Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
Al bert Pi ke, born December 29, 1809, was the ol dest oI si x chi ldren born
t o Benj ami n and Sarah Andrews Pi ke. Pi ke was raised in a Chri stian home
and at tended an Epi scopal church. Pike passed the entrance examinat ion at
Harvard Col l ege when he was 15 years ol d, but could not at tend because
he had no Iunds. AIt er traveli ng as Iar west as Santa Fe, Pi ke set t led in
Arkansas, where he worked as edi tor oI a newspaper beIore being admi t ted
t o t he bar. In Arkansas, he met Mary Ann Hami lt on, and married her on
November 28, 1834. To this uni on were born 11 chil dren.
He was 41 years ol d when he applied Ior admissi on in the West ern St ar
Lodge No. 2 in Li tt le Rock, Ark. , i n 1850. Act i ve in t he Grand Lodge oI
Arkansas, Pike took the 10 degrees oI the York Ri te Irom 1850 to 1853.
He recei ved t he 29 degrees oI the Scott i sh Ri te i n March 1853 Irom Al bert
Gal lat in Mackey in Charlest on, S. C. The Scot t i sh Rit e had been
i ntroduced in the Uni ted Stat es i n 1783. Charl eston was the l ocat i on oI the
Iirst Supreme Counci l, which governed the Scott ish Ri te in the Uni ted
Stat es, unt il a Nort hern Supreme Counci l was establi shed i n New York
Ci ty in 1813. The boundary between the Sout hern and Nort hern
Juri sdi cti ons, st il l recogni zed today, was Ii rmly establi shed in 1828.
Mackey invit ed Pi ke to join the Supreme Council Ior the Sout hern
Juri sdi cti on in 1858 i n Charl est on, and he became the Grand Commander
oI t he Supreme Counci l the Ioll owi ng year. Pike hel d that oIIi ce unt i l hi s
deat h, whi le supporti ng hi mselI in vari ous occupat ions such as edit or oI
t he Memphi s Dai ly Appeal Irom February 1867 t o September 1868, as well
as hi s law pract ice. Pi ke lat er opened a l aw oIIice in Washi ngt on, D. C. ,
and argued a number oI cases beIore t he U. S. Supreme Court . However,
Pike was i mpoveri shed by t he Ci vi l War and remained so much oI his li Ie,
oIten borrowi ng money Ior basic li vi ng expenses Irom t he Supreme
Counci l beIore the council voted hi m an annui ty in 1879 oI $1, 200 a year
Ior the remai nder oI his l iIe. He di ed on Apri l 2, 1892, i n Washi ngt on,
D. C.
Real i zi ng that a revision oI the ri tual was necessary iI Scot t i sh Ri te
Freemasonry were to survi ve, Mackey encouraged Pike to revise the ri tual
t o produce a standard rit ual Ior use in al l st ates in the Sout hern
Juri sdi cti on. Revisi on began i n 1855, and aIter some changes, t he Supreme
Counci l endorsed Pi ke' s revi sion i n 1861. Mi nor changes were made i n
t wo degrees i n 1873 aIter t he York Ri te bodies in Missouri object ed t hat
t he 29t h and 30th degrees reveal ed secrets oI the York Ri te.
Pike i s best known Ior his maj or work, Morals and Dogma oI the Ancient
and Accepted Scot ti sh Ri te oI Freemasonry, publi shed in 1871. Morals and
Dogma shoul d not be conIused wi t h Pi ke' s revi sion oI the Scott i sh Rit e
ri t ual . They are separat e works. Wal ter Lee Brown wri t es that Pi ke
"int ended i t |Moral s and Dogma| t o be a suppl ement t o t hat great
' connect ed syst em oI moral , reli gious and phil osophi cal inst ructi on' that
he had devel oped i n hi s revi sion oI t he Scott ish ri t ual . "
Morals and Dogma was t radi t ionally gi ven to the candidat e upon hi s
receipt oI the 14t h degree oI the Scott ish Ri te. This practice was st opped
i n 1974. Moral s and Dogma has not been gi ven t o candi dates since 1974. A
Bridge to Light, by Rex R. Hutchens, is provi ded t o candi dates today.
Hutchens lament s t hat Morals and Dogma i s read by so Iew Masons. A
Bridge to Light was wri tt en to be "a bri dge bet ween t he ceremoni es oI the
degrees and t heir l ectures i n Moral s and Dogma. "
1º - Apprenti ce
2º - Fell ow-craIt
3º - Mast er
4º - Secret Mast er
5º - PerIect Mast er
6º - Inti mat e Secretary
7º - Provost and Judge
8º - Intendant oI t he Bui l ding
9º - El u oI the Nine
10º - El u oI the Fi It een
11º - Elu oI t he Twelve
12º - Master Archit ect
13º - Royal Arch oI Sol omon
14º - PerIect El u
15º - Kni ght oI t he East
16º - Pri nce oI Jerusal em
17º - Kni ght oI t he East and West
18º - Kni ght Rose Croi x
19º - Pont i II
20º - Master oI t he Symbol ic Lodge
21º - Noachi te or Prussi an Knight
22º - Kni ght oI t he Royal Axe or Pri nce oI Libanus
23º - Chi eI oI the Tabernacl e
24º - Pri nce oI t he Tabernacle
25º - Kni ght oI t he Brazen Serpent
26º - Pri nce oI Mercy
27º - Kni ght Commander oI t he Temple
28º - Kni ght oI t he Sun or Prince Adept
29º - Scott i sh Knight oI St. Andrew
30º - Kni ght Kadosh
31º - Inspect or Inquist or
32º - Master oI t he Royal Secret
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
1º - Apprenti ce
FORCE, unregulat ed or il l-regul at ed, i s not only wast ed in the void, li ke
t hat oI gunpowder burned in the open ai r, and st eam unconIi ned by
sci ence; but , st riki ng in the dark, and it s bl ows meeti ng only t he ai r, t hey
recoil and bruise i t sel I. It is dest ructi on and ruin. It is the vol cano, t he
earthquake, t he cycl one; -not growt h and progress. It is Polyphemus
bli nded, st ri ki ng at random, and Ial li ng headlong among the sharp rocks
by t he i mpetus oI hi s own bl ows.
The bli nd Force oI the people i s a Force that must be economi zed, and
al so managed, as t he bli nd Force oI st eam, li It ing t he ponderous iron arms
and t urni ng t he l arge wheel s, i s made to bore and ri Il e the cannon and to
weave the most deli cate lace. It must be regul at ed by Intel lect . Int el l ect is
t o t he people and t he peopl e' s Force, what t he sl ender needle oI the
compass is t o the ship--it s soul, always counsel l ing the huge mass oI wood
and i ron, and always poi nti ng to the nort h. To at tack t he ci tadel s buil t up
on al l sides agai nst t he human race by superst it i ons, despoti sms, and
prej udi ces, t he Force must have a brai n and a law. Then it s deeds oI daring
produce permanent result s, and t here is real progress. Then t here are
subli me conquests. Thought i s a Iorce, and phil osophy shoul d be an
energy, Ii ndi ng i t s ai m and it s eIIect s i n t he ameli orati on oI manki nd. The
t wo great motors are Trut h and Love. When all t hese Forces are combi ned,
and gui ded by the Intel l ect , and regul ated by the RULE oI Ri ght , and
Justi ce, and oI combined and syst emat ic movement and eIIort , t he great
revol ut ion prepared Ior by t he ages wi ll begin to march. The POWER oI
t he Dei ty Hi mselI i s i n equi li bri um wi t h Hi s WISDOM. Hence the only
result s are HARMONY.
It is because Force i s il l regul ated, t hat revol uti ons prove Iai lures.
ThereIore i t is that so oIten insurrecti ons, coming Irom t hose high
mountai ns t hat domi neer over t he moral horizon, Justice, Wisdom, Reason,
Ri ght , bui lt oI t he purest snow oI the i deal aIt er a l ong Ial l Irom rock t o
rock, aIter havi ng reIlected t he sky i n t heir t ransparency, and been swol l en
by a hundred aIIl uent s, i n t he majest ic pat h oI t riumph, suddenly l ose
t hemsel ves in quagmires, l ike a Cal iIorni a ri ver i n t he sands.
The onward march oI t he human race requires t hat the hei ght s around i t
shoul d blaze wit h noble and enduring lessons oI courage. Deeds oI daring
dazzl e hi story, and Iorm one class oI the guiding li ght s oI man. They are
t he st ars and coruscat ions Irom that great sea oI elect ri city, t he Force
i nherent i n t he peopl e. To st ri ve, to brave al l ri sks, to perish, t o persevere,
t o be true to one' s sel I, to grapple body t o body wit h desti ny, to surpri se
deIeat by the li tt le terror i t inspires, now to conIront unri ghteous power,
now t o deIy intoxi cated triumph--t hese are the exampl es t hat the nat ions
need and t he l ight t hat elect ri Ii es t hem.
There are i mmense Forces i n t he great caverns oI evi l beneat h soci ety; in
t he hideous degradat ion, squal or, wret chedness and desti t uti on, vices and
cri mes that reek and si mmer in t he darkness in t hat populace bel ow t he
peopl e, oI great cit i es. There di si nt erest edness vani shes, every one howl s,
searches, gropes, and gnaws Ior hi mselI. Ideas are i gnored, and oI
progress t here is no t hought . This populace has t wo mot hers, bot h oI t hem
st epmot hers--Ignorance and Mi sery. Want i s t hei r only gui de--Ior the
appeti te alone t hey crave sat isIacti on. Yet even t hese may be empl oyed.
The lowly sand we trample upon, cast i nt o t he Iurnace, melt ed, puri Ii ed by
Iire, may become respl endent cryst al. They have t he brute Iorce oI t he
HAMMER, but t hei r blows help on the great cause, when struck wit hi n the
l ines traced by t he RULE held by wisdom and di scret ion.
Yet i t is t hi s very Force oI the people, t his Ti tani c power oI t he gi ants,
t hat buil ds t he Iorti Ii cati ons oI tyrant s, and is embodied in t heir armi es.
Hence the possi bi li ty oI such tyrannies as those oI which it has been said,
t hat "Rome smell s worse under Vi tel li us t han under Sull a. Under Claudi us
and under Domit ian t here is a deIormity oI baseness corresponding t o t he
ugli ness-oI t he tyranny. The Ioul ness oI the sl aves is a di rect result oI t he
at rocious baseness oI the despot. A miasma exhal es Irom t hese crouchi ng
consciences t hat reIl ect the master; the publ ic authori ti es are unclean,
hearts are coll apsed, consci ences shrunken, souls puny. Thi s is so under
Caracall a, i t is so under Commodus, it i s so under Heli ogabal us, whi le
Irom the Roman senat e, under Caesar, there comes only t he rank odour
peculi ar to the eagle' s eyri e. "
It is t he Iorce oI the people t hat sust ains all t hese despot isms, t he basest
as well as t he best . That Iorce act s through armies; and these oIt ener
ensl ave than li berate. Despoti sm t here applies the RULE. Force i s the
MACE oI steel at the saddl e-bow oI the knight or oI the bi shop in armour.
Passive obedience by Iorce support s thrones and ol igarchies, Spani sh
kings, and Venet ian senates. Might, in an army wi elded by tyranny, i s the
enormous sum total oI utt er weakness; and so Humanity wages war agai nst
Humani ty, in despit e oI Humanity. So a people will i ngly submi t s t o
despot ism, and i ts workmen submi t to be despised, and i ts soldiers to be
whipped; t hereIore it i s t hat bat tles lost by a nat i on are oIten progress
at tai ned. Less gl ory is more l iberty. When the drum is silent, reason
someti mes speaks.
Tyrant s use t he Iorce oI t he peopl e t o chain and subj ugate--t hat i s, enyoke
t he peopl e. Then t hey plough wit h them as men do wit h oxen yoked. Thus
t he spirit oI l iberty and i nnovat i on is reduced by bayonet s, and pri nci ples
are struck dumb by cannonshot ; whi l e the monks mingle wit h the troopers,
and t he Church mi l it ant and jubi l ant , Catholi c or Puri tan, sings Te Deums
Ior vi ctori es over rebel li on.
The mi li tary power, not subordinate t o the civil power, agai n t he
HAMMER or MACE oI FORCE, i ndependent oI the RULE, is an armed
tyranny, born Iul l-grown, as At hene sprung Irom t he brai n oI Zeus. It
spawns a dynasty, and begi ns wi th Caesar to rot into Vit ell ius and
Commodus. At the present day it i ncli nes to begin where Iormerly
dynast i es ended.
Constantly t he peopl e put Iort h i mmense st rength, only to end in i mmense
weakness. The Iorce oI the people is exhausted in indeIi ni tely prol onging
t hi ngs l ong since dead; i n governing mankind by embal ming ol d dead
tyranni es oI Fai t h; restori ng di l api dated dogmas; regi l ding Iaded, worm-
eaten shri nes; whi teni ng and rouging ancient and barren superst i ti ons;
savi ng society by mult i plying parasi tes; perpet uat ing superannuat ed
i nst it ut ions; enIorci ng t he worship oI symbol s as t he act ual means oI
sal vat i on; and tyi ng t he dead corpse oI the Past , mouth t o mout h, wi th the
l ivi ng Present . ThereIore it i s that it i s one oI the Iatali t ies oI Humanity t o
be condemned t o et ernal st ruggles wit h phant oms, wi th superst it ions,
bigot ri es, hypocri si es, prej udices, the Iormulas oI error, and the pl eas oI
tyranny. Despot isms, seen in the past , become respect abl e, as the
mountai n, bri st l i ng wi th volcanic rock, rugged and horri d, seen t hrough
t he haze oI dist ance i s bl ue and smoot h and beaut iIul . The sight oI a
si ngle dungeon oI tyranny i s worth more, t o dispel i ll usi ons, and creat e a
holy hat red oI despoti sm, and t o direct FORCE aright , t han t he most
el oquent volumes. The French should have preserved the Basti le as a
perpet ual lesson; Italy should not destroy the dungeons oI the Inquisi ti on.
The Force oI t he peopl e mai nt ained t he Power t hat buil t it s gl oomy cel ls,
and placed the l i vi ng i n t hei r grani te sepul chres.
The FORCE oI the people cannot , by i ts unrestrained and Iit Iul act i on,
maint ai n and conti nue in acti on and exi st ence a Iree Government once
created. That Force must be li mi t ed, restrained, conveyed by di stri but ion
i nt o di IIerent channels, and by roundabout courses, to outl et s, whence it i s
t o i ssue as the law, acti on, and deci si on oI t he State; as t he wi se ol d
Egypt ian ki ngs conveyed i n diIIerent canal s, by sub-divi sion, the swell ing
wat ers oI the Ni le, and compell ed t hem t o Iert il i ze and not devastat e t he
l and. There must be t he j us et norma, the law and Rule, or Gauge, oI
const i tuti on and law, wit hi n which the publ ic Iorce must act. Make a
breach in eit her, and the great steam-hammer, wi t h i ts swi It and ponderous
blows, crushes al l the machi nery t o atoms, and, at last , wrenchi ng it selI
away, lies inert and dead ami d the ruin it has wrought .
The FORCE oI the people, or the popul ar wi l l, i n act ion and exert ed,
symbol i zed by t he GAVEL, regulat ed and guided by and acti ng wi thi n the
l i mit s oI LAW and ORDER, symbol ized by t he TWENTY-FOUR-INCH
RULE, has Ior i t s Iruit LIBERTY, EQUALITY, and FRATERNITY, --l i berty
regulat ed by l aw; equal ity oI rights in the eye oI the law; brot herhood wit h
i ts dut ies and obl igat ions as wel l as it s beneIi ts.
You wil l hear shortly oI t he Rough ASHLAR and the PerIect ASHLAR, as
part oI t he j ewels oI the Lodge. The rough Ashl ar is sai d to be "a stone, as
t aken Irom the quarry, i n i ts rude and nat ural st at e." The perIect Ashlar i s
sai d t o be "a st one made ready by t he hands oI the workmen, to be
adjust ed by t he working-t ool s oI t he Fell ow-CraIt. " We shal l not repeat the
expl anat ions oI t hese symbol s gi ven by t he York Ri t e. You may read them
i n i t s printed monit ors. They are declared to all ude to the selI-
i mprovement oI the indi vidual craItsman, --a cont inuati on oI t he same
superIici al int erpret ati on.
The rough Ashl ar is the PEOPLE, as a mass, rude and unorgani zed. The
perIect Ashl ar, or cubi cal st one, symbol oI perIecti on, i s the STATE, t he
rul ers deri vi ng t heir powers Irom t he consent oI t he governed; the
const i tuti on and laws speaki ng t he wi ll oI the people; the government
harmoni ous, symmet ri cal, eIIici ent , --it s powers properly dist ri but ed and
duly adj usted i n equil ibri um.
II we deli neate a cube on a pl ane surIace thus:
we have visi ble three Iaces, and ni ne ext ernal li nes, drawn between seven
points. The compl ete cube has t hree more Iaces, maki ng si x; t hree more
l ines, maki ng t wel ve; and one more point , maki ng eight . As the number 12
i ncl udes t he sacred numbers, 3, 5, 7, and 3 ti mes 3, or 9, and is produced
by adding the sacred number 3 to 9; whil e i ts own two Ii gures, 1, 2, t he
unit or monad, and duad, added t oget her, make the same sacred number 3;
i t was call ed the perIect number; and the cube became t he symbol oI
perIect ion.
Produced by FORCE, act i ng by RULE; hammered in accordance wi th li nes
measured by the Gauge, out oI the rough Ashlar, i t i s an appropriat e
symbol oI the Force oI t he peopl e, expressed as t he const it ut ion and l aw
oI t he St at e; and oI t he State i tsel I the three visi ble Iaces represent the
t hree depart ment s, --t he Executi ve, whi ch execut es t he l aws; the
Legi slat ive, whi ch makes the laws; t he Judi ciary, which interpret s t he
l aws, appli es and enIorces t hem, bet ween man and man, bet ween the St ate
and t he ci ti zens. The three i nvi sible Iaces, are Liberty, Equali ty, and
Frat erni ty, the threeIol d soul oI the St at e--it s vit al i ty, spirit , and int ell ect.
Though Masonry nei ther usurps t he place oI, nor apes rel igi on, prayer i s
an essenti al part oI our ceremonies. It i s t he aspirat i on oI the soul t oward
t he Absolut e and InIinit e Intell igence, whi ch i s t he One Supreme Dei ty,
most Ieebly and misunderstandi ngly characterized as an "ARCHITECT. "
Certai n Iacul ti es oI man are di rect ed toward the Unknown--thought,
medit at ion, prayer. The unknown i s an ocean, oI whi ch conscience i s the
compass. Thought , medit ati on, prayer, are t he great mysteri ous point i ngs
oI t he needle. It is a spi ri t ual magnet ism that thus connects the human
soul wit h the Deity. These majest ic irradi at ions oI t he soul pi erce through
t he shadow toward the l ight .
It is but a shall ow scoII t o say that prayer i s absurd, because it i s not
possible Ior us, by means oI i t, to persuade God to change His plans. He
produces Ioreknown and Ioreintended eIIect s, by t he i nst rument ali ty oI t he
Iorces oI nat ure, al l oI whi ch are Hi s Iorces. Our own are part oI t hese.
Our Iree agency and our wi ll are Iorces. We do not absurdly cease t o make
eIIort s t o at tai n weal th or happi ness, prolong l iIe, and cont inue heal th,
because we cannot by any eIIort change what is predest ined. II t he eIIort
al so i s predest ined, i t is not t he l ess our eIIort, made oI our Iree wil l . So,
l ikewise, we pray. Wi ll i s a Iorce. Thought i s a Iorce. Prayer i s a Iorce.
Why shoul d it not be oI t he l aw oI God, that prayer, l ike Fai th and Love,
shoul d have i ts eIIect s? Man is not t o be comprehended as a st art i ng-
point, or progress as a goal, wi thout those t wo great Iorces, Fai th and
Love. Prayer is subli me. Ori sons t hat beg and cl amour are pit iIul . To deny
t he eIIi cacy oI prayer, i s to deny t hat oI Fai t h, Love, and EIIort . Yet the
eIIect s produced, when our hand, moved by our wi ll , launches a pebbl e
i nt o t he ocean, never cease; and every utt ered word is regist ered Ior
et ernity upon the invi sibl e air.
Every Lodge i s a Temple, and as a whol e, and i n it s det ai l s symbol ic. The
Universe i tsel I suppl ied man wi th t he model Ior t he Iirst temples reared t o
t he Divi ni ty. The arrangement oI t he Templ e oI Sol omon, t he symbolic
ornament s whi ch Iormed i ts chi eI decorat ions, and t he dress oI the High-
Priest, all had reIerence t o the order oI the Uni verse, as then underst ood.
The Templ e cont ai ned many emblems oI t he seasons--the sun, t he moon,
t he planet s, the const ell ati ons Ursa Maj or and Minor, the zodiac, t he
el ement s, and the other part s oI t he world. It is the Mast er oI this Lodge,
oI t he Uni verse, Hermes, oI whom Khurum is the represent at i ve, that is
one oI t he light s oI the Lodge.
For Iurt her instruct ion as t o t he symboli sm oI the heavenly bodies, and oI
t he sacred numbers, and oI t he t empl e and i ts detai ls, you must wait
patiently unt il you advance i n Masonry, in t he mean t i me exerci si ng your
i ntell ect i n st udyi ng them Ior yourselI. To st udy and seek t o i nterpret
correct ly the symbol s oI t he Universe, is t he work oI the sage and
phil osopher. It is t o decipher the writ ing oI God, and penetrate int o Hi s
t hought s.
Thi s i s what i s asked and answered i n our catechi sm, i n regard to t he
* * * * * *
A "Lodge" is deIi ned to be "an assemblage oI Freemasons, duly
congregated, havi ng t he sacred wri ti ngs, square, and compass, and a
charter, or warrant oI const i t ut ion, authorizi ng them t o work. " The room
or pl ace i n which t hey meet , represent i ng some part oI Ki ng Sol omon' s
Temple, i s also call ed the Lodge; and it i s t hat we are now considering.
It is said to be support ed by t hree great col umns, WISDOM, FORCE or
STRENGTH, and BEAUTY, represented by the Master, the Seni or Warden,
and t he Juni or Warden; and t hese are said t o be the col umns t hat support
t he Lodge, "because Wi sdom, St rength, and Beauty, are the perIect ions oI
everyt hi ng, and not hi ng can endure wi thout t hem. " "Because, " the York
Ri te says, "it i s necessary that t here should be Wi sdom to concei ve,
Strengt h t o support , and Beauty to adorn, all great and i mport ant
undertakings. " "Know ye not," says the Apost le Paul, "t hat ye are the
t empl e oI God, and that the Spirit oI God dwel let h i n you? II any man
desecrate the temple oI God, hi m shal l God dest roy, Ior the templ e oI God
i s holy, which t empl e ye are. "
The Wi sdom and Power oI the Deity are i n equil i bri um. The laws oI nat ure
and t he moral laws are not the mere despoti c mandat es oI Hi s Omni pot ent
wi ll ; Ior, t hen they mi ght be changed by Hi m, and order become di sorder,
and good and right become evi l and wrong; honesty and l oyal ty, vi ces; and
Iraud, ingrati tude, and vice, vi rt ues. Omnipotent power, i nIi ni te, and
exist ing al one, would necessari ly not be const rai ned to consi stency. Its
decrees and laws could not be i mmutable. The l aws oI God are not
obli gatory on us because they are the enact ment s oI His POWER, or t he
expressi on oI Hi s WILL; but because t hey express His i nIi nite WISDOM.
They are not right because they are His laws, but His l aws because they
are ri ght . From the equi li brium oI inIi nit e wi sdom and i nIinite Iorce,
result s perIect harmony, in physics and i n the moral universe. Wi sdom,
rower, and Harmony consti tut e one Masonic t riad. They have other and
proIounder meanings, t hat may at some ti me be unvei led to you.
As t o the ordi nary and commonpl ace explanati on, it may be added, that t he
wi sdom oI the Archi tect i s di splayed i n combi ni ng, as only a ski l l Iul
Archi tect can do, and as God has done everywhere, --Ior exampl e, i n the
t ree, the human Irame, the egg, the cell s oI t he honeycomb--st rength, wi th
grace, beauty, symmetry, proporti on, li ght ness, ornamentat ion. That , too,
i s t he perIect ion oI t he orator and poet--t o combine Iorce, st rengt h,
energy, wi t h grace oI style, musical cadences, the beauty oI Ii gures, t he
play and i rradi ati on oI i magi nati on and Iancy; and so, i n a St ate, t he
warli ke and i ndustrial Iorce oI t he peopl e, and t heir Ti t anic strengt h, must
be combi ned wit h t he beauty oI t he arts, the sciences, and t he i ntell ect, iI
t he State woul d scal e t he hei ght s oI excell ence, and the people be real ly
Iree. Harmony i n t hi s, as in all t he Di vi ne, the mat eri al, and the human, i s
t he resul t oI equi l i brium, oI t he sympat hy and opposi t e acti on oI
contrari es; a single Wi sdom above them holding the beam oI t he scal es. To
reconci le the moral law, human responsi bil ity, Iree-wil l, wi th t he absol ute
power oI God; and the exi stence oI evi l wi t h His absol ute wisdom, and
goodness, and mercy, -- t hese are t he great enigmas oI t he Sphynx.
You entered t he Lodge bet ween t wo col umns. They represent the two
which st ood in the porch oI the Temple, on each side oI the great eastern
gat eway. These pil lars, oI bronze, Iour Iingers breadt h in thickness, were,
accordi ng t o the most authenti c account--that i n t he First and that i n the
Second Book oI Ki ngs, conIirmed i n Jeremiah-- eighteen cubi ts high, wi t h
a capi t al Ii ve cubit s high. The shaIt oI each was Iour cubi t s i n diamet er. A
cubit i s one Ioot and 707/1000. That is, the shaIt oI each was a li t t le over
t hirty Ieet ei ght i nches i n height, the capi tal oI each a l it tle over eight Ieet
si x inches i n height , and the diameter oI t he shaIt si x Ieet ten i nches. The
capi tal s were enriched by pomegranates oI bronze, covered by bronze net -
work, and ornamented wi th wreaths oI bronze; and appear to have i mi t ated
t he shape oI t he seed-vessel oI t he l ot us or Egypti an l i ly, a sacred symbol
t o t he Hindus and Egyptians. The pi l l ar or col umn on t he right, or i n t he
south, was named, as the Hebrew word is rendered in our translat i on oI the
Bi ble, JACHIN: and t hat on t he l eIt BOAZ. Our t ranslat ors say t hat the
Iirst word means, "He shall establi sh;" and t he second, "In i t is st rength. "
These col umns were i mitati ons, by Khurum, the Tyrian art ist , oI the great
columns consecrat ed to the Wi nds and Fire, at the ent rance to t he Iamous
Temple oI Malkart h, in the ci ty oI Tyre. It is customary, i n Lodges oI t he
York Rit e, to see a cel est ial globe on one, and a t errestrial gl obe on the
other; but t hese are not warranted, i I the object be to i mi t ate the origi nal
t wo columns oI t he Temple. The symbol ic meani ng oI t hese columns we
shal l leave Ior the present unexpl ained, only adding that Entered
Apprenti ces keep their worki ng-tools in the col umn JACHIN; and giving
you t he etymology and l it eral meaning oI t he t wo names.
The word JACHIN, in Hebrew, probably pronounced Ya-kayan, and meant ,
as a verbal noun, He t hat strengthens; and thence, Iirm, st able, upri ght .
The word Boaz is Baaz whi ch means St rong, St rength, Power, Might,
ReIuge, Source oI Strengt h, a Fort . The preIi x means "wi th" or "in," and
gi ves t he word t he Iorce oI the Lat in gerund, roborando--Strengthening
The Iormer word also means he wil l establ i sh, or plant in an erect
posit ion--Irom t he verb Kun, he st ood erect . It probably meant Act ive and
Vi viIyi ng Energy and Force; and Boaz, St abi l ity, Permanence, in t he
passi ve sense.
The Di mensi ons oI t he Lodge, our Brethren oI the York Ri te say, "are
unli mi t ed, and i t s covering no less than t he canopy oI Heaven. " "To t hi s
object , " they say, "the mason' s mi nd i s conti nual ly di rect ed, and thi ther he
hopes at l ast to arrive by the aid oI t he t heol ogi cal l adder which Jacob i n
his visi on saw ascendi ng Irom eart h t o Heaven; t he t hree principal rounds
oI which are denomi nated Fai th, Hope, and Charity; and whi ch admonish
us to have Fai th in God, Hope i n Immortal ity, and Charity t o all mankind. "
Accordi ngly a ladder, someti mes wit h nine rounds, is seen on the chart,
resti ng at t he bott om on t he earth, i ts top i n t he cl ouds, the st ars shi ning
above i t; and t hi s is deemed t o represent that mysti c l adder, whi ch Jacob
saw in hi s dream, set up on the eart h, and the top oI i t reaching t o Heaven,
wi th t he angel s oI God ascending and descending on it . The addi t ion oI the
t hree principal rounds t o the symbol i sm, i s wholly modern and
i ncongruous.
The ancients count ed seven planet s, t hus arranged: t he Moon, Mercury,
Venus, t he Sun, Mars, Jupi ter, and Saturn. There were seven heavens and
seven spheres oI these planets; on all t he monument s oI Mit hras are seven
al tars or pyres, consecrat ed to the seven pl anets, as were t he seven lamps
oI t he golden candelabrum i n the Templ e. That these represent ed t he
planet s, we are assured by Clemens oI Al exandria, in hi s St romata, and by
Phi l o Judaeus.
To ret urn t o it s source i n t he InIi nit e, the human soul , t he anci ent s held,
had t o ascend, as i t had descended, t hrough t he seven spheres. The Ladder
by which it reascends, has, accordi ng to Marsi li us Fici nus, in hi s
Commentary on the Ennead oI Pl ot inus, seven degrees or steps; and i n t he
Myst eri es oI Mi thras, carried to Rome under the Emperors, the ladder,
wi th i t s seven rounds, was a symbol reIerri ng to this ascent t hrough t he
spheres oI the seven planet s. Jacob saw t he Spi ri t s oI God ascendi ng and
descending on i t ; and above i t the Deity Hi msel I. The Mi t hrai c Myst eri es
were celebrat ed i n caves, where gat es were marked at the Iour equinocti al
and sol sti ti al point s oI t he Zodiac; and the seven planet ary spheres were
represented, which soul s needs must traverse in descending Irom the
heaven oI the Ii xed st ars t o the el ements that envelop t he earth; and seven
gat es were marked, one Ior each pl anet , t hrough which they pass, in
descending or returni ng.
We learn t hi s Irom Cel sus, i n Origen, who says t hat the symbol i c i mage oI
t hi s passage among the stars, used i n t he Mi thrai c Mysteries, was a ladder
reaching Irom earth to Heaven, divided i nt o seven steps or stages, t o each
oI which was a gate, and at t he summit an eighth one, t hat oI the Ii xed
st ars. The symbol was the same as that oI the seven st ages oI Borsippa, the
Pyramid oI vit ri Ii ed brick, near Babyl on, buil t oI seven st ages, and each oI
a diIIerent colour. In the Mi thraic ceremonies, t he candi dat e went through
seven stages oI init iat ion, passi ng through many IearIul t rials--and oI
t hese t he high ladder wit h seven rounds or steps was t he symbol .
You see the Lodge, it s det ail s and ornament s, by i ts Light s. You have
al ready heard what these Light s, t he greater and l esser, are said to be, and
how t hey are spoken oI by our Brethren oI the York Ri te.
The Holy Bible, Square, and Compasses, are not only styled the Great
Light s in Masonry, but they are al so technical ly call ed the Furni ture oI the
Lodge; and, as you have seen, it i s hel d that t here is no Lodge wit hout
t hem. Thi s has someti mes been made a pret ext Ior excluding Jews Irom
our Lodges, because they cannot regard t he New Testament as a holy book.
The Bi bl e is an i ndispensable part oI the Iurni ture oI a Chri st ian Lodge,
only because it i s the sacred book oI the Christ ian rel igi on. The Hebrew
Pent ateuch i n a Hebrew Lodge, and t he Koran in a Mohammedan one,
belong on the Alt ar; and one oI t hese, and the Square and Compass,
properly understood, are the Great Lights by which a Mason must walk
and work.
The obl igat ion oI t he candi date is always t o be t aken on t he sacred book
or books oI his reli gion, that he may deem it more sol emn and bi ndi ng;
and t hereIore i t was that you were asked oI what rel igi on you were. We
have no ot her concern wit h your reli gious creed.
The Square i s a ri ght angl e, Iormed by two right l ines. It is adapt ed only
t o a plane surIace, and bel ongs only t o geometry, earth-measurement , t hat
t rigonomet ry whi ch deal s only wi t h pl anes, and wit h t he earth, which t he
anci ent s supposed to be a pl ane. The Compass descri bes ci rcl es, and deals
wi th spheri cal t rigonomet ry, the science oI t he spheres and-heavens. The
Iormer, thereIore, is an emblem oI what concerns the eart h and t he body;
t he l att er oI what concerns the heavens and the soul . Yet t he Compass i s
al so used i n plane trigonomet ry, as i n erect ing perpendi cul ars; and,
t hereIore, you are remi nded t hat , al though in thi s Degree bot h points oI
t he Compass are under t he Square, and you are now deal ing only wi t h t he
moral and pol it ical meaning oI t he symbol s, and not wi th their
phil osophi cal and spirit ual meanings, sti l l the divine ever mi ngl es wi th
t he human; wit h the eart hly t he spi ri tual int ermi xes; and there is
somethi ng spiri tual in the commonest dut ies oI li Ie. The nati ons are not
bodi es poli ti c al one, but al so soul s-poli ti c; and woe t o t hat people whi ch,
seeki ng the materi al only, Iorgets t hat it has a soul. Then we have a race,
petri Iied in dogma, whi ch presupposes the absence oI a soul and t he
presence only oI memory and inst inct, or demorali zed by lucre. Such a
nature can never lead ci vil i zati on. GenuIl exion beIore t he i dol or the
doll ar atrophies the muscl e which walks and the wi ll which moves.
Hi erat ic or mercanti le absorpt ion di minishes the radi ance oI a people,
l owers it s horizon by l oweri ng it s level , and depri ves i t oI that
understanding oI t he universal ai m, at t he same t i me human and di vi ne,
which makes the mi ssionary nat i ons. A Iree people, Iorget t i ng t hat it has a
soul to be cared Ior, devot es all it s energi es to i t s material advancement.
II it makes war, it i s t o subserve it s commercial i nterest s. The cit izens
copy aIter t he St at e, and regard weal th, pomp, and l uxury as t he great
goods oI li Ie. Such a nat ion creat es weal th rapidly, and dist ri butes i t
badly. Thence the t wo extremes, oI monstrous opulence and monst rous
misery; all t he enj oyment t o a Iew, al l the privati ons to the rest , that i s to
say, to the people; Pri vi lege, Except ion, Monopoly, Feudal i ty, spri nging
up Irom Labour i tsel I: a Ialse and dangerous si tuati on, which, making
Labour a bl i nded and chai ned Cyclops, in the mi ne, at the Iorge, in t he
workshop, at the l oom, in the Ii eld, over poisonous Iumes, in mi asmat ic
cel ls, in unvent il ated Iact ori es, Iounds publi c power upon pri vat e mi sery,
and plant s t he greatness oI the State in t he suIIeri ng oI the indi vidual. It i s
a greatness il l const it ut ed, in whi ch al l the mat eri al element s are
combi ned, and i nto which no moral element ent ers. II a peopl e, li ke a star,
has the right oI ecl ipse, t he l ight ought t o return. The ecli pse shoul d not
degenerate into ni ght .
The three l esser, or t he Subl i me Light s, you have heard, are the Sun, t he
Moon, and the Mast er oI t he Lodge; and you have heard what our Bret hren
oI t he York Ri t e say i n regard t o t hem, and why t hey hol d t hem t o be
Light s oI the Lodge. But t he Sun and Moon do i n no sense li ght t he Lodge,
unless it be symboli cally, and t hen t he l ight s are not t hey, but those t hi ngs
oI which t hey are t he symbol s. OI what they are the symbol s t he Mason in
t hat Rit e i s not told. Nor does t he Moon in any sense rule the night wi th
regulari ty.
The Sun i s t he anci ent symbol oI t he li Ie-givi ng and generat ive power oI
t he Dei ty. To the ancients, li ght was the cause oI l iIe; and God was t he
source Irom whi ch al l li ght Il owed; the essence oI Light , t he Invisi ble
Fire, developed as Flame mani Iested as l ight and splendour. The Sun was
Hi s maniIestat ion and visi ble i mage; and the Sabaeans worshi ppi ng the
Light--God, seemed to worshi p t he Sun, in whom they saw t he
maniIestat ion oI the Deity.
The Moon was t he symbol oI the passive capaci ty oI nat ure to produce, t he
Iemal e, oI which t he l iIe-gi vi ng power and energy was t he male. It was t he
symbol oI Isi s, Astarte, and Art emi s, or Diana. The "Mast er oI LiIe" was
t he Supreme Dei ty, above bot h, and maniIested through bot h; Zeus, t he
Son oI Sat urn, become King oI t he Gods; Horus, son oI Osiri s and Isis,
become the Master oI LiIe; Di onusos or Bacchus, l ike Mit hras, become t he
author oI Light and LiIe and Truth.
* * * * *
The Mast er oI Light and LiIe, t he Sun and the Moon, are symboli zed in
every Lodge by t he Master and Wardens: and t hi s makes i t t he duty oI t he
Master t o dispense l ight t o the Brethren, by hi msel I, and through the
Wardens, who are hi s mi ni sters.
"Thy sun, " says ISAIAH to Jerusalem, "shal l no more go down, neit her
shal l thy moon wi thdraw it selI; Ior t he LORD shal l be t hi ne everl asti ng
l ight , and the days oI thy mourni ng shal l be ended. Thy people al so shall
be all righteous; t hey shall i nheri t t he land Iorever." Such i s t he type oI a
Iree peopl e.
Our northern ancestors worshipped thi s t ri -une Dei ty; ODIN, t he Al mighty
FATHER; FREA, hi s wi Ie, emblem oI uni versal mat ter; and THOR, hi s
son, the medi ator. But above all t hese was t he Supreme God, "t he aut hor
oI everythi ng t hat exist et h, t he Eternal , t he Ancient , the Living and AwIul
Being, t he Searcher into conceal ed t hi ngs, the Bei ng that never changet h."
In t he Temple oI El eusi s (a sanctuary li ghted only by a wi ndow i n t he rooI,
and representi ng t he Universe), t he i mages oI the Sun, Moon, and
Mercury, were represent ed.
"The Sun and Moon, " says the learned Bro. ' . DELAUNAY, "represent the
t wo grand principles oI al l generat ions, the acti ve and passi ve, the mal e
and t he Iemal e. The Sun represent s the actual light. He pours upon the
Moon his Iecundat ing rays; bot h shed their li ght upon their oIIspri ng, the
Blazi ng Star, or HORUS, and the three Iorm the great Equi l at eral Tri angle,
i n t he centre oI which is the omniIic let t er oI t he Kabal ah, by which
creati on is sai d to have been eIIected. "
The ORNAMENTS oI a Lodge are said to be "the Mosai c Pavement, the
Indented Tessel, and t he Blazing Star. " The Mosaic Pavement , chequered
i n squares or lozenges, is said to represent t he ground-Il oor oI King
Sol omon' s Temple; and the Indent ed Tessel "t hat beaut iIul tessel l at ed
border whi ch surrounded i t. " The Blazi ng St ar in the cent re is sai d to be
"an emblem oI Divine Provi dence, and commemorati ve oI t he star which
appeared to gui de t he wise men oI the East t o the place oI our Savi our' s
nati vity. " But "t here was no stone seen" wi thi n the Temple. The wall s were
covered wi th planks oI cedar, and t he Il oor was covered wi th pl anks oI Ii r.
There i s no evi dence t hat t here was such a pavement or Il oor i n t he
Temple, or such a borderi ng. In Engl and, anci ent ly, the Traci ng-Board was
surrounded wit h an indent ed border; and i t is only i n Ameri ca that such a
border is put around t he Mosai c pavement . The t esserae, indeed, are t he
squares or lozenges oI the pavement. In England, al so, "t he i ndented or
denti cul ated border" i s cal led "t essel lat ed, " because it has Iour "tassel s, "
sai d t o represent Temperance, Fort it ude, Prudence, and Just ice. It was
t ermed t he Indent ed Trassel; but thi s is a mi suse oI words. It is a
t esserated pavement , wi t h an i ndented border round i t.
The pavement , al ternately black and whi te, symbol izes, whet her so
i ntended or not , the Good and Evil Pri nci ples oI the Egypt ian and Persian
creed. It i s the warIare oI Michael and Sat an, oI the Gods and Ti tans, oI
Balder and Lok; bet ween l ight and shadow, whi ch i s darkness; Day and
Ni ght ; Freedom and Despot ism; Reli gious Liberty and the Arbi trary
Dogmas oI a Church that t hi nks Ior it s votaries, and whose Ponti II clai ms
t o be i nIal l i bl e, and t he decret al s oI i t s Counci ls t o const it ute a gospel.
The edges oI t hi s pavement , i I in lozenges, wi ll necessari ly be indented or
denti cul ated, t oot hed li ke a saw; and to complet e and Iini sh it a borderi ng
i s necessary. It is compl eted by tassel s as ornament s at the corners. II
t hese and t he borderi ng have any symbol ic meani ng, it i s IanciIul and
arbit rary.
To Ii nd in t he BLAZING STAR oI Ii ve poi nts an al l usion t o t he Di vine
Provi dence, is also Ianci Iul; and t o make i t commemorat i ve oI t he Star
t hat is sai d to have gui ded the Magi, is to give it a meani ng comparat i vely
modern. Origi nal ly i t represent ed SIRIUS, or t he Dog-st ar, the Iorerunner
oI t he inundat i on oI the Nil e; the God ANUBIS, compani on oI ISIS i n her
search Ior the body oI OSIRIS, her brot her and husband. Then it became
t he i mage oI HORUS, the son oI OSIRIS, hi msel I symboli zed al so by the
Sun, t he author oI the Seasons, and the God oI Ti me; Son oI ISIS, who
was the uni versal nature, hi mselI t he pri mi ti ve mat ter, inexhausti bl e
source oI LiIe, spark oI uncreated Iire, universal seed oI all bei ngs. It was
HERMES, al so, the Master oI Learning, whose name i n Greek i s that oI
t he God Mercury. It became the sacred and pot ent sign or character oI t he
Magi , t he PENTALPHA, and i s the signiIicant embl em oI Liberty and
Freedom, bl azing wi th a st eady radi ance amid the wel tering elements oI
good and evil oI Revol uti ons, and promisi ng serene skies and Iert il e
seasons to t he nat i ons, aIt er the st orms oI change and tumul t.
In t he East oI t he Lodge, over t he Master, i ncl osed i n a triangle, is the
Hebrew let ter YOD. In the Engli sh and Ameri can Lodges t he Let ter G. ' . i s
substi tuted Ior thi s, as the init ial oI t he word GOD, wi t h as l it tl e reason as
i I t he let ter D. , i ni ti al oI DIEU, were used in French Lodges inst ead oI the
proper let ter. YOD is, i n t he Kabal ah, t he symbol oI Uni ty, oI the Supreme
Dei ty, the Ii rst l ett er oI the Holy Name; and also a symbol oI t he Great
Kabal i st ic Triads. To underst and it s mysti c meani ngs, you must open t he
pages oI the Sohar and Siphra de Zeni ut ha, and other kabali sti c books, and
ponder deeply on their meaning. It must suIIice to say, t hat it i s t he
Creati ve Energy oI the Dei ty, i s represented as a point, and that poi nt i n
t he centre oI t he Ci rcl e oI i mmensi ty. It i s t o us in t his Degree, the symbol
oI t hat unmaniIested Dei ty, t he Absol ute, who has no name.
Our French Brethren place thi s l ett er YOD in the cent re oI the Blazi ng
Star. And in t he old Lectures, our anci ent Engl ish Brethren said, "The
Blazi ng Star or Gl ory i n t he centre reIers us t o that grand luminary, the
Sun, which enl ightens the eart h, and by i ts genial i nIluence di spenses
blessings to manki nd. " They cal led it al so i n t he same l ectures, an emblem
oI PRUDENCE. The word Prudent ia means, i n i t s ori ginal and Iul lest
signiIicat ion, Foresight; and, accordi ngly, t he Blazing Star has been
regarded as an emblem oI Omni science, or t he Al l-seei ng Eye, whi ch to
t he Egyptian Ini ti at es was the emblem oI Osi ri s, the Creat or. Wi t h the
YOD i n t he centre, i t has t he kabali sti c meaning oI t he Di vi ne Energy,
maniIested as Light , creat i ng t he Universe.
The Jewels oI the Lodge are sai d to be si x in number. Three are cal led
"Movabl e, " and three "Immovabl e. " The SQUARE, t he LEVEL, and t he
PLUMB were anciently and properly cal led the Movable Jewel s, because
t hey pass Irom one Brother t o anot her. It i s a modern innovati on to call
t hem i mmovabl e, because t hey must al ways be present in the Lodge. The
i mmovable jewel s are the ROUGH ASHLAR, t he PERFECT ASHLAR or
CUBICAL, STONE, or, i n some Ri tuals, the DOUBLE CUBE, and the
OI t hese j ewels our Bret hren oI the York Rit e say: "The Square inculcat es
Moral ity; the Level, Equal ity; and the Plumb, Rect it ude oI Conduct . "
Thei r explanat ion oI the i mmovabl e Jewel s may be read in t heir moni tors.
Our Brethren oI the York Ri te say that "t here i s represented in every wel l-
governed Lodge, a certain poi nt , wi t hin a ci rcl e; the point represent i ng an
i ndi vi dual Brother; t he Ci rcl e, the boundary l ine oI hi s conduct , beyond
which he i s never t o suIIer his prej udi ces or passi ons to bet ray hi m. "
Thi s i s not t o i nterpret t he symbols oI Masonry. It is sai d by some, wit h a
nearer approach to interpretat ion, that t he point wit hi n t he circle
represents God i n the cent re oI the Uni verse. It is a common Egypt ian sign
Ior the Sun and Osiris, and is sti ll used as t he ast ronomical sign oI t he
great l uminary. In t he Kabal ah the poi nt i s YOD, t he Creat ive Energy oI
God, irradiat ing wit h light the circul ar space whi ch God, the universal
Light , l eIt vacant, wherein to creat e t he worl ds, by wit hdrawing Hi s
substance oI Light back on al l sides Irom one point .
Our Brethren add that, "t his circle i s embordered by t wo perpendi cular
paral lel li nes, represent ing Sai nt John t he Bapt ist and Saint John the
Evangel ist , and upon t he t op rest t he Holy Scri ptures" (an open book). "In
going round this ci rcl e, " they say, "we necessarily t ouch upon these two
l ines as wel l as upon t he Holy Scri pt ures; and while a Mason keeps
hi msel I circumscri bed wi t hi n t heir precept s, it i s i mpossi bl e t hat he
shoul d material ly err. "
It woul d be a wast e oI ti me to comment upon thi s. Some wri ters have
i magi ned that t he paral lel l ines represent the Tropics oI Cancer and
Capri corn, which t he Sun alt ernat ely t ouches upon at t he Summer and
Wi nter sol sti ces. But t he tropi cs are not perpendicular l ines, and the i dea
i s merely IanciIul . II the parall el li nes ever belonged t o the ancient
symbol , they had some more recondi te and more Irui t Iul meani ng. They
probably had the same meaning as the twin col umns Jachin and Boaz. That
meani ng i s not Ior t he Apprentice. The adept may Ii nd it i n the Kabalah.
The JUSTICE and MERCY oI God are i n equi li brium, and the resul t is
HARMONY, because a Single and PerIect Wi sdom presides over bot h.
The Holy Scri pt ures are an ent irely modern addit i on t o the symbol, l ike
t he t errestrial and celest ial gl obes on the col umns oI t he portico. Thus t he
anci ent symbol has been denat ural i zed by i ncongruous addi t i ons, l ike that
oI Isi s weepi ng over the broken col umn containi ng the remains oI Osiri s at
* * * * * *
Masonry has i ts decalogue, which i s a law t o i ts Init i at es. These are i ts
Ten Commandments:
I. God is the Et ernal, Omni potent, Immut able WISDOM and Supreme
INTELLIGENCE and Exhaust less Love.
Thou shalt adore, revere, and l ove Hi m !
Thou shalt honour Hi m by pract i si ng the vi rt ues!
II. Thy religion shal l be, to do good because it i s a pleasure t o t hee, and
not merely because i t i s a duty.
That t hou mayest become the Iriend oI the wise man, thou shal t obey his
precept s !
Thy soul i s i mmort al ! Thou shal t do not hi ng t o degrade it !
III. Thou shalt unceasi ngly war against vice!
Thou shalt not do unt o others t hat whi ch thou woul dst not wish t hem t o do
unto t hee !
Thou shalt be submi ssive t o t hy Iort unes, and keep burni ng t he l ight oI
wi sdom !
IV. Thou shal t honour thy parent s !
Thou shalt pay respect and homage t o the aged!
Thou shalt instruct the young!
Thou shalt protect and deIend i nIancy and i nnocence !
V. Thou shal t cheri sh thy wi Ie and t hy chil dren!
Thou shalt love t hy country, and obey i ts l aws!
VI. Thy Iri end shal l be t o t hee a second sel I !
Mi sIort une shal l not est range t hee Irom hi m !
Thou shalt do Ior his memory whatever t hou wouldst do Ior hi m, i I he
were l ivi ng!
VII. Thou shal t avoid and Ilee Irom insi ncere Iriendshi ps !
Thou shalt in everyt hing reIrai n Irom excess.
Thou shalt Iear t o be t he cause oI a stai n on thy memory!
VIII. Thou shalt all ow no passi ons to become t hy master !
Thou shalt make the passi ons oI ot hers proIit abl e lessons to t hysel I!
Thou shalt be indulgent t o error !
IX. Thou shal t hear much: Thou shal t speak l it tl e: Thou shal t act well !
Thou shalt Iorget i nj uries!
Thou shalt render good Ior evi l !
Thou shalt not misuse eit her t hy st rength or t hy superi ority !
X. Thou shalt study to know men; that thereby thou mayest learn t o know
t hysel I !
Thou shalt ever seek aIt er virt ue !
Thou shalt be just !
Thou shalt avoid idl eness !
But t he great commandment oI Masonry is thi s: "A new commandment
gi ve I unt o you: that ye love one anot her! He that sai th he i s i n t he light,
and hat eth hi s brot her, remaineth st i ll i n t he darkness. "
Such are the moral duti es oI a Mason. But i t is also the duty oI Masonry t o
assi st i n elevat ing the moral and i nt el lect ual level oI society; i n coini ng
knowl edge, bringi ng ideas int o circulat ion, and causing the mi nd oI yout h
t o grow; and i n put ti ng, gradually, by the teachings oI axi oms and t he
promul gati on oI posi t ive laws, the human race in harmony wi th i ts
dest inies.
To this duty and work the Ini tiate i s apprent iced. He must not i magi ne t hat
he can eIIect nothing, and, thereIore, despai ri ng, become i nert. It i s i n
t hi s, as i n a man' s dai ly li Ie. Many great deeds are done in the smal l
st ruggles oI l iIe. There is, we are told, a det ermi ned though unseen
bravery, which deIends it sel I, Ioot t o Ioot, in t he darkness, against the
Iatal i nvasi on oI necessity and oI baseness. There are nobl e and
mysterious t ri umphs, which no eye sees, which no renown rewards, whi ch
no Ilourish oI trumpet s salut es. LiIe, mi sIortune, i sol ati on, abandonment ,
poverty, are batt le-Ii elds, which have thei r heroes, --heroes obscure, but
someti mes greater t han those who become il lustrious. The Mason shoul d
st ruggle i n t he same manner, and wit h the same bravery, agai nst those
i nvasi ons oI necessity and baseness, which come t o nati ons as well as t o
men. He shoul d meet them, too, Ioot t o Ioot , even in t he darkness, and
prot est against t he nati onal wrongs and Iol li es; against usurpat i on and the
Iirst inroads oI t hat hydra, Tyranny. There is no more sovereign el oquence
t han the trut h i n indignati on. It is more di IIicult Ior a peopl e t o keep t han
t o gai n thei r Ireedom. The Protest s oI Trut h are al ways needed.
Conti nually, t he right must prot est agai nst t he Iact. There is, in Iact,
Eterni ty in t he Ri ght . The Mason shoul d be t he Priest and Soldier oI t hat
Ri ght . II hi s country shoul d be robbed oI her li berti es, he should sti ll not
despair. The prot est oI t he Ri ght agai nst the Fact persist s Iorever. The
robbery oI a peopl e never becomes prescript i ve. Reclamat i on oI it s rights
i s barred by no length oI ti me. Warsaw can no more be Tartar than Venice
can be Teutonic. A peopl e may endure mil it ary usurpat ion, and subj ugated
Stat es kneel to St ates and wear the yoke, while under the stress oI
necessi ty; but when the necessi ty disappears, iI t he peopl e i s Ii t to be Iree,
t he submerged country wi ll Iloat t o the surIace and reappear, and Tyranny
be adj udged by Hi st ory t o have murdered it s vict i ms.
Whatever occurs, we shoul d have Fait h in the Just ice and overruli ng
Wisdom oI God, and Hope Ior t he Fut ure, and Lovingki ndness Ior t hose
who are i n error. God makes visi bl e t o men His wi ll i n event s; an obscure
t ext , wri tt en in a mysterious l anguage. Men make t heir t ranslat ions oI i t
Iorthwit h, hasty, incorrect , Iull oI Iaul ts, omissi ons, and mi sreadings. We
see so short a way along t he arc oI t he great circle! Few minds
comprehend t he Di vi ne t ongue. The most sagaci ous, t he most cal m, the
most proIound, decipher the hi eroglyphs sl owly; and when they arrive wi t h
t heir t ext, perhaps the need has l ong gone by; there are already twenty
t ranslat ions in t he publ ic square--the most incorrect being, as oI course,
t he most accepted and popular. From each t ranslat ion, a party is born; and
Irom each mi sreadi ng, a Iacti on. Each party believes or pretends that i t
has the only true t ext , and each Iact i on bel i eves or pret ends that i t alone
possesses the li ght . Moreover, Iact i ons are bl i nd men, who ai m straight,
errors are excell ent project il es, st riki ng skil lIul ly, and wit h all the
viol ence t hat springs Irom Ialse reasoni ng, wherever a want oI l ogi c i n
t hose who deIend the right, l ike a deIect in a cui rass, makes them
ThereIore i t is that we shall oIten be di scomIit ed i n combati ng error
beIore t he peopl e. Ant aeus l ong resi sted Hercules; and the heads oI t he
Hydra grew as Iast as t hey were cut oII. It i s absurd to say t hat Error,
wounded, wri thes in pai n, and di es ami d her worshippers. Trut h conquers
sl owly. There i s a wondrous vi tal ity i n Error. Truth, i ndeed, Ior the most
part , shoot s over t he heads oI the masses; or iI an error i s prostrated Ior a
moment , i t is up agai n i n a moment , and as vigorous as ever. It wi l l not
die when t he brai ns are out, and t he most stupid and irrati onal errors are
t he l ongest -l i ved.
Nevert heless, Masonry, which is Moral i ty and Phi losophy, must not cease
t o do i t s duty. We never know at what moment success await s our eIIorts--
generally when most unexpected--nor wi th what eIIect our eIIort s are or
are not to be at tended. Succeed or Iai l, Masonry must not bow to error, or
succumb under di scouragement . There were at Rome a Iew Cart haginian
soldi ers, taken pri soners, who reIused t o bow to Fl ami ni us, and had a
l it tl e oI Hanni bal' s magnani mity. Masons shoul d possess an equal
greatness oI soul . Masonry should be an energy; Iinding i ts ai m and eIIect
i n t he ameli orati on oI manki nd. Socrates shoul d enter i nto Adam, and
produce Marcus Aureli us, in ot her words, bring Iort h Irom the man oI
enjoyment s, t he man oI wi sdom. Masonry should not be a mere watch-
t ower, bui lt upon mystery, Irom which to gaze at ease upon t he worl d, wi t h
no other result t han to be a convenience Ior the curi ous. To hol d t he Iul l
cup oI t hought t o t he t hi rsty l i ps oI men; to give t o al l the true i deas oI
Dei ty; t o harmoni ze consci ence and science, are t he province oI
Phi l osophy. Moral i ty is Fait h in Iull bl oom. Contempl at ion shoul d lead to
act ion, and t he absol ute be pract ical; t he ideal be made air and Iood and
dri nk to the human mi nd. Wi sdom i s a sacred communi on. It is only on
t hat condit i on t hat i t ceases t o be a st eri le love oI Science, and becomes
t he one and supreme met hod by which to unit e Humani ty and arouse i t to
concert ed act ion. Then Phi l osophy becomes Reli gion.
And Masonry, li ke Hist ory and Phil osophy, has et ernal duti es-- et ernal ,
and, at t he same t i me, si mpl e--t o oppose Caiaphas as Bi shop, Draco or
JeIIeri es as Judge, Tri malci on as Legislator, and Ti berius as Emperor.
These are t he symbols oI the tyranny t hat degrades and crushes, and t he
corrupt ion t hat deIil es and inIest s. In the works publi shed Ior t he use oI
t he CraIt we are tol d that t he t hree great t enets oI a Mason' s proIession,
are Brotherly Love, Rel i eI, and Truth. And it i s true t hat a Brot herly
aIIect ion and kindness shoul d govern us in all our intercourse and
relat i ons wi th our bret hren; and a generous and li beral phil ant hropy
act uate us i n regard t o al l men. To rel ieve the di stressed i s pecul i arly t he
duty oI Masons--a sacred duty, not to be omi t ted, negl ected, or coldly or
i neIIi ciently compl ied wi th. It is also most t rue, t hat Trut h i s a Di vi ne
at tribute and the Ioundati on oI every vi rtue. To be t rue, and t o seek to Ii nd
and l earn the Trut h, are t he great obj ects oI every good Mason.
As t he Ancients did, Masonry styles Temperance, Fort i tude, Prudence, and
Justi ce, t he Iour cardi nal vi rt ues. They are as necessary t o nati ons as t o
i ndi vi dual s. The peopl e that woul d be Free and Independent, must possess
Sagacity, Foret hought , Foresi ght , and careIul Ci rcumspecti on, all which
are included in the meaning oI the word Prudence. It must be t emperate in
asserti ng i ts rights, temperate in it s council s, economical i n i t s expenses;
i t must be bold, brave, courageous, pat ient under reverses, undi smayed by
disasters, hopeIul amid calamit ies, li ke Rome when she sold the Ii eld at
which Hanni bal had hi s camp. No Cannae or Pharsal ia or Pavia or
Agi ncourt or Waterl oo must di scourage her. Let her Senate sit in t heir
seat s until t he Gauls pl uck them by t he beard. She must, above al l thi ngs,
be just, not t ruckl ing to the strong and warri ng on or plunderi ng the weak;
she must act on t he square wit h al l nat ions, and t he Ieebl est tribes; al ways
keeping her Iait h, honest i n her legi slati on, upright i n al l her deal ings.
Whenever such a Republ ic exi st s, i t wil l be i mmortal: Ior rashness,
i nj usti ce, int emperance and luxury in prosperi ty, and despair and di sorder
i n adversi ty, are the causes oI t he decay and di lapidat ion oI nati ons.
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
2º - Fell ow-craIt
In t he Ancient Orient, all reli gion was more or less a myst ery and there
was no divorce Irom i t oI phi losophy. The popular t heol ogy, taki ng the
mul ti t ude oI al legories and symbol s Ior reali t ies, degenerated int o a
worship oI the celest ial l umi naries, oI i magi nary Dei ties wit h human
Ieeli ngs, passions, appeti tes, and l usts, oI i dol s, st ones, ani mals, rept il es.
The Oni on was sacred to t he Egypt ians, because it s diIIerent layers were a
symbol oI the concentric heavenly spheres. OI course t he popular rel igi on
could not sat isIy t he deeper longi ngs and t houghts, t he l oIt ier aspirati ons
oI t he Spi rit , or the logic oI reason. The Ii rst , thereIore, was taught t o t he
i ni t i ated in the Myst eri es. There, al so, it was taught by symbol s. The
vagueness oI symboli sm, capabl e oI many int erpret ati ons, reached what
t he palpable and conventi onal creed could not . Its i ndeIi nit eness
acknowl edged the abstruseness oI the subj ect: i t treated that mysteri ous
subject mysti cally: it endeavored t o il lust rat e what it coul d not expl ain; t o
excit e an appropriate Ieeli ng, i I i t coul d not devel op an adequat e i dea; and
t o rmake t he i mage a mere subordinate conveyance Ior the concept i on,
which it selI never became obvious or Iami li ar.
Thus the knowl edge now i mpart ed by books and let ters, was oI ol d
conveyed by symbols; and t he pri ests i nvented or perpet uated a displ ay oI
ri t es and exhibit i ons, whi ch were not only more at tract i ve t o t he eye than
words, but oIten more suggest i ve and more pregnant wit h meani ng to the
Masonry, successor oI the Myst eries, st il l Iol lows t he ancient manner oI
t eaching. Her ceremonies are l ike the anci ent myst ic shows, --not the
reading oI an essay, but the openi ng oI a problem, requiring research, and
const i tuti ng phi losophy the arch-expounder. Her symbols are t he
i nstruct i on she gives. The lect ures are endeavors, oIt en parti al and one-
si ded, to i nterpret these symbols. He who woul d become an accompl ished
Mason must not be cont ent merely t o hear, or even t o understand, the
l ectures; he must , ai ded by them, and they havi ng, as it were, marked out
t he way Ior hi m, study, i nterpret, and develop t hese symbol s Ior hi msel I
* * * * * *
Though Masonry i s identi cal wit h the ancient Mysteries, it i s so only i n
t hi s quali Ii ed sense: t hat it present s but an i mperIect i mage oI thei r
bri ll iancy, the ruins only oI their grandeur, and a syst em that has
experienced progressi ve alt erat ions, t he Iruit s oI social events, pol it ical
ci rcumstances, and t he ambit i ous i mbecil i ty oI it s i mprovers. AIter
l eaving Egypt , t he Mysteries were modi Ii ed by t he habi ts oI the di IIerent
nati ons among whom they were introduced, and especial ly by t he reli gious
syst ems oI the countries int o which t hey were t ransplanted. To mai nt ai n
t he est abl ished government , l aws, and rel igi on, was t he obl igati on oI t he
Ini ti ate everywhere; and everywhere t hey were t he heri tage oI the priest s,
who were nowhere wi l l ing to make t he common people co-propri etors wit h
t hemsel ves oI phi losophical trut h.
Masonry i s not t he Coli seum in ruins. It is rat her a Roman palace oI the
middle ages, disIi gured by moderll archi tect ural i mprovement s, yet bui l t
on a Cyclopcean Ioundat ion l aid by the Etruscans, and wit h many a stone
oI t he superstructure taken Irom dwell ings and temples oI the age oI
Hadri an and Ant oninus.
