8.
1 Areas and Volumes by Slices
(page 318)
CHAPTER 8
8.1
APPLICATIONS OF THE INTEGRAL
(page 318)
Areas and Volumes by Slices
1. Find the area of the region enclosed by the curves yl = f x2 and y2 = x + 3.
The first step is to sketch the region. Find the points where the curves intersect. In this case Lx2 = x 3 gives x = 6 and x = 2. (You need these for your limits of integration.) A thin rectangle between the curves has area (y2  yl)Ax. Because the rectangle is vertical, its thin side is A x (not 6 A y). Then you integrate with respect to x. The area integral is [2(x 3  f x2)dx = 10%.
+
+
2. Find the area between the graphs of y = tan'(2s)
and y = x.
A graphing calculator shows that these curves intersect near (1.2,1.2) and (1.2, 1.2). The plan is to find the area in the first quadrant and double it. This shortcut is possible because of the symmetry in the graph. We will use horizontal strips. The length of the horizontal strip is x2  X I , where 2 2 is on the straight line and x l is on the arctan graph. Therefore x2 = y and X I = tan y. Since the thin part of the rectangle is Ay, the area is an integral with respect t o y: Area = 2 . j 0 (y ~ t a n y ) d y = 2 ( ~ y 2 + ~ l n c o s y ) ] ~ ~ 2 ~ 0 . 4 2 . 2 2 2
Area and volume can be found using vertical or horizontal strips. It is good to be familiar with both, because sometimes one method is markedly easier than the other. With vertical strips, Problem 2 would integrate tan'(22). With horizontal strips it was $ tan y. Those functions are inverses (which we expect in switching between x and y). The techniques for area are also employed for volume  especially for solids of revolution. A sketch is needed to determine the intersection points of the curves. Draw a thin strip  horizontal (Ay) or vertical (Ax)  whichever seems easier. Imagine the path of the strip as it is revolved. If the strip is perpendicular to the axis of revolution, the result is a thin disk or a washer. For a disk use V = $ ay2dx or V = $ ax2dy. A washer is a difference of circles. Integrate a(y2  y:) or a(x;  x:).
I f the strip is parallel to the axis, rotation produces a cylindrical shell. The volume of the shell is $ 2 a
(radius) (height) (thickness). For an upright shell this is $27rx y dx.
sinZx = cos 22. Its volume is approximately circumference x height x Ax = 27rr(y2 .0.7ry. y= A vertical strip is sketched. / ~ ( c oxs ~ sin2 x)dx. Find the volume when the triangle with vertices (1. The total volume is V = $'I4 ~ I T X ( C sin x)dx. the total volume is
7r
q. (4. After integration by parts this is [2nx(sinx
+ cos x)]li4 
n/4
7r
27r(sinx+cos~)dx=27r(\/2l)i.y 1 ) Ax shell volume 27t x y Ax
washer volume disk volume n y Ax y = shell height = disk radius
3. Since the thin side of the strip is Ay. Since cos2 x .
(a) yl = sin x intersects y2 = cos x a t x = : . so x2 = f (y 9). The volume is
. y = cos x and x = 0 is revolved around (a) the x axis and (b) the y axis.8. so x l = y.1). and (6.
$ I 4 :
cos 22 dx =
5 sin 2 x ~ / = 4 2
(b) When the same region is revolved about the y axis. The result is a thin washer whose volume is (7ry.1 Areas and Volumes by Slices
(page 318)
shell volume 27t x ( y 2 . The right side is the line y = $x . The radius of the xO S shell is the distance r = z from the y axis to the strip. (This is 8. This leads to the integral 7r ~ .
+
(a) When the triangle is revolved around the x axis.1. A horizontal strip has been drawn between two sides of the triangle. the strip is parallel t o the axis of revolution. 2
4.70. Imagine it revolving about the x axis. This produces a shell of radius y :
(b) When the region is revolved around the y axis. the same strip carves out a thin shell.9.1).)Ax. integrals will be with respect to y.24) Find the volume when the firstquadrant region bounded by y = sin x.6) is revolved around (a) the x axis and (b) the y axis. . The left side is the line y = x.yl)Ax. the path of the strip is a washer (disk with hole).
In three dimensions the volume of a slice is its thickness dx times its area. Find the volume of a pyramid. The volume of each card is s2Ah or ( S . the crosssections are circles.x4)dx = 1 .l):area = $ .1 ( y ) ) 2 d y . f we add those volumes and let A h number of cards goes to oo) the sum becomes the integral
+
0 (the
Readthrough8 a n d eelected evennumbered solution8 : The area between y = x3 and y = x4 equals the integral of x 3 .$ h ) 2 ~ hI . Another method is to cut the solid into thin cylindrical shells. The thickness of each card is Ah. From x = 0 t o x = 1.x cos x ) ] . Revolving the area under y = f ( x ) around the y axis.x. when the height is H and the square base has sides of length S .x 4 . we find the limits on x by solving x3 = x 4 . Each slice is like a thin square card. a shell has height f ( x ) and thickness dx and volume 2 m f (x)dx.s =0
when h = H (top)
s=
S when 12 = 0 (base)
5. the integral to compute is $ y 2 d y . The total volume is $ 2 m f (x)dx.Rotating the area between y = f ( x ) and y = g(x) around the x axis.
