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1. Fundamental physics relationships, theorems, and deﬁnitions. (a) The velocity function is the time derivative of the position function. (b) The acceleration function is time derivative of the velocity function. 2. Derived expressions and equations useful in speciﬁc situations. (a) If the acceleration is zero, the velocity is a constant. Two speciﬁc points of the position function can be connected by a single relation. The ﬁnal position is given by the initial position plus the velocity times the time diﬀerence between the points. In 1D deﬁned by an x-axis, this can be represented by xf = xi + vx ∆t. (b) If the acceleration is constant, but non-zero, the fundamental relationships above can be used to derive the velocity and trajectory from the acceleration. In 1D deﬁned by an x-axis, they are ax (t) = ax vx (t) = vxo + ax t 1 x(t) = xo + vxo t + ax t2 2 (1) (2) (3) 1. Fundamental physics deﬁnitions and theorems. (a) The position function (or trajectory) is a vector function of time that describes the position of an object over time. 2. Derived quantities and relationships useful in speciﬁc situations. (a) The following assume two speciﬁc points in time (called initial and ﬁnal). For these two speciﬁc points in time, one calculates two position vectors at each time. These two position vectors (also called initial and ﬁnal) identify the location of a particle at two speciﬁc locations in space. i. The displacement is the vector diﬀerence between the ﬁnal position vector and the initial position vector. The displacement vector points from the ﬁrst location to the second location on a motion diagram. ii. The distance is the total length traveled by the object along the trajectory between the two locations. iii. The average velocity is the displacement divided by the total time it took the particle to travel between the two locations. iv. The average speed is the distance divided by the total time it took the particle to travel between the two locations. (b) Given two successive average velocities, the average acceleration is the diﬀerence in the velocities divided by the time interval between the times the average velocities is deﬁned. 3. Developing a Newtonian intuition. (a) clearly diﬀerentiate between the concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration. 4. Useful models. (a) The particle model. 5. Mathematical tools. (a) Coordinate systems. i. The coordinate system is the framework that allows motion to be quantiﬁed. ii. The origin and positive direction of the coordinate system is a choice to be made, and the choice must be consciously explicit. iii. In 3D, the coordinate system must obey the right hand rule. (b) Vectors. i. A vector is a quantity, that to be properly deﬁned, contains a magnitude and direction. ii. A vector is independent of starting and end positions. You can translate (but not rotate) and the vector does not change. iii. Learning how to add and subtract vectors graphically, and how to multiply vectors by scalars. the ﬁxed coordinate system such that both are right-handed coordinate systems). In this coordinate system, the accleration at that instant is given by a = ar r ˆ + at ˆ t, (8)

where ar (ac ) is called the radial (centripetal) acceleration and at is called the tangential acceleration. These components are related to other parameters by: ar = −ω 2 r = − at = αr

2 vt r

(9) (10) (11)

where r is the distance from the center of rotation to the point of interest, ω and α are the angular velocity and angular acceleration at that instant, and vt is the ˆ, as magnitude of the velocity at that instant. The velocity vector is given by v = vt t it is always directed tangent to the circular trajectory. 3. Mathematical tools. (a) Vectors. i. Three representations of vectors A. descriptive form: (magnitude, direction) B. ordered pair form: (x,y ) being the coordinates where the head of the vector points if the tail were located at the origin of a coordinate system. C. component form: xˆ i + yˆ j being the x component of the vector times the x-axis unit vector added to the y component of the vector times the y -axis unit vector ii. adding vectors (using all three forms) iii. multiplication by a scalar (using all three forms) iv. subtracting vectors (using all three forms) v. to project a vector and ﬁnd its components on any axis (including decomposing vectors into components) vi. convert vectors between diﬀerent forms. vii. ﬁnd unit vectors of arbitrary vectors. (b) using multi-dimensional position graphs: the direction of the velocity is 4. Useful models. 5. Strategies and tactics to solve scientiﬁc and engineering problems. • Strategy

where xo = x(0) is the initial position (the position of the particle at t = 0) and vxo = vx (0) is the initial velocity (the velocity of the particle at t = 0) These equations tell you the position, velocity, and acceleration at all points in time. (c) If the acceleration is constant, but non-zero, four useful equations can be derived that relate two speciﬁc points in time, called the initial time (ti ) and ﬁnal time (tf ), as well as the positions and velocities at those two times. In 1D deﬁned by an x-axis, they are vxf xf

2 vxf

= vxi + ax ∆t 1 = xi + vxi(∆t) + ax (∆t)2 2 2 = vxi + 2ax ∆x vxf + vxi = xi + ∆t 2

(4) (5) (6) (7)

xf

(d) Simple Harmonic Motion occurs when the motion of a one-dimensional object is described by a sinusoidal function of time. It can be written as x(t) = A cos(ω t + φo ). i. ii. iii. iv. v. (8)

where xi = x(ti ), xf = x(tf ), vi = vx (ti ), vf = vx(tf ), ∆t = tf − ti , and ∆x = xf − xi .