Chri sti ani ty taught the doct ri ne oI FRATERNITY; but repudiated that oI
poli t ical EQUALITY, by cont inually inculcat ing obedience to Caesar, and
t o t hose lawIul ly in aut hori ty. Masonry was t he Iirst apost l e oI
EQUALITY. In the Monast ery there i s Irat ernity and equali ty, but no
l iberty. Masonry added that al so, and clai med Ior man the three-Iol d
It was but a devel opment oI the origi nal purpose oI t he Myst eries, which
was to teach men to know and pract ice thei r dut ies to themsel ves and t heir
Iell ows, the great practi cal end oI all phi l osophy and all knowledge.
Trut hs are t he spri ngs Irom which duti es Il ow; and i t is but a Iew hundred
years since a new Trut h began t o be di sti nct ly seen; that MAN IS
has nat ural empire over all i nsti t uti ons. They are Ior hi m, aecordi ng to hi s
development ; not he Ior t hem. Thi s seems to us a very si mpl e statement,
one t o which all men, everywhere, ought to assent . But once i t was a great
new Trut h, --not revealed unt i l governments had been i n exist ence Ior at
l east Iive t housand years. Once revealed, i t i mposed new duties on men.
Man owed it t o hi mselI t o be Iree. He owed it t o hi s country t o seek to
gi ve her Ireedom, or maint ai n her in that possessi on. It made Tyranny and
Usurpat ion the enemi es oI t he Human Race. It created a general out lawry
oI Despot s and Despoti sms, temporal and spirit ual . The sphere oI Duty
was i mmensely enlarged. Pat ri ot ism had, henceIort h, a new and wider
meani ng. Free Government , Free Thought , Free Consci ence, Free Speech!
Al l these came t o be i nal ienable right s, whi ch those who had part ed wit h
t hem or been robbed oI t hem, or whose ancestors had l ost them, had the
right summari ly to ret ake. UnIortunately, as Truths al ways become
perverted i nto Ialsehoods, and are Ialsehoods when mi sapplied, thi s Truth
became t he Gospel oI Anarchy, soon aIter i t was Ii rst preached.
Masonry early comprehended t hi s Trut h, and recognized i ts own enlarged
duti es. Its symbol s t hen came t o have a wider meani ng; but i t al so
assumed the mask oI Stone-masonry, and borrowed i ts working-t ool s, and
so was suppl ied wi t h new and apt symbols. It ai ded in bri nging about the
French Revoluti on, di sappeared wi t h t he Girondist s, was born agai n wit h
t he restorat i on oI order, and sust ained Napol eon, because, though
Emperor, he acknowledged t he right oI the people to select it s rulers, and
was at t he head oI a nat ion reIusi ng to recei ve back i ts old ki ngs. He
pleaded, wi th sabre, musket, and cannon, the great cause oI t he People
agai nst Royal ty, the ri ght oI t he French people even to make a Corsi can
General their Emperor, i I it pl eased t hem.
Masonry Iel t that t hi s Trut h had t he Omni pot ence oI God on it s si de; and
t hat nei ther Pope nor Potent ate coul d overcome it . It was a trut h dropped
i nt o t he worl d' s wide treasury, and Iorming a part oI t he heri tage which
each generat i on recei ves, enl arges, and holds in trust , and oI necessity
bequeat hs t o manki nd; the personal estat e oI man, entai led oI nat ure t o t he
end oI t i me. And Masonry early recogni zed it as t rue, t hat to set Iort h and
develop a truth, or any human excell ence oI giIt or growth, i s to make
greater the spi ri tual glory oI the race; that whosoever aids the march oI a
Trut h, and makes the thought a thing, writ es i n t he same li ne wit h
MOSES, and wi th Hi m who died upon the cross; and has an int ell ectual
sympat hy wit h t he Deity Hi msel I.
The best giIt we can bestow on man i s manhood. It i s t hat whi ch Masonry
i s ordai ned oI God to best ow on it s votaries: not sect ari ani sm and
reli gious dogma; not a rudi ment al moral ity, t hat may be Iound in the
writ ings oI ConIucius, Zoroaster, Seneca, and t he Rabbi s, i n t he Proverbs
and Ecclesi astes; not a li tt le and cheap common-school knowledge; but
manhood and science and phi l osophy.
Not that Phi losophy or Science i s in opposi ti on to Rel igi on. For
Phi l osophy i s but t hat knowl edge oI God and the Soul, which is deri ved
Irom observati on oI t he maniIested act ion oI God and t he Soul, and Irom a
wi se anal ogy. It i s the i ntel l ect ual gui de which the religious sent i ment
needs. The true reli gi ous phi losophy oI an i mperIect bei ng, is not a syst em
oI creed, but , as SOCRATES t hought , an inIi ni te search or approxi mati on.
Phi l osophy i s that int el l ect ual and moral progress, whi ch t he rel igi ous
sent i ment i nspi res and ennobles.
As t o Science, it coul d not wal k alone, whil e reli gion was stat ionary. It
consi st s oI t hose mat ured i nIerences Irom experience which all ot her
experience conIirms. It reali zes and uni tes all that was truly valuable i n
both t he old schemes oI mediat ion, --one heroi c, or the system oI act ion
and eIIort ; and the myst ical t heory oI spirit ual , ccntemplat ive commull ion.
"Listen t o me, " says GALEN, "as t o the voi ce oI t he El eusinian
Hi erophant, and bel ieve that t he st udy oI Nat ure is a mystery no l ess
i mport ant t han thei rs, nor less adapted to displ ay t he wisdom and power oI
t he Great Creat or. Thei r lessons and demonst rat i ons were obscure, but
ours are cl ear and unmi st akabl e."
We deem that t o be t he best knowledge we can obtain oI t he Soul oI
another man, whi ch is Iurni shed by his act ions and his l iIe-l ong conduct .
Evi dence to the contrary, suppl ied by what another man inIorms us t hat
t hi s Soul has said to hi s, woul d weigh li tt le agai nst t he Iormer. The Iirst
Scri pt ures Ior the human race were writ ten by God on the Eart h and
Heavens. The reading oI t hese Scri pt ures is Sci ence. Fami li ari ty wi th the
grass and trees, t he i nsect s and the inIusori a, teaches us deeper l essons oI
l ove and Iai th than we can gl ean Irom the wri ti ngs oI FENELON and
AUGUSTINE. The great Bi ble oI God is ever open beIore manki nd.
Knowl edge i s convert i ble int o power, and axi oms i nt o rul es oI ut i li ty and
duty. But knowledge it selI i s not Power. Wi sdom i s Power; and her Pri me
Mi ni ster is JUSTICE, whi ch i s t he perIected law oI TRUTH. The purpose,
t hereIore, oI Educat ion and Science is t o make a man wi se. II knowledge
does not make hi m so, i t is wasted, l ike water poured on t he sands. To
know the Iormulas oI Masonry, i s oI as li tt le value, by i tsel I, as t o know
so many words and sentences in some barbarous AIri can or Australasi an
dialect . To know even the meaning oI the symbol s, is but li tt le, unless t hat
adds t o our wisdom, and al so t o our chari ty, which is to justice li ke one
hemi sphere oI t he brai n t o t he other.
Do not lose si ght , then, oI the true object oI your st udi es i n Masonry. It i s
t o add t o your estate oI wisdom, and not merely t o your knowl edge. A man
may spend a li Iet i me i n st udying a single specialty oI knowledge, --
botany, conchol ogy, or ent omology, Ior inst ance, --in commit ti ng to
memory names deri ved Irom t he Greek, and classiIyi ng and reclassiIyi ng;
and yet be no wi ser t han when he began. It is the great truths as to al l t hat
most concerns a man, as t o his right s, i nt erests, and duti es, t hat Masonry
seeks to teach her Ini tiates.
The wiser a man becomes, the less wil l he be i ncl i ned to submi t tamely to
t he i mposit ion oI Iet ters or a yoke, on hi s conscience or hi s person. For,
by i ncrease oI wi sdom he not only bett er knows hi s right s, but t he more
highly values them, and i s more consci ous oI hi s wort h and dignity. Hi s
pri de t hen urges hi m t o assert hi s i ndependence. He becomes bett er able to
assert i t also; and bett er able to assist ot hers or hi s country, when they or
she stake all , even exi st ence, upon t he same asserti on. But mere
knowl edge makes no one i ndependent, nor Iit s hi m to be Iree. It oIten only
makes hi m a more useIul slave. Li berty i s a curse to the ignorant and
brut al .
Pol i t ical science has Ior i ts obj ect to ascert ai n in what manner and by
means oI what insti tut ions pol it ical and personal Ireedom may be secured
and perpet uated: not l i cense, or t he mere right oI every man t o vot e, but
entire and absolute Ireedom oI t hought and opi ni on, al ike Iree oI t he
despot ism oI monarch and mob and prelate; Ireedom oI act ion wi thi n the
l i mit s oI t he general law enacted Ior all ; the Court s oI Justi ce, wit h
i mpart ial Judges and j uri es, open to al l al ike; weakness and poverty
equally potent in those Court. s as power and weal th; the avenues to oIIice
and honor open ali ke t o al l the worthy; the mi li t ary powers, i n war oY
peaee, in stri ct subordi nat ion t o t he civi l power; arbit rary arrest s Ior act s
not known to the law as cri mes, i mpossibl e; Romish Inquisi ti ons, St ar-
Chambers, Mil itary Commissi ons, unknown; t he means oI inst ruct i on
wi thin reach oI t he chil dren oI al l; t he right oI Free Speech; and
account abi l ity oI all publi c omcers, ci vil and mil it ary.
II Masonry needed t o be j usti Iied Ior i mposi ng poli t ical as wel l as moral
duti es on i ts Init iates, i t woul d be enough to poi nt t o the sad hi story oI t he
worl d. It woul d not even need t hat she should turn back the pages oI
hist ory to t he chapters wri t ten by Tacit us: that she shoul d recit e the
i ncredibl e horrors oI despot ism under Cal igula and Domi ti an, Caracal la
and Commodus, Vi t el li us and Maxi min. She need only poi nt to t he
cent uries oI calami ty t hrough whi ch t he gay French nati on passed; t o t he
l ong oppressi on oI the Ieudal ages, oI t he sel Ii sh Bourbon ki ngs; to t hose
t i mes when t he peasants were robbed and sl aught ered by their own l ords
and pri nces, l ike sheep; when t he lord clai med the Ii rst Irui t s oI the
peasant' s marriage-bed; when the captured city was given up t o merci less
rape and massacre; when the St at e-pri sons groaned wi th innocent vict i ms,
and t he Church blessed the banners oI pi t il ess murderers, and sang Te
Deums Ior t he crowning mercy oI t he Eve oI St . Bart hol omew.
We might turn over t he pages, t o a lat er chapter, --that oI the rei gn oI the
FiIteent h Loui s, when young girls, hardly more than chi ldren, were
kidnapped to serve his l ust s; when let tres de cachet Ii l led t he Basti le wit h
persons accused oI no cri me, wit h husbands who were in the way oI the
pleasures oI l ascivi ous wi ves and oI vil lai ns wearing orders oI nobil ity;
when t he peopl e were ground bet ween the upper and the nether mi ll stone
oI t axes, cust oms, and excises; and when t he Pope' s Nuncio and the
Cardi nal de l a Roche-Ayman, devoutly kneeli ng, one on each si de oI
Madame du Barry, t he ki ng' s abandoned prost it ute, put the sli ppers on her
naked Ieet , as she rose Irom t he adul t erous bed. Then, indeed, suIIering
and t oi l were t he t wo Iorms oI man, and the people were but beasts oI
The true Mason i s he who labors st renuously to hel p his Order eIIect i ts
great purposes. Not t hat the Order can eIIect t hem by it selI; but t hat it ,
t oo, can help. It also i s one oI God' s i nstrument s. It is a Force and a
Power; and shame upon i t , i I it di d not exert it selI, and, iI need be,
sacrihce i t s chi l dren in the cause oI humani ty, as Abraham was ready t o
oIIer up Isaac on t he altar oI sacri Iice. It wil l not Iorget that nobl e
al legory oI Curti us l eapi ng, al l in armor, into t he great yawning gul I that
opened to swall ow Rome. It wi ll TRY. It shal l not be it s Iaul t i I the day
never comes when man wi ll no longer have to Iear a conquest, an
i nvasi on, a usurpat i on, a ri valry oI nati ons wi th the armed hand, an
i nterrupt ion oI ci vi li zat ion depending on a marri age-royal , or a bi rt h in
t he heredi tary tyranni es; a parti ti on oI the peoples by a Congress, a
dismemberment by t he downIal l oI a dynasty, a combat oI two reli gions,
meet i ng head t o head, li ke t wo goats oI darkness on t he bri dge oI the
InIinit e: when they wi ll no longer have to Iear Iami ne, spol iat i on,
prost it ut ion Irom di st ress, mi sery Irom l ack oI work, and al l the
brigandages oI chance i n t he Iorest oI event s: when nat ions wi ll gravit ate
about t he Trut h, li ke stars about the li ght , each in it s own orbit , wi t hout
cl ashi ng or coll isi on; and everywhere Freedom, cinct ured wit h st ars,
crowned wi th the celest i al spl endors, and wi th wi sdom and j usti ce on
ei ther hand, wi ll reign supreme.
In your st udi es as a Fell ow-CraIt you must be guided by REASON, LOVE
and FAITH.
We do not now discuss the di IIerences between Reason and Fai th, and
undertake to deIine the domai n oI each. But i t is necessary t o say, that
even i n t he ordinary aIIairs oI l i Ie we are governed Iar more by what we
believe t han by what we know; by FAITH and ANALOGY, t han by
REASON. The "Age oI Reason" oI the French Revol ut ion t aught , we know,
what a Iolly i t is t o ent hrone Reason by it sel I as supreme. Reason i s at
Iaul t when it deal s wi th the InIini te. There we must revere and beli eve.
Notwi thstanding the calami t ies oI the vi rtuous, the mi seri es oI t he
deservi ng, the prosperity oI tyrants and the murder oI martyrs, we must
believe t here is a wi se, just, merciIul , and l ovi ng God, an Intel li gence and
a Provi dence, supreme over al l, and cari ng Ior t he mi nut est t hi ngs and
events. A Fait h is a necessi ty t o man. Woe to hi m who bel ieves not hi ng!
We beli eve that t he soul oI another i s oI a certai n nature and possesses
certai n quali t ies, that he is generous and honest , or penurious and knavi sh,
t hat she i s vi rtuous and amiable, or vi cious and i l l -t empered, Irom t he
count enance al one, Irom l i tt le more t han a gli mpse oI i t, wit hout the
means oI knowing. We vent ure our Iortune on t he si gnat ure oI a man on
t he other si de oI the worl d, whom we never saw, upon the bel ieI that he i s
honest and trust worthy. We beli eve that occurrences have taken place,
upon the assert i on oI others. We beli eve t hat one wi ll acts upon anot her,
and i n t he reali ty oI a mul ti tude oI other phenomena that Reason cannot
expl ain.
But we ought not to bel ieve what Reason aut hori tat ively denies, t hat at
which the sense oI right revolt s, that which is absurd or sel I-contradict ory,
or at i ssue wi th experience or science, or t hat whi ch degrades the
character oI t he Deity, and would make Hi m revengeIul , mal ignant, cruel,
or unj ust.
A man' s Fait h is as much hi s own as his Reason is. His Freedom consi sts
as much in hi s Iait h being Iree as i n his wil l bei ng uncont roll ed by power.
Al l the Pri est s and Augurs oI Rome or Greece had not t he right to require
Ci cero or Socrates t o beli eve i n the absurd myt hol ogy oI the vulgar. All
t he Imaums oI Mohammedani sm have not the ri ght t o requi re a Pagan t o
believe t hat Gabriel di ctat ed t he Koran t o t he Prophet. All t he Brahmi ns
t hat ever li ved, i I assembl ed i n one conclave l ike the Cardinals, coul d not
gai n a right to compel a si ngle human bei ng to bel ieve in t he Hi ndu
Cosmogony. No man or body oI men can be inIall ible, and aut hori zed t o
deci de what ot her men shal l beli eve, as t o any tenet oI Iai th. Except to
t hose who Ii rst receive it , every rel igi on and the trut h oI al l inspired
writ ings depend on human t esti mony and i nt ernal evidences, t o be j udged
oI by Reason and t he wi se anal ogies oI Fai th. Each man must necessarily
have t he right t o judge oI t heir t ruth Ior hi mselI; because no one man can
have any higher or bet ter right t o judge than anot her oI equal i nIormati on
and i ntelli gence.
Domi t i an cl ai med to be t he Lord God; and st atues and i mages oI hi m, i n
si lver and gold, were Iound t hroughout t he known world. He clai med t o be
regarded as t he God oI al l men; and, according t o Suet oni us, began hi s
l ett ers thus: "Our Lord and God commands that it should be done so and
so;" and Iormal ly decreed t hat no one should address hi m ot herwi se, eit her
i n wri ti ng or by word oI mout h. PalIurius Sura, the phil osopher, who was
his chieI del ator, accusi ng t hose who reIused to recogni ze hi s divi ni ty,
however much he may have bel i eved i n t hat di vi ni ty, had not t he right t o
demand t hat a single Chri sti an in Rome or t he provi nces shoul d do t he
Reason i s Iar Irom being t he only gui de, in moral s or i n poli ti cal science.
Love or l ovi ng-ki ndness must keep i t company, to excl ude Ianaticism,
i nt olerance, and persecut i on, t o al l oI whi ch a morali ty t oo ascet ic, and
extreme pol it ical pri nciples, invariably l ead. We must also have Iai th i n
oursel ves, and in our Iell ows and the people, or we shall be easi ly
discouraged by reverses, and our ardor cool ed by obstacl es. We must not
l ist en t o Reason alone. Force comes more Irom Fait ll and Love: and it is
by t he ai d oI these that man scales the loIt iest hei ght s oI morali ty, or
becomes the Saviour and Redeemer oI a People. Reason must hol d the
hel m; but these supply the moti ve power. They are the wi ngs oI t he soul.
Ent husi asm is general ly unreasoni ng; and wit hout it , and Love and Fait h,
t here would have been no RIENZI, or TELL, or SYDNEY, or any ot her oI
t he great patriots whose names are i mmortal . II t he Dei ty had been merely
and only All -wi se and All -mighty, He would never have created the
* * * * * *
It is GENIUS that get s Power; and i ts pri me li eut enant s are FORCE and
WISDOM. The unruli est oI men bend beIore t he l eader that has t he sense
t o see and the wil l to do. It is Geni us t hat rules wit h God-li ke Power; that
unvei ls, wi th it s counsell ors, t he hidden human mysteries, cut s asunder
wi th i t s word t he huge knot s, and buil ds up wit h i ts word t he crumbled
rui ns. At i ts glance Iall down the senseless idols, whose alt ars have been
on al l the high pl aces and i n al l the sacred groves. Di shonesty and
i mbecil ity stand abashed beIore it . Its si ngle Yea or Nay revokes t he
wrongs oI ages, and i s heard among the Iuture generat ions. Its power is
i mmense, because i ts wisdom is i mmense. Geni us is t he Sun oI t he
poli t ical sphere. Force and Wi sdom, i ts minist ers, are the orbs t hat carry
i ts light into darkness, and answer it wi th t heir sol i d reIl ecti ng Truth.
Devel opment i s symboli zed by t he use oI t he Mal let and Chi sel; t he
development oI the energies and int ell ect, oI t he i ndi vi dual and t he
peopl e. Geni us may place i t selI at the head oI an uni nt el l ect ual ,
uneducat ed, unenerget ic nat i on; but i n a Iree country, t o cult ivate t he
i ntell ect oI those who elect , is t he only mode oI securing intel lect and
geni us Ior rul ers. The worl d is sel dom ruled by t he great spiri t s, except
aIter di ssol uti on and new birt h. In periods oI transit ion and convul sion,
t he Long Parl iament s, t he Robespi erres and Marats, and the semi-
respectabi l it ies oI intell ect , t oo oIten hol d the rei ns oI power. The
Cromwel l s and Napoleons come l ater. AIt er Mari us and Sul la and Ci cero
t he rhet orician, CAESAR. The great intel lect i s oIten too sharp Ior the
granit e oI thi s l iIe. Legi slat ors may be very ordinary men; Ior legi slat ion
i s very ordi nary work; it is but t he Iinal issue oI a mi ll i on mi nds.
The power oI t he purse or t he sword, compared t o that oI t he spirit , is
poor and contempti bl e. As to lands, you may have agrari an l aws, and equal
parti t ion. But a man' s intel lect i s all his own, hel d direct Irom God, an
i nal ienable IieI. It i s t he most pot ent oI weapons in the hands oI a paladin.
II the peopl e comprehend Force in t he physical sense, how much more do
t ll ey revelence the i ntel lect ual ! Ask Hi ldebrand, or Lut her, or Loyol a.
They Ial l prostrate beIore i t , as beIore an idol . The mast ery oI mi nd over
mind i s t he only conquest worth having. The ot her injures both, and
dissol ves at a breat h; rude as it is, t he great cable Iall s down and snaps at
l ast. But this di mly resembles the dominion oI the Creat or. It does not
need a subject l ike that oI Pet er the Hermit . II t he st ream be but bri ght and
st rong, it wi ll sweep li ke a spri ng-ti de t o the popular heart . Not in word
only, but i n int ell ectual act l i es the Iasci nat i on. It i s the homage t o t he
Invi si ble. Thi s power, knott ed wi t h Love, i s t he gol den chai n l et down i nto
t he wel l oI Trut h, or t he i nvi si ble chain that binds t he ranks oI manki nd
t oget her.
InIluence oI man over man i s a l aw oI nature, whether it be by a great
est at e i n land or i n i nt el l ect . It may mean sl avery, a deIerence t o t he
eminent human judgment . Society hangs spi ri t ual ly t ogether, l ike the
revoi vi ng spheres above. The Iree country, i n which i ntellect and geni us
govern, wi ll endure. Where t hey serve, and other inIl uences govern, t he
nati onal li Ie is short . All t he nat i ons that have tri ed t o govern t hemsel ves
by t heir smallest, by the incapabl es, or merely respectables, have come t o
nought. Const it ut ions and Laws, wit hout Geni us and Intel lect to govern,
wi ll not prevent decay. In t hat case they have the dry-rot and t he l iIe di es
out oI t hem by degrees.
To give a nat i on the Iranchi se oI t he Intell ect is t he only sure mode oI
perpet uat ing Ireedom. This wil l compel exerti on and generous care Ior the
peopl e Irom t hose on the higher seat s, and honorable and i nt ell igent
al legiance Irom t hose bel ow. Then poli ti cal publi c l iIe wil l prot ect al l men
Irom sel I-abasement in sensual pursuit s, Irom vul gar act s and l ow greed,
by gi ving t he nobl e ambit i on oI just i mperial rul e. To el evate the people
by teaching lovi ng-kindness and wi sdom, wit h power t o hi m who t eaches
best : and so t o devel op the Iree Stat e Irom t he rough ashl ar: -- t hi s i s the
great l abor i n which Masonry desires t o l end a hel pi ng hand.
Al l oI us should labor in bui l ding up t he great monument oI a nat ion, the
Holy House oI the Temple. The cardi nal vi rt ues must not be part it ioned
among men, becomi ng t he excl usive property oI some, li ke t he common
craIt s. ALL are apprenti ced t o the part ners, Duty and Honor.
Masonry i s a march and a struggle toward the Light. For t he i ndi vidual as
wel l as the nat i on, Light i s Virt ue, Manli ness, Intel li gence, Liberty.
Tyranny over t he soul or body, is darkness. The Ireest people, li ke t he
Ireest man, i s al ways i n danger oI rel apsi ng i nt o servit ude. Wars are
al most al ways Iatal t o Republ ics. They create tyrant s, and consol idate
t heir power. They spri ng, Ior the most part , Irom evi l counsel s. When the
small and t he base are i nt rusted wit h power, legi sl at ion and admini st rat ion
become but t wo paral lel seri es oI errors and blunders, ending i n war,
calami ty, and the necessity Ior a tyrant. When t he nati on Ieel s it s Ieet
sl iding backward, as iI i t walked on t he ice, the ti me has come Ior a
supreme eIIort . The magni Iicent tyrants oI the past are but t he types oI
t hose oI the Iuture. Men and nat i ons wil l always sel l themsel ves i nto
sl avery, to grati Iy thei r passions and obt ai n revenge. The tyrant ' s pl ea,
necessi ty, i s always avail able; and t he tyrant once in power, t he necessi ty
oI providing Ior hi s saIety makes hi m savage. Rel igion i s a power, and he
must cont rol that. Independent , it s sanct uari es mi ght rebel . Then i t
becomes unl awIul Ior t he peopl e t o worshi p God in t heir own way, and the
old spiri tual despot i sms revive. Men must beli eve as Power wil l s, or di e;
and even i I t hey may beli eve as they wi ll , al l they have, l ands, houses,
body, and soul , are stamped wi th the royal brand. "I am t he Stat e," sai d
Louis the Fourt eent h t o his peasants; "the very shi rt s on your backs are
mine, and I can take them iI I wi ll . "
And dynasti es so establi shed endure, li ke t hat oI t he Caesars oI Rome, oI
t he Caesars oI Constanti nople, oI t he Cal iphs, the St uarts, t he Spani ards,
t he Goths, t he Val oi s, unti l the race wears out , and ends wi th l unat ics and
i di ot s, who st il l rule. There i s no concord among men, t o end the horri bl e
bondage. The St ate Iall s i nwardly, as wel l as by the outward blows oI t he
i ncoherent el ements. The Iuri ous human passions, the sleeping human
i ndolence, t he st ol id human ignorance, t he rivalry oI human castes, are as
good Ior t he kirlgs as the swords oI the Pal adi ns. The worshi ppers have al l
bowed so l ong to the ol d idol, that t hey cannot go i nt o t he st reet s and
choose another Grand Llama. And so t he eIIet e Stat e Iloats on down the
puddled stream oI Ti me, unt il t he t empest or the ti dal sea di scovers t hat
t he worm has consumed i t s strengt h, and i t crumbles int o obl ivion.
* * * * * *
Ci vi l and reli gi ous Freedom must go hand i n hand; and Persecut i on
matures t hem bot h. A people cont ent wi th the thoughts made Ior t hem by
t he pri ests oI a church wil l be content wit h Royal ty by Di vi ne Ri ght , -- the
Church and t he Throne mutually sust aining each other. They wi ll smother
schi sm and reap inIi deli ty and indi IIerence; and whil e t he batt le Ior
Ireedom goes on around t hem, t hey wil l only si nk the more apat het ical ly
i nt o servit ude and a deep t rance, perhaps occasionally i nt errupt ed by
Iurious Iit s oI Irenzy, Iol lowed by hel pl ess exhaust ion.
Despoti sm is not di mcult i n any land that has only known one mast er Irom
i ts chil dhood; but there is no harder problem t han to perIect and
perpet uate Iree government by t he people themsel ves; Ior i t is not one
king that i s needed: all must be ki ngs. It is easy to set up Masaniel lo, t hat
i n a Iew days he may Ial l lower than beIore. But Iree govermnent grows
sl owly, l i ke the indi vidual human Iacul t ies; and l i ke t he Iorest-trees, Irom
t he i nner heart outward. Liberty i s not only t he common birth-right, but i t
i s l ost as wel l by non-user as by mi s-user. It depends Iar more on t he
universal eIIort than any ot her human property. It has no single shri ne or
holy wel l oI pi l gri mage Ior t he nati on; Ior i ts waters should burst out
Ireely Irom t he whol e soi l .
The Iree popul ar power i s one that is only known in it s strength in the
hour oI adversi ty: Ior all i ts trial s, sacriIices and expect ati ons are it s own.
It is trained t o t hi nk Ior i tsel I, and also t o act Ior it selI. When the
ensl aved people prostrat e themselves in t he dust beIore the hurri cane, li ke
t he al armed beasts oI the Ii eld, t he Iree peopl e st and erect beIore it , in all
t he st rength oI uni ty, i n sel I-rel iance, i n mut ual rel iance, wi th eIIront ery
agai nst al l but the vi sibl e hand oI God. It i s neit her cast down by calamity
nor elat ed by success.
Thi s vast power oI endurance, oI Iorbearance, oI pati ence, and oI
perIormance, is only acquired by conti nual exerci se oI al l the Iunct ions,
l ike the heal thIul physical human vigor, li ke the indivi dual moral vi gor.
And t he maxi m i s no less true t han ol d, that et ernal vigi lance i s t he pri ce
oI l i berty. It is curi ous to observe the universal pret ext by which the
tyrant s oI all t i mes take away t he nati onal l ibert i es. It i s stated in the
st atutes oI Edward II., t hat the j usti ces and the sheriII shoul d no l onger be
el ected by the peopl e, on account oI the ri ot s and di ssensions which had
arisen. The same reason was given l ong beIore Ior the suppression oI
popular elect ion oI the bishops; and t here is a wi tness to thi s untrut h in
t he yet older t i mes, when Rome lost her Ireedom, and her i ndignant
ci ti zens declared t hat t umult uous l iberty i s bet ter than disgraceIul
t ranqui ll ity.
* * * * * *
Wi t h the Compasses and Scale, we can trace all t he Iigures used i n the
mathemati cs oI planes, or i n what are cal led GEOMETRY and
TRIGONOMETRY, t wo words t hat are t hemselves deIicient in meaning.
GEOMETRY, whi ch the let t er G. in most Lodges i s sai d t o si gni Iy, means
measurement oI l and or the eart h--or Surveying; and TRIGONOMETRY,
t he measurement oI t ri angl es, or Iigures wit h t hree sides or angl es. The
l att er is by Iar the most appropriate name Ior the sci ence intended t o be
expressed by the word "Geometry." Neit her i s oI a meani ng suIIici ently
wi de: Ior al t hough t he vast surveys oI great spaces oI the earth' s surIace,
and oI coasts, by which shi pwreck and cal ami ty to mariners are avoided,
are eIIected by means oI t ri angul ati on; --t hough i t was by the same method
t hat the French astronomers measured a degree oI l ati t ude and so
est abl i shed a scale oI measures on an i mmutable basis; though i t is by
means oI t he i mmense triangl e t hat has Ior i ts base a l ine drawn in
i magi nat ion bet ween the place oI the eart h now and it s pl ace si x mont hs
hence i n space, and Ior it s apex a planet or st ar, that t he di st ance oI
Jupi ter or Siri us Irom the eart h i s ascert ained; and though there i s a
t ri angle sti ll more vast , i ts base extending ei ther way Irom us, wi th and
past t he hori zon int o i mmensi ty, and it s apex i nIini t ely dist ant above us;
t o which corresponds a si mi lar inIi ni t e triangl e bel ow--what i s above
equall ing what i s bel ow, i mmensi ty equal l ing i mmensi ty; yet t he Sci ence
oI Numbers, to which Pythagoras at tached so much i mport ance, and whose
mysteries are Iound everywhere in the ancient rel igi ons, and most oI all i n
t he Kabal ah and in t he Bib|e, i s not suIIi ci ent ly expressed by eit her the
word "Geomet ry" or t he word "Trigonometry." For t hat science includes
t heseJ wit h Arit hmet i c, and al so wi th Algebra, Logari thms, the Int egral
and Di IIerent i al Calculus; and by means oI i t are worked out the great
probl ems oI Astronomy or t he Laws oI the Stars.
* * * * * *
Virt ue i s but heroic bravery, t o do the thi ng thought t o be t rue, i n spit e oI
al l enemi es oI Ilesh or spi ri t, i n despit e oI al l temptati ons or menaces.
Man i s account abl e Ior the uprightness oI hi s doctri ne, but not Ior t he
rightness oI it . Devout enthusiasm i s Iar easier t han a good act ion. The
end oI t hought i s acti on; t he sole purpose oI Rel i gion i s an Et hi c. Theory,
i n pol i t ical science, i s worthless, except Ior t he purpose oI bei ng real i zed
i n pract i ce.
In every credo, rel igi ous or pol i t ical as i n t he soul oI man, there are t wo
regions, t he Dial ectic and the Ethi c; and it i s only when the two are
harmoni ously blended, that a perIect di scipl ine i s evol ved. There are men
who dial ectically are Christ ians, as t here are a mult it ude who di alect ical ly
are Masons, and yet who are ethical ly InIi dels, as t hese are et hical ly oI the
ProIane, i n t he st rictest sense: --i ntel lect ual bel ievers, but practi cal
at heist s:-- men who wi ll wri t e you "Evi dences, " in perIect Iai th i n t heir
l ogic, but cannot carry out t he Christi an or Masoni c doctrine, owi ng to t he
st rengt h, or weakness, oI the Il esh. On t he other hand, t here are many
dialect ical skept i cs, but ethi cal bel i evers, as there are many Masons who
have never undergone i nit iat ion; and as et hics are t he end and purpose oI
reli gion, so are ethi cal bel i evers t he most wort hy. He who does right is
better t han he who thi nks ri ght .
But you must not act upon the hypot hesis that al l men are hypocri tes,
whose conduct does not square wi th their sent i ment s. No vi ce i s more
rare, Ior no task is more di IIi cult , than syst emat ic hypocri sy. When t he
Demagogue becomes a Usurper i t does not Ioll ow that he was al l t he t i me
a hypocri te. Shall ow men only so j udge oI others.
The truth i s, t hat creed has, in general, very l it tl e i nIl uence on the
conduct ; in religion, on t hat oI t he i ndivi dual; in pol i ti cs, on that oI party.
As a general t hi ng, the Mahometan, i n the Ori ent , i s Iar more honest and
t rust wort hy t han the Chri stian. A Gospel oI Love in the mout h, is an
Avatar oI Persecuti on in t he heart . Men who bel ieve in eternal damnat i on
and a l it eral sea oI Iire and bri mst one, i ncur t he certai nty oI i t , accordi ng
t o t hei r creed, on the sli ght est temptat i on oI appet it e or passi on.
Predesti nati on i nsist s on t he necessi ty oI good works. In Masonry, at the
l east Ilow oI passion, one speaks i ll oI anot her behi nd hi s back; and so Iar
Irom the "Brotherhood" oI Bl ue Masonry being real , and t he sol emn
pledges contained i n t he use oI t he word "Brother" bei ng compl ied wi th,
extraordi nary pai ns are taken t o show that. Masonry is a sort oI
abst ract ion, whi ch scorns to interIere i n worl dly mat ters. The rule may be
regarded as universal , t hat , where there i s a choice to be made, a Mason
wi ll gi ve hi s vot e and inIl uence, in poli ti cs and business, t o t he l ess
quali Ii ed proIane in preIerence t o the bett er qual i Iied Mason. One wi l l
t ake an oat h t o oppose any unlawIul usurpat ion oI power, and then become
t he ready and even eager instrument oI a usurper. Another wil l cal l one
"Brot her, " and then play toward hi m t he part oI Judas Iscariot , or strike
hi m, as Joab di d Abner, under t he IiIth rib, wi th a l ie whose authorship i s
not to be traced. Masonry does not change human nat ure, and cannot make
honest men out oI born knaves.
Whi l e you are sti l l engaged i n preparati on, and i n accumul at i ng pri nci pl es
Ior Iuture use, do not Iorget t he words oI t he Apostle James: "For i I any be
a hearer oI t he word, and not a doer, he is li ke unt o a man beholdi ng hi s
natural Iace i n a glass, Ior he behol det h hi msel I, and goet h away, and
st raightway Iorgetteth what ma1l ner oI man he was; but whoso l ooket h
i nt o t he perIect law oI li berty, and cont inueth, he bei ng not a Iorget Iul
hearer, but a doer oI the work, t hi s man shal l be bl essed i n his work. II
any man among you seem t o be religious, and bri dleth not his t ongue, but
decei vet h his own heart , thi s man' s reli gion i s vain. . . . Fai t h, i I it hat h not
works, i s dead, bei ng an abst ract ion. A man is j ust iIied by works, and not
by Iait h only. . . . The devil s believe, --and t remble. . . . As t he body wit hout
t he heart is dead, so is Iait h wit hout works. "
* * * * * *
In pol it ical sci ence, al so, Iree government s are erected and Iree
const i tuti ons Iramed, upon some si mpl e and intel li gi ble theory. Upon
whatever t heory t hey are based, no sound conclusi on is to be reached
except by carryi ng the t heory out wit hout Il inchi ng, bot h i n argumcnt on
const i tuti onal qucsti ons and in practi ce. Shri nk Irom the true t heory
t hrough ti mi di ty, or wander Irom it t hrougl l want oI t he l ogical Iacul ty, or
t ransgress against it t hrougl l passi on or on t he plea oI necessity or
expediency, and you have deni al or invasion oI rights, laws that oIIend
agai nst Ii rst pri nciples, usurpat i on oI i ll egal powers, or abnegat ion and
abdicat ion oI legit i mat e aut hority.
Do not Iorget , ei ther, t hat as the showy, superIici al, i mpudent and sel I-
concei t ed wi l l al most al ways be preIerred, even i n ut most stress oI danger
and cal amity oI the State, t o t he man oI sol id learni ng, large i ntel lect , and
cat hol ic sympathi es, because he is nearer t he common popular and
l egislati ve l evel , so the hi ghest trut h i s not accept abl e t o the mass oI
manki nd.
When SOLON was asked i I he had given his count rymen the best laws, he
answered, "The best they are capabl e oI receivi ng." Thi s i s one oI t he
proIoundest ut t erances on record; and yet li ke al l great trut hs, so si mpl e as
t o be rarely comprehended. It contai ns t he whol e phil osophy oI Hist ory. It
utters a trut h which, had i t been recogni zed, would have saved men an
i mmensity oI vai n, idl e disputes, and have led them i nt o t he clearer paths
oI knowledge in the Past. It means t hi s, --t hat all trut hs are Truths oI
Peri od, and not trut hs Ior eterni ty; t hat what ever great Iact has had
st rengt h and vit ali ty enough to make it selI real , whet her oI rel igi on,
morals, government, or oI whatever else, and t o Ii nd place in this world,
has been a trut h Ior t he t i me, and as good as men were capable oI
receivi ng.
So, too, wit h great men. The intel lect and capacity oI a people has a si ngl e
measure, --that oI t he great men whom Provi dence gi ves i t, and whom i t
receives. There have al ways been men too great Ior t heir t i me or thei r
peopl e. Every peopl e makes such men only it s i dol s, as it is capabl e oI
To i mpose ideal t ruth or l aw upon an i ncapabl e and merely real man, must
ever be a vai n and empty speculat ion. The l aws oI sympat hy govern i n t hi s
as t hey do in regard t o men who are put at the head. We do not know, as
yet, what qual iIicat ions t he sheep i nsi st on i n a leader. Wi th men who are
t oo high i ntellectual ly, the mass have as li tt le sympat hy as they have wi t h
t he st ars. When BURKE, the wi sest st atesman Engl and ever had, rose t o
speak, t he House oI Commons was depopul at ed as upon an agreed signal.
There i s as l it tl e sympathy bet ween the mass and t he highest TRUTHS.
The highest t ruth, being incomprehensible t o the man oI real i ties, as t he
highest man i s, and l argely above his level , wil l be a great unreali ty and
Ialsehood to an uni ntellectual man. The proIoundest doctrines oI
Chri sti ani ty and Phi l osophy woul d be mere j argon and babbl e t o a
Pot awatomi e Indi an. The popular explanati ons oI t he symbol s oI Masonry
are Ii t ti ng Ior the mul t it ude t hat have swarmed i nt o t he Templ es, --bei ng
Iul ly up to the level oI their capaci ty. Catholi ci sm was a vi tal trut h in it s
earli est ages, but i t became obsolet e, and Protest ant ism arose, Ilouri shed,
and det eri orat ed. The doct ri nes oI ZOROASTER were t he best which the
anci ent Persi ans were Ii t ted to recei ve; t hose oI CONFUCIUS were Ii tt ed
Ior the Chi nese; t hose oI MOHAMMED Ior the idolatrous Arabs oI his
age. Each was Trut h Ior t he ti me. Each was a GOSPEL, preached by a
REFORMER; and i I any men are so li tt l e Iort unat e as t o remai n cont ent
t herewit h, when ot hers have at tained a hi gher t rut h, i t is t hei r misIortune
and not their Iault . They are to be pi tied Ior it , and not persecuted.
Do not expect easi ly to convince men oI t he t rut h, or t o lead them t o thi nk
aright . The subtl e human i ntel lect can weave i ts mi st s over even the
cl earest vi si on. Remember that i t is eccentric enough t o ask unani mi ty
Irom a jury; but to ask i t Irom any large number oI men on any poi nt oI
poli t ical Iai th is amazi ng. You can hardly get two men i n any Congress or
Convent i on to agree; --nay, you can rarely get one to agree wit h hi mselI.
The pol i t ical church whi ch chances t o be supreme anywhere has an
i ndeIini t e number oI tongues. How then can we expect men to agree as to
matt ers beyond t he cogni zance oI t he senses? How can we compass the
InIinit c and the Invisible wit h any chai n oI evi dence? Ask the small sea-
waves what t hey murmur among the pebbles ! How many oI those words
t hat come Irom t he i nvisi ble shore are lost, li ke the birds, i n t he l ong
passage ? How vainly do we strai n t he eyes across the long InIinite ! We
must be content, as t he chil dren are, wi th t he pebbl es that have been
st randed, si nce it i s Iorbidden us t o expl ore the hi dden depths.
The Fell ow-CraIt is especial ly taught by thi s not to become wi se i n his
own conceit . Pride in unsound t heori es is worse than i gnorancc. Humi l i ty
becomes a Mason. Take some qui et, sober moment oI l iIe, and add
t oget her t he t wo i deas oI Pride and Man; behold hi m, creat ure oI a span,
st alking through i nIini t e space i n al l the grandeur oI l it tl eness ! Perched
on a speck oI the Uni verse, every wi nd oI Heaven stri kes i nto hi s blood
t he coldness oI deat h; hi s soul Il oat s avvay Irom hi s body li ke t he mel ody
Irom the string. Day and night , li ke dust on t he wheel, he i s roll ed along
t he heavens, through a labyri nt h oI worl ds, and all t he creati ons oI God
are Il anl i ng on every si de, Iurt her than even hi s i magi nat i on can reach. Is
t hi s a creature t o make Ior hi msel I a crown oI glory, to deny hi s own Ilesh,
t o mock at hi s Iel low, sprung wi th hi m Irom that dust to which bot h wil l
soon ret urn? Does t he proud man not err? Does he not suIIer? Does he not
die? When he reasons, i s he never stopped short by diIIicul ti es ? When he
act s, does he never succumb to the tempt ati ons oI pl easure? When he
l ives, i s he Iree Irom pai n? Do t he diseases not clai m hi m as t hei r prey?
When he di es, can he escape the common grave ? Pride is not t he heri tage
oI man. Humi l ity shoul d dwel l wit h Irai lty, and at one Ior i gnorance, error
and i mperIect ion.
Nei ther shoul d the Mason be over-anxi ous Ior oIIice and honor, however
certai nly he rmay Ieel t hat he has t he capaci ty to serve t he Stat e. He
shoul d neit her seek nor spurn honors. It i s good to enj oy the bl essi ngs oI
Iortune; it i s bet ter t o submi t wit hout a pang to t heir l oss. The greatest
deeds are not done in the glare oI l ight, and beIore the eyes oI t he
populace. He whom God has gi It ed wit h a love oI reti rement possesses, as
i t were, an addi ti onal sense; and among t he vast and noble scenes oI
nature, w e Iind t he bal m Ior the wounds we have recei ved among t he
pit i Iul shi It s oI poli cy; Ior the att achment to sol it ude is t he surest
preservati ve Irom t he i l ls oI li Ie.
But Resignati on is the more noble i n proporti on as i t is t he less passi ve.
Ret irement is only a morbid sel Ii shness, iI i t prohi bit exert ions Ior others;
as i t is only digni Ii ed and noble, when it i s the shade whence the oracl es
i ssue t hat are t o instruct mankind; and ret irement oI this nat ure i s t he sole
secl usion which a good and wi se man wi l l covet or command. The very
phil osophy whi ch makes such a man covet t he qui et , wi l l make hi m
eschew the inut il ity oI t he hermit age. Very l it tl e prai sewort hy would
LORD BOLINGBROKE have seemed among hi s haymakers and
ploughmen, iI among haymakers and ploughmen he had looked wit h an
i ndi IIerent eye upon a proIli gate mini st er and a venal Parl iament . Very
l it tl e i nterest would have at tached t o hi s beans and vetches, i I beans and
vetches had caused hi m to Iorget t hat i I he vvas happier on a Iann he coul d
be more useIul i n a Senate, and made hi m Iorego, in t he sphere oI a
bail iII, al l care Ior re-enteri ng t hat oI a l egisl ator.
Remember, al so, that t herc is an educat i on whi ch quickens t he Intel lect ,
and l eaves t he heart holl ower or harder t han beIore. There are et hi cal
l essons in the laws oI the heavenly bodies, in t he propert ies oI eart hly
el ement s, in geography, chemi stry, geol ogy, and al l the mat eri al sciences.
Thi ngs are symbol s oI Truths. Propert ies are symbols oI Truths. Sci ence,
not teachi ng moral and spirit ual t ruths, i s dead and dry, oI l i t tl e more real
value than t o commi t t o t he menl ory a l ong row oI unconnected dat es, or
oI t he names oI bugs or but terIli es.
Chri sti ani ty, it is sai d, begi ns Irom the burni ng oI the Ial se gods by the
peopl e themsel ves. Educati on begi ns wi th t he burning oI our int ell ectual
and moral i dols: our prej udi ces, not ions, conceit s, our wort h|ess or
i gnoble purposes. Especial ly it i s necessary to shake oII the love oI
worl dly gai n. Wi t h Freedom comes t he longing Ior worldly advancement .
In t hat race men are ever Ial li ng, ri sing, runni ng, and Ial l ing again. The
l ust Ior wealt h and t he abject dread oI poverty del ve t he Iurrows on many
a noble brow. The gambl er grows ol d as he watches t he chances. LawIul
hazard drives Yout h away beIore it s t i me; and t hi s Yout h draws heavy bil ls
oI exchange on Age. Men li ve, l i ke t he engi nes, at high pressure, a
hundred years in a hundred months; t he l edger becomes t he Bi ble, and t he
day-book the Book oI t he Morning Prayer.
Hence Il ow overreachi ngs and sharp practi ce, heart less t raIIi c i n which t he
capi tal ist buys proIi t wi t h t he li ves oI t he l aborers, speculat i ons t hat coi n
a nati on' s agoni es i nt o weal th, and al l the ot her devi li sh cnginery oI
Mammon. This, and greed Ior oIIi ce, are the t wo columns at the entrance
t o t he Templ e oI Mol och. It i s doubt Iul whet her t he lat ter, bl ossoming in
Ialsehood, t ri ckery, and Iraud, i s not even more pernicious t han the
Iormer. At all event s t hey are t wins, and Iit ly mat ed; and as ei ther gai ns
control oI t he unIort unate subject , his soul wi thers away and decays, and
at last dies out . The soul s oI hal I t he human race leave them l ong beIore
t hey die. The t wo greeds are twi n plagues oI the leprosy, and make t he
man unclean; and whenever t hey break out they spread unti l "t hey cover
al l the skin oI hi m t hat hat h t he pl ague, Irom his head even t o his Ioot. "
Even the raw Il esh oI the heart becomes uncl ean wit h i t.
Al exander oI Macedon has leIt a saying behind hi m whi ch has survi ved hi s
conquest s: "Not hi ng is nobl er than work. " Work only can keep even ki ngs
respectable. And when a ki ng i s a king indeed, it i s an honorable oIIi ce to
gi ve t one to the manners and moral s oI a nati on; t o set t he example oI
virtuous conduct, and rest ore in spi ri t the ol d school s oI chi val ry, in whi ch
t he young manhood may be nurt ured to real greatness. Work and wages
wi ll go toget her i n men' s mi nds, i n t he most royal insti tut i ons. We must
ever come t o the idea oI real work. The rest t hat Ioll ows l abor shoul d be
sweet er than t he rest which Iol l ows rest .
Let no Fel low-CraIt i magi ne t hat t he work oI t he l owly and uninIl uent ial
i s not worth the doi ng. There i s no legal l i mit t o t he possible inIluences oI
a good deed or a wi se word or a generous eIIort. Not hi ng i s really small .
Whoever i s open t o the deep penet rat ion oI nature knows this. Al though,
i ndeed, no absolut e sat isIacti on may be vouchsaIed to phil osophy, any
more in circumscri bi ng t he cause than i n li mi ti ng t he eIIect , the man oI
t hought and cont emplat ion Iall s i nt o unIat homabl e ecstaci es i n view oI all
t he decomposit i ons oI Iorces resul ti ng i n uni ty. Al l works Ior al l.
Dest ructi on is not annihi lat i on, but regenerat ion.
Al gebra applies to the cl ouds; t he radi ance oI the st ar beneIi ts t he rose; no
t hi nker woul d dare t o say that t he perIume oI t he hawthorn i s useless to
t he const el lat ions. Who, then, can calcul at e the pat h oI the mol ecul e? How
do we know t hat the creat ions oI worl ds are not determined by the Iall oI
grains oI sand ? Who, then, understands t he reciprocal Ilow and ebb oI t he
i nrlnitely great and the inIi ni tely smal l; t he echoi ng oI causes in the
abysses oI begi nni ng, and the avalanches oI creat i on? A Ileshworm i s oI
account ; t he small i s great; the great i s smal l; al l is in equi li bri um in
necessi ty. There are marvell ous rel ati ons between bei ngs and t hi ngs; in
t hi s inexhaust ibl e Whol e, Irom sun to grub, there i s no scorn: al l need
each ot her. Light does not carry t errest rial perIumes i nt o t he azure dept hs,
wi thout knowi ng what it does wi th them; night distri but es the st el lar
essence to the sleeping plants. Every bi rd whi ch Il ies has the t hread oI t he
InIinit e i n i t s claw. Germi nat ion i ncl udes the hatching oI a meteor, and t he
t ap oI a swall ow' s bi ll , breaki ng the egg; and i t leads Iorward t he birth oI
an eart h-worm and t he advent oI a Socrat es. Where the t el escope ends the
microscope begi ns. Whi ch oI them t he grander view ? A bit oI moul d is a
Plei ad oI Il owers --a nebul a i s an ant-hi ll oI st ars.
There i s the same and a st i ll more wonderIul i nterpenetrati on bet ween t he
t hi ngs oI t he int el l ect and the things oI mat ter. Element s and principl es
are mi ngl ed, combined, espoused, mul t i pl ied one by anot her to such a
degree as t o bri ng the materi al worl d and t he moral world i nt o t he same
l ight . Phenomena are perpet ual ly Iolded back upon themsel ves. In the vast
cosmical changes the universal li Ie comes and goes i n unknown quanti ti es,
enveloping al l i n t he invisi bl e mystery oI t he emanat ions, losi ng no dream
Irom no si ngl e sleep, sowing an ani malcule here, crumbl ing a st ar there,
osci ll ati ng and winding i n curves; making a Iorce oI Light, and an el ement
oI Thought; di ssemi nated and i ndi vi sibl e, di ssolving all save that point
wi thout l engt h, breadth, or t hi ckness, The MYSEF; reduci ng everyt hi ng t o
t he Soul-atom ; maki ng everythi ng blossom i nt o God; ent angl ing all
act ivi ti es, Irom the hi gll est to the lowest, i n t he obscuri ty oI a di zzying
mechani sm; hanging the Il ight oI an i nsect upon t he movement oI the
earth; subordi nat ing, perhaps, i I only by the ident ity oI t he law, t he
eccent ri c evoluti ons oI the comet in the Ii rmament, to t he whirli ngs oI the
i nIusori a in the drop oI water. A mechanism made oI mind, the Iirst mot or
oI which i s the gnat , and i ts last wheel t he zodi ac.
A peasant-boy, gui ding Blucher by the ri ght one oI t wo roads, t he ot her
being i mpassable Ior art il lery, enables hi m t o reach Wat erloo i n t i me t o
save Wel l ington Irom a deIeat t hat would have been a rout ; and so enables
t he kings to i mpri son Napoleon on a barren rock i n mi d-ocean. An
unIai thIul smit h, by the slovenly shoeing oI a horse, causes hi s lameness,
and, he stumbli ng, the career oI his worl d-conqueri ng ri der ends, and the
dest inies oI empi res are changed. A generous oIIicer permi ts an
i mpri soned monarch t o end his game oI chess beIore leadi ng hi m t o t he
block; and meanwhil e t he usurper dies, and the pri soner reascends the
t hrone. An unski ll Iul workman repai rs t he compass, or mal i ce or stupi dity
disarranges i t, t he ship mi st akes her course, the waves swal low a Caesar,
and a new chapter i s writ ten in the hi story oI a worl d. What we cal l
acci dent i s but t he adamanti ne chai n oI indissoluble connecti on bet ween
al l created t hings. The locust, hat ched in the Arabian sands, the smal l
worm t hat destroys the cot ton-bol l, one maki ng Iamine in t he Orient, the
other cl osing t he mi l l s and starving the vvorkmen and t heir chi l dren i n t he
Occi dent , wi t h ri ot s and massacres, are as much t he minist ers oI God as
t he earthquake; and t he Iate oI nat ions depends more on t hem than on t he
i ntell ect oI it s ki ngs and l egislators. A ci vi l war i n Ameri ca wi ll end i n
shaki ng the worl d; and that war may be caused by t he vot e oI some
i gnorant prize-Iighter or crazed Ianat ic in a city or in a Congress, or oI
some st upi d boor in an obscure country pari sh. The el ectrici ty oI universal
sympat hy, oI act ion and reacti on, pervades everything, the pl anet s and the
motes in t he sunbeam. FAUST, wi th his types, or LUTHER, wit h his
sermons, worked greater resul t s t han Al exander or Hannibal. A si ngl e
t hought someti mes suIIices to overt urn a dynasty. A sil ly song did more to
unseat James the Second than t he acqui t tal oI t he Bi shops. Volt aire,
Condorcet , and Rousseau utt ered words that wi l l ring, i n change and
revol ut ions, throughout al l the ages.
Remember, t hat though li Ie is short, Thought and the i nIl uences oI what
we do or say are i mmort al; and t hat no calculus has yet pretended to
ascert ai n t he l aw oI proport i on bet ween cause and eIIect. The hammer oI
an Engli sh blacksmi t h, smi t ing down an insolent oIIi cial , l ed to a
rebel li on whi ch came near bei ng a revoluti on. The word wel l spoken, the
deed Iit ly done, even by the Ieeblest or humblest , cannot hel p but have
t heir eIIect. More or less, the eIIect i s inevit abl e and eternal . The echoes
oI t he greatest deeds may di e away li ke t he echoes oI a cry among the
cl iIIs, and what has been done seem to the human judgment to have been
wi thout result . The unconsi dered act oI t he poorest oI men may Iire the
t rai n t hat leads t o t he subterranean mine, and an empire be rent by t he
expl osion.
The power oI a Iree people is oIt en at t he disposal oI a single and
seemi ngly an uni mportant individual; --a t errible and t ruthIul power; Ior
such a peopl e Ieel wit h one heart, and t hereIore can li It up their myriad
arms Ior a si ngl e bl ow. And, again, t here is no graduat ed scal e Ior the
measurement oI t he i nIluences oI diIIerent intel lect s upon the popul ar
mind. Pet er t he Hermit hel d no oIIi ce, yet what a work he wrought !
* * * * * *
From t he pol it ical point oI view there i s but a si ngle pri nci ple, -- t he
soverei gnty oI man over hi msel I. Thi s sovereignty oI one' s selI over one' s
sel I is cal l ed LIBERTY. Where two or several oI these sovereignt i es
associ ate, the Stat e begi ns. But i n this associ at ion t here is no abdicat i on.
Each sovereignty part s wi th a cert ain port ion oI it selI to Iorm t he common
right. That port ion i s the same Ior al l. There i s equal contri but ion by al l t o
t he j oi nt sovereignty. This ident i ty oI concession which each makes t o al l ,
i s EQUALITY. The common right i s nothing more or less t han the
prot ecti on oI al l, pouri ng i ts rays on each. Thi s protect ion oI each by all ,
Li berty is t he summi t , Equali ty the base. Equal ity i s not all vegetati on on
a level , a society oI big spears oI grass and st unted oaks, a nei ghborhood
oI j ealousies, emasculat i l lg each ot her. It is, civi lly, al l apt it udes havi ng
equal opportuni ty; pol it ical ly, all vot es havi ng equal weight; religiously,
al l consci ences havi ng equal right s.
Equali ty has an organ;--grat uit ous and obligat ory i nstruct ion. We must
begi n wit h the right to t he al phabet. The pri mary school obligat ory upon
al l; t he hi gher school oIIered to all . Such i s the law. From the same school
Ior al l spri ngs equal society. Inst ructi on ! Light ! all comes Irom Light ,
and al l ret urns t o i t.
We must l earn the t houghts oI the common peopl e, i I we would be wise
and do any good work. We must l ook at men, not so much Ior what
Fort une has given to t hem wit h her bl ind ol d eyes, as Ior t he gi It s Nat ure
has brought i n her lap, and Ior the use that has been made oI them. We
proIess t o be equal i n a Church and in the Lodge: we shall be equal i n the
sight oI God when He judges the earth. We may wel l si t on t he pavement
t oget her here, i n communi on and conIerence, Ior the Iew bri eI moments
t hat const it ut e l i Ie.
A Democrati c Government undoubt edly has it s deIects, because i t is made
and admi nist ered by men, and not by t he Wi se Gods. It cannot be conci se
and sharp, li ke the despoti c. When it s ire i s aroused it develops i ts lat ent
st rengt h, and the st urdiest rebel trembl es. But i ts habi tual domesti c rule is
t olerant , pat i ent , and i ndeci sive. Men are brought t oget her, Iirst to di IIer,
and t hen to agree. AIIirmat i on, negati on, discussi on, sol ut ion: these are
t he means oI attaini ng truth. OIt en t he enemy wil l be at t he gat es beIore
t he babbl e oI t he dist urbers is drowned in the chorus oI consent . In t he
Legi slat ive oIIi ce del iberat ion wi ll oIten deIeat decisi on. Liberty can pl ay
t he Iool l i ke t he Tyrant s
ReIined society requi res greater mi nuteness oI regulat i on; and the steps oI
al l advanci ng St ates are more and more t o be pi cked among t he old
rubbi sh and the new matcri als. The diIIi cul ty li es i n discoveri ng t he right
path through t he chaos oI conIusion. The adjust ment oI mutual rights and
wrongs is al so more diIIi cul t i n democraci es. We do not see and est i mat e
t he relat i ve i mport ance oI object s so easily and cl early Irom t he l evel or
t he waving iand as Irom the el evati on oI a l one peak, toweri ng above the
plai n; Ior each l ooks through his own mi st.
Abject dependence on const i t uent s, also, is too common. It is as miserabl e
a thi ng as abject dependence on a mini ster or the Iavori t e oI a Tyrant . It i s
rare to Ii nd a man who can speak out t he si mple t rut h t hat is in hi m,
honest ly and Irankly, wi thout Iear, Iavor, or aIIect ion, eit her to Emperor
or Peopl e.
Moreover, i n assembli es oI men, Iai th i n each ot her is al most al ways
wanti ng, unl ess a t errible pressure oI cal ami ty or danger Irom wit hout
produces cohesion. Hence t he construct ive power oI such assembl ies i s
generally deIi cient . The chi eI tri umphs oI modern days, in Europe, have
been i n pull ing down and obl it erat ing; not i n buil di ng up. But Repeal is
not ReIorm. Ti me must bring wit h hi m t he Rest orer and Rebui lder.
Speech, al so, is grossly abused i n Republ ics; and i I the use oI speech be
gl orious, i ts abuse is t he most vi ll ai nous oI vi ces. Rhetoric, Plat o says, i s
t he art oI ruli ng t he minds oI men. But i n democracies it is too common to
hide thought i n words, t o overlay i t, t o babbl e nonsense. The gl eams and
gl it ter oI i nt el l ect ual soap-and-water bubbl es are mistaken Ior the
rainbow-glori es oI geni us. The wort hl ess pyrit es i s cont i nual ly mi staken
Ior gol d. Even i nt ell ect condescends t o i nt ell ectual j ugglery, balanci ng
t hought s as a j uggl er balances pipes on hi s chi n. In al l Congresses we
have t he i nexhaust ibl e Il ow oI babble, and Facti on' s clamorous knavery in
discussi on, unti l the di vine power oI speech, that privi lege oI man and
great giIt oI God, is no bet ter than t he screech oI parrot s or t he mi micry oI
monkeys. The mere t al ker, however Il uent, is barren oI deeds in the day oI
t ri al.
There are men voluble as women, and as well skil led in Iencing wit h the
t ongue: prodigies oI speech, mi sers i n deeds. Too much cal king, l ike t oo
much thinking, dest roys t he power oI act ion. In human nature, the t hought
i s only made perIect by deed. Si lence i s the mother oI bot h. The trumpeter
i s not the bravest oI the brave. St eel and not brass wi ns t he day. The great
doer oI great deeds is most ly sl ow and sl ovenly oI speech. There are some
men born and brcd to betray. Pat ri ot ism i s their trade, and their capi tal i s
speech. But no nobl e spi ri t can plead li ke Paul and be Ial se t o i tsel I as
Impost ure too commonly rul es in republ ics; t hey seem t o be ever i n t hei r
minori ty; thei r guardians are selI-appoi nted; and tl he unjust thri ve bet ter
t han the just. The Despot , l ike the ni ght -l ion roaring, drowns al l t he
cl amor oI tongues at once, and speech, t he birthright oI t he Iree man,
becomes the bauble oI the enslaved.
It is qui te true t hat republ ics only occasi onal ly, and as i t were
acci dent al ly, select t heir wisest, or even t he l ess incapabl e among the
i ncapables, to govern them and l egislate Ior t hem. II genius, armed wit h
l earning and knowledge, wi ll grasp t he reins, t he peopl e wi ll reverence it ;
i I i t only modestly oIIers it selI Ior oIIi ce, i t wi l l be smit ten on t he Iace,
even when, in the strai t s oI dist ress and t he agonies oI calamity, i t is
i ndi spensable to the salvati on oI the State. Put i t upon t he t rack wi th the
showy and superIici al, t he conceit ed, the ignorant , and i mpudent , t he
t ri ckster and charl at an, and the result shal l not be a moment doubt Iul . The
verdi cts oI Legislatures and t he People are l ike the verdi ct s oI juries, --
someti mes right by accident.
OIIices, it i s true, are showered, li ke t he rai ns oI Heaven, upon t he j ust
and t he unjust. The Roman Augurs t hat used to laugh i n each ot her' s Iaces
at t he si mpl icity oI t he vulgar, were also ti ckl ed wit h t heir own guil e; but
no Augur i s needed t o lead the people ast ray. They readi ly decei ve
t hemsel ves. Let a Republ i c begi n as it may, i t wil l not be out oI i ts
minori ty beIore i mbeci li ty wil l be promot ed to hi gh places; and shal low
pretence, get ti ng i t sel I puIIed i nt o noti ce, wil l invade al l the sanct uari es.