When the area between y =
6and the y axis is sliced horizontally.x4)dx = 5 . If the region ends where the curves intersect.O) and (1.ex)dx = 2. Rotating the graph of y = f ( x ) around the x axis gives a solid volume $ a ( f(x))'dx. Integrate for the volume
:$
4ax sin xdx = [4a(sin x . this gives the volume 3 of a square pyramid. That is probably the hardest step. = 8a2. For a solid of revolution. the volume comes from J ( 1. This is not a solid of revolution! Imagine the pyramid sliced horizontally. We can write s = S . Their areas are a ( f ( x ) ) ' ~ ( ~ ( x= ) )A(x) ' so the volume is $ A(x)dx. (x1I5. the volume comes from $ n ( l .e d X ) d x + /o1 ( e . Then the area equals (x3.L =
5 1
"
19 30'
12 The region is a curved triangle between x = 1 (where e" = e ) and x = 1 (where ex = e ) . the slices look like washers.Rotating around the y axis leads t o $ a ( f .=
$01
a
& &.
.
20 Shells around the y axis have radius x and height 2 sin x and volume (2az)2sin xdx. If the crosssections are squares 1 of side 1 . The sides of the square decrease in length from s = S when h = 0 t o s = 0 when h = H. Vertical strips
end at e" for x < 0 and at e x for x > 0 : Area = 2 18 Volume = : J a sinZzdx = [ a ( " .
k.$h.
6 y = x1I5 and y = Y ' intersect at (0.x." " ~ COsx)]g = of the galaxy:
$0 l ( e .x )2 d x . This gives the volume 3 of a circular cone.x )2 d x . If the crosssections are circles of radius 1.
In y)dy = [ay2]A +
= i(e2

[7ry2
.Oo
27rx($)dx = 27r(99) = 1 9 8 ~ .
JG times y tan 8.7r + O .F x 5 ] g = 32n . When : l a 1 dy.(x .
Jm+
%
Again this has a good square root.27rg In y
Ix
+ 27rf 1.ti2) .
36 The tilted cylinder has circular slices of area 7rr2 (at all heights from 0 t o h ) .x of the triangle. So the volume is
4 0 (a) The slices are r e c t a n g l e s . x (b) Around the y axis: Volume =
= F(64)
1 : 27rxd~dx+
.9 = (9 .6) Find the length of y =
$ + & from x = 1t o z = 2.2 Length of a Plane Curve
(page 324)
2 6 The region is a curved triangle.
2 d W y tan Bdy = [
$ ( I .. The arc length is
.tan y and you work with dxldy.9 1 . The arc length is
S :
*
c i s
= x3

is
(2)'= x6 . We found a perfect In "real life" the expression square under the square root sign.(1.
1
6 2 Shells around x axis: volume =
= 7r
sYzo27ry(l)dy + JiZ1 27ry(l .h 7rr2dy = 7rr2h. (d) Multiply radius by r and volume by r 3 .1). The top point is where y= Volume =
9'
s5 27rx(9 .
sl xJ1
(x .9)3/2]5+ [97rx2 (1. (b) The slice area is 2
This equals the volume of an untilted cylinder (Cavalieri's principle: same slice areas give same volume).2. Numerical methods are usually required to find lengths of curves.
+ 9n(g2 . use the form J ds = J
.x ) leads ~ to x = 5.
8.The volume by slices is $ '.y = 0. It seems simpler to find dzldy than t o rewrite the curve as y = cos' ex and compute dy/dx.9)dx
+
7r(9 .
5
=
tan 8.x)dx = [ T ( x 2.l). The square of Add 1 and take the square root.x3)dx = [87rx2. then x2 .3 .2)2)3
= 2 9 . (a) Around the x axis:
.8.
2. In this case = .T. with base between x = 3.
dl
(%)2
+ 1 = tan2 y + 1 = sec2 y. y = 4. $ :
ax2dx

f[(l+
dl .'
2
16
*
+ ($)2 almost never simplifies as nicely as this. (b) Rotation around the
y axis also gives a torus. $ : r(yl/3)2dy = y5/3].(e2 .2)2) . d x
1
= .27ra
1).x. (This is 8. Check disks: Jo ~ ( e ~ ) = ~ [a?]. Here the diameter goes from the base y = 0 t o the top edge y = 1 .r e 2 + 27r$
. = &. 5 ( y ) 2 d x = [.y2)3/2tan 81. (a) Rotation around the x axis gives a torus with no hole: it is Example 10 with a = b = 1 and volume 27r2.2
Length of a Plane Curve
( P g e 324)
1.2)2dx =
34 The area of a semicircle is i7rr2.?(g3
7r
2 8 The region is a circle of radius 1 with center (2.Q 6 n
$ '.
$.
The length is $ ds = 4 1 + ($)2 dx.i
S :
(x
+2)JCF'dx
= (odd integral is zero) 87r
ax2dz
/ w ) ] d x = 47r
= 4ra. Find the length of x = In cos y from y = 7r/4 to y = ~ / 4 .(x . y = 0 and x = 9. (c) The volume is
64n .
volume by horizontal disks =
50 Volume by shells = 2ax(8 .J m I d x
= 4~513 d
s37r(x2
5
meets y = 9 .x ) ~ = ~ 36r. The center now goes around a circle of radius 2 so by Example 10 V = 47r 2 . = Y 3 2 = %
[F
2 So

56
s.
