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When primary component fails, standby component is started up. Stand-by spares are cold spares => unpowered Switching equipment assumed failure free

Let denote the lifetime of the i-th component from the time it is put into operation until its failure. System lifetime:

© 2013 A.W. Krings

Page: 1

CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems

Sequence 6

Stand-by Redundancy

MTTF

–

gain is linear as a function of the number of components, unlike the case of parallel redundancy added complexity of detection and switching mechanism

–

© 2013 A.W. Krings

Page: 2

CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems

Sequence 6

W. we need any M components operable for the system to be operable. Example: TMR Where is the reliability of the i-th component © 2013 A.W. Krings Page: 4 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 . Krings Page: 3 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 M-of-N System The probability that exactly j components are not operating is ! N$ j # & Q (t ) R N − j (t) "j % then N−M ! N$ N! with # & = " j % j !( N − j )! R MofN ( t ) = ∑ i =0 ! N$ i # & Q ( t ) R N −i ( t ) "i % © 2013 A.M-of-N System Starting with N components.

W. 0 = down Let S denote the condition that the system is operable » S is a logic function of C’s © 2013 A.W. Krings Page: 6 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 . Krings Page: 5 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Reliability Block Diagram – Example: C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C7 C6 C8 + => parallel (1 of N) .Reliability Block Diagram Series Parallel Graph – – – – – a graph that is recursively composed of series and parallel structures. therefore it can be “collapsed” by applying series and/or parallel reduction Let Ci denote the condition that component i is operable » 1 = up. 0 = down 1 = up. => series (N of N) © 2013 A.

Krings Page: 7 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Example: Bus-Guardian pass transistor bus control logic • assume λ for transistor & logic • 50/50 split: fail-on/fail-off Two failure states for system •QA = failed active (babbling) with •QP = failed passive with © 2013 A.W. Krings Page: 8 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 .W.K of N system Example 2-of-3 system may abbreviate draw as parallel C1 C2 C3 2-of-3 © 2013 A.

W. Krings Page: 10 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 .Example: Bus-Guardian for each stage © 2013 A. Krings Page: 9 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Example: Bus-Guardian Active Failure – – if any one bus guardian is correct then no babble possible thus we use 1-of-N parallel system model © 2013 A.W.

Krings Page: 11 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Example: Bus-Guardian compute: compute: in general: danger of cancellation => catastrophic results. Krings Page: 12 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 .W.W.Example: Bus-Guardian – Solution .Parallel » » if any one bus guardian is correct then no babble possible 1-of-N parallel system model © 2013 A. => legal issues (even though one should realize what the fail rates really mean) © 2013 A.

MTTF of twice and not three times that of single driver CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Example: Bus-Guardian Passive Failure – – any one of N bus guardians can take out subsystem thus we use series system model Given R( t ) = e−3 λt = 0.W. Krings Page: 13 3 drivers result in approx.W.9704455 € © 2013 A. Krings Page: 14 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 .Example: Bus-Guardian simplification: e − λAt = 0 as t → ∞ e − λAt = 1 with t = 0 © 2013 A.

Example: Bus-Guardian summary – – – active failure => parallel => QA passive failure => series => QP whole system fails if either mode occurs => series QA QP © 2013 A. Krings Page: 16 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 .W.W. Krings Page: 15 CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Example: Bus-Guardian summary Simplex Triplex © 2013 A.

.W. © 2013 A..What is the unreliability QA? Two approaches to compute Q(t) at 1000h 1) 2) using we compute λ and use What is wrong? CS449/549 Fault-Tolerant Systems Sequence 6 Now we compute Q(1000) and . Krings Page: 17 .

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