The most unscrupul ous parti sanshi p wi ll prevai l, even i n respect to
j udi cial t rusts; and the most unj ust appoint ment s const ant ly be made,
al though every i mproper promot ion not merely conIers one undeserved
Iavor, but may make a hundred honest cheeks smart wit h i nj ust ice.
The country i s stabbed in the Iront when those are brought i nt o t he st all ed
seat s who shoul d sli nk i nto t he di m gall ery. Every stamp oI Honor, i ll -
cl utched, is st ol en Irom the Treasury oI Merit .
Yet t he entrance i nto t he publ ic servi ce, and t he promot ion in it , aIIect
both t he rights oI individuals and those oI t he nat i on. Inj usti ce i n
best owi ng or wit hholdi ng oIIi ce ought t o be so int ol erabl e i n democrati c
communi ti es t hat the least trace oI i t shoul d be li ke t he scent oI Treason.
It is not universal ly true t hat all ci ti zens oI equal character have an equal
cl ai m t o knock at the door oI every publ ic oIIice and demand admi tt ance.
When any man present s hi msel I Ior servi ce he has a right to aspire t o the
highest body at once, iI he can show his Iit ness Ior such a begi nning, --that
he is Ii tt er than t he rest who oIIer themsel ves Ior the same post . The ent ry
i nt o i t can only just ly be made through the door oI merit . And whenever
any one aspires t o and attai ns such high post, especial ly iI by unIair and
disreput able and indecent means, and i s aIt erward Iound to be a signal
Iail ure, he should at once be beheaded. He i s t he worst among the public
enemi es.
When a man sumcient ly reveals hi mselI, al l ot hers shoul d be proud to give
hi m due precedence. When t he power oI promot ion i s abused i n t he grand
passages oI l i Ie whet her by People, Legislature, or Execut ive, t he unj ust
deci si on recoi ls on the judge at once. That i s not only a gross, but a
wi ll Iul shortness oI sight, that cannot discover the deserving. II one wil l
l ook hard, long, and honestly, he wil l not Iail t o discern meri t, geni us, and
quali Ii cati on; and t he eyes and voi ce oI t he Press and Publ i c shoul d
condemn and denounce i njusti ce wherever she rears her horrid head.
"The tool s to t he workmen!" no ot her pri nci pl e wil l save a Republi c Irom
dest ructi on, ei ther by ci vil war or t he dry-rot . They tend t o decay, do al l
we can t o prevent it , l ike human bodies. II they try t he experi ment oI
governing themselves by their smal lest , they sli de downward to t he
unavoidable abyss wi th tenIold vel ocity; and there never has been a
Republ ic that has not Iol lowed t hat Iatal course.
But however pal pabl e and gross t he i nherent deIects oI democrat ic
government s, and Iatal as the resul ts Ii nal ly and inevit ably are, we need
only glance at the rei gns oI Tiberi us, Nero, and Cal igula, oI Hel iogabalus
and Caracalla, oI Domi ti an and Commodus, to recognize t hat the
diIIerence between Ireedom and despot ism is as wi de as t hat bet ween
Heaven and Hel l. The cruel ty, baseness, and insanity oI tyrants are
i ncredibl e. Let hi m who compl ai ns oI t he Ii ckle humors and inconst ancy
oI a Iree people, read Pli ny' s charact er oI Domit i an. II t he great man in a
Republ ic cannot win omce wit hout descending to low arts and whini ng
beggary and t he j udici ous use oI sneaking li es, l et hi m remai n in
reti rement , and use the pen. Taci tus and Juvenal hel d no oIIice. Let
Hi story and Sat ire puni sh t he pret ender as t hey cruci Iy the despot. The
revenges oI the intel lect are terri ble and just.
Let Masonry use the pen and the print i ng-press in the Iree State agai nst
t he Demagogue; i n t he Despot ism against the Tyrant. Hi story oIIers
exampl es and encouragement . Al l hi story, Ior Iour t housand years, being
Iil led wi th vi olated rights and the suIIerings oI t he peopl e, each period oI
hist ory brings wi th it such prot est as is possible t o it . Under t he Caesars
t here was no i nsurrect ion, but t here was a Juvenal. The arousi ng oI
i ndi gnat i on replaces the Gracchi. Under t he Caesars t here is the exi l e oI
Syene; t here is also the aut hor oI t he Annals. As the Neros reign darkly
t hey shoul d be pict ured so. Work wit h the graver only would be pale; i nt o
t he grooves shoul d be poured a concentrated prose that bit es.
Despots are an ai d t o t hi nkers. Speech enchained is speech terri ble. The
writ er doubles and triples his style, when si lence is i mposed by a mast er
upon the people. There spri ngs Irom t hi s sil ence a certain myst eri ous
Iul l ness, whi ch Ii lters and Ireezes int o brass in t he t hought s. Compression
i n t he hist ory produces conciseness i n the hi st ori an. The granit ic sol idi ty
oI some cel ebrated prose i s only a condensat ion produced by t he Tyrant .
Tyranny const rai ns the wri ter t o short eni ngs oI diameter which are
i ncreases oI strengt h. The Ci ceronian period, hardly sumci ent upon Verres,
woul d l ose i ts edge upon Cali gul a.
The Demagogue is the predecessor oI t he Despot. One spri ngs Irom the
other' s l oi ns. He who wi l l basely Iawn on those who have oIIice t o bestow,
wi ll betray l ike Iscariot, and prove a mi serable and pi t iable Iail ure. Let
t he new Junius l ash such men as they deserve, and Hi story make them
i mmortal i n i nIamy; si nce t heir i nIluences cul mi nate in rui n. The Republ ic
t hat employs and honors t he shal low, t he superIi ci al , t he base,
"who crouch
Unto the oIIal oI an oIIice promi sed, "
at last weeps tears oI blood Ior i ts Iatal error. OI such supreme Iol ly, the
sure Irui t i s damnati on. Let t he nobi li ty oI every great heart , condensed
i nt o j ust ice and t ruth, st ri ke such creatures l i ke a t hunderbol t ! II you can
do no more, you can at least condemn by your vote, and ost raci se by
denunci ati on.
It is true t hat , as the Czars are absol ute, t hey have i t in their power to
sel ect t he best Ior t he publ ic service. It i s true that t he beginner oI a
dynasty general ly does so; and that when monarchies are i n t heir pri me,
pretence and shal lowness do not thri ve and prosper and get power, as they
do i n Republics. All do not gabbl e i n t he Parliament oI a Kingdom, as in
t he Congress oI a Democracy. The i ncapables do not go undetected t here,
al l thei r li ves.
But dynasti es speedily decay and run out. At last they dwindle down i nto
i mbecil ity; and the dul l or Il i ppant Members oI Congresses are at least t he
i ntell ectual peers oI t he vast maj ori ty oI kings. The great man, t he Juli us
Caesar, the Charlemagne, Cromwel l, Napoleon, reigns oI right. He i s the
wi sest and the strongest . The incapabl es and i mbeci les succeed and are
usurpers; and Iear makes t hem cruel. AIter Juli us came Caracall a and
Gal ba; aIt er Charlemagne, the l unat i c Charl es the Si xt h. So the Saraceni c
dynasty dwi ndled out ; the Capet s, t he St uarts, the Bourbc1ns; the last oI
t hese produci ng Bomba, the ape oI Domi t ian.
Man i s by nature cruel , l ike the t igers. The barbari an, and the tool oI t he
tyrant , and the civi l i zed Ianat ic, enj oy t he suIIeri ngs oI ot hers, as t he
chil dren enj oy t he cont orti ons oI mai med Ili es. Absolut e Power, once in
Iear Ior t he saIety oI it s t enure, cannot but be cruel .
As t o abi li ty, dynast ies invari ably cease t o possess any aIt er a Iew l i ves.
They become mere shams, governed by mi nist ers, Iavorit es, or courtesans,
l ike those old Et ruscan kings, sl umberi ng Ior l ong ages in their gol den
royal robes, di ssolving Iorever at t he Iirst breat h oI day. Let hi m who
compl ains oI t he short comi ngs oI democracy ask hi mselI i I he would
preIer a Du Barry or a Pompadour, governi ng i n t he name oI a Louis t he
FiIteent h, a Cal igula maki ng his horse a consul, a Domi ti an, "t hat most
savage monst er, " who someti mes drank the bl ood oI relat ives, someti mes
employi ng hi msel I wi th slaughtering the most dist ingui shed ci t izens
beIore whose gat es Iear and terror kept wat ch; a tyrant oI IrightIul aspect,
pri de on hi s Iorehead, Ii re in hi s eye, const ant ly seeki ng darkness and
secrecy, and only emerging Irom hi s sol it ude to make sol i t ude. AIt er all ,
i n a Iree government , t he Laws and the Const i tut i on are above the
Incapables, the Court s correct t heir l egisl ati on, and posterity i s t he Grand
Inquest that passes judgment on them. What i s the excl usi on oI wort h and
i ntell ect and knowl edge Irom civil oIIi ce compared wi t h t ri al s beIore
JeIIri es, t ortures i n the dark caverns oI the Inquisit ion, Alvabutcheri es i n
t he Net herlands, the Eve oI Saint Barthol omew, and the Si ci lian Vespers?
* * * * * *
The Abbe Barruel i n his Memoirs Ior t he Hist ory oI Jacobi nism, declares
t hat Masonry i n France gave, as it s secret, the words Equal i ty and Liberty,
l eaving i t Ior every honest and religious Mason to explain them as woul d
best sui t hi s pri nciples; but retai ned the privil ege oI unvei li ng i n t he
higher Degrees the meaning oI t hose words, as int erpret ed by t he French
Revol uti on. And he also except s Engl ish Masons Irom hi s anat hemas,
because in Engl and a Mason is a peaceable subj ect oI the ci vil authori ti es,
no matt er where he resides, engagi ng i n no plot s or conspiracies agai nst
even t he worst government . Engl and, he says, disgust ed wit h an Equal ity
and a Liberty, the consequences oI which she had Iel t i n the struggles oI
her Loll ards, Anabapti sts, and Presbyteri ans, had "purged her Masonry"
Irom all explanati ons tending to overt urn empires; but t here sti ll remai ned
adepts whom disorgani zi ng pri nci ples bound to the Ancient Mysteries.
Because t rue Masonry, unemasculat ed, bore t he banners oI Freedom and
Equal Ri ght s, and was in rebell ion agai nst temporal and spiri tual tyranny,
i ts Lodges were proscribed i n 1735, by an edict oI the St ates oI Hol land.
In 1737, Loui s XV. Iorbade t hem in France. In 1738, Pope Clement XII.
i ssued agai nst t hem hi s Iamous Bul l oI Excommunicat ion, whi ch was
renewed by Benedict XIV. ; and i n 1743 the Counci l oI Berne al so
proscribed t hem. The ti tl e oI t he Rull oI Clement is, "The Condemnati on
oI t he Society oI Conventicles de Li beri Murat ori , or oI the Freemasons,
under t he penalty oI i pso Iact o excommuni cati on, the absolut i on Irom
which is reserved t o the Pope al one, except at the point oI death. " And by
i t all bi shops, ordi naries, and inqui sit ors were empowered t o punish
Freemasons, "as vehemently suspect ed oI heresy, " and t o cal l in, i I
necessary, t he help oI the secul ar arm; t hat i s, t o cause the civi l aut hori ty
t o put t hem to deat h.
* * * * * *
Al so, Ial se and slavish pol i tical t heori es end in brut al i zing t he Stat e. For
exampl e, adopt t he theory that oIIi ces and empl oyment s i n i t are to be
gi ven as rewards Ior services rendered to party, and they soon become the
prey and spoi l oI Iact ion, t he booty oI the vi ctory oI Iact ion;--and l eprosy
i s i n t he Ilesh oI t he State. The body oI the commonweal th becomes a
mass oI corrupt ion, li ke a l ivi ng carcass rot ten wi th syphil is. All unsound
t heori es in the end devel op themsel ves i n one Ioul and l oat hsome di sease
or ot her oI the body poli t ic. The Stat e, li ke t he man, must use const ant
eIIort t o st ay i n t he paths oI virt ue and manl iness. The habi t oI
el ecti oneering and begging Ior oIIi ce cul mi nat es i n bri bery wit h oIIi ce,
and corrupt ion i n oIIice.
A chosen man has a visi ble trust Irom God, as pl ainly as iI t he commissi on
were engrossed by t he not ary. A nati on cannot renounce t he execut orshi p
oI t he Divine decrees. As li tt l e can Masonry. It must labor t o do i ts duty
knowi ngly and wi sely. We must remember t hat , i n Iree St at es, as wel l as i n
despot isms, Injust ice, the spouse oI Oppressi on, i s t he IruitIul parent oI
Decei t , Di st rust , Hatred, Conspi racy, Treason, and UnIai thIul ness. Even in
assai li ng Tyranny we must have Trut h and Reason as our chi eI weapons.
We must march into that Iight li ke the old Purit ans, or into the bat tl e wi t h
t he abuses t hat spring up in Iree government , wi t h t he Ilaming sword in
one hand, and the Oracl es oI God i n the ot her.
The citi zen who cannot accompli sh well t he small er purposes oI publ i c
l iIe, cannot compass t he larger. The vast power oI endurance, Iorbearance,
patience, and perIormance, oI a Iree peopl e, i s acquired only by conti nual
exerci se oI al l the Iuncti ons, l ike the heal thIul physical human vi gor. II
t he i ndivi dual ci ti zens have it not, t he Stat e must equal ly be wit hout it . It
i s oI t he essence oI a Iree government , that t he people shoul d not only be
concerned i n maki ng t he l aws, but al so i n t hei r executi on. No man ought
t o be more ready to obey and admi ni st er the law than he who has hel ped t o
make i t. The busi ness oI government i s carri ed on Ior t he beneIi t oI all ,
and every co-part ner shoul d give counsel and cooperat i on.
Remember al so, as another shoal on whi ch States are wrecked, that Iree
Stat es al ways tend toward the deposit ing oI t he ci t i zens in strata, the
creati on oI castes, the perpetuati on oI the j us divi nurn to oIIice i n
Iami l i es. The more democrat ic t he St ate, the more sure this resul t. For, as
Iree St at es advance in power, t here is a strong tendency t oward
cent ral i zati on, not Irom del iberate evi l int ent ion, but Irom t he course oI
events and the indol ence oI human nat ure. The executi ve powers swel l and
enlarge to i nordi nate di mensi ons; and t he Execut i ve i s always aggressive
wi th respect to the nat ion. OIIices oI all ki nds are mul ti pl ied t o reward
parti sans; t he brut e Iorce oI t he sewerage and lower st rat a oI t he mob
obtai ns large represent ati on, Iirst in the lower oIIi ces, and at last i n
Senat es; and Bureaucracy rai ses i t s bald head, brist li ng wi t h pens, girded
wi th spect acles, and bunched wit h ribbon. The art oI Government becomes
l ike a CraIt , and i ts gui lds tend t o become excl usi ve, as those oI t he
Mi ddl e Ages.
Pol i t ical science may be much i mproved as a subj ect oI specul ati on; but it
shoul d never be divorced Irom t he act ual nat ional necessity. The sci ence
oI governi ng men must always be pract ical , rather t han phi losophical .
There i s not t he same amount oI posi ti ve or uni versal t rut h here as i n the
abst ract sciences; what is true i n one count ry may be very Ial se in another;
what is untrue to-day may become true in another generati on, and t he t ruth
oI t o-day be reversed by the judgment oI to-morrow. To di st i ngui sh t he
casual Irom t he enduri ng, to separat e t he unsui t abl e Irom the sui tabl e, and
t o make progress even possibl e, are t he proper ends oI policy. But wi thout
act ual knowledge and experi ence, and communi on oI l abor, t he dreams oI
t he pol it ical doct ors may be no bet ter than t hose oI the doctors oI di vinity.
The reign oI such a cast e, wit h i ts myst eri es, i ts myrmi dons, and i t s
corrupt ing inIl uence, may be as Iat al as that oI the despots. Thirty tyrants
are thirty ti mes worse than one.
Moreover, t here is a strong temptati on Ior t he governi ng people to become
as much slothIul and sl uggards as t he weakest oI absol ute ki ngs. Only give
t hem the power to get ri d, when capri ce prompt s t hem, oI t he great and
wi se men, and elect the li tt le, and as t o al l the rest t hey wil l relapse into
i ndolence and indiIIerence. The central power, creat ion oI the peopl e,
organi zed and cunning iI not enl ightened, i s t he perpet ual tribunal set up
by t hem Ior t he redress oI wrong and the rule oI justice. It soon suppl ies
i tsel I wit h al l the requi site machinery, and i s ready and apt Ior al l kinds oI
i nterIerence. The peopl e may be a chi ld all i t s li Ie. The central power may
not be able t o suggest the best scient i Iic sol uti on oI a problem; but i t has
t he easi est means oI carrying an i dea int o eIIect. II t he purpose t o be
at tai ned is a large one, i t requires a l arge comprehension; it i s proper Ior
t he act ion oI the central power. II it be a smal l one, i t may be t hwarted by
disagreement . The central power must step i n as an arbi trat or and prevent
t hi s. The people may be t oo averse to change, too sl ot hIul in their own
business, unjust to a mi nori ty or a maj ori ty. The cent ral power must t ake
t he reins when t he peopl e drop them.
France became centrali zed in it s government more by the apat hy and
i gnorance oI it s people than by the tyranny oI it s ki ngs. When t he i nmost
pari sh-l iIe i s gi ven up t o the di rect guardianshi p oI t he St ate, and the
repair oI the bel Iry oI a count ry church requires a wri tt en order Irom the
cent ral power, a people is i n it s dotage. Men are thus nurtured in
i mbecil ity, Irom t he dawn oI soci al l iIe. When the cent ral government
Ieeds part oI t he peopl e it prepares al l to be sl aves. When i t directs pari sh
and county aIIai rs, they are slaves already. The next step is to regulate
l abor and i t s wages.
Nevert heless, what ever Ioll ies the Iree people may commi t , even to the
putt i ng oI t he powers oI l egisl at i on in the hands oI t he l it tl e compet ent
and l ess honest , despai r not oI the Ii nal result . The terri bl e teacher,
EXPERIENCE, writ ing hi s lessons on heart s desol ated wi t h cal ami ty and
wrung by agony, wil l make thell l wiser in t i me. Pret ence and gri mace and
sordi d beggary Ior votes wil l some day cease to avai l. Have FAITH, and
st ruggle on, agai nst al l evil i nIl uences and discouragement s! FAITH i s the
Savi our and Redeemer oI nat ions. When Chri stianity had grown weak,
proIit less, and powerl ess, t he Arab Rest orer and Iconoclast came, l ike a
cl eansing hurricane. When the batt le oI Damascus was about t o be Iought ,
t he Chri sti an bishop, at the early dawn, in hi s robes, at the head oI hi s
cl ergy, wit ll t rl e Cross once so triumphant raised in the air, came down t o
t he gat es oI t he ci ty, and lai d open beIore the army t he Test ament oI
Chri st. The Chri sti an general , THOMAS, laid hi s hand on t he book, and
sai d, "Oh God ! II our Iai th be true, ai d us, and del iver us not i nt o t he
hands oI it s enemies!" But KHALED, "the Sword oI God, " who had
marched Irom vict ory t o vict ory, excl ai med to hi s weari ed soldiers, "Let
no man sl eep! There wi ll be rest enough i n the bowers oI Paradise; sweet
wi ll be the repose never more t o be Iol lowed by labor. " The Iai th oI t he
Arab had become stronger t han t hat oI the Christ ian, and he conquered.
The Sword is also, i n t he Bi ble, an embl em oI SPEECH, or oI t he
utterance oI thought . Thus, in t hat vi sion or apocalypse oI t he subl i me
exil e oI Pat mos, a protest in t he name oI t he ideal , overwhel mi ng t he real
worl d, a tremendous sati re ut tered i n the name oI Rel igi on and Liberty,
and wi th i ts Iiery reverberat ions smi t ing t he t hrone oI the Gesars, a sharp
t wo-edged sword comes out oI the mout h oI t he Sembl ance oI the Son oI
Man, enci rcl ed by t he seven gol den candl esti cks, and hol di ng i n his ri ght
hand seven st ars. "The Lord, " says Isaiah, "hat h made my mouth l ike a
sharp sword. " "I have slain them, " says Hosea, "by t he words oI my
mout h. " "The word oI God, " says the writ er oI the apost ol ic let ter to t he
Hebrews, "i s quick and powerIul , and sharper than any t wo-edged sword,
piercing even to the di vi ding asunder oI soul and spiri t . " "The sword oI
t he Spi rit , which is the Word oI God, " says Paul, wri t ing to t he Chri sti ans
at Ephesus. "I wil l Ii ght against t hem wi th the sword oI my mout h," it i s
sai d i n the Apocalypse, t o the angel oI the church at Pergamos.
* * * * * *
The spoken di scourse may rol l on st rongly as t he great ti dal wave; but ,
l ike the wave, i t dies at l ast Ieebly on t he sands. It i s heard by Iew,
remembered by sti ll Iewer, and Iades away, l i ke an echo in t he mountai ns,
l eaving no t oken oI power. It i s not hing to tl le l i vi ng and comi ng
generati ons oI men. It was t he wri tt en hul ll an speech, t hat gave power and
permanence t o human t hought . It is this t hat makes t he whole human
hist ory but one i ndivi dual l iIe.
To write on the rock i s t o wri te on a soli d parchment; but it requires a
pilgri mage t o see it . There i s but one copy, and Ti me wears even that. To
writ e on skins or papyrus was t o gi ve, as it were, but one tardy edit i on,
and t he rich only coul d procure it . The Chi nese st ereotyped not only t he
unchangi ng wisdom oI oi d sages, but al so t he passi ng event s. The process
t ended to suIIocate thought, and to hi nder progress; Ior t here is cont inual
wanderi ng in the wi sest minds, and Trut h writes her last words, not on
cl ean t ablets, but on t he scrawl that Error has made and oIten mended.
Print ing made t he movable lett ers proli Ii c. ThenceIorth the orat or spoke
al most visi bly t o l ist eni ng nat ions; and the aut hor wrot e, li ke t he Pope, his
cecumeni c decreesJ urbi et orbi , and ordered them t o be posted up in al l
t he market-pl aces; remai ning, i I he chose, i mpervious t o human sight. The
doom oI tyranni es was t henceIort h sealed. Sati re and invecti ve became
potent as armies. The unseen hands oI the Juniuses could launch the
t hunderbol ts, and make the mi ni st ers t remble. One whi sper Irom t hi s giant
Iil ls t he eart h as easi ly as Demosthenes Iil led t he Agora. It wil l soon be
heard at t he anti podes as easi ly as in t he next street. It travels wit h the
l ight ni ng under t he oceans. It makes t he mass one man, speaks t o i t in the
same comtnon language, and el icit s a sure and si ngl e response. Speech
passes int o thought , and thence promptly int o act . A nati on becomes truly
one, wit h one l arge heart and a si ngl e t hrobbi ng pul se. Men are invisi bly
present t o each ot her, as iI already spiri t ual bei ngs; and t he t hi nker who
si ts in an Al pi ne sol it ude, unknown to or Iorgott en by al l the world, among
t he si lent herds and hi ll s, may Ilash hi s words to all t l l e ci ties and over al l
t he seas.
Select t he t hi nkers t o be Legi sl ators; and avoi d the gabbl ers. Wi sdom is
rarely l oquaci ous. Wei ght and dept h oI t hougbt are unIavorabl e t o
volubi l i ty. The shal l ow and superIici al are generally vol ubl e and oIten
pass Ior el oquent . More words, l ess t hought, --is the general rule. The man
who endeavors t o say somethi ng worth rememberi ng i n every sent ence,
becomes Iast i di ous, and condenses l ike Taci tus. The vul gar love a more
diIIuse stream. The ornament ati on t hat does not cover st rength is the
gewgaws oI babble.
Nei ther is dialectic subt lety valuable to publi c men. The Chri stian Iait h
has i t , had i t Iormerly more than now; a subtl ety that might have ent angled
Plat o, and whi ch has rival led i n a Iruit less Iashi on the myst i c lore oI
Jewish Rabbi s and Indian Sages. It is not this which converts t he heathen.
It is a vai n t ask t o balance the great t hought s oI t he earth, l ike hol l ow
st raws, on the Iingerti ps oI di sput ati on. It is not this kind oI warIare
whicl l makes the Cross tri umphant i n t he heart s oI t he unbel ievers; but t he
act ual power t hat l ives in the Fai th.
So there i s a poli t ical schol asti cism t hat is merely useless. The dext eri ti es
oI subt le l ogi c rarely st i r the hearts oI the people, or convince t hem. The
t rue apost le oI Li berty, Fraterni ty and Equal ity makes i t a mat ter oI l iIe
and deat h. Hi s combats are l i ke t hose oI Bossuet, -- combat s t o t he death.
The true apostoli c Iire is li ke t he l ight ning: i t Il ashes convi ct i on int o the
soul. The true word is verily a t wo-edged sword. Mat ters oI government
and poli ti cal science can be Iai rly deal t wi th only by sound reason, and t he
l ogic oI common sense: not the common sense oI the ignorant, but oI the
wi se. The acut est t hi nkers rarely succeed in becomi ng l eaders oI men. A
wat chword or a catchword is more potent wit h t he peopl e t han logi c,
especi ally i I this be the least metaphysical . When a poli ti cal prophet
arises, to sti r the dreami ng, stagnant nat i on, and hold back i t s Ieet Irom
t he i rretrievable descent , t o heave t he land as wi t h an eart hquake, and
shake t he si lly-shall ow i dols Irom their seats, hi s words vvi ll come
st raight Irom God' s own nlouth, and be t hundered int o t he conscience. He
wi ll reason, teach, warn, and rule. The real "Sword oI the Spirit " is keener
t han the brightest bl ade oI Damascus. Such men rul e a l and, i n t he
st rengt h oI justi ce, wi th wi sdom and wi th power. St il l , t he men oI
dialect ic subt lety oIt en rul e wel l , because in pract ice they Iorget t hei r
Iinely-spun t heories, and use t he t renchant l ogic oI common sense. But
when t he great heart and l arge int el l ect are l eIt t o the rust i n pri vat e li Ie,
and small att orneys, brawl ers i n poli ti cs, and those who i n t he ci ti es
woul d be only the clerks oI notari es, or pract it ioners in the di sreputable
court s, are made nati onal Legisl ators, the country i s i n her dot age. even i I
t he beard has not yet grown upon her chi n.
In a Iree country, human speech must needs be Iree; and the Stat e must
l ist en t o the maunderings oI Iolly, and t he screechings oI i ts geese, and the
brayi ngs oI i t s asses, as wel l as t o t he golden oracles oI it s wi se and great
men. Even t he despot i c ol d kings all owed their wi se Iool s to say what they
l iked. The t rue alchel ll ist will ext ract the lessons oI wisdom Irom the
babbl ings oI Iolly. He wi l l hear what a man has t o say on any gi ven
subject , even i I the speaker end only in provi ng hi mselI pri nce oI Iools.
Even a Iool wi l l someti mes hi t the mark. There is some truth i n al l men
who are not compel l ed t o suppress t heir souls and speak other men' s
t hought s. The Ii nger even oI the i diot may poi nt t o t he great highway.
A peopl e, as wel l as t he sages, must l earn to Iorget. II i t nei ther l earns the
new nor Iorget s the ol d, it i s Iat ed, even i I i t has been royal Ior thi rty
generati ons. To unlearn i s t o l earn; and al so i t is somet i mes needIul t o
l earn again the Iorgott en. The anti cs oI Iool s make t he current Iol l ies more
palpable, as Iashions are shown t o be absurd by caricat ures, which so lead
t o t hei r ext irpat i on. The buIIoon and t he zany are useIul i n t hei r places.
The ingenious arti Iicer and craIt sman, l ike Solomon, searches the eart h Ior
his material s, and t ransIorms the mi sshapen mat ter i nt o glori ous
workmanshi p. The world i s conquered by the head even more t han by the
hands. Nor wi ll any assembly tal k Iorever. AIter a t i me, when it has
l ist ened long enough, it quietly puts the sil ly, the shal l ow, and the
superIici al to one side, --it t hi nks, and sets to work.
The human t hought , especi ally i n popular assembli es, runs in t he most
si ngul arly crooked channel s, harder t o t race and Iol l ow t han the bl ind
current s oI the ocean. No noti on is so absurd that i t may not Iind a place
t here. The master-workman must trai n t hese noti ons and vagari es wi th hi s
t wo-handed hammer. They t wist out oI the way oI the sword-thrust s; and
are invul nerabl e all over, even i n the heel, against logi c. The martel or
mace, t he batt l e-axe, t he great double-edged t wo-handed sword must deal
wi th Iol lies; t he rapi er is no bett er agai nst them than a wand, unl ess i t be
t he rapi er oI ri di cul e.
The SWORD i s al so t he symbol oI war and oI the sol dier. Wars, li ke
t hunder-st orms, are oIt en necessary t o puriIy t he st agnant at mosphere. War
i s not a demon, wi t hout remorse or reward. It rest ores the brot herhood i n
l ett ers oI Ii re. When men are seated i n t hei r pleasant pl aces, sunken i n
ease and i ndolence, wi th Pret ence and Incapaci ty and Lit tl eness usurpi ng
al l the high pl aces oI State, war is t he bapt ism oI blood and Iire, by which
al one they can be renovat ed. It is t he hurri cane t hat brings the elemental
equil ibri um, t he concord oI Power and Wi sdom. So l ong as t hese conti nue
obsti nat ely divorced, it wi ll conti nue to chasten.
In t he mutual appeal oI nat ions t o God, there i s t he acknowl edgment oI
Hi s mi ght. It l ights t he beacons oI Fai th and Freedom, and heat s t he
Iurnace t hrough whi ch t he earnest and loyal pass t o i mmortal gl ory. There
i s i n war t he doom oI deIeat , t he quenchl ess sense oI Duty, t he st irri ng
sense oI Honor, the measureless solemn sacriIice oI devotedness, and t he
i ncense oI success. Even in t he Ilame and smoke oI batt le, t he Mason
discovers hi s brother, and Iul Iil ls the sacred obl igati ons oI Fraternity.
Two, or the Duad, i s the symbol oI Ant agoni sm; oI Good and Evil , Light
and Darkness. It is Cai n and Abel, Eve and Li li th, Jachin and Boaz,
Ormuzd and Ahri man, Osi ri s and Typhon.
THREE, or the Triad, i s most si gni Ii cant ly expressed by t he equil at eral
and t he right-angled tri angles. There are three pri ncipal colors or rays in
t he rainbow, whi ch by i ntermi xture make seven. The t hree are the bl ue, the
yelloW, and t he red. The Tri nity oI the Dei ty, i n one mode or ot her, has
been an art icl e in al l creeds. He creates, preserves, and destroys. He i s t he
generati ve power, the producti ve capacity, and the resul t . The i mmat erial
man, accordi ng to t he Kabalah, is composed oI vi tal ity, or li Ie, the breath
oI l i Ie; oI soul or mi nd, and spi ri t . Salt , sulphur, and mercury are the great
symbol s oI the alchemist s. To t hem man was body, soul , and spi rit .
FOUR i s expressed by the square, or Iour-si ded ri ght-angl ed Iigure. Out oI
t he symbol i c Garden oI Eden Ilowed a ri ver, di viding into Iour streams, --
PISON, which Il ows around the land oI gol d, or li ght ; GIHON, which
Ilows around t he l and oI Ethiopia or Darkness; HIDDEKEL, running
east ward to Assyri a; and the EUPHRATES. Zechari ah saw Iour chari ot s
coming out Irom bet ween t wo mount ains oI bronze, in the Ii rst oI which
were red horses; i n t he second, bl ack; in t he t hird, white; and i n the
Iourt h, gri zzled: "and t hese were the Iour wi nds oI the heavens, that go
Iorth Irom standi ng beIore t he Lord oI al l t he earth. " Ezekiel saw the Iour
l ivi ng creat ures, each wit h Iour Iaces and Iour wi ngs, the Iaces oI a man
and a l ion, an ox and an eagl e; and t he Iour wheels goi ng upon their Iour
si des; and Sai nt John behel d the Iour beasts, Iull oI eyes beIore and
behind, the LION, t he young Ox, the MAN, and t he Ilying EAGLE. Four
was the signat ure oI t he Earth. ThereIore, in t he 148t h Psal m, oI those
who must praise the Lord on t he l and, t here are Iour ti mes Iour, and Iour
i n part icular oI l i ving creat ures. Visi ble nat ure i s descri bed as t he Iour
quart ers oI the worl d, and t he Iour corners oI the eart h. "There are Iour,"
says the old Jewi sh saying, "which take t he Iirst pl ace in thi s worl d: man,
among the creat ures; t he eagl e among birds; the ox among catt le; and t he
l ion among wil d beast s. " Daniel saw Iour great beasts come up Irom the
FIVE is t he Duad added to the Triad. It is expressed by the Ii ve-poi nted or
blazi ng st ar, the myst eri ous Pental pha oI Pythagoras. It i s i ndi ssol ubly
connect ed wi t h t he number seven. Christ Ied Hi s di sciples and t he
mul ti t ude wi t h Iive loaves and two Iishes, and oI t he Iragment s there
remai ned twel ve, that i s, Ii ve and seven, baskets Iul l. Again He Ied t hem
wi th seven loaves and a Iew l i t tl e Iishes, and t here remained seven basket s
Iul l . The Iive apparent ly smal l planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn, wi th t he t wo greater ones, the Sun and Moon, const it ut ed the
seven celest ial spheres.
SEVEN was t he pecul iarly sacred number. There were seven planets and
spheres presi ded over by seven archangels. There were seven colors i n the
rainbow; and t he Phoenici an Deity was cal led t he HEPTAKIS or God oI
seven rays; seven days oI t he week; and seven and Iive made the number
oI months, t ri bes, ancl apost l es. Zechariah saw a golden candlest ick, wi th
seven lamps and seven pipes to t he l amps, and an ol i ve-tree on each si de.
Since he says, "the seven eyes oI the Lord shall rejoice, and shall see t he
plummet i n the hand oI Zerubbabel ." John, i n the Apocalypse, wri tes seven
epistl es t o t he seven churches. In the seven epist les there are t welve
promises. What is sai d oI the churches i n prai se or bl ame, i s compl et ed in
t he number three. The reIrain, "who has ears to hear," et c. , has ten words,
divi ded by three and seven, and t he seven by t hree and Iour; and t he seven
epistl es are also so divided. In t he seal s, trumpet s, and vial s, al so, oI this
symbol ic vi si on, the seven are divi ded by Iour and t hree. He who sends hi s
message to Ephesus, "hol ds t he seven stars i n his ri ght hand, and walks
amid the seven gol den lamps. "
In si x days, or peri ods, God creat ed the Uni verse, and paused on t he
seventh day. OI cl ean beast s, Noah was directed to take by sevens i nt o the
ark; and oI Iowl s by sevens; because in seven days t he rain was t o
commence. On t he seventeenth day oI the month. the rai n began; on the
seventeent h day oI the sevent h mont h, t he ark rested on Ararat. When t he
dove ret urned, Noah wait ed seven days beIore he sent her Iort h agai n; and
agai n seven, aIter she ret urned wit h t he oli ve-leaI. Enoch was the sevent h
patri arch, Adam i ncl uded, and Lamech l i ved 777 years.
There were seven lamps i n the great candl est i ck oI the Tabernacle and
Temple, representi ng t he seven planet s. Seven ti mes Moses sprinkl ed t he
anointi ng oi l upon the alt ar. The days oI consecrati on oI Aaron and hi s
sons were seven in number. A woman was uncl ean seven days aIt er chi ld-
birth; one i nIected wit h leprosy was shut up seven days; seven t i mes t he
l eper was spri nkl ed wi th t he blood oI a slai n bird; and seven days
aIterwards he must remai n abroad out oI hi s tent. Seven ti mes, in
puri Iying the leper, t he pri est was to sprinkl e the consecrated oi l; and
seven ti mes to sprinkle wi th the bl ood oI t he sacri Iiced bi rd the house t o
be puriIied. Seven t i mes the bl ood oI the slai n bull ock was spri nkl ed on
t he mercy-seat ; and seven ti mes on the alt ar. The seventh year was a
Sabbath oI rest ; and at t he end oI seven ti mes seven years came the great
year oI j ubi lee. Seven days t he peopl e at e unleavened bread, in t he mont h
oI Abib. Seven weeks were count ed Irom t he ti me oI Iirst putt ing the
si ckle to the wheat . The Feast oI t he Tabernacles l asted seven days.
Israel was in the hand oI Mi di an seven years beIore Gideon del ivered
t hem. The bul l ock sacriIiced by hi m was seven years old. Samson t ol d
Del il ah to bi nd hi m wi t h seven green wi thes; and she wove the seven locks
oI his head, and aIt erwards shaved them oII. Bal aam t ol d Barak t o bui l d
Ior hi m seven altars. Jacob served seven years Ior Leah and seven Ior
Rachel. Job had seven sons and three daughters, maki ng the perIect
number ten. He had al so seven t housand sheep and t hree thousand camels.
Hi s Iri ends sat down wi th hi m seven days and seven nights. Hi s Iriends
were ordered t o sacriIice seven bul locks and seven rams; and agai n, at the
end, he had seven sons and three daughters, and t wi ce seven thousand
sheep, and l ived an hundred and Iorty, or twice seven t i mes ten years.
Pharaoh saw i n his dream seven Iat and seven lean ki ne, seven good ears
and seven bl asted ears oI wheat ; and t here were seven years oI plenty, and
seven oI Iami ne. Jericho Iel l, when seven priest s, wit h seven t rumpet s,
made t he ci rcuit oI t he ci ty on seven successive days; once each day Ior
si x days, and seven ti mes on t he seventh. "The seven eyes oI t he Lord,"
says Zechariah, "run to and Iro through t he whol e earth." Sol omon was
seven years in buil di ng t he Templ e. Seven angel s, i n the Apocalypse, pour
out seven pl agues, Irom seven vi al s oI wrat h. The scarlet-colored beast , on
which the woman sit s in t he wi lderness, has seven heads and ten horns. So
al so has the beast t hat ri ses Up out oI t he sea. Seven thunders ut tered thei r
voices. Seven angels sounded seven trumpet s. Seven lamps oI Ii re, t he
seven spi ri ts oI God, burned beIore t he throne; and t he Lamb that was
sl ain had seven horns and seven eyes.
EIGHT i s t he Iirst cube, that oI t wo. NINE i s t he square oI three, and
represented by the tri ple triangl e.
TEN i ncl udes al l the ot her numbers. It i s especial ly seven and three; and
i s call ed the number oI perIect ion. Pythagoras represented i t by t he
TETRACTYS, whi ch had many mysti c meanings. Thi s symbol i s
someti mes composed oI dots or poi nt s, somet i mes oI commas or yods, and
i n t he Kabalah, oI the let ters oI t he name oI Dei ty. It is thus arranged:
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
The Pat ri archs Irom Adam to Noah, incl usi ve, are t en in number, and the
same number i s t hat oI the Commandments.
TWELVE is t he number oI t he l i nes oI equal l engt h t hat Iorm a cube. It i s
t he number oI the mont hs, the tri bes, and t he apostl es; oI the oxen under
t he Brazen Sea, oI t he st ones on t he breast -plate oI t he high priest.

Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
3º - Mast er
To underst and li terally t he symbols and al legories oI Oriental books as to
ante-hist orical mat t ers, i s will Iully to close our eyes agai nst the Li ght. To
t ranslate the symbol s int o t he t ri vi al and commonplace, i s the blunderi ng
oI medi ocrity.
Al l rel igi ous expressi on is symboli sm; si nce we can descri be only what we
see, and the true obj ects oI rel igi on are THE SEEN. The earl iest
i nstrument s oI educat i on were symbols; and t hey and al l ot her rel igi ous
Iorms diIIered and st i ll di IIer according t o external circumstances and
i magery, and according t o di IIerences oI knowledge and ment al
cult ivat i on. All language i s symbol ic, so Iar as it i s appli ed t o ment al and
spirit ual phenomena and acti on. All words have, pri marily, a material
sense, however they may aIterward get , Ior the ignorant, a spi ri tual non-
sense. "To ret ract ," Ior example, i s to draw back, and when appl ied to a
st atement, i s symbol ic, as much so as a pict ure oI an arm drawn back, to
express the same thi ng, woul d be. The very word "spiri t" means "breath, "
Irom the Lati n verb spiro, breathe.
To present a vi sible symbol to the eye oI anot her is not necessarily t o
i nIorm hi m oI t he meani ng which that symbol has t o you. Hence the
phil osopher soon superadded to the symbol s expl anati ons addressed t o t he
ear, suscept i ble oI more precisi on, but less eIIecti ve and i mpressive than
t he painted or scul ptured Iorms which he endeavored to explai n. Out oI
t hese expl anat ions grew by degrees a vari ety oI narrati ons, whose true
object and meaning were gradually Iorgot ten, or l ost i n contradi ct i ons and
i ncongrui t ies. And when t hese were abandoned, and Phil osophy resorted t o
deIi nit ions and Iormulas, it s language was but a more compl icated
symbol i sm, att empt ing i n t he dark to grappl e wi th and pi cture i deas
i mpossibl e to be expressed. For as wi t h t he visi ble symbol , so wi th the
word: t o utt er it t o you does not i nIorm you oI t he exact meaning whi ch i t
has to me; and t hus rel igi on and phi losophy became t o a great ext ent
disputes as to the meani ng oI words. The most abst ract expression Ior
DEITY, which language can supply, i s but a sign or symbol Ior an obj ect
beyond our comprehensi on, and not more trut hIul and adequat e t han the
i mages oI OSIRIS and VISHNU, or t heir names, except as being less
sensuous and expl i ci t . We avoid sensuousness only by resorti ng t o si mple
negat ion. We come at l ast to deIine spirit by saying t hat it i s not mat ter.
Spi ri t is--spi rit .
A si ngl e exampl e oI t he symbol i sm oI words will i ndicate to you one
branch oI Masonic st udy. We Ii nd in the Engl ish Rit e t his phrase: "I wi ll
al ways hai l, ever conceal, and never reveal ; " and in the Catechi sm, t hese:
Q. ' . "I hai l. "
A. ' . "I conceal , "
and ignorance, mi sunderstandi ng t he word "hail , " has i nterpolat ed t he
phrase, "From whence do you hai l . "
But t he word is real ly "hel e, " Irom t he Angl o-Saxon verb el an, helan, to
cover, hi de, or conceal. And this word i s rendered by the Lati n verb
t egere, to cover or rooI over. "That ye Iro me no t hynge wol l hele, " says
Gower. "They hele Iro me no priuyte, " says the Romaunt oI t he Rose. "To
heal a house, " i s a common phrase i n Sussex; and in the west oI Engl and,
he that covers a house wi th slates i s cal led a Healer. WhereIore, t o "heal "
means t he same t hing as t o "t i le, "--i tsel I symbolic, as meani ng, pri mari ly,
t o cover a house wi t h t il es, --and means to cover, hide, or conceal . Thus
l anguage t oo is symbol ism, and words are as much misunderstood and
misused as more mat eri al symbol s are.
Symbol ism t ended cont i nual ly to become more compli cated; and all the
powers oI Heaven were reproduced on eart h, unt i l a web oI Iict ion and
al legory was woven, part ly by art and partly by t he ignorance oI error,
which the wi t oI man, wi th hi s l i mi t ed means oI explanat ion, wil l never
unravel. Even the Hebrew Thei sm became i nvolved i n symboli sm and
i mage-worship, borrowed probably Irom an ol der creed and remote regi ons
oI Asi a, --the worshi p oI the Great Semi t ic Nat ure-God AL or ELS and it s
symbol ical represent at ions oI JEHOVA Hi mselI were not even conIined t o
poeti cal or il lustrati ve l anguage. The pri ests were monotheist s: the people
i dol aters.
There are dangers i nseparable Irom symbol ism, which aIIord an
i mpressi ve l esson i n regard t o t he si mi lar risks att endant on the use oI
l anguage. The i magi nat ion, cal led in t o assi st the reason, usurps i ts place
or l eaves i ts al ly hel pl essly entangled in it sweb. Names whi ch st and Ior
t hi ngs are conIounded wi th them; t he means are mi staken Ior t he end; the
i nstrument oI i nt erpretat i on Ior t he object ; and thus symbol s come t o
usurp an independent charact er as trut hs and persons. Though perhaps a
necessary pat h, they were a dangerous one by which to approach the Deity;
i n which many, says PLUTARCH, "mist aki ng t he si gn Ior t he t hi ng
signiIied, Iell i nt o a ri di cul ous superst it ion; whi le ot hers, i n avoiding one
extreme, pl unged i nto t he no l ess hi deous gul I oI irrel igi on and i mpi ety."
It is t hrough t he Myst eri es, CICERO says, t hat we have l earned t he Iirst
pri nci ples oI li Ie; whereIore the term "i nit i at ion" is used wit h good
reason; and t hey not only teach us t o l ive more happi ly and agrceably, but
t hey soIt en t he pains oI deat h by t he hope oI a better l iIe hereaIt er.
The Mysteries were a Sacred Drama, exhi bit ing some l egend signi Ii cant oI
nature' s changes, oI t he visi bl e Universe i n which the Di vinity i s revealed,
and whose i mport was in many respects as open to t he Pagan as to the
Chri sti an. Nature i s t hc great Teacher oI man; Ior i t i s t he Revel at ion oI
God. It neit her dogmat i zes nor att empts to tyrannize by compell ing to a
parti cul ar creed or special i nt erpretati on. It presents i ts symbols to us, and
adds not hing by way oI expl anati on. It i s the text wi thout t he commentary;
and, as we wel l know, it i s chi eIly t he commentary and gloss that l ead t o
error and heresesy and persecut ion. The earliest i nst ructors oI manki nd not
only adopted the lessons oI Nature, but as Iar as possi bl e adhered to her
method oI i mparti ng t hem. In the Mysteries, beyond the current t radit ions
or sacred and eni gi mat ic recit als oI the Temples, Iew explanati ons were
gi ven to the spect at ors, who were leIt , as in t he school oI nature, to make
i nIerences Ior t hemsel ves. No other method could have suit ed every
degree oI cult ivati on and capacity. To employ nat ure' s universal
symbol i sm i nst ead oI t he technical it ies oI language, rewards the humbl est
i nquirer, and discl oses i ts secret s t o every one in proport i on t o his
preparatory traini ng and hi s power t o con1prel lend t hem. II their
phil osophi cal meani ng was above the comli rel lensi on oI some, their moral
and poli ti cal meanl ngs are wi thin the reach oI al l.
These myst ic shows and perIormances were not the reading oI a l ecture,
but the opening oI a problem. Requi ri ng research, t hey were cal culated to
arouse the dormant int ell ect. They i mpl ied no host il ity to Phi l osophy,
because Phil osophy is the great expounder oI symboli sm; al t hough it s
anci ent i nterpretat ions were oIten i ll Iounded and i ncorrect . The alt erat i on
Irom symbol to dogma i s Iatal to beauty oI expressi on, and leads to
i nt olerance and assumed inIall ibi l ity.
* * * * * *
II, i n t eachi ng t he great doct ri ne oI the di vine nat ure oI t he Soul, and in
st ri vi ng t o expl ain i ts l ongings aIter i mmort al ity, and i n provi ng i ts
superi ori ty over the soul s oI t he ani mals, whi ch have no aspirati ons
Heavenward, t he ancients st ruggled in vai n t o express t he nature oI the
soul, by compari ng it to FIRE and LIGHT, it wi ll be wel l Ior us to
consi der whet her, wi th all our boast ed knowledge, we have any bet ter or
cl earer idea oI i t s nature, and whet her we have not despairi ngly taken
reIuge in having none at all . And i I they erred as to it s original place oI
abode, and underst ood l iteral ly the mode and pat h oI it s descent , these
were but the accessori es oI t he great Trut h, and probably, to t he Initi ates,
mere allegori es, desi gned to make t he i dea more pal pabl e and i mpressive
t o t he mind.
They are at l east no more Iit t o be smi led at by the sel I-conceit oI a vain
i gnorance, the weal t h oI whose knowledge consi sts solely i n words, than
t he bosom oI Abraham, as a home Ior t he spi rit s oI t he j ust dead; t he gulI
oI act ual Ii re, Ior the eternal t orture oI spirit s; and the Ci ty oI the New
Jerusal em, wi th it s wal ls oI jasper and i ts edi Iices oI pure gol d li ke cl ear
glass, i t s Ioundat i ons oI preci ous stones, and i t s gates each oI a si ngle
pearl . "I knew a man, " says PAUL, "caught up to the t hird Heaven; . . . . t hat
he was caught up int o Paradi se, and heard i neIIable words, which i t is not
possible Ior a man to ut ter. " And nowhere is the ant agoni sm and conIl ict
between the spiri t and body more Irequently and Iorci bly i nsi sted on than
i n t he wri ti ngs oI thi s apostl e, nowhere t he Divi ne nature oI the soul more
st rongly asserted. "Wit h t he mind, " he says, "I serve the law oI God; but
wi th t he Il esh the law oI si n. . . . As many as are led by the Spi ri t oI God, are
t he sons oI GOD. . . . The earnest expect ati on oI t he created wait s Ior the
maniIestat ion oI the sons oI God. . . . The creat ed shall be deli vered Irom
t he bondage oI corrupt ion, oI the Il esh l iable to decay, i nt o t he gl orious
l iberty oI t he chil dren oI God. "
* * * * * *
Two Iorms oI government are Iavorable to t he preval ence oI Ialsehood and
decei t. Under a Despoti sm, men are Ial se, t reacherous, and decei tIul
t hrough Iear, li ke slaves dreadi ng the lash. Under a Democracy they are so
as a means oI att ai ning popul ari ty and oIIi ce, and because oI t he greed Ior
weal th. Experi ence wil l probably prove t hat these odious and det establ e
vices wi l l grow most rankly and spread most rapi dly in a Republ ic. When
oIIice and wealt h become the gods oI a people, and t he most unworthy and
unIi t most aspire t o t he Iormer, and Iraud becomes t he highway to t he
l att er, t he l and wi ll reek wi t h Ial sehood and sweat l i es and chicane. When
t he oIIices are open to all , merit and stern i nt egri ty and the digni ty oI
unsul li ed honor wil l attain them only rarely and by accident. To be abl e t o
serve t he count ry well , wil l cease to be a reason why t he great and wi se
and l earned shoul d be selected t o render service. Ot her quali Ii cati ons, less
honorabl e, wil l be more avai labl e. To adapt one' s opi ni ons to the popul ar
humor; t o deIend, apol ogi ze Ior, and j ust iIy t he popul ar Ioll ies; t o
advocat e the expedi ent and the pl ausi ble; t o caress, caj ole, and Ilat ter the
el ector; to beg li ke a spaniel Ior hi s vot e, even iI he be a negro t hree
removes Irom barbarism; to proIess Iriendshi p Ior a competi t or and st ab
hi m by innuendo; t o set on Ioot t hat whi ch at t hird hand shal l become a
l ie, bei ng cousin-german to it when utt ered, and yet capable oI being
expl ained away, --who i s t here that has not seen t hese l ow arts and base
appli ances put into practi ce, and becomi ng general , unti l success cannot
be surely had by any more honorable means ?--t he resul t bei ng a State
rul ed and rui ned by i gnorant and shal low mediocri ty, pert sel I-concei t, t he
greenness oI unripe intel lect , vain oI a school -boy' s smatt eri ng oI
knowl edge.
The Iait hl ess and t he Ialse i n publ ic and in poli ti cal li Ie, wi l l be Iait hl ess
and Ialse i n pri vat e. The jockey i n pol it ics, li ke the jockey on t he race-
course, is rotten Irom skin to core. Everywhere he wi ll see Ii rst to hi s own
i nterests, and whoso l eans on hi m wi l l be pi erced wi t h a broken reed. His
ambit ion is i gnoble, li ke hi mselI; and thereIore he wi l l seek to att ai n omce
by ignoble means, as he wil l seek to at tai n any ot her coveted obj ect, --land,
money, or reputati on.
At l engt h, oIIice and honor are di vorced. The pl ace t hat the smal l and
shal low, t he knave or the trickster, is deemed competent and Ii t to Ii ll ,
ceases t o be wort hy t he ambi ti on oI t he great and capable; or i I not , these
shri nk Irom a contest , t he weapons to be used wherei n are unIi t Ior a
gent leman to handle. Then the habi ts oI unpri nci pl ed advocates in law
court s are nat urali zed in Senates, and pet t iIoggers wrangle there, when the
Iate oI the nat ion and t he l i ves oI mi ll i ons are at stake. St ates are even
begott en by vil lai ny and brought Iort h by Iraud, and rascal it ies are
j ust iIied by legi sl ators clai ming t o be honorable. Then contest ed el ecti ons
are deci ded by perj ured votes or party consi derat i ons; and all t he pract ices
oI t he worst t i mes oI corrupt ion are revived and exaggerat ed i n Republi cs.
It is strange t hat reverence Ior t rut h, t hat manl i ness and genui ne loyalty,
and scorn oI li tt leness and unIair advant age, and genuine Iai th and
godli ness and l arge-heartedness should di mi ni sh, among statesmen and
peopl e, as civi l i zat ion advances, and Ireedom becomes more general, and
universal suIIrage i mpl i es universal worth and Ii tness ! In t he age oI
El izabeth, wi t hout universal suIIrage, or Societ ies Ior t he Di IIusi on oI
UseIul Knowledge, or popul ar lecturers, or Lycaea, t he st at esman, the
merchant, the burgher, t he sai lor, were al l al i ke heroi c, Ieari ng God only,
and man not at al l . Let but a hundred or two years elapse, and in a
Monarchy or Republ ic oI the same race, not hi ng i s less heroic than t he
merchant, the shrewd speculator, t he oIIice-seeker, Ieari ng man only, and
God not at all . Reverence Ior greatness dies out, and is succeeded by base
envy oI greatness. Every man i s i n t he way oI many, ei ther in the pat h t o
populari ty or weal th. There i s a general Ieel ing oI sat isIact ion when a
great st atesman i s displ aced, or a general, who has been Ior his bri eI hour
t he popular i dol , i s unIort unat e and si nks Irom hi s hi gh est ate. It becomes
a mi sIortune, iI not a cri me, t o be above t he popular level.
We should nat ural ly suppose t hat a nati on in di stress would take counsel
wi th t he wi sest oI it s sons. But , on the cont rary, great men seem never so
scarce as when t hey are most needed, and smal l men never so bold to
i nsi st on i nIesti ng place, as when mediocri ty and incapable pret ence and
sophomoric greenness, and showy and sprightly i ncompet ency are most
dangerous. When France was in the extremi ty oI revol ut i onary agony, she
was governed by an assembly oI provi nci al pet t iIoggers, and Robespierre,
Marat, and Cout hon rul ed i n the place oI Mirabeau, Vergni aud, and
Carnot. England was governed by t he Rump Parl iament , aIt er she had
beheaded her ki ng. Cromwel l ext i nguished one body, and Napol eon the
Fraud, Ial sehood, t ri ckery, and decei t i n nati onal aIIai rs are the signs oI
decadence i n States and precede convulsi ons or paralysi s. To bul ly t he
weak and crouch to the strong, i s t he pol i cy oI nati ons governed by small
mediocri ty. The t ri cks oI the canvass Ior oIIice are re-enact ed in Senates.
The Execut i ve becomes t he dispenser oI patronage, chi eIly t o the most
unworthy; and men are bri bed wit h oIIi ces i nstead oI money, t o the great er
rui n oI the Commonweal t h. The Divi ne in human nature disappears, and
i nterest, grced, and sel Ii shness takes it pl ace. That i s a sad and true
al legory which represents t he companions oI Ulysses changed by t he
enchant ment s oI Ci rce into swine.
* * * * *
"Ye cannot, " sai d t he Great Teacher, "serve God and Mammon. " When t he
t hirst Ior wealt h becomes general , it wi ll be sought Ior as wel l di shonest ly
as honest ly; by Irauds and overreachings, by t he knaveries oI trade, t he
heart lessness oI greedy speculati on, by gambl ing i n st ocks and
commodi ti es t hat soon demorali zes a whol e community. Men wi ll
speculat e upon the needs oI their nei ghbors and t he dist resses oI thei r
count ry. Bubbl es t hat, burst i ng, i mpoverish mul t it udes, wi ll be bl own up
by cunning knavery, wit h stupi d credul ity as i ts assist ant s and inst rument.
Huge bankruptcies, that start le a country l ike the eart hquakes, and are
more Iat al, Iraudulent assignment s, engulIment oI the savi ngs oI t he poor,
expansi ons and col lapses oI the currency, the crash oI banks, the
depreci ati on oI Government securit ies, prey on t he savi ngs oI selI-denial ,
and t roubl e wi t h their depredat ions t he Iirst nourishment oI i nIancy and
t he l ast sands oI li Ie, and Ii ll wi th i nmat es t he churchyards and lunati c
asyl ums. But t he sharper and speculat or thri ves and Iat t ens. II his count ry
i s Iight i ng by a l evy en masse Ior her very exi stence, he aids her by
depreci ati ng her paper, so t hat he may accumul ate Iabulous amount s wit h
l it tl e outl ay. II hi s nei ghbor is dist ressed, he buys his property Ior a song.
II he admi nist ers upon an estat e, it turns out insolvent, and the orphans
are paupers. II his bank explodes, he i s Iound t o have t aken care oI
hi msel I in t i me. Soci ety worshi ps i ts paper-and-credi t kings, as the old
Hi ndus and Egypt ians worshi pped their wort hless idols, and oIten the most
obsequi ously when in actual soli d weal th t hey are t he veriest paupers. No
wonder men t hi nk there ought t o be another worl d, in whi ch the inj ust ices
oI t hi s may be at oned Ior, when they see t he Iriends oI ruined Iami li es
beggi ng the weal t hy sharpers t o give al ms to prevent t he orphaned vi ct i ms
Irom st arvi ng, unti l they may Iindways oI support ing themsel ves.
* * * * * *
Stat es are chi eIly avarici ous oI commerce and oI t errit ory. The lat ter leads
t o t he viol at ion oI treat ies, encroachment s upon Ieebl e nei ghbors, and
rapacity t oward thei r wards whose lands are coveted. Republ ics are, in
t hi s, as rapaci ous and unpri ncipl ed as Despots, never l earning Irom hi st ory
t hat inordinate expansion by rapi ne and Iraud has it s inevit abl e
consequences in di smen1berment or subj ugati on. When a Republ ic begins
t o plunder i ts neighbors, t he words oI doom are already wri tt en on i ts
wal ls. There is a j udgment already pronounced oI God upon whatever is
unri ght eous in the conduct oI nati onal aIIai rs. When ci vi l war t ears the
vitals oI a Republ i c, let it l ook back and see i I it has not been gui lty oI
i nj usti ces; and iI it has, l et it humbl e i t sel I i n the dust !
When a nat ion becomes possessed wi th a spirit oI commercial greed,
beyond those j ust and Iai r li mi ts set by a due regard t o a moderat e and
reasonabl e degree oI general and indi vidual prosperity, i t is a nat ion
possessed by the devil oI commercial avarice, a passion as i gnobl e and
demorali zi ng as avari ce i n t he i ndivi dual; and as t his sordid passi on is
baser and more unscrupulous t han ambit ion, so i t is more hat eIul, and at
l ast makes the inIected nat ion t o be regarded as t he enemy oI the human
race. To grasp at the l ion' s share oI commerce, has al ways at last proven
t he rui n oI St ates, because it invariably l eads t o inj ust ices that make a
Stat e detestable; t o a sel Ii shness and crooked pol i cy that Iorbi d ot her
nati ons to be t he Iri ends oI a State t hat cares only Ior i tsel I.
Commerci al avari ce in India was the parent oI more atrocit ies and greater
rapacity, and cost more human li ves, than t he nobl er ambi t ion Ior ext ended
empire oI Consul ar Rome. The nat i on t hat grasps at the commerce oI t he
worl d cannot but become selIi sh, cal culati ng, dead t o the noblest i mpulses
and sympat hies which ought t o act uate St ates. It wil l submi t t o i nsul t s that
wound i ts honor, rather t han endanger it s commerci al interests by war;
whil e, t o subserve t hose int erest s, i t wi ll wage unjust war, on Ial se or
Iri volous pretexts, i ts Iree people cheerIully allying themselves wi th
despot s to crush a commerci al ri val t hat has dared to exi le it s kings and
el ect i ts own ruler.
Thus the col d cal cul ati ons oI a sordi d sel I-interest, in nat i ons
commercial ly avarici ous, al ways at last di spl ace the sent i ment s and loIty
i mpulses oI Honor and Generosity by which they rose t o greatness; which
made El izabeth and Cromwel l ali ke t he protect ors oI Protestants beyond
t he Iour seas oI England, agai nst crowned Tyranny and mi tred Persecuti on;
and, iI they had lasted, woul d have Iorbidden al li ances wi th Czars and
Autocrats and Bourbons to re-ent hrone the Tyranni es oI Incapaci ty, and
arm the Inqui sit ion anew wi th i ts i nstrument s oI t orture. The soul oI the
avarici ous nat ion petri Iies, li ke t he soul oI t he i ndi vi dual who makes gold
his god. The Despot wi l l occasional ly act upon noble and generous
i mpulses, and hel p t he weak agai nst the strong, t he right agai nst the
wrong. But commercial avarice i s essentially egot ist ic, graspi ng, Iait hless,
overreachi ng, craIty, cold, ungenerous, selIi sh, and calculat ing, control led
by consi derati ons oI selI-int erest al one. Heart less and merci less, it has no
sent i ment s oI pi ty, sympat hy, or honor, t o make it pause in i ts remorsel ess
career; and it crushes down all t hat is oI i mpedi ment in i ts way, as it s
keel s oI commerce crush under them t he murmuri ng and unheeded waves.
A war Ior a great pri nci ple ennobles a nat ion. A war Ior commercial
supremacy, upon some shall ow pretext, i s despi cabl e, and more than aught
el se demonst rat es t o what i mmeasurable dept hs oI baseness men and
nati ons can descend. Commerci al greed val ues t he l i ves oI men no more
t han it val ues t he li ves oI ants. The sl ave-trade i s as accept able to a
peopl e ent hralled by t hat greed, as t he t rade in i vory or spices, iI t he
proIit s are as l arge. It wil l by-and-by endeavor to compound wi t h God and
quiet i t s own consci ence, by compel l i ng those t o whom it sol d the slaves
i t bought or stole, to set them Iree, and slaughteri ng t hem by hecatombs i I
t hey reIuse t o obey t he edict s oI i ts phi lanthropy.
Justi ce i n no wi se consist s in meti ng out to another t hat exact measure oI
reward or puni shment which we thi nk and decree hi s merit , or what we
cal l his cri me, whi ch i s more oIten merely hi s error, deserves. The justi ce
oI t he Iat her is not i ncompati bl e wi th Iorgiveness by hi m oI the errors and
oIIences oI his chi l d. The InIi nit e Just i ce oI God does not consi st in
meti ng out exact measures oI punishment Ior human Irail t ies and si ns. We
are too apt to erect our own li tt le and narrow not ions oI what is right and
j ust into t he l aw oI j usti ce, and to insist that God shal l adopt t hat as Hi s
l aw; to measure oII somethi ng wi th our own li t t le tape-li ne, and call it
God' s l ove oI j ust i ce. Cont inually we seek t o ennoble our own i gnoble
l ove oI revenge and retal iati onJ by misnami ng i t just ice.