+ s e 2 . So the semicircle radius is r =
9.
The volume by shells is 4a
J :
2ax[(1+
dl . The integral is w d x = 47r .1 + L x .53) = 1 4 4 ~ .
So length = : $ h d t = AT.O) reaches (0.l)
27
(also Problem 2). (c) The when t = andreturns to (1.8 sin tdt 12 $ I : 2 d m d t . J ( A ~ ) ~ ( d y / d ~ ) ~ ( A xAn piece of the curve has length ds = the arc length integral is $ds. the cross terms involving sin t cos t cancel each other. path from (1. y = f (t) the length formula goes back to 4 y = i ( x 2 .sin t and
z.76.1)dz = .: $
+ 4 cos2 t sin2 t dt = : $ 24/21cos t sin tldt = 2 f i .
Readthrough8 and eelected evennumbered eolutione :
( ~ y )Between ~ . it is best t o use ds = ($)2 dt. 24 The curve x = y3I2 is the mirror image of y = x3l2 in Problem 1: same length 28 (a) Length integral = : $ d 4 cos2 t sin2 t
~ / 2 2 .
18
2n $ = 3 cost so length = So dsin2 t + 9cos2 t dt = perimeter of ellipse.sec y dy = ln(sec y
n14 + tan y)lnl. Then (s)2 + ($)' = (icos 2t)'.1). This example has dx/dt = et sin t et cos t and dyldt = et cos t et sin t. y = sin t is the same as x2
+ y2 = 1.s i n t and 2 = .
For example x = cost.s i n t . Two trips of length 4 give 2fi. the problem was meant t o have an asterisk. T he curve is a half of a circle of radius JZ because x2 + y2 = 2 and t stops at 14 2 = (1.
.$ cos 2t) (.O)at t = a. two points The length of a straight segment (Ax across. y(t) is
$ J(dx/dt)2
+ (dy/dt2)dt.
=
&+I
In(=
) m 1.14) = 13.68
133/=443/a
so
4
This integral
7
=
for the perimeter.x from x = 0 t o x = 3 the arc length is
3 So fi dx = 3fi. For y = 4 .cost and ( % ) 2 + ($)2 = 2. The 743
speed i s ds/dt = 1. The length of that piece is approximately
) ~ infinitesimal .
= 3
This is the only arc length = .
+
+
dx.
The curve z = cos t. (Notice that cos t is negative beyond t = 5 : split into So + .
has no closed form.2)3/2 has
4
4

$J
x
d
x
.
.
50 2 = x(x2 .14 for this integral or 12 (1. Find the length of the path from t = 0 t o t = 6. y = et sin t. Match it with a table of 'elliptic integrals" by writing it as 4 ~ 1 29 . Note: first rewrite sin 2t cos t = 2 sin t cos2 t = s i n t ( 1 + cos2t). The position of a point is given by x = et cost. The length
of a curve given by x(t). Numerical integration is the expected route t o this answer. When you square and add. y = s i n t from t = 1113 t o t = 7r/2 has length $n12 dt. Similarly 2 = i cost cos 2t. So length = $ I 4 : $ cos 2tdt
?r.sin t) + sin 2t cos t = % sin t cos 2t. Ay up) is A s = on the graph of y ( x ) . A y is approximately dyldx times A x . This leaves
+
+
\/(g)2 +
The arc length is
$
ds = : $
fi etdt = f i ( e 6
. For the special case x = t . The table with k2 = gives 1.2) 'I2 and length = s2dl + x2(x2 2)dx = Sz (x2 .
Since the curve is given in parametric form.
3.
I have ever personally discovered. 3 10 2 = cost . (b) All points have x + y = cos2 t + sinZt = 1. Then
For y = x3 the arc length integral is
J J G S dx.
Use the form of ds which is most convenient:
Pick the limits of integration which correspond to your choice of dx. The mirrored surface behind a searchlight bulb can be modelled by revolving the parabola y = &x2 around the y axis. 3 25 3
The curve y = x2I3 from (8. dy.3. We prefer to avoid that rough point. 1 5 x 5 oo is revolved around the x axis the surface area is infinite but the volume is finite (Problem 8.1). Notice ds. Find the surface area of this hourglass.O).
q d x .) ~ / ~ l .4) to (8. This problem is trickier than it seems because dy/dx = $ x .3
Area of a Surface of Revolution
(page 327)
The area of a surface of revolution is A = J 2r(radius) ds. we can restrict x to 0 _< x 5 8 and double the answer.4) is revolved around the x axis.3 Area of a Surface of Revolution
(page 327)
8.r ( ~ + .)
.' / ~ is undefined at (0. Surface area
=
j'pO
+(dy/d~)~d = xJ'Y 2x4 J d x
= 2 r j'.dx/dy = gy1I2 and area = 2 2 r y d G dy. and Integrate by the substitution u = 1
+ $ with du = &x dx and x dx =
50 x2
2 = g .
du :
a=
2. (Note that
I/
> 0. Then x = y312. Since the curve is symmetrical. The area formula is A = j2 r x ds = 2 r so x d l +
20
dx.8. or dt. Substitute u = 1 and
Jt
qy +
y = :(u .
This improper integral diverges by comparison with Therefore the surface area is infinite. 1.
