paralleles, or Gemowe lines of one lengthe, thus: ====, bicause noe .2. thynges, can be moare equalle. And now marke these nombers.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

14.x. + .15.p = 71.x. 20.x. − .18.p = .102.p. 26.z + 10x = 9.z − 10x + 213.p. 19.x + 192.p = 10z + 108p − 19x 18.x + 24.p. = 8.z. + 2.x. 34z − 12x = 40x + 480p − 9.z

1. In the firste there appeareth .2. nombers, that is 14.x.+15.p. equalle to one nomber, whiche is 71.p. But if you marke them well, you maie see one denominatiô, on bothe sides of the equation, which neuer ought to stand. Wherfore abating the lesser, that is .15.p. out of bothe the nombers, there will remain. 14.x=56.p. that is, by reduction, 1x=4.p. Scholar. I see, you abate .15.p. from them bothe. And then are thei equalle still, seyng thei wer equalle before. Accordyng to the thirde common sentence, in the patthewaie: If you abate euen portions, from thynges that bee equalle, the partes that remain shall be equall also. Master. You doe well remêber, the firste groundes of this arte. For all springeth of those principles Geometricalle. Wherfore call to your minde likewaies the secende common sentence, in the same booke, and then haue you another reason, whiche will helpe you not onely, in the other formes of woorke here, but also very often in the practise of this arte. Scholar. That is this. If you adde equalle portions, to thynges that bee equalle, what so amounteth of them shall be equalle. Master. These twoo sentences doe instructe you that when you see on bothe the sides of the equation, any one denominatiô Coßike, you shall marke the signe that is annexed to the lesser of them bothe; and if it be the signe of addition .+. then shall you abate that lesser nomber, from bothe the partes of the equation. As I did in this firste example. But if the signe be of abatemente −, then shall you adde that lesser nôber, to bothe partes. And so shall you doe, till there be noe one denomination on bothe partes, but diuerse and distincte. 2. So the seconde nomber will be .20.x=120p and in the leaste termes .1.x=.6.p. Scholar. I see that you adde .18.p to bothe par-

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UsefulNot usefulThis is a transcription of two pages from Robert Record's 'Whetstone of Witte', first published in 1557. On these pages the equals sign (=) is used for the first time in a published book -- this ap...

This is a transcription of two pages from Robert Record's 'Whetstone of Witte', first published in 1557. On these pages the equals sign (=) is used for the first time in a published book -- this appears about 1/2 way down the first page. This was also the first book in English to use the plus (+) and minus (-) signs.

After introducing these symbols, Recorde gives six example equations, and starts to explain how to solve them.

For the scanned, untranscribed version, see http://www.scribd.com/doc/13518345/Whetstone-of-Witte-Equals-Sign

After introducing these symbols, Recorde gives six example equations, and starts to explain how to solve them.

For the scanned, untranscribed version, see http://www.scribd.com/doc/13518345/Whetstone-of-Witte-Equals-Sign

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