Nor does j ust ice consi st i n strictly governing our conduct toward ot her
men by t he rigi d rul es oI l egal right. II there were a communi ty anywhere,
i n which al l st ood upon the strict ness oI thi s rul e, t here should be wri tt en
over it s gates, as a warni ng to the unIortunates desiri ng admissi on to t hat
i nhospi tabl e real m, t he words which DANTE says are writt en over t he
BEHIND ! It is not just to pay the laborer i n Iiel d or Iact ory or workshop
his current wages and no more, the l owest market -val ue oI hi s labor, Ior
so long only as we need t hat labor and he is abl e to work; Ior when
si ckness or old age overt akes hi m, that i s t o l eave hi m and hi s Iamily to
st arve; and God wi l l curse wi t h cal ami ty the peopl e in whi ch t he chil dren
oI t he laborer out oI work eat t he boil ed grass oI t he Iield, and mothers
st rangl e t heir chi l dren, that t hey may buy Iood Ior t hemsel ves wit h t he
chari tabl e pi t tance given Ior burial expenses. The rul es oI what is
ordi narily t ermed "Just ice, " may be punct i li ously observed among the
Iall en spiri t s t hat are t he ari stocracy oI Hel l.
* * * * * *
Justi ce, divorced Irom sympat hy, i s sel Ii sh i ndi IIerence, not i n t he l east
more laudabl e t han mi santhropic isolat ion. There i s sympat hy even among
t he hair-l ike osci ll atori as, a tribe oI si mpl e pl ant s, armi es oI which may be
discovered wi t h the aid oI t he microscope, i n t he ti niest bit oI scum Irom
a st agnant pool . For t hese wi ll pl ace t hemsel ves, as iI i t were by
agreement , in separat e companies, on the side oI a vessel contai ni ng t hem,
and seem marchi ng upward i n rows; and when a swarm grows weary oI i ts
si tuati on, and has a mi nd to change it s quarters, each army hol ds on i t s
way wi t hout conIusi on or intermi xt ure, proceeding wi th great regularity
and order, as i I under t he directi ons oI wi se leaders. The ant s and bees
gi ve each ot her mutual assi stance, beyond what is required by t hat whi ch
human creat ures are apt to regard as the strict l aw oI j ust ice.
Surely we need but reIl ect a l i t tl e, t o be convi nced that t he i ndi vi dual man
i s but a Iracti on oI t he unit oI society, and that he i s i ndi ssol ubly
connect ed wi t h t he rest oI his race. Not only the acti ons, but t he wil l and
t hought s oI ot her men make or mar hi s Iort unes, control hi s dest inies, are
unto hi m li Ie or deat h, dishonor or honor. The epidemics, physical and
moral, cont agious and i nIect ious, publi c opinion, popular del usi ons,
enthusiasms, and t he ot her great el ectric phenomena and currents, moral
and i ntellect ual , prove t he uni versal sympat hy. The vot e oI a singl e and
obscure n1an, the ut terance oI sel I-wil l, ignorance, concei t, or spi te,
deci di ng an elect ion and placi ng Folly or Incapacity or Baseness in a
Senat e, i nvolves the country in war, sweeps away our Iort unes, slaughters
our sons, renders the labors oI a l iIe unavai li ng, and pushes on, hel pl ess,
wi th al l our intel lect t o resist , i nt o t he grave.
These considerat i ons ought t o t each us that just ice to ot hers and to
oursel ves i s t he same; that we cannot deIi ne our dut ies by mathemat ical
l ines ruled by the square, but must Ii ll wi t h them t he great circle traced by
t he compasses; t hat the circle oI humani ty is the li mi t, and we are but the
point i n it s cent re, t he drops in t he great At lantic, t he at om or part icle,
bound by a mys t eri ous law oI att ract ion which we t erm sympat hy t o every
other at om in t he mass; t hat t he physical and moral wel Iare oI ot hers
cannot be indiIIerent t o us; that we have a direct and i mmediate interest in
t he publ ic morali ty and popul ar intell igence, i n the well -being and
physical comIort oI the people at l arge. The i gnorance oI the people, their
pauperism and dest it ut ion, and consequent degradati on, their brut ali zat ion
and demorali zat ion, are al l diseases; and we cannot ri se high enough
above t he peopl e, nor shut oursel ves up Irom t hem enough, to escape t he
miasmatic contagi on and t he great magnet ic current s.
Justi ce i s pecul iarly i ndi spensabl e t o nati ons. The unj ust State is doomed
oI God to calamity and ruin. This is t he teachi ng oI the Et ernal Wi sdom
and oI hist ory. "Ri ght eousness exal t et h a nat i on; but wrong is a reproach
t o nati ons. " "The Throne is est abl ished by Righteousness. Let the li ps oI
t he Ruler pronounce the sent ence t hat is Divine; and his mouth do no
wrong in j udgment !" The nat i on that adds province t o province by Iraud
and viol ence, that encroaches on the weak and plunders i ts wards, and
viol ates it s treati es and t he obli gati on oI i ts contract s, and Ior the law oI
honor and Iair-deali ng subst it utes the exi genci es oI greed and t he base
precept s oI poli cy and craIt and t he ignoble t enet s oI expedi ency, is
predest ined t o destruct ion; Ior here, as wit h the indi vidual , t he
consequences oI wrong are i nevi table and et ernal.
A sentence is wri tten agai nst al l that is unj ust, writ ten by God in t he
nature oI man and i n the nat ure oI the Universe, because i t i s i n t he nature
oI t he InIi ni te God. No wrong i s real ly successIul. The gain oI injust ice i s
a loss; i ts pl easure, suIIeri ng. Ini qui ty oIten seems t o prosper, but i ts
success is i ts deIeat and shame. II it s consequences pass by t he doer, they
Iall upon and crush hi s chil dren. It is a phi l osophi cal , physi cal, and moral
t ruth, i n t he Iorm oI a t hreat, that God visi ts the iniquity oI the Iat hers
upon the chi ldren, t o t he thi rd and Iourth generati on oI those who violate
Hi s l aws. AIter a l ong whi le, the day oI reckoni ng al ways comes, to nat ion
as t o individual; and al ways t he knave decei ves hi msel I, and proves a
Iail ure.
Hypocrisy is t he homage that vice and wrong pay to vi rt ue and just ice. It
i s Satan att empti ng t o clot he hi mselI i n t he angelic vest ure oI li ght . It i s
equally detestabl e in moral s, pol i ti cs, and rel igi on; i n t he man and i n the
nati on. To do injust ice under t he pret ence oI equi ty and Iairness; t o
reprove vice in publ i c and commi t it i n pri vate; t o pret end to charit able
opinion and censori ously condemn; t o proIess t he pri nciples oI Masonic
beneIi cence, and close the ear t o the wail oI dist ress and t he cry oI
suIIeri ng; to eul ogi ze t he i nt ell igence oI the people, and pl ot t o deceive
and bet ray them by means oI thei r ignorance and si mpl ici ty; t o prat e oI
puri ty, and pecul ate; oI honor, and basely abandon a si nking cause; oI
disi nterestedness, and sel l one' s vot e Ior pl ace and power, are hypocri sies
as common as they are inIamous and di sgraceIul . To steal the li very oI the
Court oI God to serve the Devil wi thal ; to pretend t o beli eve i n a God oI
mercy and a Redeemer oI love, and persecut e t hose oI a di IIerent Iai th; t o
devour widows' houses, and Ior a pret ence make long prayers; t o preach
conti nence, and wal low in l ust; t o inculcate humi l i ty, and in pride surpass
LuciIer; to pay ti t he, and omi t the weighti er mat t ers oI the law, judgment,
mercy and Iai th; t o st rai n at a gnat, and swal low a camel; to make cl ean
t he out side oI the cup and pl att er, keeping them Iul l wi thi n oI ext orti on
and excess; t o appear outwardly right eous unto men, but wit hi n be Iull oI
hypocrisy and iniquity, i s i ndeed to be li ke unto whited sepul chres, which
appear beaut iIul outward, but are wi thi n Iull oI bones oI the dead and oI
al l uncl eanness.
The Republic cloaks i t s ambi ti on wi t h the pretence oI a desire and duty t o
"ext end the area oI Ireedom, " and clai ms it as i ts "maniIest desti ny" to
annex ot her Republ i cs or t he St ates or Provi nces oI ot hers to it selI, by
open violence, or under obsolet e, empty, and Iraudul ent ti tl es. The Empire
Iounded by a successIul soldier, clai ms i ts ancient or nat ural boundari es,
and makes necessi ty and it s saIety t l l e plea Ior open robbery. The great
Merchant Nat i on, gai ni ng Ioothold i n t he Orient, Ii nds a conti nual
necessi ty Ior ext endi ng i ts domi nion by arms, and subj ugates Indi a. The
great Royal ties and Despot isms, wit hout a pl ea, parti t ion among
t hemsel ves a Ki ngdom, di smember Pol and, and prepare t o wrangl e over
t he domi ni ons oI t he Crescent. To mai nt ain the bal ance oI power i s a plea
Ior the obli terati on oI Stat es. Cart hage, Genoa, and Venice, commercial
Ci ti es only, must acquire t errit ory by Iorce or Iraud, and become States.
Al exander marches t o the Indus; Tamerl ane seeks universal empi re; t he
Saracens conquer Spai n and t hreat en Vi enna.
The thi rst Ior power i s never sati sIi ed. It i s i nsati abl e. Nei ther men nor
nati ons ever have power enough. When Rome was the mi stress oI the
worl d, the Emperors caused themsel ves t o be worshi pped as gods. The
Church oI Rome clai med despoti sm over the soul, and over t he whol e li Ie
Irom the cradl e t o t he grave. It gave and sol d absoluti ons Ior past and
Iut ure sins. It cl ai med to be inIal li ble in mat ters oI Iait h. It deci mated
Europe to purge it oI hereti cs. It deci mat ed Ameri ca to convert t he
Mexi cans and Peruvians. It gave and t ook away t hrones; and by
excommunicat ion and i nt erdict closed t he gat es oI Paradise agai nst
Nat ions, Spain, haughty wi th it s domi ni on over t he Indies, endeavored t o
crush out Protestanti sm in t he Net herlands, whil e Phi li p t he Second
marri ed the Queen oI Engl and, and the pai r sought to wi n t hat ki ngdom
back t o i ts allegiance to the Papal throne. AIterward Spain att empted to
conquer i t wit h her "i nvi nci ble" Armada. Napol eon set his rel ati ves and
capt ains on t hrones, and parcel led among t hem hal I oI Europe. The Czar
rul es over an empire more gigant ic than Rome. The hist ory oI al l is or wil l
be the same, --acqui sit i on, dismemberment , rui n. There is a judgment oI
God agai nst all t hat is unj ust .
To seek t o subj ugate the wi l l oI ot hers and take the soul capti ve, because
i t i s t he exercise oI thc highest power, seems to be t he highest object oI
human ambit ion. It i s at the bott om oI al l proselyting and propagandism,
Irom that oI Mesmer to that oI the Church oI Rome and t he French
Republ ic. That was t he apost olat e al ike oI Joshua and oI Mahomet.
Masonry alone preaches Tolerat i on, t he right oI man to abi de by hi s own
Iait h, the right oI al l St ates to govern themselves. It rebukes al ike the
monarch who seeks t o ext end hi s domini ons by conquest, t he Church t hat
cl ai ms t he right t o repress heresy by Ii re and steel , and t he conIederat i on
oI St ates t hat i nsist on maint aining a union by Iorce and rest oring
brot herhood by sl aught er and subj ugati on.
It is natural , when we are wronged, to desi re revenge; and t o persuade
oursel ves t hat we desire it l ess Ior our own sat isIacti on than t o prevent a
repet it ion oI t he wrong, t o which t he doer would be encouraged by
i mmuni ty coupled wi th the proIit oI t he wrong. To submi t to be cheated is
t o encourage the cheat er to cont inue; and we are qui t e apt t o regard
oursel ves as God' s chosen instrument s to inIl ict Hi s vengeance, and Ior
Hi m and in Hi s stead to di scourage wrong by maki ng i t Irui tl ess and it s
puni shment sure. Revenge has been sai d t o be "a ki nd oI wi ld justice;" but
i t i s al ways t aken in anger, and thereIore is unwort hy oI a great soul,
which ought not t o suIIer it s equani mi ty to be dist urbed by i ngrat i tude or
vil lai ny. The injuri es done us by the base are as much unwort hy oI our
angry not ice as those done us by the insect s and t he beast s; and when we
crush the adder, or slay the wolI or hyena, we should do i t wit hout bei ng
moved t o anger, and wi th no more Ieeli ng oI revenge t han we have in
root ing up a noxious weed.
And i I it be not i n human nature not to take revenge by way oI
puni shment , let t he Mason t ruly consi der that in doi ng so he i s God' s
agent , and so let hi s revenge be measured by j usti ce and tempered by
mercy. The law oI God i s, that t he consequences oI wrong and cruel ty and
cri me shal l be t heir puni shment ; and t he inj ured and t he wronged and t he
i ndi gnant are as much His instruments to enIorce that l aw, as t he diseases
and publ ic detest at i on, and the verdi ct oI hi story and t he execrati on oI
posterity are. No one wi ll say that t he Inqui si t or who has racked and
burned t he innocent ; t he Spani ard who hewed Indi an i nIant s, l iving, i nto
pieces wi th hi s sword, and Ied t he mangl ed l i mbs t o hi s bl oodhounds; t he
mi l it ary tyrant who has shot men wit hout trial , t he knave who has robbed
or betrayed hi s St at e, the Iraudulent banker or bankrupt who has beggared
orphans, the publi c oIIicer who has violat ed his oath, t he judge who has
sold injust ice, the legislat or who has enabl ed Incapacity t o work t he rui n
oI t he St at e, ought not t o be puni shed. Let them be so; and let t he i nj ured
or t he sympat hi zi ng be the i nstrument s oI God' s j ust vengeance; but
al ways out oI a hi gher Ieeli ng t han mere personal revenge.
Remember t hat every moral characteri st i c oI man Ii nds i t s prototype
an1ong creat ures oI lower intell igence; that t he cruel Ioul ness oI t he
hyena, the savage rapaci ty oI t he wol I, the mercil ess rage oI the t iger, the
craIty t reachery oI the pant her, are Iound among mankind, and ought to
excit e no other emoti on, when Iound in the man, t han when Iound i n t he
beast . Why should t he t rue man be angry wit h the geese that hiss, the
peacocks t hat strut , t he asses that bray, and t he apes that i mit ate and
chat ter, al though they wear the human Iorm? Al ways, al so, i t remai ns true,
t hat it i s more nobl e to Iorgi ve t han to take revenge; and that, in general ,
we ought t oo much t o despi se those who wrong us, to Ieel t he emot ion oI
anger, or t o desi re revenge.
At t he sphere oI the Sun, you are in t he region oI LIGHT. * * * * The
Hebrew word Ior gol d, ZAHAB, also means Light, oI whi ch the Sun is t o
t he Earth the great source. So, in the great Ori ent al al l egory oI t he
Hebrews, the River PISON compasses the land oI Gold or Light ; and t he
Ri ver GIHON the land oI Et hi opi a or Darkness.
What li ght is, we no more know than t he anci ent s di d. Accordi ng to the
modern hypothesi s, it is not composed oI luminous particles shot out Irom
t he sun wi th i mmense veloci ty; but that body only i mpresses, on the et her
which Ii ll s al l space, a powerIul vibrat ory movement that ext ends, in t he
Iorm oI luminous waves, beyond the most dist ant pl anets, supplying them
wi th l ight and heat . To t he ancients, it was an outIl owi ng Irom t he Dei ty.
To us, as to t hem, i t is t he apt symbol oI trut h and knowledge. To us, also,
t he upward j ourney oI the soul through t he Spheres i s symbolical ; but we
are as l it tl e i nIormed as they whence the soul comes, where i t has it s
origin, and whi t her it goes aIter death. They endeavored t o have some
belieI and Iait h, some creed, upon those points. At the present day, men
are sat i sIi ed to think nothi ng in regard to all t hat, and only to bel ieve that
t he soul is a somethi ng separat e Irom t he body and out-li ving i t, but
whether exist ing beIore it , nei ther t o i nquire nor care. No one asks
whether i t emanat es Irom t he Deity, or i s creat ed out oI not hing, or i s
generated li ke the body, and t he i ssue oI t he soul s oI t he Iather and t he
mother. Let us not smil e, thereIore, at the ideas oI t he anci ent s, unt il we
have a bett er beli eI; but accept thei r symbol s as meani ng that the soul i s
oI a Divine nat ure, origi nat ing in a sphere nearer t he Dei ty, and ret urni ng
t o t hat when Ireed Irom t he ent hralhment oI the body; and that i t can only
return there when puriIi ed oI al l t he sordidness and si n whi ch have, as i t
were, become part oI it s subst ance, by i t s connecti on wi th the body.
It is not strange t hat , thousands oI years ago, men worshi pped t he Sun,
and t hat to-day t hat worshi p cont i nues among t he Parsees. Ori ginal ly t hey
l ooked beyond t he orb to t he i nvi si ble God, oI whom the Sun' s li ght ,
seemi ngly i dent ical wi th generati on and li Ie, was t he mani Iest ati on and
outIl owi ng. Long beIore t he Chaldcean shepherds watched it on their
plai ns, it came up regul arly, as i t now does, i n t he morni ng, li ke a god,
and agai n sank, l ike a king ret iring, i n the west, to return agai n in due
t i me i n t he same array oI maj esty. We worshi p Immutabil ity. It was that
st eadIast , i mmut abl e character oI t he Sun t hat the men oI Baalbec
worshipped. His light-giving and li Ie-giving powers were secondary
at tributes. The one grand idea that compell ed worship was t he
characterist ic oI God whi ch they saw reIl ected in hi s li ght , and Ianci ed
t hey saw in i ts ori ginality the changelessness oI Dei ty. He had seen
t hrones crwnble, eart hquakes shake t he worl d and hurl down mount ains.
Beyond Olympus, beyond the Pi l lars oI Hercules, he had gone daily t o his
abode, and had come dai ly agai n in the morning to behold t he t empl es t hey
buil t to hi s worsl 1ip. They personiIied hi m as BRAHMA, AMUN, OSRIS,
BEL, ADONIS, MALKARTH, MITHRAS, and APOLLO; and the nat ions
t hat di d so grew ol d and died. Moss grew on the capi t als oI the great
columns oI hi s temples, and he shone on the moss. Grai n by grain the dust
oI his temples crumbl ed and Iell , and was borne oII on the wind, and sti ll
he shone on crumbli ng col umn and archi trave. The rooI Iell crashing on
t he pavement, and he shone i n on the Holy oI Hol ies wit h unchangi ng
rays. It was not strange t hat men worshi pped t he Sun.
There i s a wat er-pl ant , on whose broad leaves t he drops oI wat er rol l
about wi thout uni t ing, l ike drops oI mercury. So argument s on points oI
Iait h, in poli ti cs or rel igion, rol l over t he surIace oI t he mind. An
argument that convi nces one mind has no eIIect on another. Few intel lect s,
or soul s that are t he negati ons oI intel lect , have any logical power or
capaci ty. There is a singular obl i quity i n t he human mi nd t hat makes t he
Ialse l ogi c more eIIecti ve t han the true wit h nine-t ent hs oI t hose who are
regarded as men oI int ell ect. Even among t he j udges, not one i n ten can
argue l ogi cally. Each mind sees the trut h, dist orted through it s own
medium. Trut h, to most men, i s li ke mat ter in t he spheroidal st ate. Li ke a
drop oI col d water on t he surIace oI a red-hot met al pl ate, it dances,
t rembles, and spi ns, and never comes i nt o contact wi th it ; and the mi nd
may be pl unged into trut h, as t he hand moi st ened wi th sul phurous aci d
may i nt o melt ed metal , and be not even warmed by the i mmersi on.
* * * * * *
The word Khairum or Khurum is a compound one. Geseni us renders
Khurum by the word nobl e or Iree-born: Khur meani ng whi te, noble. It
al so means t he openi ng oI a wi ndow, t he socket oI the eye. Khri al so
means whit e, or an openi ng; and Khri s, the orb oI the Sun, in Job vii i. 13
and x. 7. Kri shna is t he Hindu Sun-God. Khur, t he Parsi word, is t he
l it eral name oI t he Sun.
From Kur or Khur, t he Sun, comes Khora, a name oI Lower Egypt . The
Sun, Bryant says i n hi s Mythology, was cal led Kur; and Pl utarch says t hat
t he Persians cal led t he Sun Kuros. Kurios, Lord, i n Greek, li ke Adonai ,
Lord, i n Phcenician and Hebrew, was appl ied to t he Sun. Many pl aces
were sacred t o t he Sun, and cal led Kura, Kuri a, Kuropoli s, Kurene,
Kureschat a, Kurest a, and Corusia i n Scythi a.
The Egypti an Dei ty cal l ed by t he Greeks "Horus, " was Her-Ra, or Har-
oeri s, Hor or Har, t he Sun. Hari i s a Hi ndu name oI t he Sun. Ari-al, Ar-es,
Ar, Aryaman, Arei monios, t he AR meani ng Fire or Flame, are oI t he same
kindred. Hewnes or Har-mes, (Aram, Remus, Haram, Haramei as), was
Kadmos, t he Di vi ne Light or Wi sdom. Mar-kuri, says Movers, is Mar, t he
In t he Hebrew, AOOR, is Light , Fire, or the Sun. Cyrus, said Ctesi as, was
so named Irom Kuros, t he Sun. Kuris, Hesychi us says, was Adonis.
Apol lo, t he Sun-god, was call ed Kurraios, Irom Kurra, a ci ty i n Phocis.
The people oI Kurene, ori ginally Et hiopians or Cut hi tes, worshi pped t he
Sun under the ti tl e oI Achoor and Achor.
We know, t hrough a precise t esti mony in the ancient annal s oI Tsur, t hat
t he pri nci pal Iest i vity oI Mal -kart h, the incarnat ion oI t he Sun at t he
Wi nter Sol st i ce, held at Tsur, was cal l ed his rebi rt h or hi s awakening, and
t hat it was cel ebrated by means oI a pyre, on whi ch t he god was supposed
t o regain, t hrough the ai d oI Iire, a new li Ie. Thi s Iest ival was celebrated
i n t he month Peri ti us (Bari th), the second day oI whi ch corresponded to
t he 25t h oI December. KHUR-UM, King oI Tyre, Movers says, Iirst
perIormed thi s ceremony. These Iacts we l earn Irom Josephus, Servius on
t he AEnei d, and the Dionysi acs oI Nonnus; and t hrough a coi nci dence that
cannot be Iortui t ous, t he same day was at Rome t he Di es Nat ali s Soli s
Invict i, the Iest al day oI the invincible Sun. Under t hi s ti tl e, HERCULES,
HAR-acles, was worshipped at Tsur. Thus, whi le the templ e was bei ng
erected, t he deat h and resurrect ion oI a Sun-God was annually represented
at Tsur, by Sol omon' s al ly, at the wi nter sol st i ce, by t he pyre oI MAL-
KARIH, t he Tsuri an Haracles.
AROERIS or HAR-oeri s, t he elder HORUS, i s Irom t he same ol d root that
i n t he Hebrew has t he Iorm Aur, or, wit h t he deIi ni te arti cle preIi xed,
Haur, Light , or t he Light , splendor, Il ame, the Sun and hi s rays. The
hieroglyphi c oI t he younger HORUS was t he poi nt in a circle; oI the El der,
a pair oI eyes; and t he Iesti val oI t he t hirt iet h day oI t he mont h Epi phi ,
when t he sun and moon were supposed to be in the same right li ne wit h
t he earth, was called "The bi rt h-day oI the eyes oI Horus."
In a papyrus publi shed by Champol li on, t his god is styl ed "Haroeri, Lord
oI t he Sol ar Spiri ts, the beneIicent eye oI t he Sun. " Pl ut arch call s hi m
"Har-pocrates, " but there is no t race oI the lat ter part oI t he name i n t he
hieroglyphi c legends. He is the son oI OSIRIS and Isrs; and i s represented
si tt ing on a t hrone support ed by l ions; the same word, in Egypti an,
meani ng Li on and Sun. So Solomon made a great throne oI ivory, plat ed
wi th gol d, wit h si x st eps, at each arm oI which was a li on, and one on
each side to each st ep, making seven on each side.
Agai n, the Hebrewword Khi , means "li vi ng;" and ram, "was, or shal l be,
raised or li Ited up. " The lat ter i s t he same as room, aroom, harum, whence
Aram, Ior Syri a, or Aramoea, Hi gh-land. Khairum, t hereIore, woul d mean
"was rai sed up t o li Ie, or l ivi ng. "
So, in Arabic, hrm, an unused root , meant , "was hi gh, " "made great, "
"exal ted;" and Hi rm means an ox, t he symbol oI the Sun i n Taurus, at t he
Vernal Equinox.
KHURUM, thereIore, i mproperly call ed Hi ram, is KHUR-OM, t he same as
Her-ra, Her-mes, and Her-acl es, t he "Heracl es Tyrius Invi ctus, " the
personiIicat ion oI Light and the Son, t he Medi ator, Redeemer, and
Savi our. From t he Egypti an word Ra came the Copti c Ouro, and t he
Hebrew Aur, Light . Har-oeri , is Hor or Har, the chi eI or master. Hor i s
al so heat; and hora, season or hour; and hence in several AIri can di al ect s,
as names oI the Sun, Ai ro, Ayero, eer, ui ro, ghurrah, and the li ke. The
royal name rendered Pharaoh, was PHRA, t hat is, Pai-ra, the Sun.
The legend oI t he contest bet ween Hor-ra and Set, or Set-nu-bi , the same
as Bar or Bal, i s ol der than t hat oI t he st ri Ie between Osiri s and Typhon;
as ol d, at least , as the ni neteent h dynasty. It i s call ed in the Book oI t he
Dead, "The day oI the bat tl e bet ween Horus and Set." The lat er myt h
connect s it selI wi t h Phoenici a and Syri a. The body oI OSIRIS went ashore
at Gebal or Byblos, si xty mil es above Tsur. You wi ll not Iai l to not ice that
i n t he name oI each murderer oI Khurum, t hat oI t he Evi l God Bal is
* * * * *
Har-oeri was the god oI TIME, as wel l as oI Li Ie. The Egypt ian legend was
t hat the Ki ng oI Byblos cut down t he tamari sk-t ree cont aining the body oI
OSIRIS, and made oI i t a col umn Ior hi s pal ace. Isi s, employed in the
palace, obt ai ned possessi on oI t he column, took the body out oI i t, and
carri ed i t away. Apulei us describes her as "a beaut iIul Iemale, over whose
divi ne neck her long t hi ck hai r hung in graceIul ringlets ;" and in t he
processi on Iemale at tendant s, wi t h i vory combs, seemed t o dress and
ornament t he royal hai r oI the goddess. The pal m-tree, and t he l amp i n t he
shape oI a boat , appeared in t he processi on. II the symbol we are speaki ng
oI i s not a mere modern invent ion, it is to these things it al l udes.
The identi ty oI the legends i s al so conIi rmed by t hi s hi eroglyphic picture,
copied Irom an ancient Egypti an monument, which may also enli ght en you
as t o the Lion' s grip and the Master' s gavel .
i n t he ancient Phcenici an charact er, and in t he Samarit an, A B, (the two
l ett ers representi ng t he numbers 1, 2, or Unity and Duali ty, means Father,
and i s a pri mi ti ve noun, common to all t he Semi t ic l anguages.
It al so means an Ancest or, Origi nator, Invent or, Head, ChieI or Ruler,
Manager, Overseer, Master, Pri est, Prophet .
i s si mply Father, when i t is i n construct i on, that i s, when it precedes
another word, and i n Engli sh t he preposit ion "oI" i s i nterposed, as Abi-Al ,
t he Father oI Al .
Al so, the Ii nal Yod means "my"; so that by it selI means "My Iather. David
my Iather, 2 Chron. i i. 3.
(Vav) Ii nal is the possessi ve pronoun "his"; and Abi u (which we read
"AbiI") means "oI my Iat her' s. " Its Iul l meani ng, as connect ed wit h the
name oI Khurum, no doubt is, "Iormerly one oI my Iat her' s servants, " or
"slaves. "
The name oI the Phceni cian art iIi cer i s, i n Samuel and Kings, |2 Sam. v.
11; 1 Ki ngs v. 15; 1 Ki ngs vi i. 40|. In Chroni cles it i s wit h the addi ti on oI
|2 Chron. i i . 12|; and oI |2 Chron. i v. 16|.
It is merely absurd t o add t he word "Abi I, " or "Abi II, " as part oI the name
oI t he art iIicer. And it is al most as absurd to add the word "Abi," whi ch
was a ti t l e and not part oI the name. Joseph says |Gen. xl v. 8|, "God has
const i tuted me ' Ab l' Paraah, as Father t o Paraah, i. e. , Vi zi er or Pri me
Mi ni ster. " So Haman was call ed the Second Father oI Artaxerxes; and
when Ki ng Khurum used the phrase "Khurum Abi ," he meant t hat the
arti Ii cer he sent Schl omoh was the principal or chi eI workman in hi s l ine
at Tsur.
A medal copied by Mont Iaucon exhi bi ts a Iemale nursing a chi ld, wit h ears
oI wheat in her hand, and the legend (Iao). She i s seated on cl ouds, a star
at her head, and t hree ears oI wheat risi ng Irom an alt ar beIore her.
HORUS was t he mediator, who was buri ed three days, was regenerated,
and t ri umphed over t he evil pri nciple.
The word HERI, in Sanscri t, means Shepherd, as wel l as Savior. CRISHNA
i s call ed Heri , as Jesus cal led Hi mselI t he Good Shepherd.
Khur, means an apert ure oI a wi ndow, a cave, or t he eye. Also i t means
whit e.
It al so means an openi ng, and noble, Iree-born, high-born.
KHURM means consecrated, devot ed; in AEthi opi c. It i s t he name oI a
ci ty, |Josh. xi x. 38|; and oI a man, |Ezr. ii . 32, x. 31; Neh. i ii . 11|.
Khirah, means nobil ity, a noble race.
Buddha i s declared t o comprehend i n his own person t he essence oI t he
Hi ndu Tri murt i; and hence the tri-li t eral monosyllabl e Om or Aum is
appli ed to hi m as bei ng essent ial ly the same as Brahma-Vishnu-Siva. He is
t he same as Hermes, Thot h, Taut , and Teutat es. One oI his names is Heri-
maya or Hermaya, which are evidently t he same name as Hermes and
Khirm or Khurm. Heri , i n Sanscrit , means Lord.
A l earned Brother places over the t wo symbolic pi ll ars, Irom right t o leIt,
t he t wo words IHU and BAL: Iol lowed by t he hieroglyphi c equival ent , oI
t he Sun-God, Amun-ra. Is i t an acci dent al coincidence, t hat i n t he name oI
each murderer are t he two names oI t he Good and Evil Dei t i es oI t he
Hebrews; Ior Yu-bel i s but Yehu-Bal or Yeho-Bal ? and that t he t hree Ii nal
syllables oI the names, a, o, um, make A.' . U.' . M. ' . the sacred word oI the
Hi ndoos, meaning the Triune God, LiIe-gi ving, LiIe-preservi ng, Li Ie-
dest royi ng: represented by t he mysti c charact er ?
The genui ne acacia, al so, is t he t horny tamari sk, the same tree whi ch grew
up around t he body oI Osi ri s. It was a sacred tree among t he Arabs, who
made oI it the i dol Al-Uzza, which Mohammed dest royed. It i s abundant as
a bush in the Desert oI Thur: and oI it t he "crown oI t horns" was
composed, which was set on t he Iorehead oI Jesus oI Nazareth. It is a Ii t
type oI i mmort al i ty on account oI it s tenaci ty oI l iIe; Ior i t has been
known, when pl ant ed as a door-post, t o t ake root agai n and shoot out
budding boughs over the threshold.
* * * * *
Every commonweal th must have it s periods oI t ri al and transit ion,
especi ally i I it engages i n war. It i s cert ain at some ti me to be whol ly
governed by agit ators appeal ing to all t he baser el ement s oI the popul ar
nature; by moneyed corporat i ons; by t hose enriched by t he depreci ati on oI
government securi ties or paper; by smal l att orneys, schemers, money-
j obbers, specul ators and advent urers--an ignobl e ol igarchy, enri ched by
t he dist resses oI t he St ate, and Iat tened on t he miseries oI the people.
Then all t he deceit Iul visi ons oI equal ity and t he rights oI man end; and
t he wronged and plundered Stat e can regai n a real li berty only by passi ng
t hrough "great vari et i es oI untried bei ng, " puri Ii ed in it s t ransmigrati on by
Iire and bl ood.
In a Republi c, it soon comes t o pass that part ies gather round t he negat i ve
and posi t ive poles oI some opi ni on or noti on, and that the intol erant spirit
oI a triumphant maj ority will al low no deviat ion Irom the standard oI
ort hodoxy which i t has set up Ior i tsel I. Freedom oI opinion will be
proIessed and pret ended to, but every one wi l l exerci se it at t he peri l oI
being bani shed Irom poli ti cal communi on wi th those who hol d t he reins
and prescri be the pol icy to be pursued. Slavishness to party and
obsequi ousness t o t he popul ar whi ms go hand in hand. Pol i tical
i ndependence only occurs in a Iossi l st at e; and men' s opinions grow out oI
t he act s t hey have been constrai ned t o do or sancti on. Fl att ery, eit her oI
i ndi vi dual or peopl e, corrupt s bot h t he receiver and t he gi ver; and
adulat ion i s not oI more servi ce t o t he peopl e t han to ki ngs. A Ccesar,
securely seated in power, cares less Ior i t than a Iree democracy; nor wil l
his appet i te Ior it grow t o exorbi tance, as t hat oI a peopl e wi ll , unt il i t
becomes insat iat e. The eIIect oI l iberty to i ndi vi dual s i s, t hat they may do
what they please; t o a people, it i s to a great ext ent t he same. II accessi bl e
t o Ilat tery, as thi s i s al ways interested, and resort ed to on low and base
mot ives, and Ior evi l purposes, ei t her indi vi dual or people is sure, i n
doing what i t pl eases, to do what i n honor and consci ence shoul d have
been leIt undone. One ought not even t o risk congrat ulat ions, whi ch may
soon be t urned i nt o complai nts; and as bot h i ndivi duals and peopl es are
prone t o make a bad use oI power, to Il att er t hem, which i s a sure way to
misl ead t hem, wel l deserves to be call ed a cri me.
The Ii rst principl e i n a Republi c ought to be, "that no man or set oI men is
enti tl ed t o excl usive or separate emol uments or privil eges Irom t he
communi ty, but i n considerat i on oI public services; whi ch not bei ng
descendible, nei ther ought t he omces oI magi st rat e, legisl ature, nor j udge,
t o be heredi tary. " It is a volume oI Truth and Wisdom, a l esson Ior the
st udy oI nat ions, embodi ed i n a singl e sent ence, and expressed in language
which every man can understand. II a del uge oI despot ism were to
overt hrow the world, and dest roy al l inst it ut ions under whi ch Ireedom i s
prot ected, so that they should no longer be remembered among men, t hi s
sent ence, preserved, woul d be suIIi cient to reki ndle the Ii res oI li berty and
revi ve t he race oI Ireemen.
But , to preserve li berty, another must be added: "that a Iree Stat e does not
conIer oIIice as a reward, especially Ior quest ionabl e servi ces, unless she
seeks her own ruin; but al l oIIicers are employed by her, in considerat ion
solely oI t heir wi l l and abil ity t o render service in t he Iut ure; and
t hereIore t hat the best and most competent are al ways t o be preIerred."
For, iI there is t o be any ot her rule, that oI heredi t ary succession i s
perhaps as good as any. By no other rul e i s it possi ble to preserve the
l ibert ies oI the St ate. By no ot her t o i nt rust the power oI maki ng t he laws
t o t hose only who have that keen i nsti nct i ve sense oI i nj ust ice and wrong
which enabl es t hem to det ect baseness and corrupt ion i n t heir most secret
hidi ng-places, and that moral courage and generous manl iness and gall ant
i ndependence that make them Iearless in dragging out t he perpetrators t o
t he l ight oI day, and cal li ng down upon them t he scorn and indignat i on oI
t he worl d. The Ilat terers oI the people are never such men. On t he
contrary, a t i me always comes to a Republ ic, when i t is not cont ent , l ike
Li berius, wi th a single Sej anus, but must have a host; and when t hose
most prominent in the lead oI aIIai rs are men wit hout reputat ion,
st atesmanshi p, abi l ity, or inIormat ion, the mere hacks oI party, owi ng thei r
places t o t ri ckery and want oI qual iIi cat i on, wi t h none oI the quali ti es oI
head or heart that make great and wise men, and, at t he same ti me, Iil led
wi th al l t he narrow concepti ons and bit ter i nt olerance oI pol i t ical bi got ry.
These die; and t he worl d i s none t he wi ser Ior what they have sai d and
done. Their names si nk in t he bott omless pit oI obl ivi on; but t heir act s oI
Iol ly or knavery curse the body poli ti c and at last prove i ts rui n.
Pol i t ici ans, in a Iree St ate, are general ly hol low, heartl ess, and sel Ii sh.
Thei r own aggrandisement is the end oI their pat ri ot ism; and they always
l ook wi th secret sat isIact i on on t he disappoi nt ment or Ial l oI one whose
l oIt i er genius and superior talents overshadow t heir own sel I-i mportance,
or whose i nt egri ty and incorrupti ble honor are in the way oI their selIi sh
ends. The inIl uence oI the smal l aspirant s i s always against t he great man.
Hi s accession t o power may be al most Ior a li Iet i me. One oI t hemselves
wi ll be more easi ly di splaced, and each hopes to succeed hi m; and so i t at
l engt h comes t o pass that men i mpudently aspire t o and act ually win the
highest st at i ons, who are unIi t Ior t he l owest clerkshi ps; and i ncapaci ty
and medi ocri ty become t he surest passport s to once.
The consequence i s, t hat those who Ieel themsel ves compet ent and
quali Ii ed to serve the people, reIuse wit h digust t o enter i nto t he st ruggle
Ior oIIi ce, where the wicked and j esui ti cal doctri ne t hat all i s Iair i n
poli t ics i s an excuse Ior every species oI low vi ll ainy; and those who seek
even t he highest pl aces oI t he State do not rely upon t he power oI a
magnani mous spirit , on t he sympat hi zing i mpulses oI a great soul, t o st ir
and move t he people to generous, noble, and heroic resol ves, and to wi se
and manly acti on; but , l ike spaniel s erect on t hei r hind legs, wi th Iore-
paws obsequi ously suppl i ant , Iawn, Ilat ter, and actually beg Ior votes.
Rat her than descend to this, they stand contempt uously alooI, di sdai nIul ly
reIusing to court the people, and acti ng on the maxi m, that "mankind has
no t it le to demand that we shal l serve t hem in spi te oI themsel ves. "
* * * * * *
It is lamentable to see a country spli t into Iact ions, each Ioll owi ng thi s or
t hat great or brazen-Ironted leader wi t h a bl ind, unreasoni ng,
unquest ioni ng hero-worshi p; it i s contempt ibl e t o see i t di vi ded into
parti es, whose sole end is t he spoi ls oI victory, and t heir chi eIs the l ow,
t he base, t he venal and the snl al l . Such a count ry is i n the last stages oI
decay, and near it s end, no matt er how prosperous it may seem to be. It
wrangles over t he volcano and t he eart hquake. But i t i s certai n that no
government can be conducted by the men oI t he people, and Ior the
peopl e, wi thout a rigid adherence t o those pri nci ples which our reason
commends as Ii xed and sound. These must be the test s oI parti es, men, and
measures. Once determi ned, t hey must be inexorabl e i n t hei r appl icat ion,
and al l must ei ther come up t o the standard or decl are agai nst it . Men may
betray: pri nci ples never can. Oppressi on is one i nvariable consequence oI
mispl aced conIidence i n t reacherous man, i t is never the resul t oI t he
working or applicat ion oI a sound, just , well -tried princi pl e. Compromi ses
which bring Iundamental pri nci ples into doubt , i n order to uni te in one
party men oI antagonist ic creeds, are Irauds, and end in ruin, t he j ust and
natural consequence oI Iraud. Whenever you have sett led upon your t heory
and creed, sancti on no departure Irom it i n pract ice, on any ground oI
expediency. It i s t he Master' s word. Yiel d i t up neit her t o Ilat tery nor Iorce
! Let no deIeat or persecut i on rob you oI i t! Bel ieve that he who once
blundered i n st atesmanshi p wil l bl under agai n; that such bl unders are as
Iatal as cri mes; and t hat pol i ti cal near-sightedness does not i mprove by
age. There are al ways more i mpostors t han seers among publi c men, more
Ialse prophet s t han true ones, more prophets oI Baal t han oI Jehovah; and
Jerusal em is al ways i n danger Irom t he Assyrians.
Sall ust sai d t hat aIt er a St at e has been corrupt ed by l uxury and i dleness, i t
may by it s mere greatness bear up under the burden oI i t s vices. But even
whil e he wrote, Rome, oI which he spoke, had played out her masquerade
oI Ireedom Ot her causes t han luxury and sl ot h destroy Republics. II smal l,
t heir l arger neighbors ext i ngui sh t hel ll by absorpt ion. II oI great ext ent ,
t he cohesive Iorce i s t oo Ieeble t o hol d them t oget her, and t hey Ial l t o
pieces by their own wei ght . The pal try ambit i on oI smal l men di sint egrat es
t hem. The want oI wi sdom i n thei r council s creat es exasperat ing issues.
Usurpat ion oI power plays it s part, incapacity seconds corrupt ion, the
st orm ri ses, and the Iragment s oI the incoherent raIt strew t he sandy
shores, readi ng to manki nd anot her lesson Ior it t o disregard.
The Forty-sevent h Proposit i on i s ol der t han Pythagoras. It i s t hi s: "In
every right-angled t ri angle, t he sum oI the squares oI t he base and
perpendicular i s equal t o the square oI t he hypot henuse. "
The square oI a number is the product oI that number, mul ti pli ed by it sel I.
Thus, 4 is the square oI 2, and 9 oI 3.
The Ii rst ten numbers are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10;
t heir squares are . . . . . . . . . 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100;
and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19
are the di IIerences bet ween each square and t hat whi ch precedes i t ; giving
us the sacred numbers, 3, 5, 7, and 9
OI t hese numbers, the square oI 3 and 4, added t oget her, gives t he square
oI 5; and those oI 6 and 8, the square oI 10; and iI a right-angl ed t ri angl e
be Iormed, the base measuring 3 or 6 part s, and t he perpendicular 4 or 8
part s, t he hypot henuse wi l l be 5 or 10 part s; and iI a square is erected on
each side, t hese squares bei ng subdivi ded i nto squares each side oI which
i s one part in length, t here wi l l be as many oI t hese i n t he square erected
on t he hypothenuse as i n the ot her t wo squares t oget her.
Now t he Egyptians arranged their dei ti es i n Tri ads t he FATHER or the
Spi ri t or Acti ve Princi pl e or Generat ive Power; t he MOTHER, or Matt er,
or t he Passi ve Pri nci pl e, or the Concepti ve Power; and the SON, Issue or
Product , the Uni verse, proceedi ng Irom the two pri nci ples. These were
OSRIS, ISIS, and HORUS. In t he same way, PLATO gi ves us thought the
Father; Pri mit i ve Mat ter the Mot her; and Kosmos t he Worl d, the Son, t he
Universe ani mat ed by a soul . Tri ads oI the same kind are Iound i n t he
Kabal ah.
PLUTARCH says, i n his book De Isi de et Osi ri de, "But the bet ter and
divi ner nat ure consi sts oI t hree, --that which exist s wit hi n the Intel lect
only, and Matt er, and t hat whi ch proceeds Irom t hese, which t he Greeks
cal l Kosmos; oI whi ch t hree, Pl at o is wont t o cal l the Intel li gible, the
' Idea, Exempl ar, and Father' , Mat ter, ' t he Mother, t he Nurse, and the place
and receptacl e oI generat i on' ; and the issue oI these two, ' the OIIspring
and Genesi s, "' t he KOSMOS, "a word signiIying equally Beauty and Order,
or t he Uni verse it selI. " You wi ll not Iai l to not ice that Beauty i s
symbol i zed by t he Juni or Warden in t he Sout h. Plutarch conti nues to say
t hat the Egypt ians compared the universal nat ure to what t hey cal led t he
most beaut i Iul and perIect t ri angle, as Plato does, in t hat nupti al diagram,
as i t is termed, whi ch he has introduced i nt o hi s Commonwealt h. When he
adds t hat this t riangl e i s ri ght -angl ed, and it s si des respect i vely as 3, 4,
and 5; and he says, "We must suppose t hat t he perpendicular i s designed
by t hem to represent t he mascul ine nat ure, t he base the Iemi ni ne, and t hat
t he hypothenuse i s to be looked upon as the oIIspri ng oI bot h; and
accordi ngly t he Iirst oI them wil l aptly enough represent OSIRIS, or t he
pri me cause; t he second, ISIS, or the recepti ve capaci ty; t he last, HORUS,
or t he common eIIect oI t he other t wo. For 3 i s the Ii rst number whi ch i s
composed oI even and odd; and 4 is a square whose si de i s equal t o the
even number 2; but 5, bei ng generat ed, as it were, out oI t he precedi ng
numbers, 2 and 3, may be said t o have an equal relat ion t o both oI t hem,
as t o it s common parent s."
* * * * * *
The clasped hands i s anot her symbol which was used by PYTHAGORAS.
It represent ed t he number 10, t he sacred number in whi ch al l the preceding
numbers were contai ned; t he number expressed by t he myst eri ous
TERACTYS, a Iigure borrowed by hi m and t he Hebrew pri est s ali ke Irom
t he Egyptian sacred science, and which ought to be repl aced among the
symbol s oI the Mast er' s degree, where i t oI ri ght bel ongs. The Hebrews
Iormed it t hus, wi t h the let ters oI t he Divine name:
The Tetractys thus leads you, not only t o the study oI the Pythagorean
phil osophy as to numbers, but al so t o the Kabalah, and wil l ai d you in
discoveri ng t he True Word, and underst anding what was meant by "The
Musi c oI t he Spheres. " Modern science strikingly conIirms the ideas oI
Pyt hagoras in regard to the propert ies oI numbers, and that they govern in
t he Universe. Long beIore his ti me, nat ure had ext ract ed her cube-roots
and her squares.
* * * * * *
Al l the FORCES at man' s disposal or under man' s cont rol, or subject t o
man' s i nIluence, are his working tool s. The Iri endshi p and sympat hy that
knit heart to heart are a Iorce l ike the at tract i on oI cohesi on, by whi ch the
sandy part icles became the sol id rock. II t hi s law oI at tract i on or cohesi on
were taken away, the mat eri al worlds and suns woul d di ssolve in an
i nstant into thin invi sibl e vapor. II the ties oI Iri endship, aIIect ion, and
l ove were annulled, manki nd woul d become a ragi ng mul ti t ude oI wi l d and
savage beasts oI prey. The sand hardens int o rock under t he i mmense
superi ncumbent pressure oI t he ocean, aided someti mes by t he irresi sti ble
energy oI Ii re; and when t he pressure oI cal ami ty and danger is upon an
order or a country, t he members or the cit i zens ought to be the more
cl osely united by t he cohesion oI sympat hy and int er-dependence.
Moral ity i s a Iorce. It is t he magnet ic attract ion oI t he heart toward Trut h
and Vi rt ue. The needle, i mbued wi th t his myst ic property, and poi nt ing
unerringly to the nort h, carries t he mariner saIely over t he t rackl ess ocean,
t hrough storm and darkness, unti l his glad eyes behold t he beneIi cent
beacons t hat welcome hi m t o saIe and hospi tabl e harbor. Then t he heart s
oI t hose who love hi m are gladdened, and hi s home made happy; and thi s
gladness and happi ness are due to t he si lent, unost ent at ious, unerri ng
moni tor that was the sai l or' s gui de over the wel tering waters. But i I
dri Ited t oo Iar nort hward, he Iinds t he needl e no longer true, but poi nti ng
el sewhere than t o t he north, what a Ieel ing oI hel pl essness Iall s upon the
dismayed mari ner, what ut ter l oss oI energy and courage ! It i s as i I the
great axioms oI moral ity were t o Iai l and be no longer true, leaving the
human soul to driIt hel plessly, eyeless li ke Promet heus, at the mercy oI
t he uncert ain, Iait hl ess currents oI the deep.
Honor and Duty are t he pol e-stars oI a Mason, the Di oscuri, by never
l osi ng sight oI whi ch he may avoid di sastrous shi pwreck. These Pal i nurus
wat ched, unt i l, overcome by sleep, and t he vessel no l onger guided truly,
he Iel l int o and was swal lowed up by the i nsat i abl e sea. So the Mason who
l oses sight oI t hese, and i s no l onger governed by their beneIicent and
potenti al Iorce, is l ost , and si nki ng out oI sight , wi ll disappear unhonored
and unwept .
The Iorce oI el ectrici ty, analogous to that oI sympathy, and by means oI
which great t houghts or base suggest ions, the ut terances oI nobl e or
i gnoble natures, Il ash i nstantaneously over the nerves oI nati ons; t he Iorce
oI growt h, Ii t type oI i mmortal ity, Iying dormant t hree thousand years in
t he wheat-grai ns buri ed wit h thei r mummi es by t he old Egypt ians; t he
Iorces oI expansi on and cont ract i on, devel oped in t he eart hquake and the
t ornado, and gi vi ng bi rth to the wonderIul achievement s oI steam, have
t heir paral lel isms in t he moral world, i n i ndi vi dual s, and nati ons. Growt h
i s a necessi ty Ior nati ons as Ior men. Its cessat ion is t he begi nning oI
decay. In t he nati on as wel l as the plant i t i s myst eri ous, and i t i s
i rresi st i ble. The earthquakes t hat rend nat ions asunder, overturn t hrones,
and engulI monarchies and republ ics, have been long prepared Ior, li ke t he
volcanic erupti on. Revoluti ons have l ong root s in t he past . The Iorce
exert ed is i n direct proporti on t o t he previous rest rai nt and compressi on.
The true statesman ought to see i n progress t he causes that are i n due t i me
t o produce them; and he who does not is but a bli nd leader oI the bli nd.
The great changes i n nat i ons, l ike the geol ogical changes oI t he earth, are
sl owly and cont i nuously wrought. The wat ers, Ialli ng Irom Heaven as rain
and dews, sl owly di sintegrate t he grani te mountains; abrade the plains,
l eaving hi ll s and ridges oI denudat ion as t hei r monuments; scoop out t he
valleys, Iil l up the seas, narrow t he ri vers, and aIt er the lapse oI t housands
on t housands oI sil ent cent uries, prepare t he great al l uvi a Ior t he growt h
oI t hat pl ant , t he snowy envel ope oI whose seeds i s t o empl oy the looms
oI t he worl d, and t he abundance or penury oI whose crops shall determine
whether t he weavers and spinners oI ot her real ms shall have work to do or
st arve.
So Publ ic Opi nion i s an i mmense Iorce; and it s currents are as i nconstant
and i ncomprehensi bl e as t hose oI the at mosphere. Neverthel ess, i n Iree
government s, it is omnipotent; and t he busi ness oI t he st atesman i s t o Iind
t he means t o shape, cont rol, and di rect it . According as that is done, it i s
beneIi cial and conservat i ve, or destruct ive and ruinous. The Publ ic
Opinion oI t he ci vi li zed world is Internat ional Law; and i t is so great a
Iorce, t hough wi t h no certai n and Ii xed boundaries, that i t can even
const rain the vi ctori ous despot to be generous, and ai d an oppressed
peopl e in i ts st ruggle Ior i ndependence.
Habit i s a great Iorce; i t is second nat ure, even in t rees. It i s as st rong i n
nati ons as in men. So also are Prejudices, whi ch are gi ven to men and
nati ons as the passions are, --as Iorces, valuable, iI properly and ski ll Iully
avai led oI; destruct ive, i I unskil lIul ly handled.
Above al l , t he Love oI Country, Stat e Pri de, the Love oI Home, are Iorces
oI i mmense power. Encourage t hem al l. Insist upon them i n your publ ic
men. Permanency oI home i s necessary to pat ri ot ism. A mi gratory race wi ll
have l it tl e l ove oI country. Stat e pride i s a mere t heory and chi mera, where
men remove Irom St ate to St ate wit h indiIIerence, li ke the Arabs, who
camp here t o-day and t here t o-morrow.
II you have Eloquence, it i s a mighty Iorce. See that you use it Ior good
purposes--to t each, exhort , ennoble the people, and not t o misl ead and
corrupt t hem. Corrupt and venal orat ors are the assassi ns oI the publi c
l ibert ies and oI publ ic moral s.
The Wi l l i s a Iorce; it s li mi ts as yet unknown. It i s i n t he power oI t he wil l
t hat we chieIly see the spi ri tual and divi ne in man. There i s a seeming
i dent ity bet ween hi s wi ll t hat moves other men, and the Creat ive Wil l
whose act ion seems so i ncomprehensi bl e. It is the men oI wi ll and act ion,
not the men oI pure int el lect , t hat govern the world.
Final ly, the three greatest moral Iorces are FAITH, whi ch i s the only true
WISDOM, and the very Ioundati on oI al l government; HOPE, which i s
STRENGTH, and i nsures success; and CHARITY, which i s BEAUTY, and
al one makes ani mat ed, uni ted eIIort possi ble. These Iorces are wi thi n the
reach oI al l men; and an associ at i on oI men, act uated by them, ought to
exerci se an i mmense power i n the world. II Masonry does not, i t i s
because she has ceased t o possess t hem.
Wisdom i n t he man or st atesman, in ki ng or priest , l argely consi st s i n t he
due appreci ati on oI these Iorces; and upon the general non-appreciat ion oI
some oI them t he Iate oI nati ons oIt en depends. What hecatombs oI li ves
oIten hang upon the not weighi ng or not sumciently weighi ng t he Iorce oI
an idea, such as, Ior example, t he reverence Ior a Il ag, or the bl i nd
at tachment t o a Iorm or consti tut i on oI government!
What errors in poli ti cal economy and st atesmanshi p are commi tt ed in
consequence oI t he over-esti mat ion or under-esti mat ion oI part icular
values, or t he non-esti mat ion oI some among them ! Everyt hi ng, i t is
asserted, is the product oI human labor; but the gol d or t he diamond which
one acci dentally Iinds wi thout l abor i s not so. What i s the val ue oI t he
l abor best owed by the husbandman upon his crops, compared wit h t he
value oI the sunshine and rai n, wit hout whi ch his labor avai l s not hing?
Commerce carri ed on by t he l abor oI man, adds to t he value oI the
product s oI t he Ii el d, the mi ne, or t he workshop, by their transportat ion t o
diIIerent markct s; but how much oI this increase is due to the rivers down
which these product s Il oat , to t he wi nds that urge the keel s oI commerce
over the ocean !
Who can est i mat e t he value oI moral ity and manl iness in a Stat e, oI moral
wort h and i nt el l ect ual knowl edge ? These are the sunshine and rai n oI the
Stat e. The wi nds, wi th their changeable, Ii ckl e, Iluctuati ng current s, are
apt emblems oI the Ii ckl e humors oI t he popul ace, it s passi ons, i ts heroic
i mpulses, it s enthusiasms. Woe t o t he st atesman who does not esti mat e
t hese as values !
Even music and song are someti mes Iound to have an i ncal culabl e value.
Every nat i on has some song oI a proven value, more easily count ed i n
l ives than doll ars. The Marseil lai se was worth to revol uti onary France,
who shall say how many thousand men?
Peace also i s a great el ement oI prosperity and weal th; a value not to be
calculat ed. Social i ntercourse and associ ati on oI men i n beneIicent Orders
have a value not t o be est i mated in coi n. The i ll ustri ous exampl es oI the
Past oI a nat ion, the memories and i mmortal t hought s oI her great and
wi se t hinkers, statesmen, and heroes, are the inval uabl e legacy oI that Past
t o t he Present and Fut ure. And al l these have not only the val ues oI t he
l oIt i er and more excell ent and priceless ki nd, but al so an act ual money-
value, si nce it i s only when co-operat i ng wit h or aided or enabled by
t hese, that human labor creat es weal th. They are oI the chi eI elements oI
material weal th, as t hey are oI nat i onal manl iness, heroi sm. , gl ory,
prosperi ty, and i mmortal renown.
Provi dence has appoi nted the t hree great di scipli nes oI War, t he Monarchy
and t he Pri esthood, all that the CAMP, the PALACE, and the TEMPLE
may symbol i ze, t o train the mult it udes Iorward to intel ligent and
premedit ated combinati ons Ior all t he great purposes oI society. The resul t
wi ll at l ength be Iree government s among men, when vi rt ue and
i ntell igence become quali ties oI t he mul t i tudes; but Ior ignorance such
government s are i mpossi bl e. Man advances only by degrees. The removal
oI one pressi ng calamity gives courage to at tempt the removal oI the
remai ni ng evi ls, renderi ng men more sensit ive to t hem, or perhaps
sensi ti ve Ior t he Iirst ti me. SerIs t hat wri t he under the whi p are not
disquiet ed about t beir pol it ical ri ght s; manumi tt ed Irom personal slavery,
t hey be come sensi t i ve to pol it ical oppression. Liberated Irom arbit rary
power, and governed by t he l aw al one, t hey begin to scruti ni ze t he l aw
i tsel I, and desire t o be governed, not only by law, but by what t hey deem
t he best l aw. And when t he ci vi l or temporal despot i sm has been set asi de,
and t he muni cipal law has been moul ded on t he princi pl es oI an
enlightened j urisprudence, t hey may wake t o the di scovery that t hey are
l ivi ng under some pri estly or eccl esiast ical despoti sm, and become
desi rous oI working a reIormat i on there al so.
It is qui te true t hat the advance oI humanity i s sl ow, and t hat i t oIt en
pauses and ret rogrades. In t he ki ngdoms oI t he earth we do not see
despot isms ret iri ng and yielding the ground to selI-governing
communi ti es. We do not see the churches and pri esthoods oI Christ endom
reli nquishi ng their ol d t ask oI governi ng men by i magi nary terrors.
Nowhere do we see a populace that could be saIely manumi t ted Irom such
a government. We do not see t he great rel igi ous t eachers ai ming t o
discover t rut h Ior themsel ves and Ior ot hers; but st i ll rul ing the world, and
contented and compell ed t o rule t he worl d, by what ever dogma i s already
accredit ed; t hemsel ves as much bound down by t hi s necessity t o govern, as
t he populace by t heir need oI government. Poverty in all i ts most hideous
Iorms st il l exi sts in the great ci ti es; and the cancer oI pauperi sm has i ts
root s i n t he heart s oI ki ngdoms. Men there t ake no measure oI t heir wants
and t heir own power t o supply t hem, but li ve and mul ti ply l ike the beast s
oI t he Ii el d, --Providence havi ng apparent ly ceased t o care Ior them.
Int el l igence never vi sit s t hese, or it makes i ts appearance as some new
development oI vi ll ainy. War has not ceased; st il l t here are bat tles and
si eges. Homes are st il l unhappy, and t ears and anger aud spi t e make hel ls
where t here should be heavens. So much t he more necessity Ior Masonry !
So much wi der the Iiel d oI i ts labors ! So much t he more need Ior it t o
begi n to be t rue t o i tsel I, to revive Irom i ts asphyxia, t o repent oI it s
apost asy to it s t rue creed !
Undoubtedly, labor and death and t he sexual passi on are essent ial and
permanent condit ions oI human exi st ence, and render perIect ion and a
mi l lennium on eart h i mpossible. Al ways, --it i s the decree oI Fat e !--the
vast majori ty oI men must toil to l ive, and cannot Ii nd ti me to cul ti vate
t he i nt ell igence. Man, knowi ng he i s to di e, wi l l not sacri Ii ce the present
enjoyment Ior a greater one in the Iuture. The love oI woman cannot die
out; and i t has a t erri ble and uncontrol lable Iate, increased by the
reIi nements oI civil i zati on. Woman is the veri table syren or goddess oI t he
young. But society can be i mproved; and Iree government is possibl e Ior
Stat es; and Ireedom oI t hought and consci ence i s no l onger wholly
utopian. Already we see t hat Emperors preIer t o be elect ed by universal
suIIrage; t hat St ates are conveyed to Empires by vot e; and that Empires
are administered wit h somet hi ng oI the spirit oI a Republi c, being li t tle
el se than democracies wit h a singl e head, rul i ng through one man, one
representat ive, i nstead oI an assembly oI represent at i ves. And i I
Priesthoods st il l govern, they now come beIore the laity t o prove, by
st ress oI argument , that t hey ougl lt t o govern. They are obl iged to evoke
t he very reason whi ch they are bent on supplanti ng.
Accordi ngly, men become daily more Iree, because t he Ireedom oI t he man
l ies in hi s reason. He can reIl ect upon his own Iut ure conduct , and
summon up it s consequences; he can take wi de views oI human li Ie, and
l ay down rules Ior constant gui dance. Thus he is reli eved oI the tyranny oI
sense and passion, and enabled at any ti me to li ve accordi ng to the whol e
l ight oI the knowledge that is wit hin hi m, i nstead oI bei ng driven, l ike a
dry leaI on the wi ngs oI t he wind, by every present i mpulse. Herei n li es
t he Ireedom oI t he man as regarded i n connect ion wit h t he necessi ty
i mposed by t he omnipotence and Iore-knowl edge oI God. So much l ight ,
so much l i berty. When emperor and church appeal t o reason there i s
naturally uni versal suIIrage.
ThereIore no one need l ose courage, nor beli eve t hat labor in t he cause oI
Progress wil l be labor wasted. There i s no wast e i n nat ure, eit her oI
Mat ter, Force, Act , or Thought. A Thought is as much t he end oI l iIe as an
Act ion; and a si ngle Thought somet i mes works great er resul t s than a
Revol uti on, even Revoluti ons themsel ves. Sti l l there shoul d not be divorce
between Thought and Act ion. The t rue Thought i s that in whi ch l iIe
cul mi nat es. But al l wise and true Thought produces Acti on. It is
generati ve, li ke the light; and l ight and t he deep shadow oI the passi ng
cl oud are the giIt s oI the prophets oI the race. Knowledge, l aboriously
acquired, and induci ng habit s oI sound Thought , --t he reIl ect i ve
character, --must necessarily be rare. The mul t it ude oI l aborers cannot
acquire i t. Most men att ai n t o a very low st andard oI it . It is incompati ble
wi th t he ordi nary and i ndi spensable avocat i ons oI l iIe. A whole worl d oI
error as well as oI labor, go to make one reIlect ive man. In the most
advanced nati on oI Europe there are more ignorant than wi se, more poor
t han ri ch, more autornat ic laborers, t he mere creat ures oI habit , t han
reasoni ng and reIl ecti ve men. The proporti on is at l east a thousand t o one.