25
1
u1
u112du = 2Sr(Zu312)l:: 3
= .21).dx = lnoo = oo. Then u goes from 1 to 10:
Probleln 2
3. The radius is y (or x) if the revolution is around the x (or y) axis.
9
JI
2 r yJ1
Problem 3
(An infinitely long horn with finite volume but infinite area) Show that when y = l/x. Find the area of the surface from x = 0 to x = 20.
. O = Er(173/21) ri 3618 square inches. The radius around the y axis is x.
The parametric form (using t) takes care of both parts together. The inner surface corresponds t o y = 6 . The ordinary xy equation for the circle is x2 (y .rotation gives form the circle has two parts. The first part y = 6 d the outer surface of the donut. Substitute
u = 3x2l3 and du = 22'l3dx and x = (:)3/2 : Area =
so3
=
J :
5u&ZTdu=
[g(u2 J G
1 4 (a) d S = 2 n 
+ 1)3/2]2= 2 7 (1o3I2 . This is unexpectedly difficult (rotation around the x axis is easier).'
2nx3 J w
a
1
22
2s
1=
" 2 (2 2+2+kl)=1 2
27rx J w d
T(
x
2
e
+ l). All slices
%.
7rfi. Substitute u = d
a of the Earth's
has the
m and du = 2x3dx/u t o find
.6) is given parametrically by x = 2 cos t and y = 6 Revolving it around the x axis forms a torus (a donut).I) + 1 1 6 Area = So 27r cosh x d 1 + sinh2 x dx = So 2ncosh2 xdx = So 5(e2x + 2 + e2x)dx = ["(c + 22 + %)lo 2 2
J.l)has length A s = fi.8.
d
t
. When the curve is a short straight piece (length As). (b) The area between x = a and x = a + h is 27rh.0 5 t 5 27r.
dx = [$(I 2
= +(1o3I2 .
+ 2 sin t . the point x = 2 cos t.6)2 = 4 or y = 6 f 4 D . This section computes the s u r f a c e a r e a . In this z is the top half of the circle .
1 0 Area =
. The surface area is
+
+
+
Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions :
A surface of revolution comes from revolving a c u r v e around an a x i s ( a line). For y = x2 the integral t o compute is
$ 2m2ddx. the surface is a cone. whether the slice goes near the center or near the outside. y = t 2 .3 Area of a Surface of Revolution The disk method gives volume = y2dx = $dx = n(
(page 327)
7 r / y
:)I?
=
R. Find the surface area.
2 r q x 3 d x .1). the area is S = change ds to W 2 Area =
S 271x41 + ( d f / d ~ ) ~ d For x .
First a comment.d z .An equally good substitution is u = x4/3 + $. The and revolving it produces area line from (0. d x = 27rdx. The circle with radius 2 centered at (0. the area of the surface of revolution is the integral
/ 2d(x) J
m
d
x
. y = 6 2 s i n t goes around the full circle.
Therefore
7r
cubic units of
paint would fill this infinite bugle. but all the paint in the world won't cover it.
When y = x2 is
revolved around the y axis.
When the curve y = f (2) revolves around the x axis. the curve given by x = 2t. In that formula (Problem 13) r is the radius of t h e circle t r a v e l e d by t h e m i d d l e p o i n t .0) t o (1. 4. (c) area is above latitude 30' where the height is Rsin 30' = same area (and so do two more slices below the Equator).The slice from the Equator up t o 30'
of thickness h have this area. Its area is A S = 27rrAs. As t goes from 0 t o 27r.
1r 1(ratio) 1 .
125 125
(c) There are two ways to consider more than five errors. . 2. If p(x) =
3 is the probability density for x 5 1.999936 = . Remember tan (b)
& = j
J. the probability of 1or more is 1.000064. 1. .$
&dx. = 1:
Gdx Z 2 .= 1.I
+. A party is turned away if n < 5.5
+
w 0. which uses the Poisson model. &.5 . What is the chance that the page will have (a) a t least one error (b) fewer than 3 errors (c) more than 5 errors? This is a discrete probability problem. On an average night..
.
k
X~]?
The key is to remember that the total probability must be one:
= 1yields
[
3
= . Instead of adding p.
5x< 1
m This is continuous probability.= Use the formula for a geometric series:
+
+
+
5 + 5 + 6+
a. so use the formula p = J zp(x)dx: The mean is p =
=
2
3 2'
5.4 Probability and Calculus
(page 334)
8. and 5 errors. and two errors: 2 + &+ A..
*
a
(c) = 1 and tan(:) (. 5 parties are noshows. we integrate ~ ( x ) :
(a) .0317
+ Jom
Part (c) is common sense.
(a) Since the probability of no errors is (b)
4.8.4/57 sum = = = 0. Since
is symmetrical (or even). So they accept 55 reservations.
= !x21. = 5 e .4
1. The second way is t o add the infinite series P ( 6 ) P(7) P ( 8 ) . the part x 2 0 gives half the area.2%. .5 + e e . The probabilities
r r r
6. one. Therefore
k
3
k
= 3. If p(x) =
(a) 1
41+x2)
for m < x < m ."
This is a continuous probability.
a first term .
3.2 The integral of (a)
1
1
dx
&
(b) $ is arctan x.4 = 6. Find the mean (the expected value = average x) for p(x) =
5. The sum is ..
4.