A is the amplitude and describes the maximum displacement. ω is the angular frequency and describes how fast the system is oscillating back and forth. φo is the phase constant and describes at what point in the oscillation the system starts. The period, T is the time necessary for one oscillation. The frequency, f is given by f = 1/T , and describes the number of oscillations the system undergoes every second. vi. The angular frequency is related to the period and frequency by ω = 2π /T = 2π f .

(a) Visualize: make sure you can see what is happening in your mind. Draw pictures and sketches of the system and action on the paper. After making models and simpliﬁcations, create a schematic with a coordinate system, zero, and deﬁned positive axis. (b) Brainstorm i. What simpliﬁcations can be made?

3. Mathematical tools. (a) Calculus. i. ﬁnd derivatives of simple functions A. using sum rule B. using product rule C. using chain rule ii. ﬁnd indeﬁnite integrals of simple functions iii. calculate deﬁnite integrals of simple functions iv. utilize diﬀerentiation and integration graphically (b) using position, velocity, and acceleration graphs vs. time. 4. Useful models. (a) freefall acceleration model (b) incline plane acceleration model 5. Strategies and tactics to solve scientiﬁc and engineering problems. • Strategy (a) (b) (c) (d)

**Educational Objectives of Multi-Dimensional Kinematics
**

1. Fundamental physics relationships, theorems, and deﬁnitions. (a) For two coordinate systems in relative motion, the velocity of a particle measured in the ﬁrst frame is equal to the vector sum of the velocity of the particle measured in the second frame and the velocity of the second frame relative to the ﬁrst. (b) For an object rotating in a circle, the angle a line from the axis of rotation to the object makes with a coordiante axis is a function in time that descirbes the location of the object. (c) The angular velocity is the derivative of the angle. (d) The angular acceleration is the derivative of the angular velocity. 2. Derived expressions and equations useful in speciﬁc situations. (a) For projectile motion (origin of coordinate system is at the launch point, acceleration is a constant in the −y direction, and zero in +x dimension), the motion of the particle is given by the parabola: y = (tan αo )x − g x2 2 cos2 α 2vo o (1)

Visualize Brainstorm Solve Check

What models can be applied? What physics applies to the problem? What do I know? What do I not know? Represent unknowns and knowns with unique symbols that have meaning for you. vii. Use logic and reason to extract relationships between knowns and unknowns from the context of the problem. viii. Use applicable physics to establish relationships between knowns and unknowns. ix. Draw graphs. x. With the same number of linearly independent algebraic equations as unknowns, you can solve for your unkowns. (c) Solve (d) Check i. Is the answer reasonable? ii. Does it have the right units? iii. Does it behave as expected in limiting cases? • Tactics (a) Large amounts of blank scratch paper. (b) Motion diagrams. (c) Translate kinetic information between verbal, pictorial, , schematic, graphical, and mathematical representations. (d) Translating words into symbols. Never write down a symbol without knowing exactly what that symbol represents. When you read a symbol, never read the symbol name but say in your head what symbol represents in words. (e) Do not plug in numbers until it is absolutely necessary.

ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

• Tactics

(a) translate kinetic information between verbal, pictorial, schematic, graphical, and mathematical representations.

(b) If the angular acceleration of a rotating object is constant, but non-zero, the fundamental relationships can be used to derive functions angular velocity and angle from the acceleration. α (t) = α ω (t) = ω o + α t 1 θ ( t) = θ o + ω o t + α t2 2 (2) (3) (4)

6. Developing a Newtonian intuition. (a) clearly diﬀerentiate between the concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration.

where θo = θ(0) is the initial angle (the angle of the object at t = 0) and ωo = ω (0) is the initial angular velocity (the angular velocity of the object at t = 0). (c) If the acceleration is constant, but non-zero, three useful equations can be derived to relate two speciﬁc points in time, called the initial time (ti ) and ﬁnal time (tf ), as well as the angles and angular velocities at those two times. ωf θf = ωi + α∆ t 1 = θ i + ω i (∆ t) + α (∆ t)2 2 (5) (6) (7)

6. Developing a Newtonian intuition. (a) motion is independent along diﬀerent cartesian coordinates. (b) physics invariant with respect to relative motion. (c) Acceleration can result in a change in direction of a velocity, not just a change in speed.

2 2 ωf = ωi + 2 α∆ θ

(d) For a rotating object, at each point in time, the accleration can be decomposed on a coordinate system with one axis radial to the circular trajectory (r) and one axis tangential to the circular trajectory (t) (where +z points in the same direction as

where θi = θ(ti ), θf = θ(tf ), ωi = ω (ti ), ωf = ω (tf ), ∆t = tf − ti , and ∆θ = θf − θi .

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