Unani mity oI opi ni on is so obtai ned. It only exi st s among the mul t it ude
who do not think, and the pol i t ical or spiri t ual priest hood who thi nk Ior
t hat mul t i t ude, who t hi nk how to gui de and govern t hem. When men begin
t o reIl ect , t hey begin to di IIer. The great problem i s t o Iind guides who
wi ll not seek t o be tyrants. This i s needed even more i n respect to t he
heart than t he head. Now, every man earns hi s special share oI the produce
oI human l abor, by an i ncessant scrambl e, by t ri ckery and decei t. UseIul
knowl edge, honorably acqui red, i s t oo oIten used aIter a Iashi on not
honest or reasonabl e, so t hat the studies oI youth are Iar more nobl e than
t he pract ices oI manhood. The labor oI t he Iarmer in hi s Ii elds, t he
generous ret urns oI the eart h, the beni gnant and Iavoring ski es, t end to
make hi m earnest, provi dent , and grateIul ; the educat ion oI the market-
place makes hi m querul ous, craIty, envious, and an i ntolerable niggard.
Masonry seeks t o be thi s beneIicent , unambit ious, di sinterest ed guide; and
i t i s t he very condit ion oI all great struct ures t hat the sound oI the hammer
and t he cl ink oI the trowel should be always heard i n some part oI t he
buil di ng. Wi t h Iait h i n man, hope Ior t he Iut ure oI humanity, l ovi ng-
kindness Ior our Iell ows, Masonry and the Mason must al ways work and
t each. Let each do that Ior which he i s best Ii t ted. The teacher al so i s a
workman. Prai seworthy as t he act i ve navi gator is, who comes and goes
and makes one cl i me partake oI the t reasures oI t he ot her, and one to share
t he t reasures oI all , he who keeps the beacon-l ight upon t he hil l i s al so at
his post .
Masonry has al ready hel ped cast down some idol s Irom t heir pedestal s,
and grind t o i mpal pable dust some oI t he li nks oI the chai ns t hat hel d
men' s soul s in bondage. That there has been progress needs no other
demonstrati on than t hat you may now reason wit h men, and urge upon
t hem, wi thout danger oI the rack or st ake, that no doctrines can be
apprehended as trut hs iI they contradi ct each ot her, or contradict other
t ruths given us by God. Long beIore the ReIormati on, a monk, who had
Iound his way t o heresy wit hout the help oI Marti n Luther, not vent urine
t o breat he al oud i nt o any li vi ng ear his anti -papal and treasonabl e
doctri nes, wrot e t hem on parchment, and seali ng up t heperi l ous record, hi d
i t i n the massi ve wall s oI hi s monast ery. There was no Iri end or brother to
whom he coul d i nt rust his secret or pour Iort h his soul . It was some
consol at i on to i magine that in a Iuture age some one might Ii nd the
parchment , and t he seed be Iound not t o have been sown i n vain. What iI
t he t ruth shoul d have to l ie dormant as long beIore germinati ng as the
wheat i n the Egypti an mummy ? Speak it , nevert hel ess, agai n and agai n,
and l et it take it s chance !
The rose oI Jericho grows i n the sandy desert s oI Arabia and on the Syri an
houset ops. Scarcely si x i nches high, it loses it s l eaves aIt er t he Iloweri ng
season, and dries up into the Iorm oI a ball . Then it i s uprooted by the
wi nds, and carried, blown, or t ossed across t he desert , i nt o t he sea. There,
Ieeli ng t he contact oI the water, it unIolds it selI, expands i ts branches,
and expel s it s seeds Irom their seed-vessel s. These, when saturated wi t h
wat er, are carried by the t ide and lai d on t he sea-shore. Many are lost, as
many individual li ves oI men are usel ess. But many are t hrown back again
Irom the sea-shore i nt o t he desert , where, by the vi rt ue oI the sea-wat er
t hat they have i mbi bed, t he roots and l eaves sprout and they grow i nt o
Iruit Iul pl ant s, whi ch wi ll , in their t urns, l i ke t heir ancest ors, be whi rled
i nt o t he sea. God wi l l not be l ess careIul to provide Ior the germi nat ion oI
t he t ruths you may boldly ut t er Iort h. "Cast, " He has sai d, "t hy bread upon
t he wat ers, and aIt er many days it shal l ret urn t o t hee agai n. "
Ini ti ati on does not change: we Ii nd i t agai n and agai n, and always the
same, t hrough al l t he ages. The l ast disci pl es oI Pascali s Mart inez are st il l
t he chil dren oI Orpheus; but t hey adore the reali zer oI the ant ique
phil osophy, t he Incarnate Word oI t he Christ ians.
Pyt hagoras, t he great divulger oI the phi losophy oI numbers, vi sit ed al l
t he sanctuaries oI the world. He went i nt o Judaea, where he procured
hi msel I to be circumci sed, that he mi ght be admit ted to t he secrets oI the
Kabal ah, which the prophet s Ezekiel and Dani el, not wit hout some
reservat ions, communicated t o hi m. Then, not wi thout some di IIi cul ty, he
succeeded i n being admi t ted to the Egypt ian init iat i on, upon t he
recommendati on oI Ki ng Amasi s. The power oI hi s geni us suppl ied the
deIicienci es oI t he i mperIect communi cati ons oI t he Hi erophants, and he
hi msel I became a Master and a Revealer.
Pyt hagoras deIined God: a Li ving and Absol ute Veri ty clothed wi th Light.
He said that t he Word was Number maniIested by Form.
He made all descend Irom t he Tetyactys, t hat i s to say, Irom the
God, he sai d agai n, is the Supreme Musi c, the nat ure oI whi ch is Harmony.
Pyt hagoras gave t he magist rat es oI Crot ona thi s great rel igi ous, poli ti cal
and soci al precept:
"There i s no evi l that is not preIerabl e to Anarchy. "
Pyt hagoras sai d, "Even as there are three divine not i ons and Iree
i ntell igi ble regi ons, so there i s a t ri pl e word, Ior the Hierarehical Order
al ways maniIests it selI by threes. There are t he word si mpl e, the word
hieroglyphi cal , and the word symboli c: i n ot her terms, there are t he word
t hat expresses, the word that conceal s, and the word that signiIies; t he
whole hi erat ic i nt el l igence i s in the perIect knowl edge oI t hese t hree
degrees. "
Pyt hagoras envel oped doctrine wi th symbol s, but careIul ly eschewed
personiIicat ions and i mages, which, he t hought, sooner or lat er produced
i dol atry.
The Holy Kabal ah, or tradi ti on oI t he chil dren oI Seth, was carried Irom
Chal dcea by Abraham, t aught t o the Egypti an pri est hood by Joseph,
recovered and puriIied by Moses, concealed under symbols in the Bible,
revealed by the Saviour t o Saint John, and cont ained, enti re, under
hierati c Ii gures anal ogous to t hose oI all ant iqui ty, i n t he Apocalypse oI
t hat Apost le.
The Kabali sts consi der God as t he Intell igent, Ani mated, Livi ng InIi ni t e.
He is not , Ior t hem, ei ther t he aggregat e oI exist ences, or exi stence i n t he
abst ract , or a bei ng phi losophi cally deIi nabl e. He is in all , dist inct Irom
al l, and great er than all . Hi s name even is i neIIable; and yet this name
only expresses t he human i deal oI Hi s di vi ni ty. What God i s i n Hi mselI, i t
i s not given to man t o comprehend.
God i s t he absolute oI Fai th; but the absol ut e oI Reason i s BEING, "I am
t hat I am, " i s a wretched translat ion.
Being, Exist ence, i s by i t sel I, and because it Is. The reason oI Bei ng, i s
Being i tsel I. We may i nquire, "Why does somethi ng exi st ?" that i s, "Why
does such or such a t hi ng exist ?" But we cannot, wit hout bei ng absurd,
ask, "Why Is Bei ng?" That woul d be t o suppose Bei ng beIore Bei ng. II
Being had a cause, that cause would necessarily Be; that i s, t he cause and
eIIect would be identi cal.
Reason and science demonst rat e t o us that the modes oI Exist ence and
Being bal ance each ot her in equil ibri um according to harmonious and
hierarchi c l aws. But a hierarchy i s synt heti zed, i n ascendi ng, and becomes
ever more and more monarchial . Yet the reason cannot pause at a si ml e
chieI, wi thout being alarmed at the abysses whi ch it seems to leave above
t hi s Supreme Monarch. ThereIore it i s si lent , and gives place to the Fai th
i t adores.
What i s certai n, even Ior sci ence and t he reason, i s, t hat the i dea oI God i s
t he grandest , the most holy, and the most useIul oI all t he aspi rat ions oI
man; that upon t hi s bel ieI moral i ty reposes, wi th it s et ernal sanct ion. Thi s
belieI, then, is i n humanity, t he most real oI the phenomena oI being; and
i I i t were Ial se, nature woul d aIIirm the absurd; nothi ngness woul d give
Iorm to li Ie, and God woul d at the same ti me be and not be.
It is t o this phi losophic and i ncont estable real ity, which is termed The
Idea oI God, t hat the Kabal ist s gi ve a name. In t hi s name all others are
contai ned. Its cyphers cont ai n al l the numbers; and the hi eroglyphics oI it s
l ett ers express al l the laws and al l the things oI nat ure.
BEING IS BEING: t he reason oI Being is i n Bei ng: in t he Beginni ng i s t he
Word, and t he Word i n l ogi c Iormul ated Speech, the spoken Reason; the
Word is in God, and i s God Hi msel I, maniIested to t he Int el l igence. Here
i s what i s above al l the phi l osophies. Thi s we must bel i eve, under t he
penalty oI never truly knowi ng anyt hing, and relapsi ng int o t he absurd
skept i cism oI Pyrrho. The Pri esthood, custodian oI Fai th, whol ly rest s
upon this basi s oI knowledge, and i t is i n it s teachings we must recognize
t he Divi ne Principl e oI t he Et ernal Word.
Light is not Spiri t, as t he Indian Hierophant s bel ieved i t to be; but only
t he i nst rument oI t he Spirit . It i s not t he body oI t he Protoplastes, as the
Theurgi sts oI the school oI Alexandria taught, but t he Ii rst physical
maniIestat ion oI the Di vine aIIl at us. God et ernal ly creat es i t, and man, i n
t he i mage oI God, modi Ii es and seems to mult iply it .
The high magi c i s styled "The Sacerdot al Art , " and "The Royal Art." In
Egypt , Greece, and Rome, i t coul d not but share t he greatnesses and
decadences oI t he Priest hood and oI Royal ty. Every phi losophy host i le t o
t he nati onal worshi p and to it s mysteries, was oI necessi ty host il e t o the
great pol i t ical powers, whi chl ose t heir grandeur, i I they cease, i n the eyes
oI t he mul ti t udes, to be the i mages oI t he Di vi ne Power. Every Crown i s
shat tered, when i t cl ashes agai nst the Ti ara.
Plat o, writ ing to Di onysius the Younger, in regard t o the nat ure oI the
First Principl e, says: "I must writ e t o you in enigmas, so t hat iI my l ett er
be intercepted by land or sea, he who shall read i t may in no degree
comprehend i t. " And then he says, "Al l t hi ngs surround t hei r King; t hey
are, on account oI Hi m, and He al one is the cause oI good thi ngs, Second
Ior the Seconds and Thi rd Ior the Thirds. "
There i s in t hese Iew words a complet e summary oI the Theol ogy oI the
Sephiroth. "The Ki ng" is AINSOPH, Bei ng Supreme and Absol ute. From
t hi s cent re, whi ch i s everywhere, all things ray Iort h; but we especial ly
concei ve oI i t i n three manners and i n t hree di IIerent spheres. In the
Di vi ne worl d (AZILUTH), which i s that oI the Fi rst Cause, and wherein
t he whol e Eterni ty oI Thi ngs i n t he beginning existed as Unity, t o be
aIterward, during Et ernity utt ered Iort h, clot hed wit h Iorm, and t he
at tributes that consti t ute them mat t er, t he First Principle i s Si ngle and
First , and yet not t he VERY Ill i mit abl e Dei ty, incomprehensibl e,
undeIinable; but Hi mselI i n so Iar as mani Iest ed by t he Creati ve Thought .
To compare li tt leness wit h inIi nity,--Arkwright, as invent or oI t he
spinning-j enny, and not t he man Arkwright otherwi se and beyond t hat . Al l
we can know oI the Very God is, compared t o His Wholeness, only as an
i nIi nitesi mal Iract ion oI a uni t, compared wit h an inIi ni ty oI Uni ts.
In t he World oI Creati on, whi ch i s that oI Second Causes |t he Kabal ist ic
Worl d BRIAH|, the Aut ocracy oI the Fi rst Pri nci pl e i s complet e, but we
concei ve oI i t only as t he Cause oI t he Second Causes. Here i t i s
maniIested by the Binary, and i s t he Creati ve Principle passi ve. Fi nally: i n
t he t hi rd world, YEZIRAH, or oI Formati on, i t is reveal ed i n the perIect
Form, t he Form oI Forms, t he World, t he Supreme Beauty and Excel l ence,
t he Created PerIecti on. Thus the Pri nci ple is at once t he First, the Second,
and t he Thi rd, since i t i s All in Al l , the Centre and Cause oI al l . It is not
t he genius oI Plat o t hat we here admi re. We recognize only t he exact
knowl edge oI the Init iat e.
The great Apost le Sai nt John did not borrow Irom t he phi l osophy oI Plat o
t he openi ng oI his Gospel . Pl ato, on t he cont rary, drank at the same
spri ngs wi th Saint John and Phil o; and John in t he openi ng verses oI his
paraphrase, st ates the Ii rst pri nci ples oI a dogma common to many
school s, but in language especi ally bel onging to Bhi lo, whom it i s evi dent
he had read. The phi losophy oI Pl at o, t he greatest oI human Revealers,
could yearn t oward t he Word made man; t he Gospel al one could give hi m
t o t he worl d.
Doubt , in presence oI Being and it s harmoni es; skepti ci sm, in the Iace oI
t he et ernal mathemat ics and t he i mmut abl e laws oI Li Ie which make t he
Di vi ni ty present and visi ble everywhere, as the Human i s known and
visi ble by it s ut terances oI word and act, --i s thi s not the most Iooli sh oI
superst it ions, and the most i nexcusabl e as wel l as t he most dangerous oI
al l creduli ti es ? Thought , we know, i s not a result or consequence oI the
organi zat i on oI mat ter, oI the chemical or ot her act ion or reacti on oI it s
parti cl es, l ike eIIervescence and gaseous explosi ons. On t he contrary, the
Iact that Thought i s mani Iested and real ized i n act human or act di vi ne,
proves the exi st ence oI an Ent ity, or Unity, t hat thinks. And t he Universe
i s t he InIinite Ut terance oI one oI an i nIi ni te number oI InIini t e Thought s,
which cannot but emanate Irom an InIi nit e and Thi nking Source. The
cause is al ways equal, at least , t o the eIIect; and mat ter cannot t hi nk, nor
could i t cause it selI, or exi st wit hout cause, nor coul d nothi ng produce
ei ther Iorces or t hings; Ior i n voi d not hingness no Forces can i nhere.
Admi t a selI-exist ent Force, and it s Int ell igence, or an Intel li gent cause oI
i t i s admi t t ed, and at once GOD Is.
The Hebrew all egory oI t he Fall oI Man, which is but a special variat ion
oI a uni versal l egend, symbol i zes one oI t he grandest and most uni versal
al legories oI science.
Moral Evi l i s Fal sehood i n acti ons, as Fal sehood i s Cri me i n words.
Inj ust ice i s t he essence oI Fal sehood; and every Ial se word is an i njusti ce.
Inj ust ice i s t he death oI the Moral Bei ng, as Fal sehood i s t he poi son oI the
Int el l igence.
The percepti on oI the Light i s t he dawn oI the Eternal LiIe, i n Bei ng. The
Word oI God, whi ch creates t he Light , seems to be utt ered by every
Int el l igence that can take cognizance oI Forms and wi ll l ook. "Let t he
Light BE! The Light , i n Iact , exi st s, in it s condi ti on oI spl endor, Ior t hose
eyes alone that gaze at it ; and the Soul , amorous oI the spect acle oI the
beauti es oI t he Uni verse, and applying it s at tenti on to that luminous
writ ing oI t he InIi nit e Book, whi ch i s call ed "The Vi sibl e," seems to ut ter,
as God did on t he dawn oI the Ii rst day, that subli me and creat ive word,
It is not beyond the t omb, but in l iIe it selI, that we are to seek Ior the
mysteries oI deat h. Sal vat ion or reprobat ion begi ns here bel ow, and t he
t errestrial worl d t oo has i ts Heaven and it s Hell . Al ways, even here bel ow,
virtue is rewarded; al ways, even here below, vi ce i s pwl ished; and that
which makes us somet i mes bel ieve in t he i mpuni ty oI evi l-doers i s t hat
riches, t hose inst rument s oI good and oI evi l , seem somet i mes t o be given
t hem at hazard. But woe t o unj ust men, when they possess t he key oI
gold ! It opens, Ior t hem, only t he gat e oI t he t omb and oI Hell .
Al l the true Init i at es have recognized t he useIul ness oI t oil and sorrow.
"Sorrow, " says a German poet, "i s the dog oI t hat unknown shepherd who
guides the Il ock oI men. " To learn t o suIIer, t o learn t o die, is t he
disci pli ne oI Et ernity, t he i mmortal Novit i at e.
The allegori cal pict ure oI Cebes, i n which the Di vi ne Comedy oI Dante
was sketched i n Plato' s ti me, t he descript i on whereoI has been preserved
Ior us, and whi ch many pai nters oI t he mi ddle age have reproduced by thi s
descripti on, i s a monument at once phil osophical and magi cal . It is a most
compl ete moral synt hesis, and at the same ti me the most audacious
demonstrati on ever given oI t he Grand Arcanum, oI t hat secret whose
revelat ion woul d overturn Earth and Heaven. Let no one expect us t o give
t hem it s expl anat ion ! He who passes behi nd the vei l that hi des this
mystery, understands t hat it i s in i t s very nat ure inexpl icable, and that it is
deat h to those who win it by surprise, as well as to hi m who reveal s it .
Thi s secret i s t he Royalty oI t he Sages, the Crown oI the Ini tiate whom we
see redescend vi ct ori ous Irom the summi t oI Trial s, i n the Ii ne al legory oI
Cebes. The Grand Arcanun1 makes hi m mast er oI gol d and t he l ight, whi ch
are at bot tom the same thi ng, he has sol ved the probl em oI the quadrat ure
oI t he circl e, he direct s t he perpetual movement , and he possesses t he
phil osophi cal st one. Here t he Adepts wi l l understand us. There i s nei ther
i nterrupt ion i n the toil oI nat ure, nor gap in her work. The Harmonies oI
Heaven correspond t o t hose oI Eart h, and the Et ernal LiIe accompl i shes i ts
evoluti ons in accordance wit h t he same laws as t he l iIe oI a dog. "God has
arranged al l t hi ngs by weight, number, and measure, " says the Bibl e; and
t hi s lumi nous doctrine was al so t hat oI Plat o.
Humani ty has never real ly had but one reli gion and one worshi p. Thi s
universal li ght has had it s uncertain mi rages, it s decei tIul reIlect ions, and
i ts shadows; but always, aIter the ni ght s oI Error, we see it reappear, one
and pure li ke t he Sun.
The magni Ii cences oI worship are t he l i Ie oI rel igi on, and i I Christ wishes
poor mi ni sters, His Sovereign Divi ni ty does not wi sh palt ry al t ars. Some
Protest ant s have not comprehended t hat worshi p is a teachi ng, and that we
must not create in the i maginati on oI the mult i t ude a mean or miserabl e
God. Those orat ories t hat resembl e poorly-Iurni shed oIIices or i nns, and
t hose worthy mi ni sters clad l ike notaries or l awyer' s clerks, do they not
necessarily cause rel igi on to be regarded as a mere puri tanic Iormal ity,
and God as a Just ice oI the Peace?
We scoII at t he Augurs. It i s so easy t o scoII, and so di IIicult wel l to
comprehend. Di d the Deity leave the whol e worl d wit hout Light Ior two
score cent uries, to i ll umi nat e only a l it tl e corner oI Palest ine and a brut al,
i gnorant , and ungrat eIul people? Why al ways cal umniat e God and t he
Sanct uary ? Were t here never any ot hers than rogues among the priest s?
Could no honest and sincere men be Iound among the Hierophant s oI
Ceres or Di ana, oI Di onusos or Apoll o, oI Hermes or Mi t hras ? Were
t hese, then, al l deceived, li ke t he rest ? Who, t hen, constant ly decei ved
t hem, wi thout betraying themsel ves, during a seri es oI centuries?--Ior the
cheat s are not i mmortal ! Arago sai d, t hat outsi de oI t he pure mat hemati cs,
he who ut ters t he word "i mpossible, " i s want ing i n prudence and good
The true name oI Sat an, the Kabal ist s say, i s that oI Yahveh reversed; Ior
Satan i s not a black god, but the negat ion oI God. The Devil i s the
personiIicat ion oI At heism or Idolat ry.
For the Ini ti at es, thi s i s not a Person, but a Force, creat ed Ior good, but
which may serve Ior evi l . It i s the i nstrument oI Li berty or Free Wi l l. They
represent thi s Force, whi ch presi des over the physical generati on, under
t he myt hol ogic and horned Iorm oI t he God PAN; thence came the he-goat
oI t he Sabbat, brot her oI t he Anci ent Serpent, and the Light-bearer or
Phosphor, oI which the poet s have made t he Ial se Luci Ier oI t he l egend.
Gold, t o t he eyes oI t he Ini ti at es, is Light condensed. They style t he sacred
numbers oI the Kabal ah "golden numbers, " and t he moral teachi ngs oI
Pyt hagoras hi s "golden verses." For t he same reason, a mysterious book oI
Apuleius, in which an ass Iigures largely, was cal l ed "The Golden Ass. "
The Pagans accused t he Chri sti ans oI worshi ppi ng an ass, and t hey did not
i nvent thi s reproach, but i t came Irom the Samari tan Jews, who, Iiguri ng
t he data oI the Kabal ah i n regard to t he Di vi ni ty by Egypti an symbols, al so
represented the Int ell igence by t he Iigure oI the Magical Star adored under
t he name oI Remphan, Science under t he embl em oI Anubis, whose name
t hey changed to Ni bbas, and the vul gar Iai t h or credul ity under the Iigure
oI Thart ac, a god represent ed wi t h a book, a cl oak, and t he head oI an ass.
Accordi ng to the Samarit an Doctors, Christ iani ty was t he reign oI Thartac,
bli nd Fait h and vul gar creduli ty erected i nto a uni versal oracle, and
preIerred t o Intell igence and Science.
Synesi us, Bishop oI Pt ol emai s, a great Kabali st, but oI doubt Iul
ort hodoxy, wrote:
"The people wil l always mock at things easy t o be mi sunderst ood; it must
needs have i mpost ures. "
"A Spirit , " he sai d, "t hat loves wi sdom and contempl ates t he TruIh close at
hand, is Iorced to di sguise it , t o induce t he mul t i tudes t o accept i t. . . .
Ficti ons are necessary to the people, and t he Trut h becomes deadly t o
t hose who are not strong enough to cont empl at e it i n all it s bri ll iance. II
t he sacerdot al laws all owed the reservati on oI j udgment s and the al l egory
oI words, I woul d accept t he proposed di gni ty on conditi on t hat I mi ght be
a phi losopher at home, and abroad a narrat or oI apologues and parables. . . . .
In Iact , what can t here be i n common bet ween t he vil e mult it ude and
subli me wi sdom? The t ruth must be kept secret, and the masses need a
t eaching proport ioned to their i mperIect reason. "
Moral di sorders produce physi cal ugli ness, and in some sort real ize those
Iright Iul Iaces whi ch tradit ion assi gns t o the demons.
The Ii rst Druids were the t rue chi ldren oI the Magi, and their i nit iat i on
came Irom Egypt and Chal daea, that is t o say, Irom t he pure sources oI t he
pri mi ti ve Kabalah. They adored the Trini ty under the names oI Isis or
Hesus, t he Supreme Harmony; oI Belerl or Bel , which i n Assyrian means
Lord, a name corresponding t o t hat oI ADONAI; and oI Camul or Camael,
a name that i n t he Kabalah personi Ii es t he Divi ne Just ice. Bel ow this
t ri angle oI Light they supposed a di vi ne reIl ecti on, al so composed oI t hree
personiIied rays: Ii rst, Teut ates or Teut h, the same as the Thot h oI the
Egypt ians, t he Word, or the Int ell igence Iormulat ed; then Force and
Beauty, whose names varied li ke thei r emblems. Final ly, they compl eted
t he sacred Sept enary by a mysterious i mage t hat represented the progress
oI t he dogma and it s Iut ure real i zati ons. Thi s was a young girl veil ed,
holding a chi ld i n her arms; and t hey dedicated thi s i mage to "The Vi rgin
who wil l become a mother; --Virgini pari t urae. "
Hertha or Wertha, t he young Isis oI Gaul , Queen oI Heaven, the Virgi n
who was to bear a chil d, held t he spi ndle oI the Fates, Iil l ed wit h wool
halI whi te and halI black; because she presi des over all Iorms and al l
symbol s, and weaves t he garment oI the Ideas.
One oI t he most mysterious pantacles oI t he Kabal ah, contai ned i n the
Enchiridion oI Leo III. , represent s an equi lat eral t ri angle reversed,
i nscribed in a double circle. On t he triangl e are writ ten, i n such manner as
t o Iorm the propheti c Tau, t he t wo Hebrew words so oIten Iound appended
t o t he IneIIable Name, and ALOHAYIM, or t he Powers, and TSABAOTH,
or t he starry Armi es and their gui di ng spirit s; words al so which symbol ize
t he Equi l ibri um oI t he Forces oI Nature and the Harmony oI Numbers. To
t he t hree sides oI t he t ri angle bel ong the three great Names IAHAVEH,
ADONAI, and AGLA. Above the Ii rst i s writ ten i n Lat in, Formati o, above
t he second ReIormat io, and above the third, TransIormati o. So Creati on is
ascribed t o t he FATHER, Redempt ion or ReIormat ion to the SON, and
Sanct iIi cat i on or TransIormat i on t o the HOLY SPIRIT, answeri ng unt o t he
mathemati cal laws oI Act i on, Reacti on, and Equi l ibri um. IAHAVEH i s
al so, in eIIect, t he Genesis or Format ion oI dogma, by the el ement ary
signiIicat ion oI the Iour let t ers oI t he Sacred Tet ragram; ADONAI; is the
reali zati on oI t hi s dogma i n the Human Form, in the Visi bl e LORD, who i s
t he Son oI God or the perIect Man; and AGLA (Iormed oI t he i nit ials oI
t he Iour words Ath Gebur Laulai m Adonai ) expresses t he synthesi s oI the
whole dogma and t he t ot al i ty oI the Kabal i. sti c science, cl early i ndi cati ng
by t he hieroglyphics oI which thi s admirabl e name i s Iormed the Tripl e
Secret oI t he Great Work.
Masonry, li ke al l the Reli gions, all the Mysteries, Hermet ici sm and
Al chemy, conceal s i ts secrets Irom all except the Adept s and Sages, or the
Elect , and uses Ial se explanat i ons and mi sinterpretat ions oI i ts symbols to
misl ead t hose who deserve only to be misl ed; t o conceal the Trut h, whi ch
i t call s Light, Irom tl 1em, and todraw them away Irom i t. Truth i s not Ior
t hose who are unwort hy or unable t o recei ve i t, or would pervert it . So
God Hi msel I incapacit ates many men, by col or-bli ndness, t o di st i nguish
colors, and l eads t he masses away Irom the hi ghest Trut h, givi ng them t he
power to at tai n only so much oI i t as it i s proIitable to them to know.
Every age has had a religion sui ted t o i ts capacity.
The Teachers, even oI Christ ianity, are, i n general , t he most ignorant oI
t he t rue meaning oI t hat whi ch t hey teach. There i s no book oI which so
l it tl e i s known as the Bi ble. To most who read it , i t is as incomprehensibl e
as t he Sohar.
So Masonry jeal ously conceal s it s secret s, and int ent ionally l eads
concei t ed i nt erpret ers ast ray. There is no sight under the sun more pit iIul
and l udi crous at once, t han the spectacl e oI t he Prestons and t he Webbs,
not to ment i on the lat er incarnat ions oI Dull ness and Commonplace,
undertaking t o "explain" t he ol d symbol s oI Masonry, and addi ng t o and
"i mprovi ng" t hem, or invent ing new ones.
To the Circle inclosi ng the central point , and it sel I traced between two
paral lel li nes, a Iigure purely Kabal i st i c, t hese persons have added t he
superi mposed Bi bl e, and even reared on that t he l adder wit h t hree or ni ne
rounds, and then gi ven a vapi d int erpret at i on oI the whole, so proIoundly
absurd as act ually t o exci te admi rat i on.
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
4º - Secret Mast er, 5º - PerIect Master, 6º - Int i mate Secretary
7º - Provost and Judge, 8º - Intendant oI the Bui ldi ng, 9º - Elu oI t he Nine
MASONRY is a succession oI allegori es, t he mere vehi cles oI great
l essons in moral ity and phi l osophy. You wi ll more Iully appreciate i ts
spirit , i ts obj ect , it s purposes, as you advance in t he diIIerent Degrees,
which you wi ll Ii nd t o consti tute a great , compl ete, and harmonious
syst em.
II you have been di sappoi nt ed i n the Ii rst t hree Degrees, as you have
received t hem, and i I i t has seemed t o you that t he perIormance has not
come up t o the promi se, t hat t he l essons oI moral ity are not new, and the
sci ent i Ii c i nst ruct i on is but rudi ment ary, and the symbol s are i mperIectly
expl ained, remember t hat the ceremoni es and lessons oI those Degrees
have been Ior ages more and more accommodati ng themselves, by
curtail ment and si nki ng i nt o commonplace, to t he oIten l i mit ed memory
and capaci ty oI the Master and Inst ructor, and to t he i nt el lect and needs oI
t he Pupil and Ini ti ate; t hat they have come to us Irom an age when
symbol s were used, not to reveal but t o conceal ; when t he commonest
l earning was conIi ned to a select Iew, and the si mpl est princi pl es oI
morali ty seemed newly di scovered t rut hs; and t hat t hese ant ique and
si mpl e Degrees now stand li ke t he broken col umns oI a rooIless Druidi c
t empl e, in their rude and mut il ated great ness; in many part s, al so,
corrupt ed by t i me, and di sIigured by modern addi ti ons and absurd
i nterpretat ions. They are but t he entrance to the great Masonic Templ e, t he
t ri pl e col umns oI t he porti co.
You have t aken the Ii rst st ep over it s t hreshold, the Iirst step t oward t he
i nner sanct uary and heart oI the templ e. You are in the pat h that l eads up
t he sl ope oI the mountai n oI Truth; and i t depends upon your secrecy,
obedi ence, and Ii del i ty, whet her you wi l l advance or remai n st ati onary.
Imagi ne not t hat you wil l become i ndeed a Mason by learni ng what is
commonly cal led the "work, " or even by becomi ng Iamil iar wi th our
t radi t ions. Masonry has a hi story, a li terat ure, a phil osophy. It s all egories
and t radit ions wi l l teach you much; but much i s t o be sought el sewhere.
The streams oI l earning that now Il ow Iul l and broad must be Iol l owed to
t heir heads i n t he spri ngs t hat wel l up in the remot e past , and you wi l l
t here Ii nd the origi n and meani ng oI Masonry.
A Iew rudi mentary l essons in archi tect ure, a Iew uni versal ly admi t ted
maxi ms oI moral ity, a Iew uni mport ant t radi ti ons, whose real meani ng i s
unknown or mi sunderst ood, wil l no longer sat isIy t he earnest inqui rer
aIter Masoni c t ruth. Let whoso i s content wit h t hese, seek t o cl i mb no
higher. He who desires t o understand t he harmoni ous and beaut i Iul
proporti ons oI Freemasonry must read, study, reIl ect, digest, and
discri mi nat e. The t rue Mason is an ardent seeker aIt er knowledge; and he
knows t hat both books and the ant ique symbol s oI Masonry are vessels
which come down t o us Iul l-Ireight ed wit h t he int ell ectual ri ches oI t he
Past; and t hat in t he l ading oI t hese argosi es is much t hat sheds light on
t he hist ory oI Masonry, and proves i ts clai m t o be acknowl edged the
beneIact or oI manki nd, born i n t he very cradl e oI t he race.
Knowl edge i s the most genui ne and real oI human treasures; Ior it i s
Light , as Ignorance i s Darkness. It is the devel opment oI t he human soul,
and i ts acqui si t ion t he growt h oI the soul , which at the bi rt h oI man knows
nothing, and t hereIore, i n one sense, may be sai d to be not hi ng. It i s t he
seed, which has i n i t the power to grow, to acquire, and by acqui ring to be
developed, as t he seed is devel oped into the shoot, t he plant , the tree. "We
need not pause at t he common argument t hat by learni ng man excell et h
man, in that wherei n man excel let h beasts; that by l earning man ascendet h
t o t he heavens and thei r mot i ons, where i n body he cannot come, and the
l ike. Let us rat her regard t he digni ty and excellency oI knowledge and
l earning i n that whereunt o man' s nature dot h most aspi re, whi ch i s
i mmortal i ty or cont inuance. For t o t hi s tendet h generat i on, and raisi ng oI
Houses and Fami l ies; t o t hi s buil di ngs, Ioundat ions, and monuments; t o
t hi s tendet h t he desi re oI memory, Iame, and celebrat ion, and i n eIIect t he
st rengt h oI all other human desi res. " That our inIl uences shal l survi ve us,
and be li vi ng Iorces when we are i n our graves; and no merely t hat our
names shal l be remembered; but rather that our works shall be read, our
act s spoken oI, our names recol lect ed an menti oned when we are dead, as
evidences that t hose inIl uences li ve and rule, sway and cont rol some
port ion oI mankind and oI the world, --this is t he aspirati on oI the human
soul. "We see then how Iar the monument s oI genius and learning are more
durable than monument s oI power or oI t he hands. For have not the verses
oI Homer conti nued t wenty-Iive hundred years or more, wit hout the loss oI
a syll able or let ter, duri ng whi ch ti me inIi nit e palaces, temples, castl es,
ci ti es, have decayed and been demoli shed? It i s no possibl e t o have t he
t rue pi ct ures or st at ues oI Cyrus, Alexander Caesar, no, nor oI the Ki ngs
or great personages oI much lat e years; Ior t he original s cannot last , and
t he copies cannot but l ose oI t he l i Ie and t ruth. But t he i mages oI men' s
geni us and knowledge remain in books, exempt ed Irom the wrong oI ti me,
and capable oI perpet ual renovati on. Nei ther are t hey Ii tly t o be call ed
i mages, because t hey generat e st il l, and cast t hei r seeds in t he mi nds oI
others, provoki ng and causing i nIi ni te acti ons and opi nions i n succeeding
ages; so t hat i I the invent ion oI t he ship was t hought so noble, whi ch
carri et h ri ches and commodi ti es Irom place t o place, and consociat et h the
most remot e regions in parti cipati on oI their Iruit s, how much more are
l ett ers to be magni Iied which, as ships, pass through t he vast seas oI ti me,
and make age so di stant t o part ici pat e oI t he wisdom, il lumi nat ion, and
i nventi ons, t he one oI t he other."
To learn, to att ain knowl edge, to be wise, is a necessi ty Ior ever truly
nobl e soul; t o t each, to communi cat e that knowledge, t o share t hat wi sdom
wi th ot hers, and not churl ishly t o lock up hi s exchequer, and pl ace a
sent inel at t he door t o drive away t he needy, i s equally an i mpul se oI a
nobl e nat ure, and t he wort hi es work oI man.
"There was a li tt le ci ty, " says the Preacher, the son oI David "and Iew men
wi thin i t; and there came a great King against i t and besieged it , and bui lt
great bul warks against i t. Now there was Iound i n i t a poor wise man, and
he by his wi sdom del ivered the city; yet no man remembered that same
poor man. Then sai d I, wi sdom i s bet ter than st rength nevertheless, the
poor man' s wi sdom i s despised, and hi s words are not heard. " II i t shoul d
chance to you, my brother, t o do manki nd good service, and be rewarded
wi th i ndi IIerence and Iorget Iulness only, st il l be not di scouraged, but
remember the Iurt her advice oI the wi se King. "In the morning sow the
seed, and in t he evening wi thhol d not thy hand; Ior thou knowest not
which shall prosper, t hi s or t hat , or whether bot h shall be ali ke good. "
Sow you the seed, whoever reaps. Learn, t hat you may be enabl ed t o do
good; and do so because i t is right, Iinding in t he act it selI ample reward
and recompense.
To at t ain the t rut h, and t o serve our Iel lows, our country, and manki nd--
t hi s is the noblest dest iny oI man. HereaIter and al l your l iIe it i s t o be
your obj ect . II you desi re t o ascend t o that dest iny, advance! II you have
other and l ess noble obj ects, and are contented wi th a l ower Il ight , hal t
here ! l et others scal e t he hei ght s, and Masonry IulIi l l her mi ssi on.
II you wi ll advance, gird up your loi ns Ior the st ruggle ! Ior t he way is
l ong and toi l some. Pleasure, al l smi les, wi ll beckon you on the one hand,
and Indolence wi ll invi te you to sl eep among t he Ilowers, upon the ot her.
Prepare, by secrecy, obedi ence, and Ii del i ty, to resi st the all urement s oI
both !
Secrecy is indispensable in a Mason oI whatever Degree. It is the Ii rst and
al most t he only l esson taught t o t he Entered Apprentice. The obl igat ions
which we have each assumed toward every Mason that l i ves, requiring oI
us the perIormance oI t he most serious and onerous duti es t oward t hose
personally unknown to us unt il they demand our aid, -- duti es that must be
perIormed, even at the ri sk oI li Ie, or our solemn oaths be broken and
viol ated, and we be branded as Ial se Masons and Iait hl ess men, t each us
how proIound a Iol ly i t would be t o betray our secret s to t hose who, bound
t o us by no ti e oI common obl igat ion, might , by obt ai ni ng t hem, call on us
i n t hei r ext remity, when t he urgency oI t he occasion shoul d al low us no
t i me Ior inqui ry, and the perempt ory mandat e oI our obligati on compel us
t o do a brot her' s duty t o a base i mpost or.
The secrets oI our brot her, when communicat ed to us, must be sacred, i I
t hey be such as t he l aw oI our country warrants us t o keep. We are
requi red t o keep none other, when t he l aw t hat we are call ed on to obey is
i ndeed a l aw, by having emanat ed Irom the only source oI power, t he
People. Edi ct s which emanat e Irom t he mere arbit rary wi ll oI a despot ic
power, cont rary t o t he law oI God or t he Great Law oI Nat ure, dest ruct i ve
oI t he inherent rights oI man, viol ati ve oI the right oI Iree thought , Iree
speech, Iree consci ence, i t i s lawIul to rebel against and stri ve t o
abrogat e.
For obedi ence to the Law does not mean submissi on to tyranny nor that,
by a proIl igate sacri Ii ce oI every nobl e Ieel i ng, we should oIIer t o
despot ism the homage oI adul ati on. As every new vi cti m Ial ls, we may l i It
our voi ce i n st il l louder Ilat tery. We may Iall at t he proud Ieet , we may
beg, as a boon, the honour oI kissi ng t hat bl oody hand which has been
l iIted against t he helpless. We may do more we may bri ng t he al tar and t he
sacriIice, and i mplore the God not to ascend t oo soon t o Heaven. This we
may do, Ior t hi s we have t he sad remembrance that beings oI a human
Iorm and soul have done. But t hi s is all we can do. We can constrai n our
t ongues to be Ial se, our Ieat ures to bend t hemsel ves to the sembl ance oI
t hat passionat e adorati on whi ch we wi sh t o express, our knees to Iall
prost rat e; but our heart we cannot constrai n. There virtue must sti ll have a
voice which i s not to be drowned by hymns and acclamati ons; t here the
cri mes whi ch we laud as virt ues, are cri mes sti ll , and he whom we have
made a God is the most contempt ibl e oI mankind; iI, indeed, we do not
Ieel, perhaps, that we are ourselves st i ll more cont empt i ble.
But t hat law whi ch i s t he Iai r expressi on oI t he wi l l and j udgment oI t he
peopl e, i s t he enact ment oI the whole and oI every indi vi dual . Consist ent
wi th t he l aw oI God and t he great law oI nat ure, consist ent wi th pure and
abst ract right as tempered by necessi ty and t he general interest, as contra-
dist inguished Irom t he pri vat e interest oI indivi dual s, i t is obl igatory upon
al l, because it i s the work oI al l , t he wil l oI all , the solemn judgment oI
al l, Irom which there i s no appeal.
In t his Degree, my brother, you are especial ly to learn the duty oI
obedi ence t o t hat law. There is one true and original l aw, conIormabl e to
reason and to nat ure, di IIused over al l, i nvariable, eternal, which call s to
t he Iul Ii ll ment oI duty and t o absti nence Irom injustice, and cal ls wi t h t hat
i rresi st i ble voice whi ch i s Ielt l in al l i ts aut hori ty wherever i t is heard.
Thi s law cannot be abrogat ed or di minished, or it s sanct ions aIIect ed, by
any law oI man. A whole senate, a whol e people, cannot di ssent Irom it s
paramount obl igati on. It requi res no commentat or t o render i t di sti nctly
i ntell igi ble nor i s i t one t hi ng at Rome, anot her at Athens; one thi ng now,
and another i n the ages to come; but i n al l ti mes and i n all nat ions, it is,
and has been, and wi ll be, one and everl asti ng; --one as that God, i ts great
Author and Promulgator, who i s the Common Soverei gn oI all manki nd, i s
Hi msel I One. No man can disobey i t wit hout Ilying, as i t were, Irom his
own bosom, and repudiat i ng hi s nat ure; and in this very act he wi ll i nIl ict
on hi msel I the severest oI ret ri but i ons, even though he escape what i s
regarded as puni shment.
It is our duty to obey t he l aws oI our country, and t o be careIul t hat
prej udi ce or passi on, Iancy or aIIecti on, error and i l l usi on, be not
mist aken Ior conscience. Nothi ng is more usual than t o pretend conscience
i n al l the acti ons oI man which are publ ic and cannot be conceal ed. The
disobedient reIuse t o submi t to t he l aws, and t hey also in many cases
pretend conscience; and so di sobedience and rebel li on become conscience,
i n which t here is neit her knowledge nor revel at i on, nor trut h nor charity,
nor reason nor rel igi on. Conscience is t ied t o l aws. Right or sure
conscience is right reason reduced to practi ce, and conduct ing moral
act ions, whi l e perverse conscience is seated i n t he Iancy or aIIect ions--a
heap oI i rregular pri nci ples and irregul ar deIect s-- and i s t he same in
conscience as deIormi ty is i n the body, or peevishness i n t he aIIecti ons. It
i s not enough t hat the consci ence be taught by nat ure; but it must be
t aught by God, conducted by reason, made operat ive by di scourse, assi sted
by choice, inst ructed by laws and sober principl es; and then i t i s right, and
i t may be sure. Al l the general measures oI just i ce, are t he l aws oI God,
and t hereIore t hey consti tute t he general rules oI government Ior the
conscience; but necessity al so hath a large voi ce in t he arrangement oI
human aIIai rs, and the di sposal oI human relati ons, and t he disposi t ions oI
human laws; and t hese general measures, li ke a great ri ver int o li tt l e
st reams, are deduced i nt o lit t le ri vul et s and part i cul arit ies, by t he laws
and cust oms, by t he sentences and agreement s oI men, and by the absol ut e
despot ism oI necessi ty, that wi ll not al l ow perIect and abstract just i ce and
equity t o be t he sole rul e oI ci vi l government in an i mperIect worl d; and
t hat must needs be law whi ch is Ior t he greatest good oI t he greatest
When thou vowest a vow unt o God, deIer not to pay it . It i s bet ter thou
shoul dest not vow t han thou shouldest vow and not pay. Be not rash wi t h
t hy mouth, and l et not t hine heart be hasty to ut ter anythi ng beIore God
Ior God i s in Heaven, and t hou art upon earth; t hereIore l et thy words be
Iew. Wei gh well what i t is you promi se; but once t he promise and pledge
are given remember that he who i s Ial se t o his obl igat i on wi l l be Ialse t o
his Iami ly, hi s Iriends, hi s country, and his God.
Fides servai lda est Fait h pl ight ed is ever t o be kept, was a maxi m and an
axiom even among pagans. The virtuous Roman sai d, eit her let not that
which seems expedient be base, or iI i t be base, l et it not seem expedi ent .
What i s there which that so-cal led expediency can bring, so valuable as
t hat whi ch it takes away, i I it depri ves you oI t he name oI a good man and
robs you oI your integrity and honour? In all ages, he who vi ol at es his
plight ed word has been hel d unspeakably base. The word oI a Mason, li ke
t he word oI a knight in t he t i mes oI chi val ry, once given must be sacred;
and t he j udgment oI his brothers, upon hi m who vi ol ates his pledge,
shoul d be stern as the judgments oI the Roman Censors against hi m who
viol ated hi s oat h. Good Iait h is revered among Masons as it was among the
Romans, who placed it s stat ue i n the capit ol , next t o t hat oI Jupi ter
Maxi mus Opti mus; and we, l i ke t hem, hold that cal ami ty should al ways be
chosen rather than baseness; and wi th the knight s oI ol d, t hat one should
al ways die rather t han be dishonoured.
Be Iai t hIul, t hereIore, t o the promi ses you make, to the pl edges you gi ve,
and t o t he vows that you assume, since to break ei ther i s base and
Be Iai t hIul to your Iamily, and perIorm al l the dut ies oI a good Iather, a
good son, a good husband, and a good brot her.
Be Iai t hIul to your Iri ends; Ior t rue Iri endshi p is oI a nat ure not only t o
survi ve through al l the vici ssit udes oI li Ie, but to conti nue through an
endless durati on; not only t o stand t he shock oI conIli cti ng opi ni ons, and
t he roar oI a revolut ion that shakes t he worl d, but t o l ast when the heavens
are no more, and to spring Iresh Irom the ruins oI t he uni verse.
Be Iai t hIul to your country, and preIer i ts dignity and honour to any degree
oI popularity and honour Ior yourselI; consult ing it s i nt erest rat her than
your own, and rather t han the pl easure and grat i Iicat ion oI t he people,
which are oIt en at vari ance wi th t heir wel Iare.
Be Iai t hIul to Masonry, which i s to be Iai thIul t o t he best i nterest s oI
manki nd. Labour, by precept and example, to elevate the standard oI
Masonic character, t o enlarge i ts sphere oI inIl uence, to popularize it s
t eachings, and t o make all men know i t Ior the Great Apost le oI Peace,
Harmony, and Good-wi ll on earth among men; oI Li berty, Equality, and
Frat erni ty.
Masonry i s useIul t o all men t o t he l earned, because i t aIIords t hem t he
opport uni ty oI exerci sing their tal ent s upon subj ects eminently worthy oI
t heir at tenti on; t o the i l li terat e, because it oIIers t hem i mportant
i nstruct i on; to t he young, because it present s them wit h sal utary precept s
and good examples, and accustoms them t o reIlect on the proper mode oI
l ivi ng; t o the man oI the worl d, whom i t Iurni shes wit h nobl e and useIul
recreat ion; to the travel ler, whom it enabl es t o Iind Iri ends and brot hers in
count ri es where el se he woul d be i solat ed and soli t ary; to the wort hy man
i n misIort une, t o whom it gives assist ance; to the aIIl ict ed, on whom i t
l avi shes consolat ion; to t he chari tabl e man, whom i t enabl es t o do more
good, by uni ti ng wi t h t hose who are chari t abl e li ke hi msel I; and t o al l who
have souls capable oI appreciat ing i ts i mportance, and oI enj oying the
charms oI a Iri endship Iounded on t he same pri ncipl es oI rel igi on,
morali ty, and phi lanthropy.
A Freemason, thereIore, should be a man oI honour and oI consci ence,
preIerring hi s duty to everythi ng beside, even t o his l iIe; independent i n
his opi nions, and oI good moral s, submissi ve t o t he laws, devoted to
humanity, t o his count ry, to hi s Iami ly; kind and i ndulgent t o his bret hren,
Iri end oI all virtuous men, and ready t o assi st his Iel lows by al l means in
his power.
Thus wi ll you be Iai t hIul t o yourselI, t o your Iell ows, and to God, and t hus
wi ll you do honour to t he name and rank oI SECRET MASTER; whi ch,
l ike ot her Masoni c honours, degrades i I it is not deserved.

The Mast er Khurum was an i ndustrious and an honest man. What he was
employed to do he did di li gent ly, and he di d it wel l and Iait hIul ly. He
received no wages t hat were not his due. Indust ry and honesty are t he
virtues pecul iarly inculcat ed i n thi s Degree. They are common and homely
virtues; but not Ior t hat beneat h our notice. As t he bees do not l ove or
respect the drones, so Masonry nei t her l oves nor respects the idle and
t hose who l i ve by t heir wit s; and l east oI all t hose parasi t i c acari t hat li ve
upon themsel ves. For t hose who are i ndolent are l i kely to become
dissi pat ed and vi cious; and perIect honesty, which ought to be the common
quali Ii cati on oI al l, is more rare than di amonds. To do earnest ly and
st eadi ly, and t o do Iait hIul ly and honest ly t hat whi ch we have to do--
perhaps this wants but l i t tl e, when looked at Irom every point oI view, oI
i ncl udi ng t he whol e body oI the moral law; and even i n thei r commonest
and homel iest appli cati on, t hese vi rt ues belong t o t he charact er oI a
PerIect Mast er.
Idl eness i s t he buri al oI a l iving man. For an i dl e person i s so usel ess t o
any purposes oI God and man, that he is l i ke one who is dead,
unconcerned in t he changes and necessit ies oI the world; and he only li ves
t o spend his t i me, and eat the Irui ts oI the eart h. Like a vermi n or a wol I,
when his t i me comes, he dies and peri shes, and i n the meant i me i s nought .
He nei t her pl oughs nor carries burdens: all t hat he does i s ei ther
unproIitable or mi schi evous.
It is a vast work that any man may do, i I he never be i dl e: and it is a huge
way that a man may go i n virt ue, i I he never go out oI his way by a vi ci ous
habit or a great cri me: and he who perpet ually reads good books, iI hi s
part s be answerable, wil l have a huge stock oI knowl edge.
St. Ambrose, and Irom his example, St. August ine, divi ded every day into
t hese t ert ias oI empl oyment : eight hours t hey spent in the necessi t i es oI
nature and recreati on: ei ght hours in charity, i n doi ng assi stance to ot hers,
dispat chi ng t heir busi ness, reconci li ng thei r enmi t ies, reprovi ng their
vices, correcti ng t hei r errors, i nstruct ing their ignorance, and in
t ransact ing t he aIIai rs oI their di oceses; and the ot her eight hours t hey
spent in st udy and prayer.
We thi nk, at t he age oI twenty, that l iIe i s much t oo long Ior t hat whi ch we
have t o l earn and do; and t hat there is an al most Iabul ous di stance
between our age and t hat oI our grandIat her. But when, at the age oI si xty,
i I we are Iort unat e enough t o reach it , or unIortunate enough, as the case
may be, and accordi ng as we have proIi tably invest ed or wasted our t i me,
we hal t , and look back al ong the way we have come, and cast up and
endeavour to balance our account s wi th ti me and opport unity, we Ii nd that
we have made li Ie much too short, and thrown away a huge port ion oI our
t i me. Then we, i n our mi nd, deduct Irom t he sum t ot al oI our years t he
hours t hat we have needlessly passed in sleep; t he working-hours each day,
duri ng whi ch t he surIace oI the mi nd' s sl uggish pool has not been st i rred
or ruIIi ed by a single t hought ; the days t hat we have gl adly got rid oI, t o
at tai n some real or Iancied obj ect that l ay beyond, i n the way bet ween us
and which stood irksomely the interveni ng days; the hours worse than
wast ed i n Iol li es and di ssipati on, or mi sspent in usel ess and unproIi tabl e
st udi es; and we acknowledge, wi th a si gh, that we could have learned and
done, in hal I a score oI years wel l spent, more than we have done in al l
our Iorty years oI manhood.
To learn and t o do !--t hi s is the soul ' s work here bel ow. The soul grows as
t ruly as an oak grows. As the tree t akes t he carbon oI t he ai r, the dew, t he
rain, and t he l ight, and the Iood that t he eart h suppl ies t o it s root s, and by
i ts myst eri ous chemi stry t ransmut es t hem into sap and Ii bre, into wood
and l eaI, and Il ower and Irui t, and col our and perIume, so the soul i mbibes
knowl edge and by a divi ne alchemy changes what i t learns i nt o i t s own
substance, and grows Irom wit hi n outwardly wi t h an inherent Iorce and
power li ke those that lie hi dden i n t he grain oI wheat .
The soul hat h it s senses, li ke t he body, that may be cul ti vated, enlarged,
reIi ned, as i tsel I grows in stat ure and proport ion; and he who cannot
appreci ate a Ii ne painti ng or st atue, a noble poem, a sweet harmony, a
heroi c t hought , or a disi nt erest ed act i on, or to whom the wisdom oI
phil osophy is but Iool i shness and babble, and the l oIt iest t ruths oI less
i mport ance than the price oI stocks or cott on, or t he el evat i on oI baseness
t o once, merely li ves on t he l evel oI commonpl ace, and Iit ly prides
hi msel I upon that i nIeri ority oI t he soul' s senses, whi ch i s the i nIeri ori ty
and i mperIect development oI the soul it sel I.
To sleep li t t le, and t o st udy much; to say l it tl e, and to hear and think
much; t o l earn, t hat we may be abl e t o do, and then to do, earnest ly and
vigorously, whatever may be required oI us by duty, and by the good oI
our Iel lows, our country, and manki nd, -- t hese are t he duti es oI every
Mason who desi res to i mi t ate the Master Khurum.
The duty oI a Mason as an honest man i s pl ain and easy. It requires oI us
honesty i n contracts, sinceri ty in arming, si mpli city i n bargai ni ng, and
Iait hIulness in perIorming. Lie not at al l , nei ther in a l it tle thing nor in a
great, nei ther i n t he substance nor in the circumstance, nei t her in word nor
deed: that i s, pret end not what is Ialse; cover not what i s t rue; and l et the
measure oI your aIIirmat ion or deni al be t he understanding oI your
contractor; Ior he who decei ves the buyer or the seller by speaking what i s
t rue, i n a sense not i ntended or understood by the other, i s a l iar and a
t hieI. A PerIect Master must avoi d that which deceives, equally wit h t hat
which is Ial se.
Let your prices be according to t hat measure oI good and evil which is
est abl i shed in t he Iame and common accounts oI the wi sest and most
merci Iul men, ski ll ed i n that manuIacture or commodity; and t he gain
such, which, wit hout scandal, i s al l owed to persons in all t he same
ci rcumstances.
In i ntercourse wi th ot hers, do not do all whi ch t hou mayest lawIul ly do;
but keep somet hi ng wit hin t hy power; and, because there i s a l ati tude oI
gai n i n buying and sel li ng, take not t hou t he ut most penny t hat is lawIul ,
or which t hou thinkest so; Ior alt hough i t be l awIul, yet i t i s not saIe; and
he who gains all t hat he can gai n l awIully, t his year, will possibly be
t empt ed, next year, to gain somethi ng unl awIully.
Let no man, Ior his own poverty, become more oppressi ng and cruel in hi s
bargai n; but quietly, modest ly, dil igently, and pat iently recommend hi s
est at e t o God, and Iol l ow hi s interest , and leave the success t o Hi m.
Det ain not the wages oI t he hireli ng; Ior every degree oI detenti on oI i t
beyond the t i me, i s i njusti ce and unchari tableness, and grinds hi s Iace ti l l
t ears and blood come out ; but pay hi m exact ly according to covenant , or
accordi ng t o his needs.
Rel igi ously keep al l promi ses and covenant s, t hough made t o your
disadvant age, though aIt erward you perceive you mi ght have done bet ter;
and l et not any precedent act oI yours be al tered by any aIter-accident. Let
nothing make you break your promi se, unless i t be unlawIul or i mpossibl e;
t hat is, ei ther out oI your nature or out oI your ci vil power, yourselI bei ng
under t he power oI another; or that i t be int ol erably i nconvenient t o
yoursel I, and oI no advant age to another; or t hat you have leave expressed
or reasonably presumed.
Let no man take wages or Iees Ior a work that he cannot do, or cannot wi th
probabil i ty undertake; or in some sense proIi tably, and wit h ease, or wi th
advantage manage. Let no man appropri ate to hi s own use, what God, by a
speci al mercy, or t he Republ ic, hat h made common; Ior t hat i s against both
Justi ce and Chari ty.
That any man shoul d be the worse Ior us, and Ior our di rect act, and by our
i ntenti on, i s against the rul e oI equi ty, oI justi ce, and oI chari ty. We t hen
do not that t o others, whi ch we would have done t o oursel ves; Ior we grow
richer upon t he rui ns oI t hei r Iortune.
It is not honest to recei ve anyt hing Irom another wit hout ret urning hi m an
equivalent t hereIor. The gamester who wins the money oI anot her is
dishonest. There shoul d be no such thing as bet s and gami ng among
Masons: Ior no honest man should desi re that Ior nothing whi ch belongs t o
another. The merchant who sel ls an i nIeri or art icl e Ior a sound price, the
speculat or who makes t he distresses and needs oI ot hers Ii ll hi s exchequer
are nei ther Iair nor honest, but base, i gnoble, unIi t Ior i mmortal ity.
It should be the earnest desi re oI every PerIect Mast er so t o li ve and deal
and act , t hat when i t comes t o hi m t o die, he may be abl e t o say, and his
conscience to adj udge, that no man on eart h i s poorer, because he i s
richer; that what he hat h he has honestly earned, and no man can go beIore
God, and cl ai m t hat by the rules oI equi ty administered in Hi s great
chancery, thi s house i n whi ch we die, t his land we devi se to our heirs t hi s
money that enri ches t hose who survive t o bear our name, i s hi s and not
ours, and we i n that Iorum are only hi s t rust ees. For i t is most certai n t hat
God i s j ust , and wi l l st ernly enIorce every such t rust; and t hat to all whom
we despoil , t o al l whom we deIraud, t o all Irom whom we t ake or win
anything whatever, wit hout Iair considerat ion and equivalent , He wi ll
decree a Iul l and adequat e compensati on.
Be careIul , then, t hat t hou recei ve no wages, here or el sewhere, t hat are
not thy due ! For i I thou doest , t hou wrongst some one, by taki ng t hat
which in God' s chancery belongs t o hi m; and whet her that which t hou
t akest thus be wealt h, or rank, or i nIl uence, or reputat ion or aIIect ion,
t hou wi lt surely be held t o make Iul l sat isIacti on.

VI. INTIMATE SECRETARY. (ConIi dent ial Secretary.)
You are especi ally t aught i n t hi s Degree to be zealous and Iait hIul; t o be
disi nterested and benevolent; and t o act t he peacemaker, in case oI
dissensi ons, di sput es, and quarrel s among t he bret hren.
Duty is the moral magnet i sm which control s and gui des t he t rue Mason' s
course over t he t umult uous seas oI li Ie. Whet her t he st ars oI honour,
reput ati on, and reward do or do not shine, i n the li ght oI day or i n t he
darkness oI t he ni ght oI t roubl e and adversi ty, in cal m or st orm, that
unerring magnet stil l shows hi m the true course to steer, and indicates
wi th certai nty where-away li es the port which not t o reach invol ves
shipwreck and di shonour. He Ioll ows it s si lent bidding, as the mariner,
when l and is Ior many days not in sight, and the ocean wi t hout pat h or
l andmark spreads out all around hi m, Iol lows t he bidding oI t he needle,
never doubti ng t hat i t poi nt s truly t o the nort h. To perIorm t hat duty,
whether t he perIormance be rewarded or unrewarded, i s his sole care. And
i t dot h not mat ter, t hough oI t hi s perIormance t here may be no wit nesses,
and t hough what he does wi ll be Iorever unknown to all manki nd.
A l it tl e considerat ion wi l l t each us that Fame has ot her l i mit s than
mountai ns and oceans; and that he who pl aces happiness in the Irequent
repet it ion oI his name, may spend hi s l iIe i n propagati ng i t, wit hout any
danger oI weepi ng Ior new worlds, or necessi ty oI passi ng t he At lantic
II, t hereIore, he who i magi nes t he worl d to be Iil led wi th hi s acti ons and
prai ses, shal l subduct Irom the number oI hi s encomiast s al l t hose who are
placed bel ow t he Ili ght oI Iame, and who hear in t he valley oI l iIe no
voice but t hat oI necessi ty; al l t hose who i magine t hemsel ves t oo
i mport ant t o regard hi m, and consi der t he ment ion oI his name as a
usurpati on oI their t i me; all who are too much or too l it tl e pl eased wi t h
t hemsel ves to att end to anythi ng external ; all who are att ract ed by
pleasure, or chained down by pain t o unvaried ideas; al l who are wit hhel d
Irom attendi ng his t ri umph by diIIerent pursuit s; and all who sl umber in
universal negl igence; he wi l l Ii nd hi s renown strait ened by nearer bounds
t han the rocks oI Caucasus; and percei ve that no man can be venerable or
Iormi dabl e, but to a small part oI hi s Iell ow-creat ures. And thereIore, t hat
we may not l angui sh i n our endeavors aIt er excel lence, i t is necessary
t hat , as AIri canus counsel s his descendant s, we rai se our eyes to hi gher
prospects, and cont empl ate our Iut ure and eternal stat e, wit hout givi ng up
our heart s t o the prai se oI crowds, or Ii xi ng our hopes on such rewards as
human power can best ow.
We are not born Ior ourselves al one; and our country clai ms her share, and
our Iriends t heir share oI us. As all that the eart h produces i s creat ed Ior
t he use oI man, so men are creat ed Ior t he sake oI men, that t hey may
mutually do good to one anot her. In t hi s we ought t o take nature Ior our
guide, and throw i nt o t he publ ic st ock t he ounces oI general ut il i ty, by a
reciprocat i on oI dut ies; someti mes by recei ving, someti mes by gi vi ng, and
someti mes to cement human soci ety by art s, by i ndustry, and by our
SuIIer others t o be praised in t hy presence, and ent ert ai n their good and
gl ory wi th del ight; but at no hand di sparage t hem, or l essen t he report , or
make an object ion; and thi nk not t he advancement oI t hy brother i s a
l essening oI t hy worth. Upbrai d no man' s weakness to hi m t o discomIi t
hi m, neit her report i t to di sparage hi m, neit her del ight to remember i t to
l essen hi m, or t o set t hysel I above hi m; nor ever praise t hysel I or di sprai se
any man el se, unless some suIIi ci ent wort hy end do hall ow it .