In actual fact the overflow parties are sent t o the bar for a time t
oo. find the constant k. Add the probabilities of zero. 3.000064.A5
2. X is the number of noshows and the average is X = 5.= '24 = 99. The first is t o add the probabilities of 0. Compute po
+ pl + p2 + p3 + pa = e5 + 5e5 + $eW5 + F e . Lotsa Pasta Restaurant has 50 tables.L
$ arctanz]k1 =
$ arctan x ] Z w 0. find the approximate probability that (b) x 2 10 (c) x 2 0. What is the probability that they will have t o turn away a party with a reservation? This is like Example 3 in the text.999936 and subtraction leaves 1. The number of noshows is n with probability p.434. & . 
add t o one.
Probability and Calculus
(page 334)
The probability of a textbook page having no errors is The probability of one error is $ and the probability of n errors is &. 4. J1 iT.
$ .
12b gives the area under the curve from m to x. The cutoff is a little over 82. )
Readthrough8 and eelected evennumbered solutions:
Discrete probability uses counting.very hard t o do when dealing with people. Therefore 16% are above. except that p = 72 and a = 10. Grades on the English placement exam at Absorbine Junior College are normally distributed. The function ~ ( xis ) the probability density.000 or a country of 250 million. In the discrete case p . The mean is p = 72 and the standard deviation is o = 10. close to the desired 15%.2 .12a in the text.03. What are your chances of being seated in 15 minutes? This is like Example 4. The exponential distribution has p(x) = e% or 2eWZx or ae=. A random sample of 1000 baseballs in the factory found 62 t o be defective.2% defective.p ) 2 p ( x ) d x in the continuous case and o2 = C (n .03 = 6.p ) 2 P n in the discrete case. The mean (or expected value) is p = $ xp(x)dx in the continuous case and p = C np.17% and 6. Jitim We are 95% sure that the true percentage is between 6. The top 15% are placed in Advanced English.
= 1comes from the e x p o n e n t i a l The standard Gaussian (or n o r m a l )
.
b
S_
The Poisson distribution with mean X has p. The difference F ( x + dx) . = XneA/n!.
a
+
Amazingly. What test grade is the cutoff? The distribution of grades looks like Figure 8. The sum series. which measures the spread around p .~ ' / ~Its F is the c u m u l a t i v e density function. Estimate with 95% confidence the true percentage of defective baseballs. A poll of 400 fi people has a margin of error no more than = = 5%.F(z) is falls below x is F ( x ) = about p ( x ) d x . Lotsa Pasta takes no reservations for lunch. c o n t i n u o u s probability uses calculus.4 Probability and Calculus
(page 334)
6. Its square root o is the standard d e v i a t i o n . The average waiting time for a table is 20 minutes.
(Statisticians
have detailed tables for the area F ( x ) . The chance that the variable distribution has a p ( x ) = e .
& &
8.2 . in the d i s c r e t e case. graph is the wellknown bellshaped curve.23%. is o2 = $ (x . Figure 8.8. The chance that a random variable falls between a and b is $ a p(x)dx. The chances of being seated in 15 minutes are about 5050:
5
m. whether the 400 people are from a city of 100. which is the chance that X is between x and x dx. this is like a yesno poll (Example 7).
SLp(x)dx. Model the waiting time by p(x) = &ex/20 for 0 $ x time is 20. The 'polln of baseballs found 6.
Since a baseball is either defective or not..03 = 6. The mean waiting
7.
xp.
+
The variance. The catch is that the sample must be truly random . The 95% margin of error is never more than 1 . in this case rn 0. From the graph we see that 84% of the scores are a t or below p
+ o = 82. The total probability is 00 p(x)dx = 1. The normal distribution 2 2 has p(x) = eIX') /2u 1 6 0 . = 1. the error formula does not depend on the size of the total population. If 52 is the a v e r a g e of N samples from any population with mean p and
.
a The total mass is M = 4.) (0 . or z = w 5.0 1 . 8 = 68.12b.. Total moment is
The center of mass
z is
5 = 3=
(2.2 5 = 3
m
+ 25 =
a. ) + . z = 5. Its mean is p and its variance is 0 2 / ~ .
(Check: 1 1 1(1) 1. = ($)"
do not add to 1.p)2po + (1 ./ v du = ze"IF + e"dz = 1.1.
0
2. and
(z.g). The probability of exceeding 1.
3.0). The center of mass is moment divided by total mass. Continuous density along the axis from x = 0 to z = 4 is given by p = &.1 1 .1 from Figure 8. y)
= 2. The probabilities
p. The moment around the y axis is zero because the placement is symmetric.4. Total mass is M = / pdx = J :
fi dz = y.25 b above
= 256 we still
the mean..01.8. and z = 8. 4.5 8 above the mean has probability < .)
=
1 Z. q)
.l) and (0. . 12 p = I . is
= 100.. ze"dz " = uv .3. In a yesno poll when the voters are 5050.For a poll with N
X = 1. (0.. = 2 ( i ) " add to 1. . O).2.25 but now 8 =
=
$.25 have
= 31.) The moment around the x axis is the sum of the y coordinates (not z!!) times the masses (all 1): 1 . They add to $ + + . 0 + 1S O + 1.p)2pl =
4.4 + 4 ..
N
34 The average has mean j i = 30 and deviation
a = A.5
Masses and Moments
(page 340)
1. To go 2. (1. = t 13 = $. g). Find MxlMy.. Find the moment and the center of mass.
28 p = (pl + h + p s +
. and the center of mass. and 3 are placed a t z = 4.= (1) 32 2000 f 20 gives 1700 to 2300 as the 95% confidence interval.s
2 The probability of an odd
? + f + $+
.2).5 Masses and Moments
(page 340)
variance 02. An actual average of mis about .. The moment is m l z l + ~ z 2 + m 3 z 3 = 6 . Then the center of mass is = (2. . which is the average.Z is
*/a
+ I(.
8.1 and p fraction saying yes) will be between p . The totalmass is M = 6 + 4 + 3 = 13. The variance is
is a 95% chance that
X
(the
1 . = so the adjusted p. Four unit masses are placed a t
= (1. ) + ( p s + p 4 + . + (+)+ .0 = 0. With
= 31. 20 (a) Heads and tails are still equally likely. . . Masses of 6. . (b) The coin is still fair so the expected fraction of heads during 1(a+ 3 1 the second N tosses is $ and the expected fraction overall is 3 ) . the mean for one voter is p = 0(.5.
b
$7
(p2 + p s + pI + . the Law of Averages says that X will approach the mean p. 5 + 3 . e m ) +
+ (). =2. Find the moment M. 2 = 3. The Central Limit Theorem says that the distribution for W approaches a normal distribution.
+
+
+
+
(q.25 is 1.
the total mass is M = E m n .x e .%I = (1.
a.). The total moment is the same as if the whole mass M is placed at Z. the integrals from 0 to L give M = ~ ~ and / x 2p ( x ) d x = ~ ~ and 1 Z= 3 2L/S.. The moment Mx around the x axis is an integral with respect to y:
2
We found x = . then M = y(z)dz and M.
rn
The Pappus formula A = 27rgL changes to A = 27r~L.6: lirn 2 = lirn = 0.
Readthrough8 and selected euennumbered solutions :
are at distances z.
If masses
m .
3
i). = $xy(x)dx. The line goes from (0. at the points (x.5.~ e approaches ~ zero as x .O)to (2.
= 1. The center of mass is at F = My / M . Find the area M and the centroid
(z. The total mass is M = J p(x)dx and the center of mass is at Z = J xp(x)dx/M. At y = 0 l'H6pital's rule evaluates A lirn y2 ln y = lirn = lim' =0 . 8 ) = (%. y.ex
I 0 OD
= 1.28.
I
. In the continuous case. For My we integrate by
The area M is the value of the improper integral JoOD eldx = e']F parts:
My= L m x y
d~ =
lm
xexdx = [ . The total moment around x = 0 is M y= mnxn. The integration was by parts.
I
In a plane with masses m.x
.
5.In y from y = e". Use the theorem of Pappus in Problem 8.5 Masses and Moments
(page 340)
t
1
7
1
x=O 
Y = 4
masses balance at center point X 1 + 11 = 11 above center x 4 4 2 3 +3 = 11 below center X 4 4 2
4.oo. since the rotation is about the y axis and not = Then z = 1 and the z axis.6) so its length is L = the surface area is A = 2 r J Z = 4 r a . For a plate with density p = 1.. The centroid is (a.8. the moment around the y axis is mnxn.With p = x . The center of mass has Z = C mnxn/ C m n and jj = C mnyn/ C mn. Find the surface area of the cone formed when the line y = 3z from x = 0 to x = 2 is revolved about the y axis. the mass distribution is given by the density p(z). 8 ) inside the curve y
= e" for 0
< x < oo. We can use 1'H6pitalysrule from Section 2.
Note: The first term . the mass M equals the area. If the plate is divided into vertical strips of height y(z).
' (x . A rod with p = 1 from x = a to .
1 4 Area M = J.
/_o$. x2adx = d . =
36 J =
&
= 6 .8.
=
38 Get most of the mass close to the center but keep the radius large.My = 0 and f = 0 by symmetry.y)dy = and 16 Area M = $ ( ~ ( 2) ~ ( 0 )= ~ )
18 I.13)= ?$ and i j =
12
$:$.M. the mass is M = L' and the moment around the y axis is My = ~ $ 1 2 The . and Energy
à7 age 346)
For a square plate 0 5 x.
8. this becomes I The torque T is force times distance. y 5 L. and Energy
(page 346)
1. If the rock weighs w = 100 lb/ft3. A mass rn at a distance x from the axis has moment of inertia I = mx2. Work. L x2dx = 3 .x2)dx = &. how much work did it take to lift it all?
Imagine the pyramid divided into horizontal square slabs of side s and thickness Ah. =
x(x . This point is the centroid.~ =$. For a plate with p = 1 and strips of height y(x) . L/2). 500 5 Add up the work on all the slabs and let the thickness A h go to zero (so integrate):
1
500
8 64 wh((500 . x = b has I. =
L
L4 x3dx = T . 2 = &$$$ =
& and Z = % = f
(E. L3 4 M=$ .1 0 F = 5F.h = . (This is 8. the center of mass moves) (c) False (you reduce I.6
Force.
L 4 2 3L L3/3 = k'
z.
+ 3 F . The work done on the slab is therefore hws2Ah.x2)dx =
1152
Mz = J.2F
5 is smaller for a solid ball than a solid cylinder because the ball has its mass nearer the center. where the plate balances. 9.y) = (L/2.8) The great pyramid outside Cairo (height 500 feet) has a square base 800 feet by 800 feet.6 Force.1000h2
+ h3)dh = 1. This slab is carried up to height h. $.5.4 F .3xb(l. Mz for halfcircle of radius 2 minus
Mz for halfcircle of radius 1 = (by Example 4)
(Z3 .)