Remember t hat we usually disparage others upon sli ght grounds and li t tle
i nstances; and i I a man be highly recommended, we think hi m suIIi cient ly
l essened, iI we can but charge one sin oI Iolly or i nIeriority i n his
account . We shoul d ei t her be more severe t o ourselves, or l ess so t o
others, and consider that what soever good any one can t hink or say oI us,
we can t ell hi m oI many unworthy and Iool ish and perhaps worse acti ons
oI ours, any one oI which, done by anot her, would be enough, wit h us, t o
dest roy his reputat ion.
II we t hi nk the peopl e wise and sagaci ous, and just and appreci ati ve, when
t hey prai se and make i dol s oI us, l et us not cal l them unl earned and
i gnorant , and i ll and st upi d judges, when our neighbour is cried up by
publ ic Iame and popular noi ses.
Every man hath in hi s own l iIe si ns enough, i n his own mind trouble
enough, i n his own Iortunes evil enough, and in perIormance oI his oIIi ces
Iail i ngs more than enough, to ent ert ai n hi s own i nqui ry; so t hat curiosity
aIter t he aIIai rs oI ot hers can not be wi t hout envy and an i ll mi nd. The
generous man wi ll be soli cit ous and inqui sit i ve i nto t he beauty and order
oI a well -governed Iami ly, and aIt er the virt ues oI an excellent person; but
anything Ior which men keep locks and bars, or that blushes t o see the
l ight , or that is ei ther shameIul in manner or pri vate in nat ure, t hi s thing
wi ll not be hi s care and busi ness.
It should be obj ecti on suIIi cient t o excl ude any man Irom the society oI
Masons, t hat he is not di si nterest ed and generous, bot h i n his acts, and in
his opi nions oI men, and hi s construct ions oI t heir conduct . He who i s
sel Ii sh and grasping, or censori ous and ungenerous, wi l l not l ong remain
wi thin t he strict l i mit s oI honesty and t ruth, but wi ll short ly commit
i nj usti ce. He who l oves hi msel I t oo much must needs love ot hers t oo
l it tl e; and he who habit ual ly gives harsh j udgment wi ll not long del ay t o
gi ve unjust judgment.
The generous man i s not careIul to ret urn no more t han he receives; but
preIers t hat t he bal ances upon t he l edgers oI beneIit s shal l be i n his
Iavour. He who hat h recei ved pay i n Iul l Ior al l the beneIit s and Iavours
t hat he has conIerred, i s li ke a spendthri It who has consumed hi s whole
est at e, and laments over an empty exchequer. He who requi tes my Iavours
wi th i ngrat it ude adds to, i nst ead oI di mi nishi ng, my wealt h; and he who
cannot ret urn a Iavour i s equal ly poor, whet her hi s inabil ity arises Irom
poverty oI spiri t, sordi dness oI soul , or pecuni ary indigence.
II he i s weal thy who hath large sums i nvest ed, and the mass oI whose
Iortune consist s in obli gati ons that bind ot her men t o pay hi m money, he i s
st il l more so to whom many owe large returns oI ki ndnesses and Iavours.
Beyond a moderat e sum each year, t he weal thy man merely i nvest s his
means: and that which he never uses i s st i l l li ke Iavours unret urned and
kindnesses unreci procated, an actual and real porti on oI hi s Iortune.
Generosi ty and a l iberal spiri t make men to be humane and geni al, open-
hearted, Irank, and sincere, earnest t o do good, easy and cont ent ed, and
wel l-wi shers oI mankind. They protect the Ieebl e agai nst t he st rong, and
t he deIencel ess against rapaci ty and craIt . They succour and comIort t he
poor, and are the guardians, under God, oI his innocent and helpl ess
wards. They value Iri ends more than riches or Iame, and grat it ude more
t han money or power. They are nobl e by God' s pat ent , and t hei r
escut cheons and quarteri ngs are to be Iound in heaven' s great book oI
heral dry. Nor can any man any more be a Mason than he can be a
gent leman, unless he is generous, li beral , and di si nt erested. To be li beral,
but only oI that which is our own; to be generous, but only when we have
Iirst been just ; to give, when t o give deprives us oI a luxury or a comIort,
t hi s is Masonry i ndeed.
He who i s worl dly, covetous, or sensual must change beIore he can be a
good Mason. II we are governed by i ncli nat ion and not by duty; iI we are
unki nd, severe, censori ous, or i nj urious, i n the rel at i ons or intercourse oI
l iIe; iI we are unIai thIul parent s or unduti Iul chil dren; iI we are harsh
masters or Iait hless servants; iI we are treacherous Iri ends or bad
neighbours or bi t ter compet it ors or corrupt unpri nci pled poli t icians or
overreachi ng deal ers in busi ness, we are wanderi ng at a great di st ance
Irom the true Masonic light.
Masons must be kind and aIIect ionate one to anot her. Frequent i ng t he
same templ es, kneeli ng at t he same alt ars, t hey shoul d Ieel that respect
and t hat ki ndness Ior each ot her, whi ch t hei r common rel ati on and
common approach to one God should inspi re. There needs to be much
more oI t he spiri t oI t he ancient Iell owshi p among us; more tenderness Ior
each ot her' s Iaul t s, more Iorgi veness, more soli cit ude Ior each other' s
i mprovement and good Iort une; somewhat oI brot herly Ieel ing, t hat it be
not shame to use the word "brother. "
Nothing should be al lowed to interIere wi th that kindness and aIIect ion:
neit her the spiri t oI busi ness, absorbi ng, eager, and overreaching,
ungenerous and hard in i ts deal i ngs, keen and bit ter i n i ts competi ti ons,
l ow and sordid in it s purposes; nor t hat oI ambit i on, selIish, mercenary,
restl ess, ci rcumventi ng, li ving only in t he opi nion oI others, envi ous oI
t he good Iort une oI ot hers, mi serably vai n oI i ts own success, unj ust,
unscrupul ous, and slanderous.
He that does me a Iavour, hath bound me to make hi m a ret urn oI
t hankIulness. The obl igat ion comes not by covenant, nor by hi s own
express int ent i on; but by the nature oI the thing; and i s a duty springing
up wi thin t he spi ri t oI t he obli ged person, to whom i t i s more natural to
l ove hi s Iri end, and to do good Ior good, t han to return evil Ior evi l;
because a man may Iorgive an inj ury, but he must never Iorget a good t urn.
He that reIuses to do good t o t hem whom he i s bound t o l ove, or t o love
t hat whi ch did hi m good, i s unnat ural and monst rous i n his aIIecti ons, and
t hi nks all the worl d born t o mi nister to hi m; wi th a greediness worse than
t hat oI t he sea, whi ch, alt hough i t recei ves all rivers int o it selI, yet i t
Iurnishes the cl ouds and springs wit h a ret urn oI all they need. Our duty t o
t hose who are our beneIact ors i s, to esteem and l ove thei r persons, to
make t hem proport ionabl e ret urns oI service, or duty, or proIi t, accordi ng
as we can, or as t hey need, or as opportuni ty present s i t sel I; and accordi ng
t o t he greatness oI t heir kindnesses.
The generous man cannot but regret t o see di ssensi ons and di sput es among
his bret hren. Only t he base and ungenerous del ight i n discord. It is t he
poorest occupat ion oI humani ty to labour t o make men thi nk worse oI each
other, as t he press, and too commonly t he pulpi t , changi ng pl aces wi th the
husti ngs and t he tribune, do. The duty oI t he Mason i s t o endeavour to
make man t hi nk bet ter oI his neighbour; to quiet , i nstead oI aggravat i ng
diIIi cul ti es; to bring toget her t hose who are severed or estranged; t o keep
Iri ends Irom becoming Ioes, and to persuade Ioes t o become Iriends. To do
t hi s, he must needs control his own passions, and be not rash and hasty,
nor swiIt to take oIIence, nor easy t o be angered.
For anger is a proIessed enemy t o counsel . It is a di rect st orm, in whi ch no
man can be heard to speak or cal l Irom wit hout ; Ior i I you counsel gent ly,
you are di sregarded; i I you urge i t and be vehement , you provoke i t more.
It is neit her manly nor i ngenuous. It makes marri age to be a necessary and
unavoidable t roubl e; Iriendshi ps and societ ies and Iami l i ari ti es, t o be
i nt olerabl e. It mult i pli es t he evi l s oI drunkenness, and makes the levi t ies
oI wine to run i nt o madness. It makes innocent j esti ng t o be t he beginning
oI t ragedies. It t urns Iri endship int o hat red; it makes a man l ose hi mselI,
and his reason and his argument , in di sput ati on. It turns the desi res oI
knowl edge i nt o an i tch oI wrangli ng. It adds i nsol ency to power. It turns
j ust ice i nt o cruel ty, and judgment i nt o oppression. It changes di scipl i ne
i nt o t edi ousness and hatred oI l i beral i nst it ut ion. It makes a prosperous
man t o be envi ed, and t he unIort unate t o be unpi tied.
See, thereIore, that Iirst cont roll ing your own temper, and governi ng your
own passions, you Iit yourselI t o keep peace and harmony among other
men, and especi al ly the brethren. Above all remember that Masonry i s the
real m oI peace, and that "among Masons t here must be no di ssensi on, but
only that nobl e emulati on. , which can best work and best agree. " Wherever
t here is striIe and hat red among t he bret hren, there i s no Masonry; Ior
Masonry i s Peace, and Brot herly Love, and Concord.
Masonry i s the great Peace Society oI t he worl d. Wherever i t exi st s, it
st ruggles t o prevent int ernati onal diIIi cul ti es and di sput es; and to bi nd
Republ ics, Ki ngdoms, and Empi res t oget her in one great band oI peace
and ami ty. It would not so oIten st ruggle in vai n, iI Masons knew t heir
power and val ued thei r oat hs.
Who can sum up t he horrors and woes accumulat ed i n a single war?
Masonry i s not dazzled wi th all i t s pomp and ci rcumst ance, all it s gl i t ter
and gl ory. War comes wi t h it s bloody hand into our very dwel l i ngs. It
t akes Irom ten thousand homes t hose who li ved there in peace and
comIort , held by the t ender ti es oI Iami ly and ki ndred. It drags them away,
t o die unt ended, oI Iever or exposure, i n i nIecti ous cl i mes; or to be
hacked, torn, and mangled in t he Iierce Ii ght ; to Ial l on the gory Iiel d, to
ri se no more, or to be borne away, in awIul agony, to noisome and horrid
hospi tal s. The groans oI t he batt le-Ii eld are echoed in sighs oI
bereavement Irom t housands oI desol ated hearths. There is a skel eton i n
every house, a vacant chai r at every t able. Ret urning, t he soldier brings
worse sorrow to hi s home, by the i nIect i on whi ch he has caught , oI camp-
vices. The country is demoral ized. The nat ional mi nd i s brought down,
Irom the noble i nt erchange oI kind oIIi ces wit h another peopl e, to wrat h
and revenge, and base pri de, and t he habi t oI measuri ng brut e strengt h
agai nst brute strength, i n batt le. Treasures are expended, t hat would
suIIice to bui l d ten t housand churches, hospi t al s, and uni versiti es, or rib
and t ie toget her a conti nent wi t h rail s oI i ron. II t hat treasure were sunk in
t he sea, it woul d be calamity enough; but it i s put to worse use; Ior it i s
expended i n cut t ing i nto t he veins and arteri es oI human li Ie, unti l the
earth is deluged wi th a sea oI bl ood.
Such are the lessons oI t hi s Degree. You have vowed to make t hem the
rul e, t he l aw, and t he guide oI your li Ie and conduct. II you do so, you wil l
be ent it led, because Ii t t ed, to advance i n Masonry. II you do not , you have
al ready gone too Iar.

THE l esson which t his Degree inculcates is JUSTICE, in deci si on and
j udgment , and i n our i ntercourse and deal ing wi t h ot her men.
In a country where trial by jury is known, every intel ligent man is li able to
be call ed on t o act as a judge, eit her oI Iact al one, or oI Iact and l aw
mingled; and t o assume t he heavy responsibil i t ies which bel ong to t hat
Those who are invested wi th the power oI judgment shoul d j udge t he
causes oI all persons uprightly and i mpart ial ly, wit hout any personal
consi derat ion oI t he power oI t he mighty, or the bribe oI t he rich, or the
needs oI t he poor. That i s t he cardinal rul e, whi ch no one wi ll dispute;
t hough many Iai l to observe i t. But t hey must do more. They must divest
t hemsel ves oI prejudi ce and preconcepti on. They must hear pat ient ly,
remember accurat ely, and weigh careIul ly the Iact s and t he argument s
oIIered beIore them. They must not leap hasti ly t o concl usi ons, nor Iorm
opinions beIore t hey have heard all . They must not presume cri me or
Iraud. They must nei t her be ruled by stubborn pride oI opini on, nor be too
Iacil e and yieldi ng to the vi ews and arguments oI ot hers. In deduci ng t he
mot ive Irom t he proven act , t hey must not assign to the act eit her the best
or t he worst mot i ves, but those which they woul d think i t just and Iair Ior
t he worl d to assign to it , i I t hey t hemselves had done it ; nor must they
endeavour to make many l it tl e circumst ances, t hat weigh nothi ng
separately, weigh much toget her, t o prove t heir own acuteness and
sagacity. These are sound rules Ior every juror, also, t o observe.
In our i ntercourse wit h others, there are t wo ki nds oI i nj ust i ce: the Ii rst ,
oI t hose who oIIer an inj ury; t he second, oI t hose who have i t in t heir
power to avert an i nj ury Irom t hose to whom it is oIIered, and yet do it
not. So act ive i nj usti ce may be done in two ways--by Iorce and by Iraud, --
oI which Iorce is l ion-li ke, and aud Iox-li ke, --bot h ut t erly repugnant to
soci al duty, but Iraud the more detest abl e.
Every wrong done by one man to another, whet her i t aIIect hi s person, hi s
property, his happi ness, or hi s reput at i on, is an oIIense agai nst the law oI
j ust ice. The Ii el d oI thi s Degree i s thereIore a wi de and vast one; and
Masonry seeks Ior the most i mpressi ve mode oI enIorcing the law oI
j ust ice, and the most eIIect ual means oI preventi ng wrong and injustice.
To this end i t teaches this great and moment ous trut h: that wrong and
i nj usti ce once done cannot be undone; but are et ernal i n thei r
consequences; once commi tt ed, are numbered wi t h t he i rrevocable Past ;
t hat the wrong t hat i s done contai ns it s own retri buti ve penal ty as surely
and as natural ly as the acorn contai ns t he oak. Its consequences are it s
puni shment ; i t needs no ot her, and can have no heavier; they are invol ved
i n i t s commi ssi on, and cannot be separat ed Irom i t . A wrong done to
another is an injury done to our own Nat ure, an oIIence agai nst our own
souls, a disIiguring oI t he i mage oI the Beauti Iul and Good. Punishment i s
not the executi on oI a sent ence, but t he occurrence oI an eIIect . It i s
ordai ned to Ioll ow gui lt , not by the decree oI God as a judge, but by a law
enact ed by Hi m as t he Creator and Legi slat or oI t he Universe. It i s not an
arbit rary and arti Iicial annexat i on, but an ordi nary and l ogical
consequence; and t hereIore must be borne by t he wrong-doer, and t hrough
hi m may Il ow on to ot hers. It is t he decisi on oI t he i nIinite justi ce oI God,
i n t he Iorm oI law.
There can be no i nterIerence wit h, or remit tance oI, or protect ion Irom,
t he natural eIIect s oI our wrongIul act s. God wi l l not i nt erpose bet ween
t he cause and it s consequence; and i n t hat sense t here can be no
Iorgiveness oI si ns. The act whi ch has debased our soul may be repent ed
oI, may be t urned Irom; but the i njury is done. The debasement may be
redeemed by aIt er-eIIort s, t he st ain obli terated by bi t terer struggles and
severer suIIerings; but the eIIort s and the endurance whi ch might have
raised the soul t o the loIt iest heights are now exhausted in merely
regaini ng what it has lost. There must al ways be a wi de diIIerence between
hi m who only ceases to do evi l, and hi m who has al ways done wel l .
He wi l l certainly be a Iar more scrupulous wat cher over his conduct , and
Iar more careIul oI his deeds, who bel ieves that t hose deeds wil l
i nevi tably bear thei r nat ural consequences, exempt Irom aIt er intervent ion,
t han he who bel i eves t hat penitence and pardon wi ll at any ti me unl ink t he
chai n oI sequences. Surely we shal l do less wrong and injustice, i I the
convi cti on is Ii xed and embedded in our soul s that everythi ng done is
done irrevocably, that even t he Omni pot ence oI God cannot uncommit a
deed, cannot make t hat undone whi ch has been done; that every act oI ours
must bear it s al lotted Iruit , accordi ng to the everlast ing laws, --must
remai n Iorever ineIIaceably inscri bed on the tablet s oI Uni versal Nature.
II you have wronged anot her, you may gri eve, repent, and resol ut ely
determine agai nst any such weakness i n Iut ure. You may, so Iar as it i s
possible, make reparat ion. It i s wel l . The i nj ured party may Iorgi ve you,
accordi ng t o the meani ng oI human language; but the deed is done; and al l
t he powers oI Nat ure, were t hey t o conspi re in your behal I, coul d not make
i t undone; t he consequences to the body, the consequences t o t he soul ,
t hough no man may percei ve t hem, are there, are wri tt en in the annal s oI
t he Past, and must reverberate throughout al l ti me.
Repentance Ior a wrong done, bears, l ike every other act , i t s own Irui t, the
Iruit oI puri Iying the heart and amending the Fut ure, but not oI eIIacing
t he Past. The commi ssi on oI t he wrong is an i rrevocable act ; but i t does
not incapacit ate the soul t o do right Ior t he Iut ure. Its consequences
cannot be expunged; but it s course need not be pursued. Wrong and evil
perpet rat ed, though ineIIaceabl e, cal l Ior no despair, but Ior eIIort s more
energet ic t han beIore. Repentance is sti ll as val id as ever; but it is val id to
secure t he Fut ure, not to obl it erat e t he Past.
Even the pulsat ions oI t he ai r, once set i n mot ion by t he human voice,
cease not to exist wi th the sounds to whi ch t hey gave ri se. Their quickly-
at tenuated Iorce soon becomes i naudi bl e t o human ears. But t he waves oI
ai r thus raised perambul ate the surIace oI eart h and ocean, and i n l ess t han
t wenty hours, every atom oI t he at mosphere t akes up t he al tered movement
due t o t hat i nIi ni tesi mal port ion oI pri mi ti ve mot i on whi ch has been
conveyed to i t t hrough count less channel s, and which must conti nue to
i nIl uence it s path throughout it s Iuture exi stence. The air is one vast
l ibrary, on whose pages i s Iorever wri tt en all that man has ever sai d or
even whi spered. There, i n t heir mut abl e, but unerring charact ers, mi xed
wi th t he earli est, as well as the lat est si gns oI mortali ty, st and Iorever
recorded, vows unredeemed, promi ses unIulIil l ed; perpet uat ing, i n t he
movement s oI each part icl e, all in uni son, the test i mony oI man' s
changeIul wil l. God reads that book, though we cannot.
So eart h, air, and ocean are t he et ernal wi tnesses oI t he act s that we have
done. No mot ion i mpressed by nat ural causes or by human agency is ever
obli terated. The track oI every keel whi ch has ever di sturbed t he surIace
oI t he ocean remai ns Iorever regi stered i n the Iut ure movement s oI al l
succeeding parti cl es which may occupy i ts place. Every cri mi nal is by the
l aws oI t he Al mighty irrevocably chained t o t he t esti mony oI hi s cri me;
Ior every at om oI hi s mortal Irame, t hrough whatever changes i t s part icles
may mi grate, wil l sti ll retai n, adhering to i t through every combi nat ion,
some movement derived Irom that very muscular eIIort by whi ch t he cri me
i tsel I was perpetrated.
What iI our Iacul ti es shoul d be so enhanced in a Iut ure li Ie as to enable us
t o percei ve and t race t he ineIIaceable consequences oI our idle words and
evil deeds, and render our remorse and grieI as et ernal as those
consequences themsel ves? No more IearIul puni shment t o a superior
i ntell igence can be concei ved, than t o see sti l l i n act ion, wit h the
consciousness t hat it must conti nue in acti on Iorever, a cause oI wrong put
i n mot ion by i tsel I ages beIore.
Masonry, by i ts teachi ngs, endeavours t o restrain men Irom t he
commi ssion oI inj ust i ce and act s oI wrong and outrage. Though it does not
endeavour to usurp the place oI rel igi on, st i l l it s code oI moral s proceeds
upon ot her principl es t han the muni ci pal law; and it condemns and
puni shes oIIences which nei ther t hat law punishes nor publ ic opi ni on
condemns. In t he Masoni c l aw, t o cheat and overreach in trade, at t he bar,
i n pol i t ics, are deemed no more veni al t han theIt ; nor a deli berate l ie than
perj ury; nor slander than robbery; nor seduct ion t han murder.
Especially i t condemns those wrongs oI which t he doer induces anot her to
partake. He may repent; he may, aIt er agoni zing struggl es, regain the pat h
oI virtue; his spirit may reachieve i ts purity t hrough much angui sh, aIter
many st riIes; but the weaker Iell ow-creat ure whom he led astray, whom he
made a sharer i n hi s guil t, but whom he cannot make a sharer i n his
repent ance and amendment , whose downward course (the Ii rst step oI
which he t aught) he cannot check, but i s compell ed t o wit ness,-- what
Iorgiveness oI si ns can avai l hi m t here? There is his perpet ual , his
i nevi table punishment , which no repentance can alleviat e, and no mercy
can remi t .
Let us be j ust, al so, in judging oI other men' s mot ives. We know but li tt le
oI t he real meri t s or demerit s oI any Iel low creature. We can rarely say
wi th certai nty that thi s man i s more guil ty t han that , or even that t hi s man
i s very good or very wi cked. OIten the basest men leave behind t hem
excel l ent reputati ons. There is scarcely one oI us who has not, at some
t i me i n his l iIe, been on the edge oI t he commissi on oI a cri me. Every one
oI us can look back, and shudderi ng see the ti me when our Ieet st ood upon
t he sl ippery crags that overhung the abyss oI guil t; and when, iI
t empt at ion had been a l it tl e more urgent , or a li t t le longer cont inued, iI
penury had pressed us a l it tl e harder, or a l it tl e more wi ne had Iurt her
dist urbed our intel lect , dethroned our judgment , and aroused our passi ons,
our Ieet would have sli pped, and we should have Ial len, never to ri se
agai n.
We may be abl e t o say--"Thi s man has l i ed, has pi lIered, has Iorged, has
embezzled moneys i nt rusted to hi m; and t hat man has gone t hrough li Ie
wi th clean hands. " But we cannot say t hat t he Iormer has not struggl ed
l ong, t hough unsuccessIully, against temptat ions under which the second
woul d have succumbed wi t hout an eIIort . We can say which has the
cl eanest hands beIore man; but not which has the cleanest soul beIore
God. We may be able to say, t hi s man has commit ted adult ery, and that
man has been ever chaste; but we cannot tel l but t hat t he i nnocence oI one
may have been due to t he col dness oI hi s heart, t o t he absence oI a mot ive,
t o t he presence oI a Iear, t o t he slight degree oI the tempt ati on; nor but
t hat the Iall oI t he other may have been preceded by t he most vehement
sel I-cont est, caused by t he most over-mast ering Irenzy, and atoned Ior by
t he most hal lowing repentance. Generosity as wel l as ni ggardl iness may be
a mere yieldi ng t o nati ve temperament ; and i n the eye oI Heaven, a long
l iIe oI beneIi cence i n one man may have cost l ess eIIort , and may i ndi cate
l ess vi rt ue and l ess sacri Ii ce oI i nt erest , t han a Iew rare hidden act s oI
kindness wrung by duty out oI t he reluct ant and unsympat hi zi ng nature oI
t he other. There may be more real meri t , more selI-sacri Iicing eIIort, more
oI t he noblest element s oI moral grandeur, i n a l i Ie oI Iai lure, sin, and
shame, than i n a career, t o our eyes, oI stai nl ess integrity.
When we condemn or pity t he Iall en, how do we know t hat , tempt ed l ike
hi m, we should not have Iall en l ike hi m, as soon, and perhaps wit h l ess
resistance ? How can we know what we shoul d do i I we were out oI
employment , Iami ne crouchi ng, gaunt , and hungry, on our Iireless heart h,
and our chi ldren wail ing Ior bread ? We Ial l not because we are not
enough tempted! He t hat hat h Iall en may be at heart as honest as we. How
do we know t hat our daught er, si ster, wiIe, coul d resist t he abandonment,
t he desol at ion, the di stress, t he t emptat ion, that sacriIiced the vi rt ue oI
t heir poor abandoned si ster oI shame? Perhaps t hey al so have not Ial len,
because they have not been sorely t empt ed! Wi sely are we directed t o pray
t hat we may not be exposed t o t emptat ion.
Human justi ce must be ever uncert ain. How many judici al murders have
been commi tt ed t hrough i gnorance oI the phenomena oI i nsani ty ! How
many men hung Ior murder who were no more murderers at heart t han the
j ury t hat tried and the j udge t hat sent enced t hem! It may wel l be doubted
whether t he admi nist rati on oI human laws, in every count ry, is not one
giganti c mass oI i nj usti ce and wrong. God seeth not as man seeth; and t he
most abandoned cri mi nal , bl ack as he i s beIore the world, may yet have
conti nued t o keep some l it tl e l ight burning i n a corner oI hi s soul , which
woul d l ong since have gone out in t hat oI t hose who walk proudly in the
sunshi ne oI i mmacul ate Iame, i I they had been tried and tempt ed l ike the
poor out cast .
We do not know even the out si de li Ie oI men. We are not compet ent t o
pronounce even on their deeds. We do not know hal I t he act s oI
wi ckedness or vi rtue, even oI our most i mmediate Iell ows. We cannot say,
wi th certai nty, even oI our nearest Iri end, that he has not commi tt ed a
parti cul ar si n, and broken a part icular commandment. Let each man ask hi s
own heart ! OI how many oI our best and oI our worst act s and qual i ti es
are our most i nti mat e associ ates utt erly unconscious ! How many virtues
does not the world give us credi t Ior, t hat we do not possess; or vices
condemn us Ior, oI which we are not the sl aves ! It i s but a smal l port ion
oI our evi l deeds and t hought s that ever comes to li ght ; and oI our Iew
redeemi ng goodnesses, t he l argest port ion i s known t o God al one.
We shal l , thereIore, be j ust i n j udgi ng oI ot her men, only when we are
chari tabl e; and we shoul d assume t he prerogati ve oI judging ot hers only
when t he duty i s Iorced upon us; si nce we are so al most certai n to err, and
t he consequences oI error are so seri ous. No man need covet t he oIIice oI
j udge; Ior in assuming it he assumes the gravest and most oppressi ve
responsi bi li ty. Yet you have assumed it ; we al l assume i t; Ior man is ever
ready t o judge, and ever ready to condemn hi s nei ghbour, whi le upon t he
same stat e oI case he acquit s hi msel I See, thereIore, t hat you exerci se
your once cauti ously and chari tably, lest, i n passi ng judgment upon t he
cri minal, you commi t a great er wrong t han that Ior which you condemn
hi m, and t he consequences oI which must be eternal .
The Iaul t s and cri mes and Iol li es oI other men are not uni mport ant t o us;
but Iorm a part oI our moral di scipl i ne. War and bloodshed at a di stance,
and Irauds which do not aIIect our pecuniary i nterest , yet touch us i n our
Ieeli ngs, and concern our moral wel Iare. They have much t o do wi th al l
t houghtIul heart s. The publi c eye may l ook unconcernedly on t he
miserable victi m oI vice, and t hat shatt ered wreck oI a man may move t he
mul ti t ude t o l aught er or t o scorn. But to t he Mason, i t is the Iorm oI
sacred humanity t hat is beIore hi m; it i s an erri ng Iel low-being; a
desol at e, Iorlorn, Iorsaken soul; and his t hought s, enIoldi ng the poor
wretch, wi ll be Iar deeper t han t hose oI indi IIerence, ridi cul e, or
contempt . Al l human oIIences, the whole syst em oI di shonesty, evasion,
ci rcumventi ng, Iorbi dden i ndulgence, and intrigui ng ambi t ion, in whi ch
men are struggl ing wi th each other, wi ll be looked upon by a thought Iul
Mason, not merely as a scene oI mean toil s and stri Ies, but as t he solemn
conIl ict s oI i mmortal mi nds, Ior ends vast and momentous as t hei r own
being. It is a sad and unworthy stri Ie, and may well be vi ewed wi th
i ndi gnat i on; but t hat indignat i on must mel t int o pity. For the stakes Ior
which these gamesters play are not those which they i magi ne, not t hose
which are in sight. For example, this man plays Ior a pet ty once, and gains
i t; but the real stake he gains is sycophancy, uncharitableness, slander, and
decei t.
Good men are too proud oI thei r goodness. They are respect abl e;
dishonour comes not near t hem; t hei r countenance has wei ght and
i nIl uence; thei r robes are unst ained; the poi sonous breath oI calumny as
never been breat hed upon t hei r Iair name. How easy i t i s Ior them to look
down wit h scorn upon the poor degraded oIIender; to pass hi m by wi th a
l oIty st ep; t o draw up the Iolds oI t heir garment around t hem, t hat t hey
may not be soi l ed by hi s t ouch ! Yet t he Great Master oI Virt ue did not so;
but descended t o Iami li ar intercourse wi th publi cans and si nners, wit h t he
Samarit an woman, wi t h t he out casts and t he Pariahs oI the Hebrew worl d.
Many men t hink t hemselves bet ter, in proport ion as t hey can detect sin in
others! When t hey go over the catal ogue oI thei r neighbour' s unhappy
derel icti ons oI t emper or conduct , they oIten, ami dst much apparent
concern, Ieel a secret exult ati on, t hat destroys all t hei r own pret ensi ons to
wi sdom and moderati on, and even t o virtue. Many even take actual
pleasure i n t he si ns oI ot hers; and t his i s the case wit h every one whose
t hought s are oIt en empl oyed in agreeable compari sons oI hi s own vi rt ues
wi th hi s neighbours' Iaul ts.
The power oI gentl eness i s too l it tl e seen in the worl d; the subdui ng
i nIl uences oI pi ty, the mi ght oI l ove, t he control oI mi l dness over passi on,
t he commandi ng majesty oI that perIect character which mi ngles grave
displ easure wit h gri eI and pity Ior t he oIIender. So it is that a Mason
shoul d t reat his bret hren who go astray. Not wi t h bit terness; nor yet wi th
good-nat ured easiness, nor wit h worldly i ndi IIerence, nor wi th t he
phil osophi c col dness, nor wit h a laxi ty oI conscience, t hat account s
everyt hi ng wel l, that passes under the seal oI publi c opinion; but wi th
chari ty, wit h pityi ng lovi ng-ki ndness.
The human heart wi ll not bow wil li ngly t o what is inIirm and wrong i n
human nat ure. II it yields t o us, i t must yield t o what is di vine in us. The
wi ckedness oI my nei ghbour cannot submit t o my wickedness; hi s
sensuali ty, Ior i nstance, to my anger against hi s vices. My Iault s are not
t he i nst rument s t hat are to arrest hi s Iaul t s. And thereIore i mpat ient
reIormers, and denounci ng preachers, and hasty reprovers, and angry
parent s, and i rri tabl e relat ives general ly Iai l, i n t heir several depart ment s,
t o reclai m the erring.
A moral oIIence is si ckness, pai n, loss, di shonour, i n t he i mmortal part oI
man. It i s gui lt , and misery added to gui lt . It i s it selI calamity; and bri ngs
upon it selI, in addi t i on, t he cal ami ty oI God' s disapproval, the abhorrence
oI al l vi rt uous men, and t he soul' s own abhorrence. Deal Iai thIully, but
patiently and t enderly, wi th thi s evil ! It is no mat t er Ior petty
provocat ion, nor Ior personal stri Ie, nor Ior selIi sh irri tat ion.
Speak ki ndly t o your erri ng brother ! God pit ies hi m: Christ has died Ior
hi m: Provi dence wait s Ior hi m: Heaven' s mercy yearns toward hi m; and
Heaven' s spi rit s are ready to welcome hi m back wi th j oy. Let your voice
be in unison wi th al l t hose powers t hat God i s usi ng Ior hi s recovery!
II one deIrauds you, and exul ts at it , he is the most t o be pi t ied oI human
beings. He has done hi msel I a Iar deeper inj ury t han he has done you. It i s
he, and not you, whom God regards wit h mingl ed di spleasure and
compassi on; and Hi s j udgment should be your l aw. Among al l the
benedicti ons oI the Holy Mount t here is not one Ior thi s man; but Ior t he
merci Iul, the peacemakers, and the persecuted they are poured out Ireely.
We are al l men oI l ike passions, propensi ti es, and exposures. There are
el ement s i n us al l, whi ch might have been perverted, t hrough t he
successi ve processes oI moral deteri orat ion, to t he worst oI cri mes. The
wretch whom the execrati on oI t he t hrongi ng crowd pursues to the
scaIIold, i s not worse than any one oI t hat mul t it ude might have become
under si mil ar circumstances. He i s t o be condemned i ndeed, but also
deeply to be pit ied.
It does not become the Irail and si nIul to be vindi ct ive t oward even t he
worst cri mi nal s. We owe much t o the good Providence oI God, ordai ning
Ior us a lot more Iavourable t o virt ue. We al l had t hat wi thi n us, that
might have been pushed to the same excess: Perhaps we shoul d have Iall en
as he di d, wit h less t emptat ion. Perhaps we have done act s, t hat , i n
proporti on to the t empt ati on or provocati on, were less excusabl e than hi s
great cri me. Si lent pity and sorrow Ior t he vict i m should mingle wi th our
detest at ion oI the gui lt . Even the pi rat e who murders in col d blood on the
high seas, i s such a man as you or I might have been. Orphanage in
chil dhood, or base and dissolut e and abandoned parent s; an unIriended
yout h; evil companions; ignorance and want oI moral cult ivati on; t he
t empt at ions oI si nIul pleasure or gri ndi ng poverty; Iami l iarity wi th vi ce; a
scorned and bl ighted name; seared and crushed aIIecti ons; desperat e
Iortunes; these are st eps t hat mi ght have led any one among us to unIurl
upon the hi gh seas the bl oody Il ag oI uni versal deIiance; to wage war wi th
our ki nd; t o l ive t he l i Ie and di e t he deat h oI the reckl ess and remorseless
Iree-booter. Many aIIecti ng relat ionshi ps oI humani ty plead wi th us to pi ty
hi m. Hi s head once rest ed on a mother' s bosom. He was once t he object oI
si sterly love and domest ic endearment . Perhaps his hand, si nce oIten red
wi th bl ood, once clasped anot her l it tle lovi ng hand at t he altar. Pity hi m
t hen; his bli ght ed hopes and his crushed heart! It is proper that Irail and
erri ng creatures l ike us should do so; should Ieel t he cri me, but Ieel i t as
weak, t empt ed, and rescued creatures shoul d. It may be that when God
weighs men' s cri mes, He wi ll take i nt o considerat ion t he t empt ati ons and
t he adverse circumst ances t hat led t o t hem, and t he opport uni ti es Ior
moral cult ure oI t he oIIender; and it may be that our own oIIences wi ll
weigh heavier t han we t hi nk, and the murderer' s l ight er than accordi ng t o
man' s j udgment .
On al l account s, t hereIore, let the true Mason never Iorget t he solemn
i nj unct i on, necessary to be observed at al most every moment oI a busy
t aught t he Provost and Judge.
oI man.

IN t hi s Degree you have been taught the i mportant lesson, t hat none are
enti tl ed t o advance in the Ancient and Accept ed Scot ti sh Rit e, who have
not by study and appli cati on made themselves Iamil i ar wit h Masonic
l earning and jurisprudence. The Degrees oI t hi s Rit e are not Ior t hose who
are content wi th t he mere work and ceremonies, and do not seek t o expl ore
t he mines oI wi sdom t hat li e buried beneat h t he surIace. You sti l l advance
t oward t he Light , t oward that st ar, blazi ng in the di stance, whi ch is an
emblem oI the Di vine Trut h, given by God to t he Iirst men, and preserved
amid all t he vici ssi t udes oI ages in the t radi t ions and teachings oI
Masonry. How Iar you wi ll advance, depends upon yoursel I al one. Here, as
everywhere i n the world, Darkness struggles wit h Light , and cl ouds and
shadows int ervene between you and the Trut h.
When you shall have become i mbued wi t h the moral ity oI Masonry, wit h
which you yet are, and Ior some ti me wil l be exclusively occupi ed, --when
you shal l have learned to practi ce al l t he virt ues whi ch i t inculcat es; when
t hey become Iamil i ar t o you as your Household Gods; then wi ll you be
prepared t o recei ve i t s l oIty phil osophical i nstruct ion, and to scale t he
height s upon whose summit Light and Trut h si t ent hroned. St ep by step
men must advance t oward PerIecti on; and each Masoni c Degree is meant
t o be one oI t hose st eps. Each i s a development oI a parti cul ar duty; and in
t he present you are taught charity and benevol ence; to be to your bret hren
an exampl e oI virtue; t o correct your own Iaul ts; and t o endeavour to
correct t hose oI your bret hren.
Here, as in all t he degrees, you meet wi th the embl ems and the names oI
Dei ty, the true knowledge oI whose charact er and at t ri but es i t has ever
been a chieI object oI Masonry to perpetuate. To appreciate Hi s inIi nit e
greatness and goodness, t o rely i mpl ici tly upon Hi s Providence, to revere
and venerat e Hi m as the Supreme Archi tect , Creat or, and Legi sl ator oI the
universe, is the Ii rst oI Masoni c dut ies.
The Bat tery oI t hi s Degree, and t he Iive circui t s which you made around
t he Lodge, all ude t o t he Ii ve poi nts oI Iel lowshi p, and are i nt ended t o
recall them vividly to your mind. To go upon a brother' s errand or t o his
reli eI, even bareIoot and upon Ili nty ground; to remember hi m i n your
suppl icat ions t o t he Dei ty; to clasp hi m to your heart , and prot ect hi m
agai nst mal i ce and evil speaki ng; t o uphold hi m when about to stumbl e
and Iall ; and to give hi m prudent , honest , and Iriendly counsel, are dut ies
plai nly writ ten upon t he pages oI God' s great code oI law, and Iirst among
t he ordi nances oI Masonry.
The Ii rst sign oI t he Degree i s expressi ve oI the di IIi dence and humi li ty
wi th which we i nquire int o t he nat ure and at tribut es oI the Deity; t he
second, oI the proIound awe and reverence wit h which we cont empl ate His
gl ories; and the thi rd, oI t he sorrow wi t h which we reIl ect upon our
i nsuIIici ent observance oI our dut ies, and our i mperIect compl i ance wi th
Hi s statut es.
The dist ingui shing property oI man i s t o search Ior and Ioll ow aIter t ruth.
ThereIore, when rel axed Irom our necessary cares and concerns, we then
covet to see, t o hear, and t o l earn somewhat ; and we esteem knowl edge oI
t hi ngs, eit her obscure or wonderIul, t o be the i ndi spensable means oI
l ivi ng happi ly. Trut h, Si mpli ci ty, and Candor are most agreeabl e t o t he
nature oI manki nd. Whatever is virtuous consi sts eit her in Sagaci ty, and
t he percept ion oI Truth; or in the preservati on oI Human Soci ety, by
gi vi ng t o every man hi s due, and observi ng the Iai th oI contracts; or i n t he
greatness and Iirmness oI an elevated and unsubdued mind; or in
observing order and regul ari ty i n al l our words and in all our acti ons; i n
which consi st Moderati on and Temperance.
Masonry has i n al l ti mes rel igi ously preserved t hat enl ightened Iai th Irom
which Il ow subl i me Devotedness, the senti ment oI Frat ernity Iruit Iul oI
good works, t he spirit oI indulgence and peace, oI sweet hopes and
eIIect ual consolat ions; and inIlexi bi l i ty in t he accompl ishment oI t he most
painIul and arduous duti es. It has always propagated it wi t h ardor and
perseverance; and thereIore it labours at t he present day more zealously
t han ever. Scarcely a Masoni c discourse i s pronounced, that does not
demonstrate t he necessity and advantages oI this Iait h, and especial ly
recall the t wo consti tuti ve pri nci ples oI religion, t hat make al l reli gion, --
l ove oI God, and l ove oI nei ghbour. Masons carry these principles i nt o t he
bosoms oI t heir Iami li es and oI society. Whil e t he Sectarians oI Iormer
t i mes enIeebled t he rel igious spi rit , Masonry, Iormi ng one great Peopl e
over the whole globe, and marchi ng under t he great banner oI Charity and
Benevolence, preserves that rel igi ous Ieeli ng, strengt hens it , extends i t in
i ts puri ty and si mpl i ci ty, as i t has al ways exi st ed i n the dept hs oI the
human heart, as i t exi sted even under the dominion oI t he most anci ent
Iorms oI worship, but where gross and debasing superst i ti ons Iorbade i ts
recogni ti on.
A Masonic Lodge shoul d resemble a bee-hive, i n which al l t he members
work together wi th ardor Ior the common good. Masonry i s not made Ior
cold soul s and narrow mi nds, that do not comprehend it s loIty mi ssi on and
subli me apost olate. Here the anathema agai nst lukewarm soul s applies. To
comIort misIortunes t o popularize knowl edge, t o t each whatever i s t rue
and pure in rel igi on and phi losophy, t o accust om men t o respect order and
t he propri eti es oI l iIe, to poi nt out the way t o genui ne happi ness, to
prepare Ior that Iortunate period, when al l the Iact ions oI the Human
Family, uni ted by the bonds oI Tol erat ion and Fraterni ty, shall be but one
househol d, --t hese are labours t hat may well excit e zeal and even
We do not now enlarge upon or elaborat e t hese i deas. We but utt er them to
you bri eIly, as hints, upon which you may at your lei sure reIlect .
HereaIt er, i I you cont inue t o advance, t hey wi l l be unIol ded, expl ained,
and devel oped.
Masonry ut ters no i mpracti cable and ext ravagant precepts, cert ain,
because they are so, to be di sregarded. It asks oI it s i ni tiates not hing that
i t i s not possibl e and even easy Ior them to perIorm. Its teachi ngs are
eminently pract ical ; and i t s stat utes can be obeyed by every j ust , upri ght ,
and honest man, no matt er what hi s Iait h or creed. Its object i s t o at tai n
t he greatest practi cal good, wi thout seeki ng t o make men perIect . It does
not meddle wit h the domain oI reli gion, nor i nquire into t he mysteries oI
regenerat ion. It t eaches t hose truths t hat are wri tt en by t he Iinger oI God
upon the heart oI man, t hose views oI duty whi ch have been brought out
by t he medit ati ons oI t he st udi ous, conIi rmed by t he allegi ance oI the
good and wise, and stamped as st erli ng by t he response they Ii nd i n every
uncorrupted mi nd. It does not dogmat i ze, nor vai nly i magi ne dogmat ic
certai nty t o be att ai nable.
Masonry does not occupy i tsel I wit h crying down thi s worl d, wi th it s
splendid beauty, i ts thri ll ing interest s, it s glori ous works, it s nobl e and
holy aIIecti ons; nor exhort us t o detach our heart s Irom t hi s eart hly l iIe,
as empty, Ileet ing, and unworthy, and Ii x t hem upon Heaven, as the only
sphere deserving the love oI the loving or t he medi tat i on oI t he wise. It
t eaches t hat man has high dut ies to perIorm, and a high dest i ny t o Iul Ii ll ,
on t hi s eart h; t hat this worl d is not merely the port al to anot her; and t hat
t hi s li Ie, t hough not our only one, i s an int egral one, and t he part i cul ar
one wi th which we are here meant t o be concerned; that t he Present is our
scene oI acti on, and t he Future Ior specul at ion and Ior trust ; that man was
sent upon the earth to li ve in i t , to enj oy i t, t o st udy it , to love i t, t o
embel li sh i t, to make t he most oI i t. It is his count ry, on whi ch he should
l avi sh his aIIect ions and hi s eIIorts. It i s here hi s i nIl uences are to
operat e. It i s hi s house, and not a t ent ; his home, and not merely a school .
He is sent int o thi s worl d, not t o be constant ly hankeri ng aIter, dreami ng
oI, prepari ng Ior another; but to do hi s duty and Iul Ii ll his dest i ny on thi s
earth; t o do al l that lies in hi s power to i mprove it , to render it a scene oI
el evated happi ness to hi msel I, t o t hose around hi m, to t hose who are t o
come aIt er hi m. Hi s l iIe here i s part oI hi s i mmort ali ty; and t hi s world,
al so, is among the stars.
And t hus, Masonry teaches us, wi l l man best prepare Ior t hat Fut ure which
he hopes Ior. The Unseen cannot hold a hi gher pl ace in our aIIect i ons than
t he Seen and the Fami li ar. The l aw oI our bei ng i s Love oI Li Ie, and it s
i nterests and adornment s; l ove oI the worl d i n which our l ot i s cast ,
engrossment wi th the interest s and aIIect ions oI eart h. Not a l ow or
sensual love, not love oI wealt h, oI Iame, oI ease, oI power, oI splendour.
Not low worldl i ness; but t he love oI Eart h as the garden on whi ch the
Creator has lavished such mi racles oI beauty; as the habitati on oI
humanity, t he arena oI it s conIl ict s, t he scene oI it s i ll i mit abl e progress,
t he dwell ing-place oI t he wise, the good, t he act i ve, t he loving, and t he
dear; the pl ace oI opport uni ty Ior the devel opment by means oI si n and
suIIeri ng and sorrow, oI the noblest passi ons the loIt iest vi rt ues, and the
t enderest sympat hi es.
They take very unproIi table pains, who endeavour to persuade men that
t hey are obli ged whol ly to despise t hi s world, and al l that i s i n i t , even
whil st they themsel ves l ive here. God hath not t aken all t hat pai ns i n
Iormi ng and Iraming and Iurnishi ng and adorning t he worl d, that t hey who
were made by Hi m to li ve i n it should despise i t. It wil l be enough, i I they
do not love i t too i mmoderately. It is useless to att empt t o ext inguish al l
t hose aIIecti ons and passi ons which are and always wil l be i nseparable
Irom human nature. As long as he world last s, and honour and vi rt ue and
i ndustry have reput ati on in the worl d, there wi l l be ambit ion and
emulati on and appet ite in t he best and most accompli shed men in i t; and iI
t here were not , more barbarity and vice and wi ckedness would cover every
nati on oI the world, t han it now suIIers under.
Those only who Ieel a deep i nt erest i n, and aIIect ion Ior, this worl d, wi ll
work resolut ely Ior it s amel iorat ion. Those who underval ue thi s riIe,
naturally become querul ous and discontented, and l ose t heir i nt erest i n t he
wel Iare oI t heir Iel lows. To serve them, and so t o do our duty as Masons,
we must Ieel that t he obj ect i s wort h t he exerti on; and be cont ent wi th this
worl d i n whi ch God has pl aced us, unti l He permi ts us t o remove to a
better one. He i s here wi th us, and does not deem t hi s an unwort hy worl d.
It a serious thing t o deIame and beli e a whol e worl d; to speak oI i t as t he
abode oI a poor, toi li ng, drudgi ng, ignorant, contempti bl e race. You woul d
not so discredit your Iamily, your Iri endly ci rcl e, your vi ll age, your city,
your country. The world i s not a wret ched and a wort hless one; nor i s i t a
misIortune, but a t hi ng t o be t hankIul Ior, to be a man. II li Ie i s wort hl ess,
so al so is i mmortali ty.
In society i tsel I, in t hat li vi ng mechani sm oI human rel ati onships that
spreads it sel I over t he worl d, there is a Ii ner essence wi thin, t hat as truly
moves it , as any power, heavy or expansi ve, moves the soundi ng
manuIact ory or the swi It-Ilying car. The man-machine hurries t o and Iro
upon the eart h, stretches out i ts hands on every si de, to toil , t o bart er, t o
unnumbered labours and enterprises; and al most al ways t he moti ve, t hat
which moves i t, i s somet hi ng that t akes hol d oI t he comIorts, aIIecti ons,
and hopes oI social exist ence. True, t he mechanism oIten works wit h
diIIi cul ty, drags heavi ly, grates and screams wit h harsh col li sion. True, the
essence oI Ii ner mot i ve, becoming intermi xed wi th baser and coarser
i ngredient s, oIten clogs, obstruct s, j ars, and deranges the Iree and nobl e
act ion oI social li Ie. But he is nei t her grat eIul nor wi se, who l ooks
cynical ly on all thi s, and loses the Ii ne sense oI soci al good i n i t s
perversions. That I can be a Iri end, that I can have a Iri end, t hough i t were
but one in the worl d; that Iact, t hat wondrous good Iort une, we may set
agai nst al l t he suIIeri ngs oI our soci al nature. That there i s such a place on
earth as a home, t hat resort and sanct uary oI in-wal led and shi elded j oy,
we may set agai nst all t he surrounding desolat ions oI l iIe. That one can be
a true, social man, can speak hi s true t hought s, amidst all t he Tangli ngs oI
controversy and t he warri ng oI opini ons; that Iact Irom wi t hi n, out weighs
al l Iacts Irom wi thout .
In t he vi si bl e aspect and act ion oI soci ety, oIten repulsi ve and annoying,
we are apt to lose the due sense oI i t s invi si bl e bl essings. As i n Nat ure i t
i s not the coarse and palpable, not soil s and rains, nor even Iields and
Ilowers, that are so beaut iIul , as the invi sibl e spi rit oI wi sdom and beauty
t hat pervades it ; so i n soci ety, it i s t he i nvi sibl e, and thereIore
unobserved, t hat is most beauti Iul .
What nerves t he arm oI toi l ? II man mi nded hi mselI al one, he would Il ing
down the spade and axe, and rush t o t he desert ; or roam through t he worl d
as a wil derness, and make that worl d a desert . His home, which he sees
not, perhaps, but once or twi ce i n a day, i s t he i nvi sible bond oI t he worl d.
It is t he good, st rong, and nobl e Iai t h that men have i n each ot her, whi ch
gi ves t he l oIti est charact er to busi ness, trade, and commerce. Fraud occurs
i n t he rush oI business; but it i s t he except i on. Honesty i s the rule; and al l
t he Irauds i n the worl d cannot tear the great bond oI human conIidence. II
t hey coul d, commerce woul d Iurl it s sai ls on every sea, and all t he ci t ies
oI t he worl d woul d crumbl e i nt o rui ns. The bare character oI a man on the
other si de oI the worl d, whom you never saw, whom you never wil l see,
you hol d good Ior a bond oI t housands. The most st ri ki ng Ieat ure oI the
poli t ical stat e is not governments, nor consti tuti ons, nor laws, nor
enact ments, nor t he judici al power, nor t he pol ice; but the uni versal wil l
oI t he people t o be governed by the common weal . Take oII t hat rest rai nt ,
and no government on earth coul d stand Ior an hour.
OI t he many teachi ngs oI Masonry, one oI t he most val uabl e i s, t hat we
shoul d not depreciat e t hi s li Ie. It does not hol d, t hat when we reIl ect on
t he dest i ny t hat awai ts man on eart h, we ought to bedew hi s cradl e wit h
our tears; but , l ike t he Hebrews, it hai l s the bi rt h oI a chi ld wi th joy, and
holds t hat hi s bi rt hday should be a Iest ival.
It has no sympat hy wit h t hose who proIess to have proved t his li Ie, and
Iound i t li tt le worth; who have deli berately made up t heir mi nds t hat it i s
Iar more miserable than happy; because it s empl oyments are t edi ous, and
t heir schemes oIten baIIled, t hei r Iriendshi ps broken, or their Iriends dead,
i ts pleasures palled, and it s honours Iaded, and it s pat hs beaten, Iami li ar,
and dull .
Masonry deems it no mark oI great piety t oward God t o disparage, iI not
despi se, the stat e t hat He has ordained Ior us. It does not absurdly set up
t he cl ai ms oI anot her world, not i n compari son merely, but i n compet i ti on,
wi th t he cl ai ms oI t hi s. It looks upon both as part s oI one system. It hol ds
t hat a man may make t he best oI this worl d and oI anot her at the same
t i me. It does not t each i ts init i at es to t hi nk bet t er oI ot her works and
dispensati ons oI God, by thinki ng meanly oI t hese. It does not l ook upon
l iIe as so much t i me l ost ; nor regard it s employment s as t riIles unwort hy
oI i mmort al bei ngs; nor tel l it s Iol l owers t o Iol d t heir arms, as i I in
disdai n oI their stat e and speci es; but it l ooks soberly and cheerIully upon
t he worl d, as a t heat re oI worthy acti on, oI exalt ed useIulness, and oI
rati onal and i nnocent enj oyment.
It holds t hat , wi t h all it s evi ls, l iIe is a bl essing. To deny t hat is to destroy
t he basi s oI all rel igi on, natural and reveal ed. The very Ioundat ion oI al l
reli gion i s laid on the Ii rm beli eI t hat God i s good; and i I t hi s li Ie is an
evil and a curse, no such belieI can be rat ionally entert ai ned. To level our
sat ire at humani ty and human exi stence, as mean and contempt ibl e; to l ook
on t hi s world as t he habi tat ion oI a miserabl e race, Iit only Ior mockery
and scorn; t o consi der thi s earth as a dungeon or a pri son, which has no
blessing t o oIIer but escape Irom it , is t o ext ingui sh the pri mal li ght oI
Iait h and hope and happiness, to dest roy t he basi s oI reli gion, and Truth' s
Ioundat ion i n t he goodness oI God. II i t indeed be so, then i t mat ters not
what else i s true or not t rue; speculati on is vain and Iai th is vai n; and all
t hat bel ongs to man' s hi ghest bei ng i s buri ed i n the ruins oI mi sant hropy,
melancholy, and despai r.
Our love oI l iIe; the tenaci ty wi th whi ch, in sorrow and suIIeri ng, we cli ng
t o i t ; our att achment to our home, t o the spot t hat gave us bi rt h, to any
place, however rude, unsight ly, or barren, on which t he hist ory oI our
years has been wri tten, all show how dear are the t ies oI kindred and
soci ety. Misery makes a greater i mpression upon us than happi ness;
because the Iormer i s not t he habit oI our mi nds. It i s a strange, unusual
guest , and we are more conscious oI i t s presence. Happi ness li ves wit h us,
and we Iorget it . It does not exci te us, nor di st urb the order and course oI
our thoughts. A great agony is an epoch i n our li Ie. We remember our
aIIl ict ions, as we do t he st orm and eart hquake, because t hey are out oI the
common course oI t hi ngs. They are li ke disastrous events, recorded
because ext raordi nary; and wi th whole and unnoti ced peri ods oI prosperity
between. We mark and signali ze the ti mes oI calami ty; but many happy
days and unnot ed peri ods oI enj oyment pass, that are unrecorded ei t her in
t he book oI memory, or in the scanty annals oI our t hanksgivi ng. We are
l it tl e disposed and less able to call up Irom the di m remembrances oI our
past years, t he peaceIul moments, t he easy sensati ons, the bright thought s,
t he quiet reveries, the throngs oI kind aIIect ions i n which l iIe Il owed on,
beari ng us al most unconsci ously upon it s bosom, because it bore us cal mly
and gent ly.
Li Ie is not only good; but it has been glorious i n the experi ence oI
mi l li ons. The glory oI all human vi rt ue cl ot hes i t. The splendours oI
devot edness, beneIicence, and heroi sm are upon it ; the crown oI a
t housand martyrdoms i s upon i t s brow. The brightness oI t he soul shines
t hrough this visi bl e and someti mes darkened liIe; through all it s
surroundi ng cares and labours. The humbl est li Ie may Ieel it s connecti on
wi th i t s InIi nit e Source. There is somet hi ng mighty in the Irail i nner man;
somethi ng oI i mmortal ity i n t hi s momentary and t ransi ent bei ng. The mi nd
st ret ches away, on every side, i nt o i nIini ty. Its thought s Ilash abroad, Iar
i nt o t he boundl ess, t he i mmeasurable, the i nIi ni te; Iar int o the great , dark,
t eemi ng Iut ure; and become powers and i nIl uences in ot her ages. To know
i ts wonderIul Author, to bring down wi sdom Irom the Eternal St ars, t o
bear upward i ts homage, grati tude, and l ove, t o t he Ruler oI all worlds, t o
be i mmort al in our i nIluences proj ected Iar i nto t he sl ow-approachi ng
Future, makes li Ie most wort hy and most gl orious.
Li Ie is t he wonderIul creat ion oI God. It i s l ight, sprung Irom voi d
darkness; power, waked Irom inert ness and i mpotence; being creat ed Irom
nothing; and t he contrast may well enkindle wonder and del ight . It i s a ril l
Irom the i nIi nit e, overIl owi ng goodness; and Irom the moment when i t
Iirst gushes up i nt o t he light , t o t hat when i t mi ngles wi t h t he ocean oI
Eterni ty, that Goodness at tends it and mini sters t o it . It i s a great and
gl orious gi It . There i s gl adness i n i ts inIant voices; j oy in the buoyant step
oI i t s youth; deep sat isIact ion in it s strong mat uri ty; and peace i n i t s qui et
age. There is good Ior the good; virt ue Ior the Iai thIul; and vi ctory Ior t he
valiant. There i s, even i n t hi s humbl e l i Ie, an i nIi ni ty Ior those whose
desi res are boundl ess. There are bl essi ngs upon i t s birt h; there i s hope i n
i ts death; and et ernity i n i ts prospect . Thus earth, which bi nds many in
chai ns, i s to the Mason bot h the starti ng-place and goal oI i mmort ali ty,
Many it buries i n t he rubbi sh oI dul l cares and wearying vani ti es; but t o
t he Mason i t i s t he loIty mount oI medi tat ion, where Heaven, and InIinity
and Eterni ty are spread beIore hi m and around hi m. To t he loIty-mi nded,
t he pure, and t he virtuous, this l i Ie i s t he begi nning oI Heaven, and a part
oI i mmort al ity.
God hath appointed one remedy Ior al l the evil s i n t he worl d; and t hat is a
contented spiri t. We may be reconci led to poverty and a low Iort une, i I we
suIIer cont entedness and equani mi ty to make the proport ions. No man is
poor who doth not thi nk hi msel I so; but i I, i n a Iul l Iort une, wi t h
i mpatience he desires more, he proclai ms hi s want s and hi s beggarly
condi ti on. Thi s virt ue oI cont ent edness was the sum oI al l the ol d moral
phil osophy, and is oI most universal use in the whole course oI our li ves,
and t he only instrument to ease t he burdens oI the world and the enmit ies
oI sad chances. It is t he great reasonableness oI complyi ng wi th the Di vi ne
Provi dence, whi ch governs al l t he world, and hat h so ordered us in t he
administ rat ion oI Hi s great Iamily. It is Ii t that God shoul d dispense Hi s
gi It s as He pleases; and iI we murmur here, we may, at t he next
melancholy, be troubl ed that He di d not make us to be angels or stars.
We ourselves make our Iortunes good or bad; and when God l ets loose a
Tyrant upon us, or a sickness, or scorn, or a lessened Iortune, i I we Iear t o
die, or know not how t o be pat ient , or are proud, or covetous, then t he
calami ty si t s heavy on us. But i I we know how t o manage a noble
pri nci ple, and Iear not deat h so much as a dishonest act ion, and t hi nk
i mpatience a worse evil t han a Iever, and pri de t o be t he greatest di sgrace
as well as t he greatest Iolly, and poverty Iar preIerable to the t orment s oI
avarice, we may st il l bear an even mi nd and smi l e at the reverses oI
Iortune and t he i ll -nature oI Fate.
II thou hast lost t hy land, do not al so l ose t hy constancy; and i I t hou must
die sooner t han others, or t han thou di dst expect , yet do not di e
i mpatiently. For no chance is evil t o hi m who i s content , and to a man
nothing i s mi serabl e unless it be unreasonable. No man can make another
man t o be his sl ave, unl ess that other hat h Iirst enslaved hi msel I to l iIe
and deat h, to pl easure or pai n, to hope or Iear; command these passions,
and you are Ireer than t he Parthian Kings.
When an enemy reproaches us, l et us l ook on hi m as an i mpartial relat or
oI our Iault s; Ior he wi ll tell us truer than our Iondest Iriend wil l , and we
may Iorgive hi s anger, whi lst we make use oI t he plai nness oI hi s
decl amat i on. The ox, when he i s weary, t reads truest ; and iI there be
nothing else in abuse, but t hat i t makes us t o wal k wari ly, and tread sure
Ior Iear oI our enemies, that i s bett er t han to be Ilattered into pride and
II thou Ial lest Irom t hy empl oyment i n publ i c, take sanct uary in an honest
reti rement , bei ng indiIIerent t o t hy gain abroad, or t hy saIety at home.
When the north wi nd bl ows hard, and i t rains sadly, we do not sit down in
i t and cry; but deIend oursel ves agai nst it wi th a warm garment , or a good
Iire and a dry rooI. So when the storm oI a sad mi schance beats upon our
spirit s, we may turn it i nto something that is good, iI we resol ve to make
i t so; and wit h equani mi ty and pat ience may shelt er ourselves Irom i ts
i nclement pit il ess pel ti ng. II i t devel op our pat ience, and gi ve occasi on Ior
heroi c endurance, i t hat h done us good enough t o recompense us
suIIici ently Ior al l t he temporal aIIli cti on; Ior so a wi se man shal l
overrul e hi s stars; and have a great er inIluence upon hi s own content, than
al l the const ell ati ons and planet s oI the Ii rmament .
Compare not thy condi ti on wit h the Iew above thee, but to secure thy
content, look upon t hose thousands wi th whom thou woul dst not, Ior any
i nterest, change thy Iort une and condit i on. A soldier must not t hi nk
hi msel I unprosperous, iI he be not successIul as Al exander or Wel li ngt on;
nor any man deem hi mselI unIort unate t hat he hat h not the wealt h oI
Rothschil d; but rat her let t he Iormer rej oi ce that he i s not lessened l i ke
t he many general s who went down horse and man beIore Napoleon, and the
l att er that he is not t he beggar who, bareheaded in the bl eak wi nt er wind
holds out his tat tered hat Ior charity. There may be many who are richer
and more Iort unat e; but many thousands who are very mi serable, compared
t o t hee.
AIter t he worst assaul t s oI Fort une, there will be something leIt t o us, --a
merry count enance, a cheerIul spirit , and a good consci ence, the
Provi dence oI God, our hopes oI Heaven, our charity Ior those who have
i nj ured us; perhaps a l ovi ng wiIe, and many Iriends to pity, and some to
reli eve us; and l ight and air, and all the beauties oI Nat ure; we can read,
discourse, and medi tat e; and havi ng st il l these bl essings, we shoul d be
much in love wit h sorrow and peevishness t o l ose t hem al l, and preIer to
si t down on our li tt le handIul oI t horns.
Enj oy the blessi ngs oI this day, i I God sends t hem, and t he evil s oI i t bear
patiently and cal mly; Ior thi s day only is ours: we are dead t o yesterday,
and we are not yet born to the morrow. When our Iort unes are viol ent ly
changed, our spi rit s are unchanged, i I t hey al ways st ood i n t he suburbs
and expectati on oI sorrows and reverses. The bl essi ngs oI i mmuni ty,
saIeguard, l iberty, and i ntegrity deserve the thanksgi ving oI a whol e l iIe.
We are qui t Irom a thousand cal ami t i es, every one oI whi ch, i I i t were
upon us, woul d make us insensibl e oI our present sorrow, and glad to
receive it i n exchange Ior t hat ot her great er aIIli cti on.
Measure your desires by your Iort une and condi ti on, not your Iortunes by
your desi res: be governed by your needs, not by your Iancy; by nature, not
by evi l customs and ambi ti ous principl es. It i s no evi l to be poor, but t o be
vici ous and i mpat i ent . Is t hat beast bet t er, that hath t wo or three
mountai ns t o graze on, than t he li tt le bee that Ieeds on dew or manna, and
l ives upon what Ial ls every morni ng Irom the st ore-houses oI Heaven,
cl ouds and Providence ?
There are some instances oI Iort une and a Iai r condi t ion t hat cannot stand
wi th some ot hers; but i I you desire t hi s, you must l ose t hat, and unless you
be cont ent wi th one, you l ose t he comIort oI both. II you covet l earni ng,
you must have lei sure and a reti red li Ie; i I honours oI State and poli ti cal
dist inct ions, you must be ever abroad in publ ic, and get experience, and
do al l men' s busi ness, and keep al l company, and have no l eisure at al l. II
you wil l be rich, you must be Irugal ; i I you wil l be popular, you must be
bounti Iul; iI a phi l osopher, you must despi se riches. II you would be
Iamous as Epaminondas, accept al so hi s poverty, Ior it added l ustre t o his
person, and envy t o his Iort une, and hi s vi rt ue wit hout it could not have
been so excel lent. II you woul d have t he reputat ion oI a martyr, you must
needs accept hi s persecut ion; i I oI a beneIact or oI t he world, t he worl d' s
i nj usti ce; iI t ruly great , you must expect to see the mob preIer lesser men
t o yourselI.
God est eems i t one oI Hi s glori es, t hat He bri ngs good out oI evil ; and
t hereIore i t were but reason we should trust Hi m to govern Hi s own world
as He pl eases; and t hat we shoul d pati ent ly wai t unti l the change comet h,
or t he reason is di scovered.
A Mason' s contentedness must by no means be a mere contented
sel Ii shness, li ke his who, comIort able hi msel I, is indi IIerent t o t he
discomIort oI ot hers. There wil l always be i n t hi s worl d wrongs to Iorgive,
suIIeri ng t o alleviat e, sorrow aski ng Ior sympat hy, necessit ies and
dest it ut ion t o rel ieve, and ample occasion Ior the exerci se oI acti ve
chari ty and beneIicence. And he who si t s unconcerned ami dst i t all ,
perhaps enj oyi ng his own comIorts and luxuries the more, by cont rast i ng
t hem wi th the hungry and ragged desti tuti on and shi veri ng mi sery oI hi s
Iell ows, is not contented, but sel Iish and unIeeli ng.
It is t he saddest oI al l si ght s upon this eart h, t hat oI a man lazy and
l uxurious, or hard and penurious, t o whom want appeals in vai n, and
suIIeri ng cries in an unknown tongue. The man whose hasty anger hurries
hi m into vi ol ence and cri me is not halI so unwort hy to l i ve. He i s the
Iait hl ess steward, that embezzl es what God has given hi m in trust Ior the
i mpoverished and suIIeri ng among his brethren. The t rue Mason must be
and must have a right t o be cont ent wi th hi msel I; and he can be so only
when he li ves not Ior hi msel I al one, but Ior ot hers al so, who need hi s
assi stance and have a cl ai m upon hi s sympat hy.
"Charity i s the great channel ," it has been wel l sai d, "through which God
passes all Hi s mercy upon mankind. For we recei ve absolut i on oI our si ns
i n proporti on to our Iorgi vi ng our brother. This is t he rul e oI our hopes
and t he measure oI our desire i n t hi s world; and on the day oI death and
j udgment , t he great sentence upon mankind shal l be t ransacted according
t o our al ms, which i s the ot her part oI charity. God hi mselI is love; and
very degree oI chari ty that dwel ls i n us i s the parti ci pat i on oI the di vi ne
These pri nci ples Masonry reduces t o pract ice. By t hem it expect s you t o
be hereaIter guided and governed. It especially i ncul cates t hem upon hi m
who empl oys t he labour oI ot hers, Iorbi ddi ng hi m t o discharge t hem, when
t o want empl oyment i s t o starve; or t o cont ract Ior the labour oI man or
woman at so l ow a price t hat by over-exerti on t hey must sel l hi m their
blood and l iIe at t he same ti me wit h the labour oI t heir hands.
These Degrees are also intended to teach more t han moral s. The symbol s
and ceremoni es oI Masonry have more than one meani ng. They rat her
conceal than di sclose the Trut h. They hint i t only, at l east; and their varied
meani ngs are only t o be di scovered by reIl ecti on and study. Truth is not
only symbol ized by Light, but as the ray oI li ght i s separable int o rays oI
diIIerent col ours, so i s trut h separable i nt o kinds. It i s the province oI
Masonry to teach all t ruths--not moral t ruth alone, but poli ti cal and
phil osophi cal, and even rel igi ous trut h, so Iar as concerns t he great and
essent ial pri nciples oI each. The sphynx was a symbol . To whom has i t
discl osed i t s inmost meani ng? Who knows the symbol ic meani ng oI the
You wil l hereaIter learn who are t he chieI Ioes oI human l iberty
symbol i zed by t he assassi ns oI t he Mast er Khurum; and in their Iate you
may see Ioreshadowed t hat whi ch we earnest ly hope wi l l hereaIter
overt ake t hose enemi es oI humani ty, agai nst whom Masonry has struggled
so long.

|Elu oI t he Nine. |
ORIGINALLY creat ed to reward Ii deli ty, obedience, and devoti on, t hi s
Degree was consecrat ed t o bravery, devot edness, and pat ri ot i sm; and your
obli gati on has made known t o you t he dut ies whi ch you have assumed.
They are summed up i n the si mple mandat e, "Protect t he oppressed agai nst
t he oppressor; and devot e yoursel I to the honour and int erest s oI your
Count ry. "
Masonry i s not "speculat ive, " nor t heoreti cal, but experi ment al ; not
sent i ment al , but pract ical . It requi res sel I-renunci ati on and selI-control . It
wears a st ern Iace toward men' s vi ces, and i nterIeres wi th many oI our
pursuit s and our Ianci ed pleasures. It penet rates beyond t he region oI
vague sent i ment ; beyond t he regions where morali zers and phil osophers
have woven thei r Ii ne t heori es and elaborat ed t hei r beaut iIul maxi ms, to
t he very dept hs oI the heart , rebuki ng our li t t lenesses and meannesses,
arraigning our prej udices and passi ons, and warri ng agai nst the armies oI
our vi ces.
It wars against t he passi ons that spri ng out oI t he bosom oI a world oI Iine
sent i ment s, a world oI admirabl e sayi ngs and Ioul practi ces, oI good
maxi ms and bad deeds; whose darker passi ons are not only restrained by
cust om and ceremony, but hi dden even Irom it selI by a veil oI beaut i Iul
sent i ment s. This terri ble soleci sm has exist ed in all ages. Romi sh
sent i ment al i sm has oIten covered inIi del ity and vi ce; Prot estant
st raightness oIten lauds spiri t ual ity and Iait h, and neglect s homely t rut h,
candor, and generosity; and ult ra-li beral Rati onal ist ic reIinement
someti mes soars to heaven i n i ts dreams, and wall ows i n the mire oI eart h
i n i t s deeds.
There may be a world oI Masonic senti ment; and yet a worl d oI li tt le or no
Masonry. In many mi nds t here is a vague and general sent i ment oI
Masonic chari ty, generosi ty, and di sinterestedness, but no pract ical , act ive
virtue, nor habi tual kindness, selI sacri Ii ce, or li berali ty. Masonry pl ays
about t hem li ke t he cold though bri ll iant l ights t hat Ilush and eddy over
Nort hern ski es. There are occasi onal Ilashes oI generous and manly
Ieeli ng, transit ory splendours, and momentary gleams oI just and nobl e
t hought , and t ransi ent coruscat ions, t hat l ight t he Heaven oI thei r
i magi nat ion; but t here is no vit al warmth i n t he heart ; and i t remains as
cold and st erile as t he Arct ic or Ant arct ic regions. They do nothi ng; t hey
gai n no vict ories over themselves; they make no progress; t hey are st il l in
t he Nort heast corner oI t he Lodge, as when they Ii rst st ood t here as
Apprenti ces; and they do not cult ivat e Masonry, wit h a cul ti vati on,
determined, resolut e, and regul ar, l ike their cul ti vat ion oI thei r estat e,
proIession, or knowledge. Their Masonry t akes i ts chance i n general and
i neIIi cient senti ment , mournIully barren oI resul ts; in words and Iormulas
and Iine proIessi ons.
Most men have senti ment s, but not pri nci ples. The Iormer are t emporary
sensat ions, the lat ter permanent and cont rol l ing i mpressi ons oI goodness
and virt ue. The Iormer are general and i nvol unt ary, and do not rise t o the
character oI virtue. Every one Ieels t hem. They Ilash up spont aneously in
every heart . The lat ter are rules oI acti on, and shape and cont rol our
conduct ; and it i s these t hat Masonry i nsist s upon.
We approve the ri ght ; but pursue the wrong. It is t he old st ory oI human
deIiciency. No one abet s or prai ses i njusti ce, Iraud, oppression,
covetousness, revenge, envy or slander; and yet how many who condemn
t hese t hi ngs, are t hemsel ves guil ty oI t hem. It i s no rare thing Ior hi m
whose i ndi gnat ion i s ki ndled at a tal e oI wi cked injust ice, cruel
oppressi on base sl ander, or misery i nIli cted by unbri dl ed i ndulgence;
whose anger Il ames in behal I oI t he i nj ured and rui ned vict i ms oI wrong;
t o be i n some relat ion unjust, or oppressive, or envious, or selI-i ndulgent,
or a careless tal ker oI ot hers. How wonderIully i ndi gnant t he penuri ous
man oIt en i s, at t he avari ce or want oI public spi ri t oI anot her!
A great Preacher well sai d, "ThereIore t hou art i nexcusabl e. O Man,
whosoever t hou art, that judgest; Ior wherein thou judgest anot her, thou
condemnest thyselI: Ior t hou t hat judgest, doest t he same t hi ngs. " It i s
amazing t o see how men can t alk oI vi rtue and honour, whose li Ie deni es
both. It i s curious t o see wit h what a marvel lous Iaci l ity many bad men
quot e Scri pt ure. It seems t o comIort thei r evil consciences, t o use good
words; and t o gloze over bad deeds wi th holy text s, wrested to their
purpose. OIt en, the more a man tal ks about Chari ty and Tol erat ion, the
l ess he has oI ei ther; the more he t alks about Virtue, t he small er st ock he
has oI it . The mout h speaks out oI t he abundance oI t he heart ; but oIten
t he very reverse oI what the man practi ses. And the vi cious and sensual
oIten express, and i n a sense Ieel , strong disgust at vice and sensuali ty.
Hypocrisy is not so common as i s i magined.
Here, i n the Lodge, vi rt ue and vice are matters oI reIlect ion and Ieel ing
only. There is li t t le opport uni ty here, Ior t he pract ice oI ei t her; and
Masons yield to the argument here, wi th Iaci l i ty and readiness; because
nothing i s to Ioll ow. It i s easy, and saIe, here, too Ieel upon these mat ters.
But t o-morrow, when t hey breat he t he at mosphere oI worl dly gai ns and
compet it ions, and the passions are again st irred at the opportuni t ies oI
unlawIul pleasure, al l their Ii ne emot ions about vi rtue, al l t hei r generous
abhorrence oI selIishness and sensual ity, melt away li ke a morni ng cloud.
For the ti me, t heir emot ions and sent i ment s are si ncere and real . Men may
be real ly, in a certai n way, interest ed in Masonry, while Iat ally deIi cient i n
virtue. It is not always hypocrisy. Men pray most Iervently and sincerely,
and yet are const ant ly gui lty oI act s so bad and base, so ungenerous and
unri ght eous, that t he cri mes that crowd the dockets oI our court s are
scarcely worse.
A man may be a good sort oI man in general , and yet a very bad man in
parti cul ar: good in the Lodge and bad in the worl d; good in publ ic, and
bad i n his Iami ly; good at home, and bad on a journey or i n a strange ci ty.
Many a man earnestly desires to be a good Mason. He says so, and is
si ncere. But i I you require hi m to resi st a cert ain passi on, to sacri Iice a
certai n i ndulgence, t o control his appeti te at a particular Ieast, or to keep
his t emper in a di sput e, you wi l l Ii nd that he does not wish to be a good
Mason, i n that part icul ar case; or, wi shi ng, is not abl e t o resist hi s worst
i mpulses.
The dut i es oI li Ie are more than l iIe. The l aw i mposeth it upon every
ci ti zen, t hat he preIer t he urgent servi ce oI his count ry beIore the saIety oI
his l iIe. II a man be commanded, sai t h a great writ er, t o bri ng ordnance or
muni ti on t o reli eve any oI t he King' s towns t hat are di stressed, t hen he
cannot Ior any danger oI tempest j usti Iy the t hrowing oI t hem overboard;
Ior there it holdet h which was spoken by the Roman, when t he same
necessi ty oI weat her was all eged t o hol d hi m Irom embarki ng: "Necesse
est ut eam, non ut vi vam :" it needs t hat I go: it i s not necessary I shoul d
l ive.
How ungrat eIully he sli nks away, who di es, and does not hi ng t o reIl ect a
gl ory t o Heaven ! How barren a t ree he i s, who l ives, and spreads, and
cumbers t he ground, yet leaves not one seed, not one good work t o
generate anot her aIt er hi m ! Al l cannot l eave al ike; yet al l may leave
somethi ng, answeri ng t heir proporti ons and thei r ki nds. Those are dead
and wi thered grai ns oI corn, out oI which there wi ll not one ear spri ng. He
wi ll hardly Iind the way t o Heaven, who desires t o go t hit her al one.
Industry i s never whol ly unIruit Iul. II it bri ng not joy wi th the i ncoming
proIit , it wi l l yet banish mi schieI Irom thy busied gates. There is a ki nd oI
good angel wai t ing upon Dil igence that ever carri es a l aurel i n hi s hand to
crown her. How unworthy was t hat man oI t he worl d who never di d aught ,
but only l i ved and di ed! That we have li berty to do anyt hi ng, we should
account it a giIt Irom the Iavouring Heavens; t hat we have mi nds
someti mes incli ning us to use t hat l iberty well , is a great bounty oI the
Dei ty.
Masonry i s act ion, and not i nertness. It requires it s Initi ates to WORK,
act ively and earnestly, Ior t he beneIi t oI their bret hren, t heir count ry, and
manki nd. It is the patron oI t he oppressed, as it i s t he comIort er and
consol er oI the unIortunate and wret ched. It seems t o i t a wort hier honour
t o be t he i nstrument oI advancement and reIorm, than t o enjoy all t hat
rank and oIIi ce and loIty t it l es can best ow. It i s t he advocate oI t he
common people i n those things whi ch concern t he best i nt erest s oI
manki nd. It hates insolent power and i mpudent usurpat i on. It pi ties the
poor, the sorrowing, t he disconsol at e; it endeavours to rai se and i mprove
t he i gnorant , the sunken, and t he degraded.
It s Ii del ity t o i t s mi ssi on wi ll be accurat ely evi denced, by the extent oI the
eIIort s i t empl oys, and the means it set s on Ioot , t o i mprove the peopl e at
l arge and to bett er their condit i on; chi eIest oI which, wi thin i ts reach, is
t o ai d in the educat ion oI t he chil dren oI the poor. An i ntel li gent peopl e,
i nIormed oI it s rights, wil l soon come t o know it s power, and cannot l ong
be oppressed; but iI t here be not a sound and virt uous popul ace, t he
el aborate ornaments at t he t op oI the pyrami d oI soci ety wil l be a
wretched compensati on Ior t he want oI sol i dity at the base. It i s never saIe
Ior a nati on to repose on t he l ap oI ignorance: and i I there ever was a ti me
when publ ic tranquil li ty was i nsured by t he absence oI knowl edge, that
season is past. Unthi nki ng stupi dity cannot sl eep, wit hout bei ng appal led
by phantoms and shaken by terrors. The i mprovement oI t he mass oI t he
peopl e is the grand securi ty Ior popul ar li berty; i n the neglect oI which,
t he pol it eness, reIi nement , and knowl edge accumul ated in t he hi gher
orders and weal thi er classes wi ll some day perish l ike dry grass in the hot
Iire oI popular Iury.
It is not t he mi ssi on oI Masonry t o engage in pl ot s and conspiracies
agai nst the civil government . It i s not t he Ianat ical propagandi st oI any
creed or t heory; nor does it proclai m it selI t he enemy oI ki ngs. It i s the
apost l e oI l iberty, equali ty, and Iraternity; but it i s no more t he high-priest
oI republ i cani sm than oI consti tuti onal monarchy. It contract s no
entangl ing all i ances wi th any sect oI t heori st s, dreamers, or phil osophers.
It does not know those as i ts Init iat es who assail t he ci vi l order and all
l awIul authority, at the same t i me that t hey propose to deprive the dying oI
t he consol at i ons oI rel igi on. It sit s apart Irom all sect s and creeds, i n i ts
own cal m and si mple dignity, t he same under every government . It i s sti l l
t hat whi ch it was i n t he cradl e oI t he human race, when no human Ioot had
t rodden the soi l oI Assyria and Egypt , and no col onies had crossed the
Hi mal ayas i nt o Southern Indi a, Medi a, or Et ruri a.
It gives no countenance t o anarchy and li centi ousness; and no il lusi on oI
gl ory, or extravagant emulat ion oI the ancients inIl ames i t wit h an
unnat ural t hi rst Ior ideal and Utopi an li berty. It t eaches t hat in rect it ude oI
l iIe and sobri ety oI habi ts i s the only sure guarant ee Ior the cont i nuance oI
poli t ical Ireedom, and it is chieIly the sol di er oI the sanct ity oI t he l aws
and t he right s oI conscience.
It recognizes it as a trut h, that necessi ty, as wel l as abstract ri ght and ideal
j ust ice, must have i ts part i n t he maki ng oI laws, the administ rat ion oI
aIIai rs, and the regulat ion oI relati ons in society. It sees, i ndeed, t hat
necessi ty rules i n all the aIIai rs oI man. It knows t hat where any man, or
any number or race oI men, are so i mbeci le oI i ntel lect , so degraded, so
i ncapable oI sel I cont rol, so inIeri or i n t he scal e oI humanity, as to be
unIi t to be int rusted wi th the hi ghest prerogat ives oI ci t i zenship, t he great
l aw oI necessi ty, Ior the peace and saIety oI the community and country,
requi res them t o remai n under t he cont rol oI those oI l arger i ntellect and
superi or wi sdom. It t rust s and bel ieves that God wi l l, i n his own good
t i me, work out hi s own great and wi se purposes; and i t is wil li ng t o wai t ,
where i t does not see i ts own way cl ear to some cert ain good.
It hopes and longs Ior t he day when al l t he races oI men, even the lowest,
wi ll be elevated, and become Iit t ed Ior pol it ical Ireedom; when, li ke al l
other evil s that aIIli ct the eart h, pauperi sm, and bondage or abject
dependence, shal l cease and di sappear. But it does not preach revol uti on
t o t hose who are Iond oI ki ngs, nor rebell ion t hat can end only i n disaster
and deIeat , or i n subst it uti ng one tyrant Ior anot her, or a mult i t ude oI
despot s Ior one.
Wherever a people i s Iit t o be Iree and t o govern i tsel I, and generously
st ri ves t o be so, t here go al l it s sympathies. It detests the tyrant , the
l awless oppressor, the mi li tary usurper, and hi m who abuses a l awIul
power. It Irowns upon cruel ty, and a want on disregard oI t he rights oI
humanity. It abhors the selIish empl oyer, and exert s it s i nIluence t o
l ight en the burdens whi ch want and dependence i mpose upon the
workman, and to Ioster t hat humani ty and ki ndness whi ch man owes t o
even t he poorest and most unIort unat e brot her.
It can never be empl oyed, i n any country under Heaven, to teach a
t olerat ion Ior cruel ty, t o weaken moral hatred Ior gui lt , or to deprave and
brut al i ze the human mind. The dread oI puni shment wil l never make a
Mason an accomplice in so corrupt i ng his count rymen, and a t eacher oI
depravity and barbarity. II anywhere, as has heret oIore happened, a tyrant
shoul d send a sat irist on his tyranny to be convi cted and punished as a
l ibell er, i n a court oI justice, a Mason, i I a j uror in such a case, though in
sight oI t he scaIIold streami ng wi th t he blood oI the innocent , and wit hi n
heari ng oI t he cl ash oI the bayonets meant t o overawe the court , woul d
rescue t he i nt repid sati ri st Irom the tyrant ' s Iangs, and send his oIIicers
out Irom t he court wi th deIeat and disgrace.
Even iI al l law and li berty were t rampled under t he Ieet oI Jacobini cal
demagogues or a mil it ary bandit ti , and great cri mes were perpet rat ed wit h
a high hand agai nst all who were deservedly t he objects oI public
venerat ion; iI t he peopl e, overthrowi ng law, roared l ike a sea around the
court s oI j ust ice, and demanded the bl ood oI t hose who, duri ng t he
t emporary Iit oI insanity and drunken deli ri um, had chanced t o become
odious t o it , Ior true words manIully spoken, or unpopular acts bravely
done, the Masoni c j uror, unawed al i ke by t he si ngl e or t he many-headed
tyrant , woul d consult t he dict at es oI duty al one, and stand wi th a nobl e
Iirmness bet ween t he human t igers and their coveted prey.
The Mason woul d much rat her pass hi s li Ie hidden in the recesses oI the
deepest obscurity, Ieedi ng his mi nd even wi th t he vi si ons and i magi nat ions
oI good deeds and nobl e act ions, t han to be placed on t he most splendi d
t hrone oI the universe, t ant al i zed wit h a deni al oI the practi ce oI al l which
can make the great est si t uati on any other than t he greatest curse. And iI he
has been enabl ed t o lend the sl ight est st ep to any great and laudabl e
desi gns; i I he has had any share i n any measure givi ng qui et to privat e
property and t o pri vate consci ence, maki ng lighter t he yoke oI poverty and
dependence, or reli evi ng deservi ng men Irom oppressi on; i I he has aided
i n securi ng t o his countrymen that best possession, peace; iI he has j oi ned
i n reconci li ng the di IIerent sect ions oI his own country t o each ot her, and
t he peopl e t o t he government oI their own creat ing; and in teachi ng the
ci ti zen to look Ior his protect ion t o the laws oI hi s country, and Ior hi s
comIort t o the good-wi ll oI his count rymen; i I he has thus t aken hi s part
wi th t he best oI men in the best oI t heir act ions, he may wel l shut t he
book, even i I he mi ght wi sh to read a page or two more. It is enough Ior
his measure. He has not li ved i n vai n.
Masonry teaches that al l power i s del egated Ior t he good, and not Ior t he
i nj ury oI t he People; and that, when it i s pervert ed Irom t he origi nal
purpose, the compact is broken, and the ri ght ought to be resumed; t hat
resistance t o power usurped is not merely a duty which man owes to
hi msel I and to hi s nei ghbour, but a duty whi ch he owes t o his God, in
asserti ng and mai nt aini ng the rank which He gave hi m in the creat ion.
Thi s pri nciple neit her the rudeness oI ignorance can st iIl e nor t he
enervat ion oI reIinement ext i ngui sh. It makes i t base Ior a man t o suIIer
when he ought to act ; and, t ending to preserve to hi m the origi nal
dest inati ons oI Provi dence, spurns at t he arrogant assumpti ons oI tyrant s
and vindicates the i ndependent quali ty oI t he race oI which we are a part.
The wise and wel l-i nIormed Mason wi ll not Iai l to be the vot ary oI Li berty
and Just i ce. He wi l l be ready to exert hi msel I in their deIence, wherever
t hey exi st. It cannot be a mat ter oI indi IIerence to hi m when, hi s own
l iberty and t hat oI ot her men, wit h whose meri ts and capaci t ies he is
acquai nted, are invol ved in the event oI the struggle to be made; but hi s
at tachment wi ll be to the cause, as t he cause oI man; and not merely to t he
count ry. Wherever t here is a people t hat understands the val ue oI pol it i cal
j ust ice, and is prepared to assert it , that i s hi s count ry; wherever he can
most cont ribute to the di IIusi on oI t hese principles and t he real happiness
oI manki nd, t hat i s hi s country. Nor does he desi re Ior any count ry any
other beneIi t than j ust ice.
The true Mason i dent iIies the honour oI hi s count ry wi th hi s own. Nothi ng
more conduces t o the beauty and gl ory oI one' s country than t he
preservati on against al l enemi es oI i t s civi l and rel igi ous li berty. The
worl d wil l never wi ll ingly l et die the names oI t hose patriots who in her
diIIerent ages have recei ved upon t hei r own breast s t he bl ows ai med by
i nsol ent enemi es at t he bosom oI t hei r country.
But al so i t conduces, and i n no small measure, t o t he beauty and glory oI
one' s count ry, that j ust ice shoul d always be administered there t o all ali ke,
and nei ther deni ed, sold, nor del ayed to any one; that the interest oI the
poor shoul d be looked to, and none starve or be houseless, or clamor i n
vain Ior work; that t he chil d and t he Ieebl e woman should not be
overworked, or even the apprent i ce or slave be st inted oI Iood or
overt asked or mercil essly scourged; and that God' s great laws oI mercy,
humanity, and compassi on should be everywhere enIorced, not only by the
st atutes, but al so by the power oI publ i c opinion. And he who labours,
oIten agai nst reproach and obloquy, and oIt ener against i ndi IIerence and
apat hy, to bring about that Iortunate condit ion oI t hi ngs when t hat great
code oI divi ne law shall be everywhere and punctually obeyed, is no less a
patri ot t han he who bares his bosom t o t he host il e st eel i n the ranks oI his
count ry' s sol diery.
For Iort i t ude is not only seen resplendent on t he Iiel d oI batt le and ami d
t he cl ash oI arms, but he displ ays i ts energy under every di IIiculty and
agai nst every assai l ant. He who wars agai nst cruel ty, oppression, and
hoary abuses, Ii ght s Ior hi s country' s honour, whi ch t hese t hi ngs soi l ; and
her honour is as i mportant as her exist ence. OIt en, indeed, the warIare
agai nst those abuses whi ch disgrace one' s country i s quit e as hazardous
and more di scouraging than t hat against her enemi es in t he Iiel d; and
meri ts equal , i I not greater reward.
For those Greeks and Romans who are the obj ects oI our admi rat i on
employed hardly any other virtue i n t he exti rpat i on oI tyrant s, than t hat
l ove oI li berty, whi ch made t hem prompt in sei zi ng t he sword, and gave
t hem strengt h t o use i t. Wi t h Iacil ity t hey accompli sh t he undertaki ng,
amid the general shout oI prai se and j oy; nor did they engage in the
at tempt so much as an enterprise oI peril ous and doubtIul i ssue, as a
contest t he most glori ous in whi ch virtue could be si gnal i zed; which
i nIall ibly led to present recompense; which bound their brows wit h
wreaths oI laurel , and consigned t hei r memories t o i mmortal Iame.
But he who assail s hoary abuses, regarded perhaps wi th a superst it ious
reverence, and around which ol d laws st and as rampart s and bast i ons to
deIend them; who denounces acts oI cruelty and out rage on humani ty
which make every perpet rat or thereoI his personal enemy, and perhaps
make hi m l ooked upon wit h suspi cion by t he people among whom he li ves,
as t he assai lant oI an est abli shed order oI t hings oI which he assai l s only
t he abuses, and oI laws oI which he att acks only the vi ol ati ons, --he can
scarcely l ook Ior present recompense, nor that his l i vi ng brows wil l be
wreathed wi th laurel . And i I, contending against a dark array oI long-
received opinions, superst i t ions, obl oquy, and Iears, whi ch most men
dread more t han they do an army terrible wi th banners, t he Mason
overcomes, and emerges Irom t he contest vi ct ori ous; or iI he does not
conquer, but is borne down and swept away by t he mighty current oI
prej udi ce, passi on, and i nt erest; i n eit her case, t he l oIti ness oI spiri t
which he displ ays meri ts Ior hi m more than a medi ocri ty oI Iame.
e has already li ved too l ong who has survived the rui n oI his count ry; and
he who can enjoy l i Ie aIt er such an event deserves not t o have l ived at al l.
Nor does he any more deserve to li ve who looks cont ent edly upon abuses
t hat di sgrace, and cruel ti es t hat di shonour, and scenes oI misery and
dest it ut ion and brutal izat ion t hat di sIi gure hi s country; or sordi d meanness
and ignoble revenges t hat make her a by-word and a scoII among all
generous nat ions; and does not endeavour t o remedy or prevent eit her.
Not oIt en is a country at war; nor can every one be al lowed t he pri vi lege
oI oIIering his heart t o the enemy' s bul l ets. But in these pat ri ot ic l abours
oI peace, i n preventi ng, remedyi ng, and reIormi ng evi ls, oppressi ons,
wrongs, cruelt ies, and outrages, every Mason can uni te; and every one can
eIIect somet hing, and share t he honour and glory oI the result .
For the cardinal names i n the hist ory oI the human mi nd are Iew and easily
t o be counted up; but t housands and t ens oI thousands spend t heir days i n
t he preparati ons whi ch are t o speed t he predest ined change, i n gathering
and amassi ng the materi als which are to ki ndle and gi ve l ight and warmt h,
when t he Iire Irom heaven shal l have descended on them. Numberl ess are
t he sutlers and pioneers, the engi neers and art isans, who at tend t he march
oI i nt el l ect . Many move Iorward in det achments, and level t he way over
which the chariot i s t o pass, and cut down the obst acles that woul d i mpede
i ts progress; and these too have t heir reward. II t hey l abour di ligently and
Iait hIully in their cal l ing, not only wil l they enj oy t hat cal m content ment
which di li gence i n t he lowliest t ask never Iai ls to win; not only wil l the
sweat oI t heir brows be sweet, and the sweetener oI the rest that Iol l ows;
but, when t he vict ory i s at last achieved, they wi l l come i n Ior a share i n
t he glory; even as the meanest sol dier who Iought at Marat hon or at Ki ng' s
Mount ain became a sharer in the glory oI those saving days; and wit hi n his
own household circle, t he approbat ion oI which approaches the nearest t o
t hat oI an approvi ng conscience, was looked upon as the represent ati ve oI
al l his brot her-heroes; and coul d tel l such t ales as made the tear gl ist en on
t he cheek oI his wiIe, and |i t up his boy' . s eyes wit h an unwont ed
sparkl ing eagerness. Or, iI he Iel l in the Iight , and his place by t he Iiresi de
and at the table at home was t hereaIter vacant, t hat place was sacred; and
he was oIten t alked oI t here in t he l ong winter evenings; and hi s Iami ly
was deemed Iort unat e i n t he neighbourhood, because it had had a hero in
i t, who had Iallen i n deIence oI hi s country.
Remember t hat l i Ie' s length i s not measured by it s hours and days but by
t hat whi ch we have done t herei n Ior our country and kind. A usel ess li Ie is
short . iI it l ast a cent ury; but t hat oI Alexander was long as t he l iIe oI t he
oak, though he died at thi rty-Ii ve. We may do much in a Iew years, and we
may nothing in a l iIet i me. II we but eat and dri nk and sl eep, and
everyt hi ng go on around us as it pl eases; or i I we l i ve but amass weal th or
gai n oIIice or wear ti tl es, we might as wel l not have l ived at all ; nor have
we any right to expect i mmortal i ty.
Forget not , t hereIore, to what you have devoted yoursel I in this Degree:
deIend weakness against st rengt h, the Iri endl ess against t he great, t he
oppressed agai nst the oppressor ! Be ever vi gi lant and wat chIul oI the
i nterests and honour oI your country! and may the Grand Archi tect oI t he
Universe gi ve you t hat strengt h and wisdom which shal l enabl e you wel l
and Iait hIul ly t o perIorm these high duti es!
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
10º - El u oI the Fi It een, 11º - Elu oI t he Twel ve, 12º - Mast er Archi tect
13º - Royal Arch oI Sol omon, 14º - PerIect Elu
|Elu oI t he FiIteen |
THIS Degree i s devot ed to the same obj ects as those oI t he El u oI Nine;
and al so t o t he cause oI Tolerati on and Liberali ty against Fanati cism and
Persecuti on, poli t i cal and reli gious; and to t hat oI Educat ion, Instructi on,
and Enl ightenment against Error, Barbari sm, and Ignorance. To t hese
object s you have irrevocably and Iorever devoted your hand, your heart,
and your int el lect ; and whenever i n your presence a Chapt er oI this
Degree is opened, you wil l be most sol emnly remi nded oI your vows here
t aken at t he altar.
Tolerat ion, holdi ng that every other man has t he same right t o his opi nion
and Iait h t hat we have t o ours; and l iberal i ty, holdi ng that as no human
being can wi th cert ainty say, i n t he cl ash and conIl ict oI host ile Iai ths and
creeds, what is truth, or that he is surely in possessi on oI it , so every one
shoul d Ieel that i t i s qui t e possi ble that another equal ly honest and si ncere
wi th hi msel I, and yet holdi ng the cont rary opi nion, may hi mselI be i n
possessi on oI t he t ruth, and t hat what ever one Ii rmly and consci ent iously
believes, i s t ruth, t o hi m - these are the mortal enemi es oI t hat Ianaticism
which persecutes Ior opi nion' s sake, and i nit iates crusades agai nst
whatever i t, in i ts i magi nary holi ness, deems to be cont rary t o t he law oI
God or veri ty oI dogma. And educat ion, i nst ructi on, and enl ightenment are
t he most cert ain means by whi ch Ianat ici sm and int ol erance can be
rendered powerless.
No true Mason scoIIs at honest convict i ons and an ardent zeal in the
cause oI what one bel ieves to be trut h and j usti ce. But he
does absolut ely deny t he right oI any man t o assume the prerogat ive oI
Dei ty, and condemn anot her' s Iai t h and opinions as deservi ng to be
puni shed because heret ical . Nor does he approve t he course oI those who
endanger the peace and quiet oI great nati ons, and t he best i nt erest oI
t heir own race by i ndul gi ng i n a chi meri cal and visi onary phi lanthropy - a
l uxury which chieIly consist s in drawing t heir robes around them to avoi d
contact wi th their Iell ows, and proclai mi ng themselves hol ier t han they.
For he knows that such Iol li es are oIten more cal ami t ous t han the ambit ion
oI kings; and t hat int olerance and bi got ry have been inIinit ely greater
curses t o manki nd t han ignorance and error. Bet t er any error t han
persecut ion! Bet ter any opinion t han the thumb-screw, t he rack, and the
st ake! And he knows al so how unspeakably absurd it i s, Ior a creat ure t o
whom hi msel I and everythi ng around hi m are mysteries, to tort ure and
sl ay ot hers, because t hey cannot t hi nk as he does i n regard to t he
proIoundest oI t hose myst eri es, t o underst and which is ut terly beyond t he
comprehensi on oI ei ther t he persecut or or t he persecut ed.
Masonry i s not a rel igion. He who makes oI i t a religious bel ieI, Ial si Ii es
and denat ural izes i t . The Brahmin, the Jew, t he Mahomet an, the Cat hol ic,
t he Protest ant , each proIessi ng his pecul iar religion, sancti oned by the
l aws, by t i me, and by cl i mate, must needs retai n i t , and cannot have two
reli gions; Ior t he social and sacred laws adapt ed to the usages, manners,
and prej udi ces oI parti cul ar count ries, are t he work oI men.
But Masonry teaches, and has preserved i n t hei r puri ty, the cardi nal t enets
oI t he old pri mit ive Iait h, whi ch underli e and are the Ioundati on oI al l
reli gions. Al l t hat ever exi st ed have had a basis oI trut h; and al l have
overl aid t hat trut h wi t h errors. The pri mi ti ve t ruths taught by the
were sooner corrupted, and i ntermi ngl ed and all oyed wit h Iict ions t han
when t aught t o t he Iirst oI our race. Masonry i s the universal moral i ty
which is suit abl e t o t he i nhabit ant s oI every cl i me, to the man oI every
creed. It has taught no doct ri nes, except t hose trut hs t hat tend directly t o
t he wel l-bei ng oI man; and t hose who have attempt ed to direct it t oward
usel ess vengeance, pol it ical ends, and Jesui t ism, have merely pervert ed it
t o purposes Ioreign to i ts pure spiri t and real nat ure.
Manki nd outgrows the sacri Ii ces and the mythologies oI the chi ldhood oI
t he worl d. Yet i t is easy Ior human i ndolence to
l inger near t hese helps, and reIuse to pass Iurther on. So t he
unadventurous Nomad in the Tartarian wil d keeps his Il ock in the same
cl ose-cropped circl e where t hey Ii rst l earned t o browse, while the
progressive man roves ever Iorth "t o Iresh Iiel ds and past ures new."
The latt er is the true Mason; and the best and indeed the only good
Mason i s he who wit h t he power oI busi ness does the work oI li Ie; t he
upri ght mechanic, merchant, or Iarmer, t he man wi t h t he power oI t hought ,
oI j ust ice, or oI l ove, he whose whol e l iIe i s one great act oI perIormance
oI Masonic duty. The nat ural case oI the strength oI a strong man or the
wi sdom oI a wise one, is to do the work oI a st rong man or a wise one.
The natural work oI Masonry i s practi cal li Ie; t he use oI al l t he Iacul ti es
i n
t heir proper spheres, and Ior t heir natural Iuncti on. Love oI Truth, j usti ce,
and generosi ty as att ri butes oI God, must appear in a l iIe marked by t hese
quali ti es; that i s t he only eIIect ual ordinance oI Masonry. A proIessi on oI
one' s convi cti ons, joi ning the Order, assumi ng t he obl igat ions, assi sti ng at
t he ceremonies, are oI the same val ue i n sci ence as i n Masonry; the
natural Iorm oI Masonry i s goodness, morali ty, li ving a t rue, j ust ,
aIIect ionate, sel I-Iai thIul l i Ie, Irom the moti ve oI a good man. It i s loyal
obedi ence t o God' s law.
The good Mason does the good thing whi ch comes in hi s way, and
because it comes i n hi s way; Irom a l ove oI duty, and not merely because
a law, enact ed by man or God, commands his wil l to do it . He i s true t o his
mind, his consci ence, heart , and soul, and Ieels small t empt ati on t o do t o
others what he woul d not wish to recei ve Irom them. He wi ll deny hi mselI
Ior the sake oI hi s brot her near at hand. Hi s desi re att ract s in t he l ine oI
his duty, bot h bei ng i n conj unct ion. Not in vai n does t he poor or t he
oppressed l ook up t o hi m. You Ii nd such men in al l Chri sti an sect s,
Protest ant and Cathol ic, in all t he great rel igi ous part i es oI the civil ized
worl d, among Buddhi st s, Mahometans, and Jews. They are kind Iathers,
generous ci t izens, uni mpeachabl e in t heir business, beauti Iul in their dai ly
l ives. You see their Masonry in their work and in thei r pl ay. It appears i n
al l
t he Iorms oI their act i vi ty, individual, domest ic, social, ecclesiast ical , or
poli t ical . True Masonry wi t hin must be moral i ty wit hout. It must become
eminent moral ity, which is phi lant hropy. The t rue Mason loves not only
kindred and hi s country, but all manki nd; not only
t he good, but also the evi l, among hi s bret hren. He has more goodness
t han the channel s oI hi s dai ly li Ie wil l hol d. It runs over t he banks, to
wat er
and t o Ieed a thousand t hirsty pl ant s. Not cont ent wi th the duty that l i es
al ong his track, he goes out t o seek it ; not only wi ll ing, he has a salient
l ongi ng to do good, t o spread hi s trut h, hi s j usti ce, his generosity, hi s
Masonry over al l the world. Hi s dai ly li Ie i s a proIessi on oI hi s Masonry,
publ ished i n perpet ual good-wi l l to men. He can not be a persecutor.
Not more naturally does t he beaver bui ld or t he mocki ng-bi rd sing hi s own
wi ld, gushing mel ody, t han the true Mason l ives in t his beaut i Iul outward
l iIe. So Irom t he perennial spring swell s Iorth the stream, t o quicken t he
meadow wit h new access oI green, and perIect beauty burst i ng i nt o
bloom. Thus Masonry does t he work it was meant t o do. The Mason does
not sigh and weep, and make gri maces. He l ives right on. II hi s l iIe is, as
whose i s not, marked wi th errors, and wi th si ns, he pl oughs over the
barren spot wit h hi s remorse, sows wit h new seed, and t he old desert
blossoms l ike a rose. He i s not conIined t o set Iorms oI t hought , oI act i on,
or oI Ieel ing. He accepts what his mi nd regards as t rue, what hi s
conscience deci des is right , what hi s heart deems generous and noble;
and al l else he put s Iar Irom hi m. Though t he ancient and t he honorable oI
t he Earth bi d hi m bow down to them, hi s stubborn knees bend only at the
bidding oI hi s manly soul. His Masonry i s hi s Ireedom beIore God, not his
bondage unt o men. Hi s mi nd acts aIt er the uni versal l aw oI the int ell ect,
his conscience accordi ng to t he universal moral l aw, hi s aIIect ions and his
soul aIt er the uni versal l aw oI each, and so he i s strong wi th t he st rengt h
oI God, in t hi s Iour-Iol d way communicat ing wi th Hi m.
The old t heol ogies, t he phil osophi es oI religion oI ancient t i mes, wil l not
suIIice us now. The dut i es oI li Ie are t o be done; we are t o do t hem,
consciously obedient t o t he law oI God, not atheist ical ly, loving only our
sel Ii sh gai n. There are si ns oI trade t o be correct ed. Everywhere moral ity
and phil ant hropy are needed. There are errors to be made way wi th, and
t heir place suppl ied wi th new trut hs, radi ant wi th the glori es oI Heaven.
There are great wrongs and evil s, i n Church and State, in domest ic,
soci al , and publ ic l iIe, to be righted and out grown. Masonry cannot i n our
age Iorsake t he broad way oI li Ie. She must j ourney on in the open st reet ,
appear in the crowded square, and t each men by her deeds, her li Ie more
el oquent than any l ips.
Thi s Degree is chi eIly devoted to TOLERATION; and it inculcat es i n t he
st rongest manner that great l eadi ng i dea oI the Ancient Art, that a bel ieI in
t he one True God, and a moral and virtuous li Ie, consti tut e t he only
reli gious requi si t es needed t o enabl e a man t o be a Mason.
Masonry has ever t he most vi vi d remembrance oI the terri bl e and art iIici al
t orment s t hat were used t o put down new Iorms oI rel igi on or ext i nguish
t he old. It sees wi th the eye oI memory the ruthless extermi nat i on oI all
t he
peopl e oI al l sexes and ages, because i t was t heir misIortune not t o know
t he God oI the Hebrews, or to worshi p Hi m under the wrong name, by the
savage troops oI Moses and Joshua. It sees the t humb-screws and t he
racks, the whi p, the gall ows, and the stake, t he vi ct i ms oI Di ocl eti an and
Al va, the mi serabl e Covenanters, t he Non-ConIormist s, Servetus burned,
and t he unoIIendi ng Quaker hung. It sees Cranmer hol d his arm, now no
l onger erri ng, in the Ilame unt i l t he hand drops oII in the consumi ng heat .
sees t he persecut i ons oI Pet er and Paul, the martyrdom oI St ephen, the
t ri als oI Ignati us, Polycarp, Just in, and Irenæus; and t hen i n turn the
suIIeri ngs oI the wret ched Pagans under the Christ ian Emperors, as oI the
Papi sts in Ireland and under Eli zabet h and the bl oated Henry. The Roman
Virgi n naked beIore the hungry li ons; young Margaret Graham t ied to a
st ake at l ow-water mark, and there leIt t o drown, singi ng hymns t o God
unti l the savage wat ers broke over her head; and al l that i n all ages have
suIIered by hunger and nakedness, peril and pri son, the rack, t he st ake,
and t he sword, - i t sees them al l, and shudders at t he long rol l oI human
at rocit ies. And i t sees also the oppressi on sti ll pract ised i n the name oI
reli gion - men shot in a Chri st i an j ail i n Chri sti an Italy Ior readi ng t he
Chri sti an Bi ble; i n al most every Christ ian Stat e, l aws Iorbiddi ng Ireedom
speech on mat ters relat ing to Chri st ianity; and the gall ows reachi ng i ts
arm over t he pulpi t .
The Ii res oI Moloch i n Syria, t he harsh mut il ati ons in t he name oI Ast art e,
Cybele, Jehovah; t he barbarit ies oI i mperial Pagan Tort urers; t he st il l
grosser torments whi ch Roman-Gothi c Chri sti ans i n Italy and Spai n
heaped on t hei r brot her-men; the Ii endi sh cruel t i es to which Swit zerland,
France, the Net herl ands, Engl and, Scotl and, Ireland, Ameri ca, have been
wi tnesses, are none t oo powerIul to warn man oI t he unspeakable evi ls
which Ioll ow Irom mi stakes and errors in t he matt er oI rel igi on, and
especi ally Irom
i nvest ing the God oI Love wi th t he cruel and vi ndi cti ve passions oI erri ng
humanity, and making bl ood t o have a sweet savor in hi s nostril s, and
groans oI agony to be deli cious t o his ears.
Man never had t he right t o usurp t he unexerci sed prerogati ve oI God, and
condemn and puni sh another Ior his bel i eI. Born i n a Prot estant l and, we
are oI t hat Iai th. II we had opened our eyes to the li ght under the shadows
oI St . Peter' s at Rome, we shoul d have been devout Cat hol ics; born i n t he
Jewish quarter oI Al eppo, we should have cont emned Chri st as an
i mposter; in Constanti nople, we should have cried "Al lah il Al lah, God i s
great and Mahomet i s hi s prophet!" Birth, pl ace, and educati on give us our
Iait h. Few beli eve i n any reli gion because they have exami ned the
evidences oI it s authenti city, and made up a Iormal j udgment , upon
weighi ng t he t esti mony. Not one man in ten t housand knows anythi ng
about t he prooIs oI hi s Iai t h. We bel ieve what we are t aught ; and those are
most Ianat i cal who know least oI t he evidences on which their creed is
based. Facts and t esti mony are not , except in very rare inst ances, the
ground-work oI Iait h. It is an i mperati ve l aw oI God' s Economy,
unyi eldi ng
and i nIlexibl e as Hi mselI, t hat man shal l accept wit hout quest i on t he
oI t hose among whom he is born and reared; t he Iait h so made a part oI
his nature resist s all evi dence to t he contrary; and he wi ll di sbel ieve even
t he evidence oI his own senses, rather t han yiel d up the rel igi ous beli eI
which has grown up i n hi m, Ilesh oI hi s Ilesh and bone oI his bone.
What i s truth t o me i s not t rut h t o another. The same argument s and
evidences that convi nce one mi nd make no i mpressi on on anot her. Thi s
diIIerence i s i n men at t heir birth. No man i s ent it led posit ively to assert
t hat he is right , where ot her men, equal ly int ell igent and equal ly
wel li nIormed,
hold di rect ly the opposi te opi ni on. Each t hi nks it i mpossibl e Ior
t he other ' to be si ncere, and each, as t o t hat , i s equal ly i n error. "What i s
t ruth?" was a proIound quest i on, the most suggesti ve one ever put to man.
Many bel i eIs oI Iormer and present ti mes seem i ncomprehensi ble. They
st art le us wi th a new gli mpse i nto t he human soul, that myst eri ous thi ng
more myst erious the more we note it s worki ngs. Here is a man superior to
myselI i n i nt ell ect and l earning; and yet he sincerely bel ieves what seems
t o me t oo absurd to merit conIut at ion; and I cannot concei ve, and
si ncerely do not bel ieve, that he i s both sane and honest.
And yet he is bot h. Hi s reason i s as perIect as mi ne, and he is as honest as
The Ianci es oI a lunati c are real it i es, to hi m. Our dreams are real it ies
whil e
t hey last; and, in the Past, no more unreal t han what we have act ed i n our
waking hours. No man can say that he hat h as sure possessi on oI the
t ruth as oI a chatt el. When men entert ai n opi nions diametrical ly opposed
t o each ot her, and each i s honest, who shal l decide whi ch hath t he Trut h;
and how can eit her say wi th certai nty that he hat h it ? We know not what is
t he t ruth. That we ourselves bel i eve and Ieel absol ut ely cert ain that our
own beli eI is t rue, i s i n reali ty not t he sl ightest prooI oI the Iact , seem it
never so certai n and i ncapable oI doubt to us. No man is responsible Ior
t he rightness oI hi s Iait h; but only Ior the uprightness oI i t.
ThereIore no man hath or ever had a right to persecute anot her Ior his
belieI; Ior there cannot be two ant agoni st i c right s; and iI one can
persecut e another, because he hi mselI i s sati sIied t hat the bel ieI oI t hat
other i s erroneous, the ot her has, Ior the same reason, equally as certai n
a right to persecute hi m.
The truth comes t o us ti nged and col ored wi th our prej udices and our
preconcepti ons, which are as ol d as ourselves, and strong wit h a di vi ne
Iorce. It comes to us as the i mage oI a rod comes t o us through the water,
bent and dist orted. An argument si nks into and convi nces the mi nd oI one
man, whi le Irom that oI anot her it rebounds li ke a ball oI ivory dropped on
marble. It i s no meri t in a man t o have a part i cul ar Iai th, excel lent and
sound and phi losophi c as it may be, when he i mbibed it wi t h hi s mother' s
mi l k. It i s no more a meri t than hi s prej udi ces and hi s passi ons.
The sincere Mosl em has as much right to persecute us, as we t o
persecut e hi m; and t hereIore Masonry wisely requi res no more t han a
belieI i n One Great Al l-PowerIul Deity, t he Fat her and Preserver oI the
Universe. ThereIore it i s she teaches her vot ari es t hat tolerati on i s one oI
t he chieI duties oI every good Mason, a component part oI that chari ty
wi thout which we are mere holl ow i mages oI t rue Masons, mere soundi ng
brass and t i nkli ng cymbal s.
No evi l hat h so aIIli cted t he worl d as int ol erance oI religious opini on. The
human bei ngs i t has sl ain in various ways, i I once and t oget her brought t o
l iIe, woul d make a nat ion oI peopl e; leIt t o li ve and i ncrease, would have
doubled the popul ati on oI the ci vil ized porti on oI the globe; among whi ch
ci vi li zed porti on it chieIly is t hat rel igi ous wars are waged.
The treasure and the human l abor
t hus lost woul d have made t he earth a garden, in which, but Ior his evil
passi ons, man might now be as happy as i n Eden.
No man t ruly obeys the Masoni c law who merely tolerates those whose
reli gious opi nions are opposed to hi s own. Every man' s opi ni ons are hi s
own pri vate property, and the right s oI al l men to mai ntain each his own
are perIect ly equal . Merely to tolerate, to bear wi th an opposi ng opinion,
i s
t o assume i t to be heret ical ; and assert the ri ght t o persecut e, i I we would;
and cl ai m our tol erat ion oI it as a meri t. The Mason' s creed goes Iurt her
t han that. No man, it hol ds, has any ri ght in any way t o, interIere wi t h the
reli gious bel ieI oI anot her. It hol ds t hat each mat | is absolutely sovereign
as t o his own bel ieI, and t hat bel i eI i s a matter absol utely Ioreign to al l
do not entert ai n the same bel i eI; and t hat, i I there were any right oI
persecut ion at al l, it would i n al l cases be a mut ual right ; because one
party has the same right as the ot her to sit as judge i n his own case; and
God i s t he only magi strate that can right Iul ly deci de between them. To
1hat great judge, Masonry reIers the mat ter; and opening wi de i ts portal s,
i t i nvit es t o ent er there and l ive i n peace and harmony, t he Protest ant, t he
Cat holic, t he Jew, t he Mosl em; every man who wil l lead a truly virt uous
and moral l iIe, love hi s bret hren, si ni st er to t he si ck and di stressed, and
believe i n t he ONE, All PowerIul , All -Wi se, everywhere - Present GOD,
Archi tect , Creator, and Preserver oI al l thi ngs, by whose uni versal l aw oI
Harmony ever rol l s on thi s uni verse, the great , vast, i nIi ni te ci rcle oI
successi ve Deat h and LiIe: - to whose INEFFABLE NAME let all t rue
Masons pay proIoundest homage! Ior whose t housand blessi ngs poured
upon us, let us Ieel t he si ncerest gratit ude, now, henceIort h, and Iorever!
We may well be t olerant oI each other' s creed; Ior in every Iai t h t here are
excel l ent moral precept s. Far i n the Sout h oI Asi a, Zoroaster taught t his
doctri ne: "On commenci ng a journey, t he Fai thIul should turn hi s thoughts
t oward Ormuzd, and conIess hi m, in the puri ty oI hi s heart, to be King oI
t he World; he should l ove hi m, do hi m homage, and serve hi m. He must
be upright and chari table, despi se t he pleasures oI t he body, and avoi d
pri de and haught iness, and vi ce in al l i t s Iorms, and especi ally ' Ialsehood,
one oI t he basest si ns oI whi ch man can be guil ty. He must Iorget i nj uries
and not avenge hi mselI. He must honor the memory oI
his parent s and relat ives. At night , beIore ret iri ng t o sl eep, he shoul d
rigorously examine hi s conscience, and repent oI the Iault s which
weakness or i ll -Iort une had caused hi m to commi t. " He was requi red to
pray Ior st rengt h to persevere in the Good, and to obtai n Iorgiveness Ior
his errors. It was hi s duty to conIess hi s Iault s t o a Magus, or to a l ayman
renowned Ior hi s virtues, or t o the Sun. Fasti ng and macerat ion were
prohi bited; and, on t he contrary, it was hi s duty suitably to nourish the
body and to mai ntain it s vigor, that his soul might be strong to resist the
Genius oI Darkness; that he might more at tent ively read the Di vi ne Word,
and have more courage to perIorm nobl e deeds.
And i n the North oI Europe the Drui ds taught devoti on to Iri ends,
i ndulgence Ior reci procal wrongs, l ove oI deserved prai se, prudence,
humanity, hospi tal i ty, respect Ior ol d age, disregard oI the Iuture,
t emperance, cont empt oI deat h, and a chi valrous deIerence to woman.
Li sten to t hese maxi ms Irom the Hava Maal , or Subl i me Book oI Odi n:
"II t hou hast a Iri end, visi t hi m oIten; the pat h wi ll grow over wi th grass,
and t he t rees soon cover i t , iI t hou dost not constantly wal k upon it . He i s
Iait hIul Iri end, who, having but t wo loaves, gives hi s Iriend one. Be never
Iirst to break wi th t hy Iriend; sorrow wri ngs t he heart oI hi m who has no
one save hi msel I wi th whom to take counsel. There i s no vi rt uous man
who has not some vice, no bad man who has not some vi rtue. Happy he
who obtains the praise and good-wi l l oI men; Ior al l that depends on the
wi ll oI anot her is hazardous and uncertai n. Riches Ili t away in t he
t winkl i ng
oI an eye; they are the most inconstant oI Iriends; Il ocks and herds peri sh,
parent s di e, Iriends are not i mmort al , t hou t hysel I diest ; I know but one
t hi ng t hat doth not die, the judgment that i s passed upon the dead. Be
humane t oward t hose whom t hou meet est on the road. II t he guest t hat
comet h t o t hy house i s a - col d, give hi m Iire; the man who has journeyed
over the mount ains needs Iood and dry garment s. Mock not at t he aged;
Ior words Iul l oI sense come oIt en Irom the wrinkl es oI age. Be
wi se, and not over-prudent . Let no one seek to know his desti ny, iI he
woul d sl eep t ranqui lly. There i s no mal ady more cruel t han to be
discontent ed wi t h our lot . The glut t on eat s hi s own death; and t he wise
man l aughs at the Iool' s greedi ness. Not hi ng i s more injurious t o the
young than excessive drinking;
t he more one drinks t he more he loses hi s reason; the
bird oI Iorget Iul ness si ngs beIore t hose who intoxi cate themsel ves, and
wi les away t heir souls. Man devoid oI sense beli eves he wi l l li ve al ways i I
he avoi ds war; but, iI t he l ances spare hi m, old age wi ll gi ve hi m no
quart er. Bet ter l ive well t han li ve l ong. When a man l ight s a Iire i n his
house, deat h comes beIore i t goes out. "
And t hus said the Indi an books: "Honor t hy Iather and mot her. Never
Iorget the beneIit s t hou hast recei ved. Learn whi l e thou art young. Be
submi ssive to t he l aws oI t hy country. . Seek t he company oI virtuous
men. Speak not oI God but wit h respect . Live on good terms wit h t hy
Iell ow-ci t izens. Remain i n t hy proper pl ace. Speak i ll oI no one. Mock at
t he bodi ly inIi rmit ies oI none. Pursue not unrel ent ingly a conquered
enemy. Stri ve t o acquire a good reputati on. Take counsel wi th wi se men.
The more one l earns, t he more he acquires t he Iacul ty oI learni ng,
Knowl edge i s the most permanent wealt h. As well be dumb as ignorant.
The true use oI knowledge i s to di sti nguish good Irom evil . Be not a
subject oI shame t o thy parents. What one learns i n yout h endures li ke the
engravi ng upon a rock. He is wi se who knows hi mselI. Let t hy books be
t hy best Iri ends. When thou at t ainest an hundred years, cease to learn.
Wisdom i s sol idly pl ant ed, even on the shi It ing ocean. Decei ve no one, not
even t hine enemy. Wi sdom i s a t reasure t hat everywhere commands i ts
value. Speak mi ldly, even t o the poor. It i s sweeter t o Iorgive than t o take
vengeance. Gami ng and quarrels lead t o mi sery. There i s no true meri t
wi thout t he pract ice oI virt ue. To honor our mother is t he most Iit ti ng
homage we can pay t he Divi ni ty. There is no tranquil sleep wi thout a cl ear
conscience. He badly underst ands hi s interest who breaks hi s word."
Twenty-Iour cent uri es ago these were the Chi nese Ethics:
"The Phil osopher |ConIucius| said, ' SAN! my doctrine is si mple, and easy
t o be underst ood. ' THSENG-TSEU replied, ' that i s certai n.' The
Phi l osopher havi ng gone out, the di sciples asked what t hei r master had
meant to say. THSENG--TSEU responded, ' The doct rine oI our Mast er
consi st s sol ely in bei ng upri ght oI heart , and l ovi ng our nei ghbor as we
l ove ourselI. "'
About a cent ury later, t he Hebrew law sai d, "II any man hate hi s neighbor
. . . then shal l ye do unto hi m, as he had thought t o
do unto hi s brot her . . . Bett er is a neighbor t hat is near, than a. brot her
aIar oII . . . Thou shal t love t hy neighbor as t hysel I. "
In t he same Ii It h cent ury beIore Chri st , SOCRATES t he Grecian sai d,
"Thou shalt l ove thy neighbor as thyselI. "
Three generati ons earli er, ZOROASTER had sai d t o t he Persians: "OIIer
up t hy grateIul prayers to t he Lord, the most just and pure Ormuzd, the
supreme and adorabl e God, who thus declared t o his Prophet Zerdusht :
' Hold i t not meet t o do unt o others what thou woul dst not desire done unto
t hysel I; do t hat unt o the people, whi ch, when done t o t hysel I, is not
disagreeabl e unt o t hee. "'
The same doctrine had been long t aught i n t he school s oI Babylon,
Al exandria, and Jerusalem. A Pagan declared t o t he Phari see HILLEL that
he was ready t o embrace t he Jewi sh rel igi on, i I he coul d make known to
hi m in a Iew words a summary oI the whole l aw oI Moses. "That which
t hou l i kest not done t o t hysel I, " sai d Hi l l el, "do i t not unt o t hy neighbor.
Therei n is all t he l aw: the rest i s not hi ng but t he commentary upon it ."
"Not hi ng i s more natural , " said CONFUCIUS, "not hing more si mpl e, t han
t he pri nci ples oI that morali ty whi ch I endeavor, by salutary maxi ms, t o
i ncul cate in you . . . It is humanity; whi ch i s t o say, that uni versal chari ty
among al l oI our species, wi thout di st i nct ion. It i s uprightness ; that i s,
t hat
recti t ude oI spirit and oI heart , which make; one seek Ior truth i n
everyt hi ng, and desire it , wit hout deceivi ng one' s sel I or others. It i s,
Iinally, si nceri ty or good Iait h; whi ch is t o say, that Irankness, t hat
openness oI heart, tempered by sel I-reli ance, whi ch excludes al l Iei nt s
and al l disguisi ng, as much i n speech as i n act i on. "
To di IIuse useIul i nIormat ion, to Iurt her intel lect ual reIi nement , sure
Iorerunner oI moral i mprovement, to hast en t he comi ng oI the great day,
when t he dawn oI general knowl edge shal t , chase away t he l azy, l i ngeri ng
mist s oI i gnorance and error, even Irom t he base oI t he great social
pyramid, i s i ndeed a hi gh cal li ng, in which the most splendid t al ent s and
consummate vi rt ue may wel l press onward, eager to bear a part . From t he
Masonic ranks ought to go Iorth t hose whose genius and not t hei r
ancest ry ennobl e them, to open t o all ranks t he t emple oI science, and by
t heir own example to make t he humblest men emulous t o cli mb steps no
l onger i naccessibl e, and enter t he unIol ded gat es burni ng in the sun.
The highest i nt ell ectual cult ivati on is perIectly compat ible wit h
t he daily cares and toil s oI worki ng-men. A keen rel ish Ior the most
subli me trut hs oI sci ence belongs ali ke to every class oI Manki nd. And, as
phil osophy was taught i n t he sacred groves oI Athens, and under the
Porti co, and in the ol d Templ es oI Egypt and India, so in our Lodges ought
Knowl edge t o be di spensed, t he Sci ences taught , and t he Lect ures
become li ke t he t eachi ngs oI Socrates and Plato, oI Agassiz and Cousin.
Real knowl edge never permit t ed ei t her t urbul ence or unbeli eI; but i ts
progress i s the Iorerunner oI li berali ty and enl i ght ened tol erat ion. Whoso
dreads these may well tremble; Ior he may be wel l assured that t hei r day
i s at length come, and must put t o speedy Il ight t he evil spi ri ts oI tyranny
and persecut i on, which haunted t he l ong night now gone down t he sky.