(also by symmetry). : the y direction is upward) (d) False (imagine the jumper as an arc of a circle going just over the bar: the center of mass of the arc stays below the bar).3 x 1012 ftlbs.6. + 9 F .
x2 (strip height) dx =
3 2 Torque = F . = b3/3 .h). center of mass is at (f.
4 2 (a) False (a solid ball goes faster than a hollow ball) (b) False (if the density is varied. Work. but you increase I.
3 g. :)dx= and 4 = b Note that the centroid of the triangle is at
[qel:= 9 and bysymmetry M.h))2dh = w
5
25
1
500
(250. use a straight line between s = 800 when h = 0 and s = 0 when h = 500: 800 8 s = 800 . The weight of this slab is ws2Ah.(500 .' y ( f i .a3/3.
. = * .M. = $ x2y (x)dx. Z =
loM=~(fab). To get s in terms of h.O O O h .
and 20 ft deep. (You may object that water must go down to get into the straw and then be lifted from there. How much work is done sipping the
water out through a straw? The sipper is 2'' above the glass. which are 20' x 30' rectangles. The slice volume is r r 2 A h and its weight is wrr2Ah.
A conical glass is filled with water (6" high. The work integral is
G h w x l (8 .7 . 1. What is the force on the bottom and on each side of a full tank? Water weighs w = 62.4h4)]:
1
= 3.)
a (c) Work = JIl2 kx dx = f k ( l ) 2 . This equals Hooke's law). 30 .
a (b) Work = J. Water weighs w = .h) inches to get sipped.
3. Find (a) the spring constant k in pounds per foot (b) the work done in stretching the spring (c) the work needed to stretch it an additional halfinch. The limits of integration are 0 to 20 because the water depth h varies from 0 to 20. r = h. Thus W is a definite integral and V is the corresponding indefinite
. calculate the work on a slice of water at height h with thickness Ah. sides are 100' x 20' rectangles. 30 ft wide. lo6 lbs. A rectangular water tank is 100 ft long. the work in stretching from 0 to x is W = kx dx = ?jkx the increase in the potential energy V. With this variable force.8.4)(20)(3000) m 3. the force is w . For a spring the force F = kx is proportional to the extension x (this is 1 2. and Energy
(page 346)
2.2 inchpounds.75 ftlbs.).
4..7 x lo4 lbs.
a
The force on the bottom is whA = (62.) From the shape of the glass. The value of the integral is [15wh2]i0PL 3.f k ( f ) 2 = 18.h)w*r2Ah.. so the force on them is
1 . A 10inch spring requires a force of 25 pounds to stretch it f inch. 2" radius at the top). The larger lOOwh dh F.6 Force.h)(.4 lb/ft3.~ = 6. The definite integral is the change in
potential energy $kx2 between x =
and z = 1.
a (a) Hooke's law
F = kx gives k = $ =
= 50 lbs per foot. '
Readthrough8 and #elected evennumbered rolutionr : Work equals force times distance. As in the previous problem.2 x lo6 lbs. Work.dh
wr 8 = (h3 9 3
."~ kx dx = ?50x~]]0.036 lb/in3. On the small ends.h dh. The slice must be lifted (8 . But the net effect of water going down to the bottom and back to its starting level is zero work.25 ftlbs
1
(Not ft/lbs. so the work is (8 .
~ i s ~ ~R= 10 G. Work.1 = Z M $ and x = 
a
(8 A)'.
30 Work to empty a coneshaped tank: W =
wAhdh = : J wr? &dh = w r r 2
$.m R+IO 1M ) = ( fG m ~ ~ .
I
I
2 (a) Spring constant k = (c) Work W =
7 :
(b) Work W = $ kxdx = 25(f) =
cC.
20 R' l ~ ~ h e c h a n ~ e i n ~ = . where 1 is the side length at depth h. and density p lbs/ft3 has potential energy ~ ( 1 ) ~ h p d h . The first factor
is the distance (20 feet) times the force (30 pounds).For a cylinder (Problem
17) W = $wAH2 = w*r2 $. and the total force on the four sides is F = 2msS. which includes an arbitrary constant.)
. .
+ V is constant (this is the
Pressure is force per unit area. If the rocket
i). (The coneshaped tank has more water concentrated near the bottom. So the work for a cone is half of the work for a cylinder. . The total energy K law of conservation of energy when there is no external force). In falling. 20GrnM ~ ~ m. the force on the base is F = ws3.8. so the total force is whl dh. the length around the sides is 1 = ITS. This equals +mu2
reaches x = oo then 1 4 A horizontal slice with radius 1 foot. On the sides the pressure is still wh at depth h. Water of density w in a pool of depth h and area A exerts a downward force F = whA on the base. V is converted to kinetic energy K = #mv2. The force of gravity is F = ~ ~ m and / the x potential ~ is V = GMm/x. Integrate from h = 0 to h = 4 :
sorphdh
4
= 8rp. The work to pump the water out of the pool is W = whA dh = 4ws4. and Energy
(page 346)
integral. The derivative dV/dx equals the force. The pressure is p = wh.f8 25 pounds per inch
=
inchpounds or
?$f footpounds (integral starts at no stretch)
kxdx = 2 5 ( y ) =
inchpounds. even though the volume is only one third. its potential energy increases by GMm(B (gain in potential = loss in kinetic energy) so 1 .)
It If the rocket starts at R and reaches x. The second factor is the correction (practically 1. In a cubic pool of side s.6 Force. height h feet.
Write the definite integrals for the volumes when the region above that arch and below y = 2 is revolved about the x axis and y axis. y = secl x. What happens to the cumulative density function in Figure 8. Ans 8~
.y=x2 y=x3.y=3x10.
Dl
D2
y=4x2.8 Chapter Review Problems
Chapter Review Problems
Review Problem8
R1
How do you find the area between the graphs of yl(x) and y2(x)? Write the definite integrals for the volumes when an arch of y = x sin x is revolved about the x axis and the y axis.12 if we let the x axis extend toward and +oo? How do the "moments"
00
R2
R3 R4 R5
R6
87
R8
Mz and M ydiffer from the 'moment
of inertian?
How do you find the work done by a constant force F? By a variable force F ( x ) ?
Drill Problems
Find the areas of the regions bounded by the curves in Dl to D7. Answers are not 100% guaranteed.y=x
Ans
Ans Ans Ans Ans
$
$
& + ln2
. How is ds used in finding the length of a curve and the surface area of a solid of revolution? What is the difference between discrete and continuous probability? Compare the discrete and continuous formulas for the mean and for the sum of all probabilities.~=1
Ans 7.5 + 161n2
The region between the parabola y = x2 and the line y = 42 is revolved about the x axis. y = 0 zy=8.tanH12
Ans In 2
D6 D7
D8
y = tan' x. Find the volume. Write the three formulas for ds.
y = 4t. 0
<x5 $
Ans :(2 . 0 5 x
52 54
Ans Ans
3
(145=12.&) Ans r(3. x = 0. Find its volume by horizont a1 slices. Find the
Ans 2 r l n 2
Dl0 Dl1
The region between y = ezI2. Ans r Ans 1 6 r
Dl2
D1S Dl4
The right half of the ellipse
$+
= 1is revolved about the y axis. 1 5 y
y = sin z2 around the x axis.
Find the areas of the surfaces formed by revolving the curves D22 to D26.75 + In 2)
y=$
+ & around the y axis. x = !. Find the volume. Set up an integral for the length of y = In x from x = 1 t o x = e. x = r .
A choppedoff cone is 15' high. 1 5 x 5 2
. and y = 0 is revolved about the x axis.1)
Findthelengthofthecurvex=hln(l+t2). Ans 2 r 2 The region bounded by y = sin x2. and the x axis is revolved about the y axis.
Ans 28 Ans
488
< t 5 4. and x = is revolved about the y axis.1) (5312 . and y = e is revolved about the x axis. Ans 695'1~ Find the length of y =
Dl5 Dl6 Dl7 Dl8 Dl9 D20 D2l
$ + & from x = 1 to x = 2. y = 0. Find r ( e 2 + 1) as volume. 0
+ 25)3/2 from t = 0 to t = 4.
Ans Ans
Find the length of y = 2x2I3 from z = 1 to x = 8. The region bounded by y = x l n x .8 Dg
Chapter Review Problems
The region bounded by y = x'I2. The upper radius is 3' while the lower radius is 10'.
= 1.x volume. y = & ( l o t Find the length of the curve x = t3I2. Find the volume.
Ans ln(2
+ &)
. Find the length of the curve ex = sin y for
2 5 y 5 5. x = 0. Find the volume.
fromt=Otot=r.2312)
x = 2 f i around the y axis. y=tan't
Ans f i ( e f l
Find the length of the curve x = i t 2 .
D22 D2J D24 D25
y = x3 around the x axis.
and x = 1.3) is revolved about the x axis. How much work to wind up the rope?
Calculator Problems
Ans 10 ft .
C1
C2
Find the length of the graph y = x3 from (0.4 m 9.6 oz
y = x2. D 3 2 A 10' hanging rope weighs 2 lbs.4) to (4. and Iyfor the triangle with corners (0.4 oz and 6.Mu = ! .8
Chapter Review Problems
Ans
D26 x = l n & . A) for the region between
. Ans 25 ft lbs.
C 3
+ 4y2 = 1.O) and (0.0).4e"~~. = $.3). y = 0.8 ounces.O) t o (2.
95% of the oranges lie between what weights? Ans 3.
. 9 ) = (Q. Compute the surface area when the arc x2 Find the distance around the ellipse x2
Ans 8. 0 < y < 3
D 2 7 The line at a post office has the distribution p(x) = 0. and
(z.8).where x is the waiting time in minutes for a random customer.f y 2 a r o u n d t h e y a x i s . (a) What is the mean waiting time? (b) What percentage of customers wait longer than six minutes? Ans (a) 4 min (b) e2.3
+ y2 = 25 from (3. Find the work required to stretch it an additional 4 inches.lbs.1%
D28 The weights of oranges vary normally with a mean of 5 ounces and a standard deviation of 9. (2.
D 2 9 Show that M. D 3 0 Find the moments of inertia I
D 3 1 A force of 50 pounds stretches a spring 4 inches.
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Resource: Calculus Online Textbook
Gilbert Strang
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