And i t is to be hoped that the ti me wil l soon arri ve, when, as men wi ll no
l onger suIIer themselves to be led bl indIolded i n i gnorance, so wil l t hey
more yield to the vi le princi pl e oI j udgi ng and t reat ing t heir
Iell owcreatures,
not according to t he i nt ri nsic merit oI t hei r act ions, but
accordi ng t o the accidental and invol untary coi nci dence oI their opini ons.
Whenever we come to treat wit h enti re respect t hose who consci enti ously
diIIer Irom ourselves, the only pract ical eIIect oI a di IIerence wil l be, to
make us enl ighten the ignorance on one side or t he other, Irom which it
spri ngs, by i nstruct ing t hem, iI i t be t hei rs; oursel ves, iI it be our own; t o
t he end t hat the only ki nd oI unani mi ty may be produced which is
desi rable among rat ional bei ngs, - the agreement proceedi ng Irom Iul l
convi cti on aIt er the Ireest discussi on.
The El u oI FiIteen ought thereIore to t ake t he l ead oI his Iel low-ci ti zen,
i n Irivolous amusement s, not i n the degrading pursui ts oI the ambit ious
vulgar; but i n t he truly noble task oI enl ighteni ng the mass oI his
count rymen, and oI leaving hi s own name enci rcl ed, not wit h barbaric
splendor, or att ached to courtly gewgaws, but il lust rat ed by t he honors
most worthy oI our rat ional nat ure; coupl ed wit h t he diIIusion oI
knowl edge, and grateIul ly pronounced by a Iew, at least , whom hi s wi se
beneIi cence has rescued Irom i gnorance and vice.
We say t o hi m, i n t he words oI t he great Roman: "Men in no respect so
nearly approach to t he Dei ty, as when t hey conIer beneIi ts on men. To
serve and do good t o as many as possibl e, - there i s nothing greater i n
your Iort une than t hat you should be able,
and nothing Ii ner i n your nat ure, t han that you shoul d be desi rous t o do
t hi s. " This is t he true mark Ior the ai m oI every man and Mason who eit her
pri zes t he enjoyment oI pure happiness, or set s a right value upon a high
and unsul lied renown. And i I the beneIactors oI mankind, when they rest
Irom thei r noble labors, shal l be permi tt ed to enj oy hereaIter, as an
appropriate reward oI their vi rt ue, the privil ege oI l ooking down upon the
blessings wi th whi ch t hei r exerti ons and chari t ies, and perhaps t heir t oi ls
and suIIeri ngs have cl othed t he scene oI t heir Iormer existence, it wi ll not,
i n a state oI exal t ed purity and wi sdom, be t he Iounders oI mi ghty
dynast i es, the conquerors oI new empi res, the Cæsars, Alexanders, and
Tamerl anes; nor t he mere Kings and Counsell ors, Presi dents and
Senat ors, who have l ived Ior their party chi eIly, and Ior their country only
i nci dent ally, oIten sacri Ii cing t o t hei r own aggrandizement or t hat oI t heir
Iacti on the good oI t hei r Iel low-creat ures; - i t wil l not be they who wi l l be
grati Ii ed by contempl at i ng t he monuments oI their inglori ous Iame; but
t hose wi l l enj oy t hat del ight and march in t hat triumph, who can t race the
remot e eIIect s oI t hei r enl i ght ened benevolence in t he i mproved condi ti on
oI t hei r species, and exult i n t he reIlecti on, t hat the change whi ch t hey at
l ast, perhaps aIter many years, survey, wi th eyes t hat age and sorrow can
make di m no more, - oI Knowledge become Power, - Virt ue sharing that
Empire, - Superst it ion dethroned, and Tyranny exil ed, i s, i I even only i n
some smal l and very sl ight degree, yet st i ll i n some degree, the Irui t,
preci ous i I cost ly, and t hough lat e repai d yet long enduring, oI t hei r own
sel I-deni al and strenuous exert ion, oI their own mi t e oI chari ty and ai d to
educat i on wisely bestowed, and oI the hardshi ps and hazards whi ch t hey
encount ered here bel ow.
Masonry requires oI i ts Init iat es and votari es nothing t hat is
i mpract icabl e.
It does not demand that they shoul d undertake to cli mb to t hose loIty and
subli me peaks oI a theoretical and i magi nary unpract ical vi rtue, hi gh and
cold and remote as the eternal snows t hat wrap t he shoul ders oI
Chi mborazo, and at least as i naccessible as they. It asks that alone t o be
done which i s easy t o be done. It overt asks no one' s st rength, and asks no
one t o go beyond hi s means and capacit ies. It does not expect one whose
business or proIession yields hi m li tt le more t han the want s oI hi msel I and
his Iami ly require, and whose ti me is necessarily occupi ed by hi s daily
vocati ons, t o abandon or neglect the busi ness
by which he and hi s chil dren l ive, and devote hi msel I and his means to the
diIIusi on oI knowledge among men. It does not expect hi m to publ ish
books Ior the people, or t o l ect ure, to the rui n oI his pri vate aIIairs, or to
Iound academies and col leges, bui ld up li brari es, and enti tle hi msel I to
st atues.
But i t does require and expect every man oI us to do somet hing, wi thi n
and accordi ng t o his means; and t here is no Mason who cannot do some
t hi ng, iI not alone, t hen by combi nat ion and associ at ion.
II a Lodge cannot aid in Iounding a school or an academy it can sti ll do
somethi ng. It can educate one boy or girl , at least , the chil d oI some poor
or depart ed brother. And i t should never be Iorgot ten, that i n t he poorest
unregarded chi ld that seems abandoned t o i gnorance and vice may
sl umber the vi rt ues oI a Socrat es, t he i nt ell ect oI a Bacon or a Bossuet ,
t he genius oI a Shakespeare, the capacity t o beneIi t manki nd oI a
Washi ngt on; and t hat i n rescuing hi m Irom t he mi re i n which he i s
plunged, and givi ng hi m t he means oI educat ion and development , the
Lodge t hat does it may be the direct and i mmedi at e means oI conIerri ng
upon the worl d as great a boon as that gi ven it by John Faust t he boy oI
Ment z; may perpet uate the li berti es oI a count ry and change the desti ni es
oI nati ons, and write a new chapter in t he history oI t he worl d.
For we never know t he i mport ance oI the act we do. The daughter oI
Pharaoh li tt le thought what she was doi ng Ior the human race, and the
vast uni magi nabl e consequences t hat depended on her chari t able act,
when she drew t he l it tl e chi ld oI a Hebrew woman Irom among t he rushes
t hat grew along t he bank oI the Ni le, and determi ned to rear i t as i I i t were
her own.
How oIten has an act oI chari ty, costi ng t he doer li tt le, gi ven to the world
great painter, a great musi ci an, a great i nvent or! How oIten has such an
act devel oped t he ragged boy int o the beneIactor oI his race! On what
small and apparent ly uni mportant ci rcumstances have turned and hinged,
t he Iates oI the world' s great conquerors. There is no l aw t hat l i mi ts the
returns that shall be reaped Irom a si ngl e good deed. The wi dow' s mi t e
may not only be as accept abl e to God, but may produce as great resul ts
as t he ri ch man' s cost ly oIIeri ng. The poorest boy, hel ped by benevol ence,
may come t o l ead armi es, to cont rol senates, to deci de an peace and war,
t o dict ate to cabinets; and hi s magniIicent thought s and nobl e words may
be law many years hereaIter t o mil l ions oI men yet unborn.
But t he opport uni ty to eIIect a great good does not oIten occur to any one.
It is worse than Iol ly Ior one t o li e idle and inert, and expect the accident
t o
beIal l hi m, by which hi s inIl uences shall l i ve Iorever. He can expect that
t o
happen, only in consequence oI one or many or al l oI a l ong series oI acts.
He can expect to beneIi t the worl d only as men att ain ot her result s; by
conti nuance, by persi st ence, by a steady and uniIorm habit oI labori ng Ior
t he enlightenment oI the worl d, t o the ext ent oI his means and capaci ty.
For it i s, i n all instances, by steady labor, by gi vi ng enough oI applicati on
t o our work, and havi ng enough oI t i me Ior the doing oI i t, by regul ar
pains-taking, and t he plyi ng oI constant assidui t ies, and not by any
process oI legerdemai n, that we secure the strengt h and t he st apl e oI real
excel l ence. It was thus t hat Demost henes, cl ause aIter clause, and
sent ence aIter sent ence, elaborat ed t o the ut termost his i mmortal orati ons.
It was t hus that Newton pi oneered hi s way, by the steps oI an ascendi ng
geometry, t o the mechanism oI t he Heavens, and Le Verrier added a
planet t o our Solar System.
It is a most erroneous opinion t hat those who have l eIt t he most
st upendous monument s oI i ntellect behind them, were not di IIerently
exerci sed Irom the rest oI t he species, but only di IIerently gi It ed; that they
signali zed themsel ves only by thei r tal ent , and hardly ever by t heir
i ndustry; Ior it is in trut h to the most st renuous applicati on oI those
commonpl ace Iacult ies whi ch are di IIused among all , t hat they are
i ndebted Ior the glories whi ch now encircl e thei r remembrance and t hei r
We must not i magine it t o be a vulgari zing oI geni us, that it shoul d be
l ight ed up in any ot her way t han by a direct inspirat ion Irom Heaven nor
overl ook t he st eadIast ness oI purpose, t he devot ion t o some si ngl e but
great object, the unweariedness oI labor that i s given, not i n convulsi ve
and preternat ural t hroes, but by l it tle and li tt l e as t he st rengt h oI the mi nd
may bear i t; t he accumul at i on oI many small eIIort s, i nstead oI a Iew
and giganti c, but perhaps irregular movements, on the part oI energies
t hat are marvell ous; by which Iormer al one t he great resul ts are brought
out that wri te t hei r enduri ng records on t he Iace oI t he earth and in the
hist ory oI nat ions and oI man.
We must not overl ook these element s, t o which geni us owes the best and
proudest oI her achi evement s; nor i magine that qual it ies so generally
possessed as pati ence and pai ns-taking, and resolut e i ndustry, have no
share i n upholding a di sti nct ion so il l ustrious as t hat oI t he beneIact or oI
his kind.
We must not Iorget t hat great result s are most ordinarily produced by an
aggregat e oI many cont ri but i ons and exerti ons; as i t is the invisi ble
parti cl es oI vapor, each separate and di st i nct Irom the ot her, t hat , ri si ng
Irom the oceans and t heir bays and gul Is, Irom l akes and rivers, and wide
morasses and overIl owed pl ains, Iloat away as cl ouds, and di sti ll upon the
earth in dews, and Ial l in showers and rain and snows upon the broad
plai ns and rude mountains, and make t he great navigable st reams t hat are
t he arteries along whi ch Il ows t he li Ie-blood oI a count ry.
And so Masonry can do much, iI each Mason be content t o do his share,
and i I thei r uni ted eIIort s are directed by wi se counsel s t o a common
purpose. "It is Ior God and Ior Omnipotency t o do mighty things in a
moment ; but by degrees to grow to greatness is t he course that He hat h
l eIt Ior man. "
II Masonry wi ll but be true t o her missi on, and Masons to t heir promises
and obli gati ons - i I, re-entering vigorously upon a career oI beneIi cence,
she and they wi ll but pursue i t earnest ly and unIalt eri ngly, rememberi ng
t hat our contri but i ons t o the cause oI chari ty and educati on then deserve
t he greatest credit when i t costs us somethi ng, t he curt ail ing oI a comIort
or t he rel inqui shment oI a l uxury, to make t hem - iI we wil l but gi ve ai d t o
what were once Masonry' s great schemes Ior human i mprovement, not
Iit Iully and spasmodi cally, but regularly and incessant ly, as t he vapors ri se
and t he spri ngs run, and as t he sun rises and t he st ars come up int o the
heavens, then we may be sure t hat great result s wi ll be att ained and a
great work done. And t hen it wi ll most surely be seen that Masonry is not
eIIet e or i mpotent, nor degenerated nor droopi ng t o a Iatal decay.

|Elu oI t he Twel ve. |
The dut i es oI a Pri nce Ameth are, to be earnest , t rue, reli abl e, and
si ncere; t o protect the people against i ll egal i mposi ti ons and exact i ons; to
contend Ior t heir poli t ical right s, and t o see, as Iar as he may or can, t hat
t hose bear the burdens who reap t he beneIi ts oI the Government .
You are t o be true unt o al l men.
You are t o be Irank and sincere i n all things.
You are t o be earnest i n doi ng what ever i t is your duty to do.
And no man must repent t hat he has rel ied upon your resol ve, your
proIession, or your word.
The great di st i ngui shi ng characterist ic oI a Mason is sympathy wi th hi s
kind. He recognizes in t he human race one great Iamily, al l connect ed
wi th hi msel I by those invi sibl e l inks, and that mighty net-work oI
ci rcumstance, Iorged and woven by God.
Feel ing t hat sympathy, it i s hi s Ii rst Masonic duty to serve hi s Iel low-man.
At his Iirst entrance int o the Order, he ceases to be isol at ed, and
becomes one oI a great brot herhood, assumi ng now dut ies toward every
Mason t hat li ves, as every Mason at t he same moment assumes them
t oward hi m.
Nor are t hose dut ies on his part conIined t o Masons al one. He assumes
many in regard t o hi s country, and especial ly toward t he great, suIIering
masses oI t he common peopl e; Ior t hey too are hi s brethren, and God
hears t hem, i narticulat e as t he moanings oI their mi sery are. By al l proper
means, oI persuasi on and i nIluence, and otherwi se, i I t he occasi on
and emergency require, he i s bound t o deIend t hem against oppressi on,
and tyrannical and i ll egal exact ions.
He labors equal ly to deIend and to i mprove the people. He does not
Ilat t er t hem to mi sl ead t hem, nor Iawn upon them t o rul e t hem, nor
conceal hi s opi ni ons to humor t hem, nor tel l them t hat they can never err,
and t hat their voice i s t he voice oI God. He knows t hat the saIety oI every
Iree government, and it s conti nuance and perpet uity depend upon the
virtue and intel ligence oI t he common people; and that, unless t heir
l iberty
i s oI such a kind as arms can neit her procure nor take away; unl ess it i s
t he Iruit oI manly courage, oI justi ce, t emperance, and generous virtue -
unless, bei ng such, it has t aken deep root in the mi nds and hearts oI the
peopl e at large, there wi l l not long be want ing those who wil l snatch Irom
t hem by treachery what t hey have acquired by arms or inst i tut ions.
He knows t hat iI, aIter being released Irom t he t oi ls oI war, the peopl e
negl ect the art s oI peace; i I thei r peace and l iberty be a stat e oI warIare; iI
war be their only virt ue, and t he summit oI thei r praise, they wi ll soon
peace the most adverse to their i nterests. It wil l be only a more
distressi ng war; and t hat which they i magi ned l iberty wi ll be the worst oI
sl avery. For, unless by t he means oI knowl edge and morali ty, not Irothy
and l oquacious, but genui ne, unadul t erated, and si ncere, they clear t he
hori zon oI the mi nd Irom those mi st s oI error and passion which ari se
i gnorance and vice, they wi ll always have those who will bend thei r necks
t o t he yoke as iI t hey were brutes; who, notwit hstandi ng al l thei r triumphs,
wi ll put them up to the highest bi dder, as iI t hey were mere booty made in
war; and Ii nd an exuberant source oI weal t h and power, in the people' s
i gnorance, prejudi ce, and passions.
The people t hat does not subj ugat e the propensi ty oI t he weal t hy t o
avarice, ambi t ion, and sensual ity, expel luxury Irom t hem and their
Iami l i es, keep down pauperi sm, di IIuse knowledge among the poor, and
l abor t o raise t he abject Irom the mi re oI vice and low i ndulgence, and to
keep t he i ndustrious Irom st arving in sight oI luxuri ous Iest ivals, wil l Ii nd
t hat it has cherished, i n that avarice, ambi t ion, sensual ity, selIi shness,
and l uxury oI t he one cl ass, and t hat degradati on, mi sery, drunkenness,
i gnorance, and brutal i zati on oI the ot her, more st ubborn and i nt ract able
despot s at home t han it ever encount ered in t he Ii el d; and even it s very
bowel s wil l be cont inually t eemi ng wi th t he i nt ol erabl e progeny oI tyrant s.
These are t he Iirst enemi es t o be subdued; t hi s const i tut es t he campaign
oI Peace; these are triumphs, di IIi cul t indeed, but bloodless; and Iar more
honorabl e t han those trophi es whi ch are purchased only by slaughter and
rapi ne; and iI not vict ors i n t hi s service, it i s in vai n to have been
vict ori ous over t he despot ic enemy in t he Iiel d.
For iI any people thi nks that it i s a grander; a more beneIicial , or a wi ser
poli cy, t o invent subt le expedi ent s by st amps and i mpost s, Ior i ncreasing
t he revenue and draining the li Ie-bl ood oI an i mpoveri shed people; t o
mul ti ply i ts naval and mi li tary Iorce; t o ri val in craIt the ambassadors oI
Iorei gn states; t o plot the swall owi ng up oI Ioreign territ ory; to make
t reat i es and al li ances; to rule prostrate states and abject provinces by Iear
and Iorce; t han to administer unpol l uted j ust ice t o the people, to rel ieve
t he condi ti on and rai se t he est at e oI the toi li ng masses, redress t he
i nj ured and succor t he dist ressed and conci li ate the di scontented, and
speedily rest ore t o every one his own; t hen that people i s i nvolved i n a
cl oud oI error, and wi l l t oo lat e perceive, when t he i ll usi on oI these
beneIi ts has vanished, that i n neglect ing these, whi ch it thought inIerior
consi derat ions, i t has only been precipi tat ing i ts own rui n and despair.
UnIort unat ely, every age presents it s own speci al probl em, most diIIicult
and oIten i mpossibl e t o solve; and that which thi s age oIIers, and Iorces
upon the consi derati on oI al l chinki ng men, is t hi s - how, in a populous
and weal t hy country, bl essed wit h Iree insti tut i ons and a const i t ut ional
government , are t he great masses oI t he manual-labor class t o be
enabled to have steady work at Iair wages, to be kept Irom st arvati on, and
t heir chi l dren Irom vice and debauchery, and t o be Iurni shed wit h t hat
degree, not oI mere readi ng and writ i ng, but oI knowl edge, that shal l Ii t
t hem intel li gent ly to do the duties and exerci se the pri vi leges oI Ireemen;
even t o be intrusted wi th t he dangerous right oI suIIrage?
For though we do not know why God, bei ng i nIi ni tely merci Iul as wel l as
wi se, has so ordered it , it seems to be unquesti onably his law, that even
i n ci vi l i zed and Christ ian countries, the large mass oI t he populat ion shal l
be Iort unat e, iI, duri ng thei r whole l iIe, Irom inIancy to ol d age, i n heal t h
and si ckness, they have enough oI the commonest and coarsest Iood to
keep t hemsel ves and t heir
chil dren Irom t he cont inual gnawing oI hunger - enough oI the commonest
and coarsest clot hi ng t o protect t hemsel ves and t heir l i tt le ones Irom
i ndecent exposure and the bi t t er cold; and iI t hey have over thei r heads
t he rudest shel ter.
And He seems t o have enacted thi s l aw - which no human communi ty has
yet Iound t he means to abrogat e - t hat when a count ry becomes
populous, capi tal shall concentrate i n the hands oI a li mi t ed number oI
persons, and l abor become more and more at it s mercy, unti l mere
manual l abor, that oI the weaver and ironworker, and ot her art isans,
eventually ceases t o be worth more than a bare subsi stence, and oIten, i n
great ci ti es and vast extents oI country not even that , and goes or crawls
about i n rags, beggi ng, and st arvi ng Ior want oI work.
Whi l e every ox and horse can Ii nd work, and is worth bei ng Ied, it is not
al ways so wit h man. To be empl oyed, t o have a chance t o work at
anything li ke Iai r wages, becomes the great engrossi ng object oI a man' s
l iIe. The capi tal ist can li ve wi thout employi ng t he l aborer, and discharges
hi m whenever that l abor ceases t o be proIit abl e. At the moment when the
weat her is most i ncl ement , provi sions dearest , and rents highest , he t urns
hi m oII to st arve. II the day-laborer i s taken si ck, hi s wages st op. When
old, he has no pension t o ret ire upon. His chi ldren cannot be sent to
school ; Ior beIore t heir bones are hardened t hey must get to work lest
t hey st arve. The man, st rong and able-bodied, works Ior a shil li ng or two
a day, and t he woman shi veri ng over her l it t l e pan oI coal s, when the
mercury drops Iar bel ow zero, aIt er her hungry chi l dren have wail ed
t hemsel ves to sleep, sews by t he di m li ght oI her lonely candl e, Ior a bare
pit tance, sel l ing her l i Ie t o hi m who bargai ned only Ior the work oI her
Fathers and mothers sl ay t hei r chil dren, to have the buri al -Iees, t hat wi th
t he pri ce oI one chi ld' s l iIe t hey may conti nue li Ie in those t hat survi ve.
Li tt le girls wit h bare Ieet sweep t he street -crossi ngs, when t he winter wi nd
pinches them, and beg pit eously Ior pennies oI those who wear warm
Iurs. Chil dren grow up in squal i d mi sery and brutal i gnorance; want
compel s vi rgin and wiIe t o prost i tut e t hemselves; women starve and
Ireeze, and lean up against the wall s oI workhouses, l ike bundles oI Ioul
rags, al l night long, and night aIter ni ght , when the cold rain Ial ls, and
t here chances to be no room Ior t hem wi t hi n; and hundreds oI Iami l ies are
crowded i nto a si ngl e buil ding, ri Ie wit h horrors and teemi ng
wi th Ioul ai r and pesti lence; where men, women and chil dren huddl e
t oget her
i n t hei r Ii lt h; all ages and al l colors sleepi ng i ndiscri mi nat ely together;
whil e, i n
a great, Iree, Republi can State, in the Iull vigor oI i t s youth and strength,
person in every seventeen is a pauper recei ving charity.
How t o deal wi t h t hi s apparent ly inevit abl e evi l and mort al disease i s by
Iar the
most i mportant oI all social probl ems. What is to be done wit h pauperi sm
over-supply oI l abor? How is the li Ie oI any country t o l ast, when brut al i ty
drunken semi -barbari sm vote, and hold oIIi ces in t heir giIt , and by Ii t
representat ives oI themsel ves control a government ? How, i I not wi sdom
authori ty, but t urbul ence and l ow vi ce are t o exal t to senatorships
miscreant s
reeking wi th t he odors and poll uti on oI t he hell , t he pri ze-ri ng, the
brot hel , and
t he st ock-exchange, where gambli ng i s legal i zed and rascali ty i s laudable?
Masonry wil l do all i n i t s power, by di rect exert ion and cooperat ion, to
i mprove
and i nIorm as wel l as t o protect the people; t o bett er thei r physical
condi ti on,
reli eve t heir mi series, supply their wants, and mi nist er to t heir necessi ti es.
every Mason i n t hi s good work do all t hat may be in hi s power.
For it i s true now, as it al ways was and always wi l l be, t hat t o be Iree i s
t he
same thing as t o be pi ous, t o be wi se, t o be temperate and j ust , t o be
and abst i nent , and t o be magnani mous and brave; and to be the opposit e oI
al l
t hese i s t he same as t o be a slave. And i t usual ly happens, by t he
appoi nt ment , and, as it were, ret ri but ive j ust i ce oI t he Deity, that that
peopl e
which cannot govern t hemselves, and moderat e t heir passions, but crouch
under t he slavery oI t heir l ust s and vices, are del ivered up to the sway oI
t hose
whom they abhor, and made to submit t o an i nvoluntary servi tude.
And i t is also sancti oned by the di ctat es oI j ust ice and by t he consti tut i on
Nat ure, t hat he who, Irom t he i mbecil ity or derangement oI his i nt ell ect, is
i ncapable oI governing hi msel I, shoul d, li ke a minor, be commi t ted to t he
government oI anot her.
Above al l things let us never Iorget that manki nd const it ut es one great
brot herhood; all born t o encount er suIIering and sorrow, and thereIore
t o sympat hi ze wi t h each other.
For no tower oI Pri de was ever yet high enough to li It i ts possessor above
t he
t ri als and Iears and Irail it ies oI humani ty. No human hand ever bui lt t he
wal l,
nor ever shal l, that wil l keep out
aIIl ict ion, pai n, and inIirmi ty. Sickness and sorrow, trouble and deat h, are
dispensati ons that l evel everythi ng. They know none, high nor low. The
chieI want s oI l iIe, t he great and grave necessit ies oI the human soul , give
exempt i on to none. They make al l poor, al l weak. They put suppl i cat i on in
t he mout h oI every human bei ng, as truly as in that oI the meanest
But t he pri nci ple oI mi sery i s not an evi l pri nci ple. We err, and the
consequences teach us wisdom. Al l element s, al l the laws oI things
around us, mi nister to thi s end; and through t he pat hs oI pai nIul error and
mist ake, i t i s the design oI Provi dence to lead us to trut h and happi ness. II
erri ng only taught us to err; iI mi stakes conIirmed us in i mprudence; iI t he
miseries caused by vi ci ous i ndulgence had a nat ural t endency t o make us
more abj ect sl aves oI vice, then suIIeri ng woul d be wholly evil . But, on
t he
contrary, all tends and i s desi gned to produce amendment and
i mprovement. SuIIering is the disci pl ine oI vi rtue; oI t hat which is
i nIi nitely
better t han happiness, and yet embraces i n it selI al l essent ial happi ness.
It nouri shes, invigorat es, and perIect s i t. Virtue i s the prize oI t he
severely-contest ed race and hard-Iought bat tle; and i t is worth all t he
Iati gue and wounds oI t he conIl ict . Man shoul d go Iort h wit h a brave and
st rong heart, t o bat t le wit h cal ami ty. He i s to mast er i t , and not let i t
become his master. He is not t o Iorsake t he post oI trial and oI peri l; but
t o
st and Ii rmly in hi s l ot, unti l the great word oI Providence shal l bi d hi m
or bi d hi m sink. Wi t h resoluti on and courage t he Mason is to do the work
which it i s appointed Ior hi m t o do, looki ng through t he dark cloud oI
human calamity, t o the end that ri ses high and bright beIore hi m. The lot
oI sorrow i s great and subl i me. None suIIer Iorever, nor Ior nought , nor
wi thout purpose. It i s t he ordi nance oI God' s wi sdom, and oI Hi s InIi ni te
Love, t o procure Ior us i nIi nite happiness and glory.
Virt ue i s the t ruest l iberty; nor i s he Iree who stoops to passi ons; nor he i n
bondage who serves a nobl e mast er. Examples are t he best and most
l asti ng l ectures; vi rt ue t he best example. He that hath done good deeds
and set good precedent s, in sinceri ty, i s happy. Ti me shal l not out li ve his
wort h. He l ives truly aIter deat h, whose good deeds are his pil l ars oI
remembrance; and no day but adds some grai ns t o his heap oI glory.
Good works are seeds, that aIter sowi ng ret urn us a conti nual harvest ;
and t he memory oI noble act i ons is more enduri ng than monument s oI
Li Ie is a school . The worl d i s nei t her prison nor peni tent iary, nor a pal ace
oI ease, nor an amphi theat re Ior games and spectacles; but a place oI
i nstruct i on, and di sci pl i ne. LiIe is given Ior moral and spiri tual t rai ni ng;
and t he enti re course oI the great school oI l iIe i s an educat ion Ior vi rt ue,
happi ness, and a Iuture exist ence. The peri ods oI LiIe are it s terms; al l
human condi ti ons, it s Iorms; all human employments, it s lessons. Fami li es
are the pri mary depart ment s oI t hi s moral educati on; t he vari ous circles oI
soci ety, it s advanced stages; Kingdoms and Republi cs, it s universit ies.
Ri ches and Poverty, Gayet ies and Sorrows, Marri ages and Funerals, the
t ies oI li Ie bound or broken, Iit and Iortunate, or unt oward and pai nIul, are
al l lessons. Events are not bli ndly and carel essly Ilung t oget her.
Provi dence does not school one man, and screen another Irom t he Iiery
t ri al oI it s l essons. It has nei ther rich Iavorit es nor poor vict i ms. One
happenet h to all . One end and one design concern and urge al l men.
The prosperous man has been at school. Perhaps he has t hought that i t
was a great t hi ng, and he a great personage; but he has been merely a
pupi l. He t hought , perhaps, t hat he was Master, and had not hi ng t o do,
but to di rect and command; but t here was ever a Mast er above hi m, t he
Master oI LiIe. He looks not at our splendid stat e, or our many
pretensions, nor at the ai ds and appli ances oI our learni ng; but at our
l earning i t selI. He put s t he poor and t he rich upon the same Iorm; and
knows no di IIerence between t hem, but their progress.
II Irom prosperity we have learned moderat ion, temperance, candor,
modesty, grati t ude t o God, and generosity t o man, then we are ent i tl ed to
be honored and rewarded. II we have l earned sel Ii shness, selIindul gence,
wrong-doing, and vi ce, to Iorget and overl ook our less
Iortunate brother, and t o scoII at the providence oI God, then we are
unworthy and dishonored, though we have been nursed in aIIl uence, or
t aken our degrees Irom t he l ineage oI an hundred nobl e descent s; as truly
so, i n t he eye oI Heaven, and oI al l ri ght -t hi nki ng men, as t hough we lay,
vict i ms oI beggary and di sease, i n the hospi tal, by the hedge, or on t he
dung-hi ll . The most ordi nary human equity l ooks not at the school, but at
t he schol ar; and the equi ty oI Heaven wi l l not look beneat h t hat mark.
The poor man also is at school . Let hi m take care that he
l earn, rat her t han compl ai n. Let hi m hol d t o hi s int egri ty, hi s candor, and
his kindness oI heart . Let hi m beware oI envy, and oI bondage, and keep
his sel I-respect . The body' s toil is not hi ng. Let hi m beware oI the mi nd' s
drudgery and degradati on. Whil e he bet ters hi s condit ion i I he can, l et
hi m be more anxi ous to bet ter hi s soul . Let hi m be wi ll ing, whil e poor,
even i I always poor, t o l earn poverty' s great lessons, Iorti t ude,
cheerIulness, content ment, and i mpl ici t conIi dence i n God' s Provi dence.
Wi t h these, and pat i ence, cal mness, selI-command, di sinterest edness,
and aIIect ionate ki ndness, t he humble dwell ing may be hal l owed, and
made more dear and noble than t he l oIti est palace. Let hi m, above all
t hi ngs, see that he lose not his independence. Let hi m not cast hi msel I, a
creature poorer than t he poor, an i ndolent, hel pless, despi sed beggar, oIt
t he kindness oI ot hers. Every man should choose t o have God Ior his
Master, rather t han man; and escape not Irom t hi s school, ei ther by
dishonesty or al ms-taki ng, lest he Ial l int o that st ate, worse t han disgrace,
where he can have no respect Ior hi msel I.
The ti es oI Society teach us t o l ove one anot her. That is a mi serabl e
soci ety, where t he absence oI aIIect ionate kindness is sought t o be
suppl ied by puncti li ous decorum, graceIul urbanity, and poli shed
i nsi nceri ty; where ambi ti on, j eal ousy, and di strust rule, i n place oI
si mpl icity, conIi dence, and ki ndness.
So, too, the soci al st ate teaches modesty and gentl eness; and Irom
negl ect, and notice unworthi ly best owed on ot hers, and i njust i ce, and t he
worl d' s Iai lure t o appreci ate us, we learn pati ence and quiet ness, to be
superi or t o soci ety' s opini on, not cyni cal and bit t er, but gentl e, candid,
and aIIect ionate sti ll .
Deat h i s t he great Teacher, st ern, cold, i nexorable, irresi sti bl e; whom t he
collect ed might oI the worl d cannot stay or ward oII. The breat h, t hat
parti ng Irom the l ips oI Ki ng or beggar, scarcely st irs t he hushed air,
cannot be bought, or brought back Ior a moment , wit h the wealt h oI
Empires. What a l esson is thi s, teachi ng our Irail ty and Ieebl eness, and
an InIi ni te Power beyond us! It i s a IearIul lesson, that never becomes
Iami l i ar. It wal ks t hrough t he earth in dread mystery, and l ays i t hands
upon all . It i s a uni versal lesson, that i s read everywhere and by all men.
It s message comes every year and every day. The past years are
crowded wi th it s sad and solemn mementoes; and death' s Ii nger t races i ts
handwrit i ng upon the wall s oI every human habi tat ion.
It teaches us Duty; t o act our part well ; t o Iul Ii l l the work assigned us.
When one i s dying, and aIter he is dead, there i s but one questi on: Has
he li ved well ? There i s no evi l in deat h but that which li Ie makes.
There are hard l essons in the school oI God' s Provi dence; and yet the
school oI l iIe i s careIul ly adjusted, i n al l i t s arrangements and tasks, to
man' s powers and passi ons. There is no ext ravagance in i ts teachi ngs;
nor i s anyt hing done Ior ' t he sake oI present eIIect. The whol e course oI
human l iIe is a conIl ict wi th di IIicult ies; and, i I right ly conducted, a
progress i n i mprovement. It i s never too late Ior man t o l earn. Not part
only, but t he whol e, oI li Ie is a school . There never comes a t i me, even
amidst t he decays oI age, when it i s Ii t to lay asi de t he eagerness oI
acquisi ti on, or t he cheerIul ness oI endeavor. Man wal ks, al l through t he
course oI li Ie, in pat ience and striIe, and somet i mes i n darkness; Ior, Irom
patience i s to come perIect ion; Irom st ri Ie, triumph i s t o i ssue; Irom t he
cl oud oI darkness the l ight ni ng i s t o Ilash that shall open t he way t o
et ernity.
Let t he Mason be Iait hIul i n t he school oI l iIe, and to all i ts l essons! Let
hi m not learn not hing, nor care not whet her he learns or not. Let not t he
years pass over hi m, wi tnesses oI only his sl ot h and indiIIerence; or see
hi m zeal ous to acqui re everythi ng but vi rtue. Nor l et hi m l abor only Ior
hi msel I; nor Iorget t hat t he humblest man t hat li ves i s hi s brot her, and
hath a clai m on hi s sympathies and kind oIIices; and that beneat h t he
rough garment s which labor wears may beat heart s as nobl e as t hrob
under t he stars oI pri nces.
God, who count s by souls, not st at ions,
Loves and pi ti es you and me;
For to Hi m al l vai n dist inct ions
Are as pebbl es on t he sea.
Nor are t he other dut ies i ncul cated i n t hi s Degree oI less i mportance.
Trut h, a Mason is early t old, i s a Divi ne att ri but e and t he Ioundat ion oI
every virtue; and Irankness, rel i abi l ity, si nceri ty, straight Iorwardness,
plai n-deali ng, are but di IIerent modes i n which Trut h devel ops i t sel I. The
dead, t he absent , t he i nnocent , and t hose t hat t rust hi m, no Mason wil l
decei ve wil li ngly. To all t hese he owes a nobler justi ce, i n that t hey are
t he most cert ain t ri al s oI human Equi ty. Only the most abandoned oI men,
sai d Ci cero, wil l deceive hi m, who would have remai ned uni njured iI he
had not
t rust ed. All t he nobl e deeds that have beat thei r marches t hrough
succeeding ages have proceeded Irom men oI t ruth and genui ne courage.
The man who is always true i s both vi rt uous and wi se; and t hus possesses
t he greatest guards oI saIety: Ior t he l aw has not power to stri ke t he
virtuous; nor can Iort une subvert t he wi se.
The bases oI Masonry bei ng moral ity and virtue, i t is by st udying one and
pract ising t he other, that the conduct oI a Mason becomes i rreproachabl e.
The good oI Humani ty bei ng i t s pri nci pal object , disinterestedness is one
t he Iirst vi rt ues t hat it requi res oI it s members; Ior that i s t he source oI
j ust ice and beneIi cence.
To pi ty the mi sIort unes oI ot hers; t o be humble, but wi thout meanness; t o
be proud, but wit hout arrogance; t o abjure every senti ment oI hatred and
revenge; t o show hi mselI magnani mous and li beral, wi thout ost entati on
wi thout proIusi on; t o be t he enemy oI vice; t o pay homage to wisdom and
virtue; t o respect innocence; t o be constant and pat i ent in adversi ty, and
modest i n prosperi ty; t o avoi d every irregul ari ty that stai ns t he soul and
distempers t he body - it is by Iol l owi ng t hese precept s that a Mason wi l l
become a good ci ti zen, a Iait hIul husband, a t ender Iather, an obedi ent
and a t rue brot her; wil l honor Iriendshi p, and IulIil l wit h ardor t he dut ies
which vi rt ue and t he social rel ati ons i mpose upon hi m.
It is because Masonry i mposes upon us these duties that it is properly and
signiIicantly styled work; and he who i magines that he becomes a Mason
merely t aking t he Ii rst two or t hree Degrees, and that he may, havi ng
l eisurely stepped upon t hat smal l elevat ion, thenceIorward worthi ly wear
t he honors oI Masonry, wi thout l abor or exerti on, or sel I-deni al or
and t hat there i s nothing to be done in Masonry, is st rangely decei ved.
Is i t true t hat nothi ng remains to be done in Masonry?
Does one Brot her no l onger proceed by law agai nst another Brother oI his
Lodge, i n regard t o mat t ers that could be easi ly sett led wi thi n the Masoni c
Iami ly circl e?
Has the duel , that hi deous herit age oI barbari sm, interdict ed among
Bret hren by our Iundamental l aws, and denounced by t he munici pal code,
yet disappeared Irom the soi l we i nhabi t ? Do Masons oI high rank
reli giously reIrai n Irom it ; or do they not,
bowi ng t o a corrupt public opini on, submi t to i ts arbi trament , despi te the
scandal which i t occasi ons t o t he Order, and in vi ol at i on oI the Ieeble
restraint oI thei r oat h?
Do Masons no longer Iorm unchari t abl e opi ni ons oI their Bret hren, enter
harsh judgments agai nst them, and judge t hemsel ves by one rule and thei r
Bret hren by another?
Has Masonry any well -regul ated system oI charity? Has it done t hat whi ch
i t
shoul d have done Ior t he cause oI educat ion? Where are it s schools, it s
academies, it s col leges, it s hospi tal s, and i nIirmari es?
Are poli t i cal cont roversi es now conducted wit h no violence and
bit terness?
Do Masons reIrai n Irom deIaming and denouncing their Bret hren who
wi th t hem in rel igi ous or poli t i cal opi ni ons?
What grand soci al probl ems or useIul project s engage our att ent ion at our
communi cati ons? Where in our Lodges are l ectures habit ual ly deli vered
t he real inst ruct i on oI t he Bret hren? Do not our sessions pass in the
discussi on oI mi nor matt ers oI busi ness, the sett lement oI point s oI order
and questi ons oI mere administ rat i on, and t he admi ssi on and advancement
oI Candi dates, whom aIt er thei r admi ssion we take no pai ns t o inst ruct ?
In what Lodge are our ceremoni es expl ained and el uci dated; corrupt ed as
t hey are by t i me, unti l their true Ieat ures can scarcely be di sti ngui shed;
where are t hose great pri mit i ve trut hs oI revel ati on taught , which Masonry
has preserved to t he worl d?
We have high di gni ti es and soundi ng t it les. Do their possessors quali Iy
t hemsel ves to enl ight en t he worl d in respect t o the ai ms and object s oI
Masonry? Descendant s oI t hose Init i at es who governed empires, does your
i nIl uence ent er int o pract ical l iIe and operate eIIi ci ent ly in behalI oI
wel lregulated
and consti tuti onal l i berty?
Your debat es shoul d be but Iriendly conversat i ons. You need concord,
union, and peace. Why then do you retai n among you men who excit e
rival ries and j ealousies; why permi t great and vi olent cont roversy and
ambit ious pret ensi ons' ? Now do your own words and act s agree? II your
Masonry i s a nul li ty, how can you exerci se any i nIluence on ot hers?
Conti nually you prai se each ot her, and ut ter el aborate and high
wrought eul ogies upon t he Order. Everywhere you assume that you are
what you shoul d be, and nowhere do you look upon yoursel ves as you
are. Is i t true t hat al l our acti ons are so many act s oI homage to vi rt ue?
Expl ore the recesses oI your hearts; l et us exami ne oursel ves wit h an
i mpart ial eye, and make answer to our own quest ioning! Can we bear to
oursel ves t he consol ing test i mony t hat we al ways rigi dly perIorm our
duti es; that we even halI perIorm t hem?
Let us away wi t h this odi ous selI-Ilat tery! Let us be men, i I we cannot be
sages! The l aws oI Masonry, above ot hers excel lent, cannot wholly
change men' s nat ures. They enl ighten them, they point out t he t rue way;
but they can lead them i n it , only by repressing the Iire oI t heir passi ons,
and subj ugat i ng t heir sel Ii shness. Alas, these conquer, and Masonry is
Iorgot ten!
AIter prai si ng each ot her all our li ves, there are al ways excell ent
Bret hren,
who, over our coIIi ns, shower unli mi ted eul ogi es. Every one oI us who
dies, however useless his li Ie, has been a model oI all the vi rt ues, a very
chil d oI t he cel esti al li ght . In Egypt, among our ol d Mast ers, where
Masonry was more cul ti vated than vani ty, no one coul d gai n admi ttance t o
t he sacred asylum oI t he t omb unt il he had passed under t he most sol emn
j udgment . A grave t ri bunal sat i n j udgment upon all , even t he kings. They
sai d t o the dead, "Whoever t hou art, give account to thy country oI thy
act ions! What hast t hou done wit h t hy ti me and li Ie? The law int errogat es
t hee, thy country hears t hee, Trut h si t s in judgment on thee!" Princes
came there to be j udged, escorted only by thei r vi rt ues and t heir vi ces. A
publ ic accuser recounted t he hi story oI the dead man' s l iIe, and t hrew t he
blaze oI the torch oI t ruth on all hi s act ions. II i t were adj udged t hat he
had l ed an evi l li Ie, hi s memory was condemned in t he presence oI the
nati on, and hi s body was deni ed the honors oI sepul t ure. What a lesson
t he old Masonry t aught t o the sons oI the people!
Is i t true t hat Masonry i s eIIet e; that t he acaci a, wit hered, aIIords no
shade; that Masonry no longer marches i n t he advance-guard oI Trut h?
No. Is Ireedom yet uni versal ? Have ignorance and prejudice di sappeared
Irom the eart h? Are there no l onger enmit ies among men? Do cupi di ty
and Ialsehood no longer exi st ? Do t olerat ion and harmony prevail among
reli gious and poli ti cal sect s? There are works yet l eIt Ior Masonry t o
accompl i sh, greater than t he twel ve l abors oI Hercul es: to advance ever
resolutely and st eadi ly; to enl ight en the mi nds oI t he peopl e, t o
reconst ruct society, t o reIorm the laws, and t o i mprove t he publ ic moral s.
The eterni ty i n Iront oI i t i s as inIi nit e as the one behi nd. And Masonry
cannot cease to l abor i n t he cause oI soci al progress, wit hout ceasi ng to
be true to it selI, Masonry.

|Master Archi t ect . |
THE great dut ies t hat are inculcat ed by t he l essons taught by t he
workingi nstrument s
oI a Grand Master Archit ect, demanding so much oI us, and
t aki ng Ior granted the capacity to perIorm them Iait hIul ly and Iul ly, bri ng
at once to reIlect upon t he digni ty oI human nat ure, and t he vast powers
and capaci ti es oI t he human soul ; and t o t hat theme we invi te your
at tenti on in this Degree. Let us begi n t o rise Irom eart h toward the St ars.
Evermore t he human soul struggles toward the l ight , toward God, and t he
InIinit e. It is especial ly so i n it s aIIl ict i ons. Words go but a li tt le way i nt o
t he
depths oI sorrow. The thoughts t hat writ he t here in si lence, that go i nt o
t he
st il lness oI InIini tude and Eterni ty, have no embl ems. Thought s enough
come t here, such as no t ongue ever ut tered. They do not so much want
human sympathy, as higher help. There i s a l onel iness in deep sorrow
which the Dei ty alone can rel ieve. Alone, t he mind wrest les wit h t he great
probl em oI cal ami ty, and seeks the sol ut ion Irom the InIi ni te Provi dence
Heaven, and t hus is led di rect ly to God.
There are many t hings in us oI whi ch we are not dist inct ly consci ous. To
waken t hat slumberi ng consciousness i nt o l iIe, and so t o l ead t he soul up
t o t he Light , is one oIIice oI every great mini strat ion t o human nat ure,
whether i ts vehi cle be t he pen, the penci l, or t he t ongue. We are
unconsci ous oI t he i nt ensity and awIul ness oI t he li Ie wit hin us. Healt h
si ckness, joy and sorrow, success and disappoi nt ment , l iIe and deat h,
l ove and loss, are Iami l iar words upon our li ps; and we do not know to
depths they point wit hi n us.
We seem never to know what any t hi ng means or i s wort h unt il we have
l ost it . Many an organ, nerve, and Ii bre in our bodi ly Irame perIorms it s
si lent part Ior years, and we are quite unconsci ous oI i t s val ue. It i s not
unti l it i s i njured that we di scover t hat val ue, and Ii nd how essenti al it
t o our happi ness and comIort . We never know the Iull signiIicance oI t he
words 'property, " "ease, " and "healt h;" t he weal t h oI meaning i n t he Iond
epit hets, "parent , ¨ 'chil d, " "beloved, " and "Iriend, " unt il t he t hi ng or the
person is taken away; unti l , i n place oI the bright , vi si bl e bei ng, comes
t he
awIul and desol ate shadow, where nothing is: where we stret ch out our
hands i n vai n, and st rai n our eyes upon dark and dismal vacui ty. Yet , i n
t hat vacui ty, we do not lose the object that we l oved. It becomes only the
more real t o us. Our blessi ngs not only bri ght en when t hey depart, but are
Ii xed in enduri ng reali ty; and l ove and Iriendshi p receive their everlast ing
seal under the col d i mpress oI death.
A di m consciousness oI i nIini te mystery and grandeur l ies beneath al l t he
commonpl ace oI l i Ie. There is an awIulness and a majesty around us, i n
al l our l it tl e worl dli ness. The rude peasant Irom t he Apenni nes, asl eep at
t he Ioot oI a pi ll ar in a maj est ic Roman church, seems not t o hear or see,
but to, dream only oI the herd he Ieeds or t he ground he t il ls i n the
mountai ns. But t he choral symphonies Iall soIt ly upon his ear, and the
gi lded arches are di mly seen through his halI-sl umbering eyeli ds.
So the soul , however given up to t he occupat ions oI dai ly li Ie, cannot
quit e
l ose t he sense oI where i t is, and oI what i s above i t and around it . The
scene oI it s act ual engagements may be smal l; t he path oI it s st eps,
beat en and Iami l iar; t he obj ects i t handles, easily spanned, and quit e worn
out wit h daily uses. So it may be, and ami dst such things that we all l ive.
So we l ive our l it tl e l i Ie; but Heaven i s above us and all around and close
t o us; and Et ernity i s beIore us and behind us; and suns and st ars are
si lent wit nesses and watchers over us. We are enIol ded by InIi ni ty.
InIinit e
Powers and InIini te spaces l i e all around us. The dread arch oI Myst ery
spreads over us, and no voice ever pierced i t. Eternity is enthroned amid
Heaven' s myri ad starry height s; and no ut t erance or word ever came Irom
t hose Iar-oII and si lent spaces. Above, i s t hat awIul majesty; around us,
everywhere, it stretches oII int o inIi ni ty; and beneath it i s t his l i tt le
st ruggle
oI l i Ie, thi s poor day' s conIl ict , t hi s busy ant -hil l oI Ti me.
But Irom t hat ant -hil l, not only t he t alk oI t he st reet s, t he sounds oI
musi c
and revell ing, t he stir and t read oI a mul ti tude, the shout oI joy and t he
shriek oI agony go up into t he si lent and al l-surroundi ng InIi nit ude; but
al so, amidst the sti r and noi se oI visi ble li Ie, Irom t he i nmost bosom oI
t he
visi ble man, t here goes up an i mpl oring cal l , a beseechi ng cry, an aski ng,
unut tered, and unutt erabl e, Ior revelati on, wail i ngly and in al most
speechless agony praying t he dread arch oI mystery t o break, and t he
st ars t hat roll above the waves oI mortal t roubl e, t o speak; the ent hroned
majesty oI t hose awIul heights t o Ii nd a voi ce; the mysterious and
reserved heavens t o come near; and all t o t ell us what t hey al one know; to
gi ve us inIormati on oI the l oved and lost ; to make known t o us what we
are, and whit her we are goi ng.
Man i s encompassed wit h a dome oI i ncomprehensi ble wonders. In hi m
and about hi m is that which should Ii ll his liIe wit h majesty and
sacredness. Somet hi ng oI subl i mi ty and sanct ity has thus Ilashed down
Irom heaven int o the heart oI every one that l ives. There i s no bei ng so
base and abandoned but hat h some trait s oI t hat sacredness leIt upon
hi m; somet hi ng, so much perhaps i n discordance wi th hi s general reput e,
t hat he hides it Irom all around hi m; some sanct uary i n his soul , where no
one may ent er; some sacred i ncl osure, where the memory oI a chil d i s, or
t he i mage oI a venerat ed parent , or the remembrance oI a pure love, or
t he echo oI some word oI ki ndness once spoken to hi m; an echo that wi l l
never die away.
Li Ie is no negat ive, or superIi cial or worl dly exi st ence. Our steps are
evermore haunted wit h thought s, Iar beyond thei r own range, whi ch some
have regarded as t he remi ni scences oI a preexist ent stat e. So it i s wi th us
al l, in t he beat en and worn t rack oI t his worldly pil gri mage. There is
here, than t he worl d we li ve in. It is not all oI li Ie t o li ve. An unseen and
i nIi nite presence i s here; a sense oI something great er than we possess; a
seeki ng, through all the void wastes oI l i Ie, Ior a good beyond it ; a crying
out oI t he heart Ior i nt erpretati on; a memory oI t he dead, t ouching
conti nually some vi brati ng t hread i n thi s great t issue oI mystery.
We all not only have bet ter i nt i mati ons, but are capable oI bet t er things
t han we know. The pressure oI some great emergency would develop i n
us powers, beyond t he worldly bias oI our spi rit s; and Heaven so deal s
wi th us, Irom t i me t o t i me, as to call Iorth those bett er t hi ngs. There i s
hardly a Iamily i n t he world go sel Ii sh, but t hat , i I one in i t were doomed
t o
die - one, to be sel ect ed by the ot hers, - it would be ut terly i mpossi ble Ior
i ts members, parent s and chi ldren, to choose out that vict i m; but t hat each
woul d say, "I wi ll di e; but I cannot choose. " And in how many, i I t hat di re
extremi ty had come, woul d not one and anot her step Iort h, Ireed Irom the
vile meshes oI ordi nary selIishness, and say, li ke t he Roman Iat her and
son, "Let the bl ow Ial l on me!" There are greater and better t hi ngs i n us
al l,
t han the world t akes account oI, or t han we t ake not e oI; iI we woul d but
Iind t hem out. And it i s one part oI our Masonic cult ure to Iind t hese
t rai ts
oI power and subli me devot ion, to revive these Iaded i mpressi ons oI
generosi ty and selI-sacri Ii ce, the al most squandered bequests oI God' s
l ove and kindness to our souls; and t o i nduce us to yield ourselves to
t heir
guidance and cont rol.
Upon all condit ions oI men presses down one i mpart ial law. To all
si tuati ons, to al l Iortunes, high or l ow, t he mind gives thei r charact er.
are, i n eIIect, not what they are in themselves, but what t hey are t o t he
Ieeli ng oI thei r possessors. The Ki ng may be mean, degraded, miserable;
t he sl ave oI ambi t i on, Iear, vol upt uousness, and every low passion. The
Peasant may be t he real Monarch, the moral mast er oI hi s Iat e, a Iree and
l oIty bei ng, more t han a Pri nce i n happi ness, more t han a Ki ng i n honor.
Man i s no bubble upon t he sea oI hi s Iort unes, hel pl ess and irresponsi ble
upon the t ide oI event s. Out oI t he same circumstances, di IIerent men
bri ng t otally di IIerent result s. The same di IIi cul ty, di stress, poverty, or
misIortune, t hat breaks down one man, buil ds up anot her and makes hi m
st rong. It i s the very at tri bute and glory oI a man, that he can bend the
ci rcumstances oI hi s condi ti on to t he i ntel lect ual and moral purposes oI
nature, and i t is the power and mastery oI his wi l l that chieIly di st i nguish
hi m Irom t he brute.
The Iacul ty oI moral wi ll , devel oped in t he chil d, is a new el ement oI hi s
nature. It i s a new power brought upon the scene, and a ruli ng power,
delegated Irom Heaven. Never was a human bei ng sunk so l ow that he
had not, by God' s gi It , t he power to rise, Because God commands hi m to
ri se, it i s cert ain t hat he can ri se.
Every man has the power, and shoul d use it , to make all si tuati ons, trial s,
and t empt ati ons inst ruments to promote hi s vi rt ue and happi ness; and is
so Iar Irom being the creat ure oI ci rcumst ances, t hat he creates and
control s t hem, making them to be al l that t hey are, oI evi l or oI good, to
hi m as a moral being.
Li Ie is what we make it , and the world i s what we make it . The eyes oI
t he
cheerIul and oI the mel ancholy man are Ii xed upon the same creat i on; but
very diIIerent are the aspect s whi ch it bears to t hem. To the one, i t is al l
beauty and gladness; t he waves oI ocean rol l i n l ight, and t he mountai ns
are covered wit h day. LiIe, to hi m, Ilashes, rej oi cing, upon every Il ower
and every t ree that t rembl es in t he breeze. There i s more t o hi m,
everywhere, than t he eye sees; a presence oI proIound j oy on hi l l and
valley, and bright, danci ng wat er. The other i dly or mournIul ly gazes at
t he
same scene, and everythi ng wears a dul l, di m, and sickly aspect . The
murmuri ng oI t he brooks is a di scord t o hi m, t he great roar oI t he sea has
an angry and threat eni ng emphasi s, t he solemn music oI t he pines sings
t he requiem oI hi s depart ed happi ness; the cheerIul l ight shines gari shly
upon hi s eyes and oIIends hi m. The great train oI the seasons passes
beIore hi m li ke a Iuneral processi on; and he sighs, and t urns i mpat iently
away. The eye makes that which it l ooks upon; t he ear makes it s own
melodies and discords; t he worl d wit hout reIlect s the worl d wi thi n.
Let t he Mason never Iorget that l iIe and t he worl d are what we make them
by our social character; by our adapt ati on, or want oI adaptat ion t o t he
soci al condi t ions, relati onships, and pursui ts oI the worl d. To t he sel Ii sh,
t he cold, and t he i nsensi ble, t o t he haughty and presuming, t o the proud,
who demand more than t hey are l i kely to recei ve, to the jeal ous, ever
aIrai d t hey shall not recei ve enough, t o t hose who are unreasonably
sensi ti ve about t he good or il l opi ni ons oI ot hers, t o all vi olators oI t he
soci al laws, the rude, the vi ol ent , t he dishonest , and t he sensual, - to all
t hese, the social condi ti on, Irom i ts very nat ure, wi ll present annoyances,
disappoint ment s, and pains, appropri at e to their several charact ers. The
benevol ent aIIect ions wi ll not revolve around selIi shness; the col d-
must expect to meet col dness; t he proud, haught i ness; the passi onat e,
anger; and the vi olent, rudeness. Those who Iorget t he rights oI ot hers,
must not be surprised iI t heir own are Iorgot ten; and t hose who st oop to
t he l owest embraces oI sense must not wonder, iI others are not
concerned t o Iind t hei r prostrate honor, and l iIt it up t o the remembrance
and respect oI the world.
To the gent le, many wi ll be gentl e; to t he kind, many wi l l be kind. A good
man wi l l Iind that t here is goodness in t he worl d; an honest man wil l Ii nd
t hat there is honesty i n t he world; and a man oI pri nci pl e wi ll Iind
pri nci ple
and i ntegri ty in the mi nds oI ot hers.
There are no bl essi ngs which t he mind may not convert i nt o t he bit terest
oI evil s; and no trial s whi ch i t may not t ransIorm into the noblest and
divi nest bl essings. There are no tempt at i ons Irom whi ch assai led vi rt ue
may not gain strengt h, inst ead oI Ial li ng beIore t hem, vanqui shed and
subdued. It i s true that t empt ati ons have a great power, and virt ue oIten
Iall s; but t he might oI these temptat ions l ies not i n t hemsel ves, but in the
Ieebleness oI our own virt ue, and the weakness oI our own heart s. We
rely too much on the strengt h oI our ramparts and basti ons, and all ow the
enemy t o make hi s approaches, by trench and paral lel , at hi s lei sure. The
oIIer oI di shonest gai n and guil ty pleasure makes the honest man more
honest , and t he pure man more pure. They raise his vi rtue to t he height oI
t owering indignati on. The Iai r occasion, the saIe opport uni ty, the
t empt ing
chance become t he deIeat and di sgrace oI the tempter. The honest and
upri ght man does not wait unti l tempt at i on has made i ts approaches and
mounted it s batteries on the last parall el.
But t o t he i mpure, t he dishonest , t he Ial se-hearted, t he corrupt , and t he
sensual, occasions come every day, and i n every scene, and t hrough
every avenue oI thought and i magi nat ion. He is prepared to capi tulat e
beIore t he Iirst approach is commenced; and sends out t he whit e Ilag
when t he enemy' s advance comes in sight oI hi s wal ls. He makes
occasi ons; or, i I opportunit ies come not , evil t houghts come, and he
t hrows wide open the gates oI hi s heart and welcomes t hose bad visi tors,
and ent ert ains t hem wi t h a lavish hospit ali ty.
The busi ness oI t he worl d absorbs, corrupts, and degrades one mi nd,
whil e i n another it Ieeds and nurses t he nobl est independence, i nt egri ty,
and generosi ty. Pl easure is a poison t o some, and a heal thIul reIreshment
t o others. To one, the world i s a great harmony, l i ke a nobl e st rai n oI
musi c wit h inIi nit e modulat i ons; to anot her, it i s a huge Iactory, the clash
and cl ang oI whose machi nery jars upon hi s ears and Iret s hi m t o
madness. LiIe i s subst ant i al ly
t he same t hing t o al l who partake oI it s l ot. Yet some ri se to vi rt ue and
gl ory; whi le others, undergoing the same di sci pl i ne, and enj oying t he
same pri vileges, si nk to shame and perdit ion.
Thorough, Iai thIul , and honest endeavor t o i mprove, is always successIul ,
and t he highest happi ness. To sigh senti ment ally over human mi sIort une,
i s Iit only Ior t he mind' s chil dhood; and t he mind' s mi sery i s chieIly it s
Iaul t; appoi nted, under t he good Provi dence oI God, as the puni sher and
correct or oI i ts Iault . In the long run, t he mind wi l l be happy, j ust in
proporti on to it s Iideli ty and wisdom. When it is mi serabl e, it has planted
t he t horns in it s own path; i t grasps them, and cries out i n loud
compl aint; .
and t hat complai nt i s but the louder conIessi on t hat t he t horns which grew
t here, i t planted.
A certai n kind and degree oI spi rit uali ty ent er int o the largest part oI even
t he most ordi nary l iIe. You can carry on no busi ness, wit hout some Iai th
i n
man. You cannot even dig in t he ground, wit hout a reliance on t he unseen
result . You cannot t hink or reason or even st ep, wit hout conIidi ng in the
i nward, spiri tual pri ncipl es oI your nat ure. Al l the aIIect ions and bonds,
hopes and i nt erest s oI l i Ie cent re in the spi ri tual; and you know t hat i I
t hat
cent ral bond were broken, t he worl d woul d rush t o chaos.
Beli eve that t here is a God; that He is our Iat her; that He has a paternal
i nterest in our wel Iare and i mprovement ; t hat He has given us powers, by
means oI which we may escape Irom sin and rui n; that He has dest ined us
t o a Iuture l iIe oI endless progress t oward perIecti on and a knowledge oI
Hi msel I - beli eve t hi s, as every Mason should, and you can li ve cal mly,
endure pat iently, labor resolutely, deny yoursel ves cheerIully, hope
st eadIast ly, and be conquerors i n t he great struggle oI li Ie. Take away any
one oI t hese pri nci ples, and what remai ns Ior us? Say t hat t here i s no
God; or no way opened Ior hope and reIormat i on and t riumph, no heaven
t o come, no rest Ior the weary, no home i n the bosom oI God Ior the
aIIl ict ed and di sconsol ate soul; or that God i s but an ugly bli nd Chance
t hat stabs in t he dark; or a somewhat that i s, when attempt ed to be
deIi ned, a nowhat , emot i onless, passi onl ess, t he Supreme Apat hy t o
which all t hi ngs, good and evil , are al ike indi IIerent; or a jeal ous God
revengeIul ly vi si t s the sins oI t he Iathers on t he chil dren, and when the
Iathers have eaten
sour grapes, sets the chi ldren' s teet h on edge; an arbit rary supreme Wi l l ,
t hat has made it right t o be vi rt uous, and wrong to l ie and st eal, because
IT pleased to make it so rat her than ot herwi se, retai ni ng t he power to
reverse the law; or a Ii ckle, vaci ll ati ng, inconst ant Dei ty, or a cruel,
bloodt hirsty, savage Hebrew or Puri tanic one; and we are but the sport oI
chance and the vi cti ms oI despai r; hapless wanderers upon t he Iace oI a
desol at e, Iorsaken, or accursed and hat ed eart h; surrounded by darkness,
st ruggli ng wi th obst acles, t oil i ng Ior barren resul t s and empty purposes,
distracted wi th doubt s, and mi sl ed by Ial se gleams oI li ght ; wanderers
wi th
no way, no prospect , no home; doomed and deserted mari ners on a dark
and st ormy sea, wi thout compass or course, t o whom no stars appear;
t ossi ng hel ml ess upon the welt ering, angry waves, wi th no bl essed haven
i n t he dist ance whose guiding-star i nvi tes us t o i ts welcome rest .
The rel igi ous Iai th thus t aught by Masonry i s i ndi spensable t o the
at tai nment oI the great ends oI l iIe; and must t hereIore have been
desi gned to be a part oI it . We are made Ior t his Iai t h; and there must be
somethi ng, somewhere, Ior us to bel ieve in. We cannot grow heal thIul ly,
nor l i ve happi ly, wi thout it . It i s t hereIore true. II we coul d cut oII Irom
soul all t he pri nci ples t aught by Masonry, the Iai t h in a God, in
i mmortal i ty,
i n virtue, i n essential recti tude, that soul woul d sink i nt o si n, mi sery,
darkness, and rui n. II we coul d cut oII al l sense oI t hese t ruths, t he man
woul d si nk at once t o the grade oI the ani mal .
No man can suIIer and be pati ent , can struggl e and conquer, can i mprove
and be happy, ot herwise than as t he swi ne are, wit hout consci ence,
wi thout hope, wi thout a reli ance on a just , wise, and beneIicent God. We
must , oI necessi ty, embrace t he great trut hs t aught by Masonry, and l ive
by t hem, t o l ive happily. "I put my t rust i n God, " i s t he protest oI
agai nst the bel ieI in a cruel , angry, and revengeIul God, to be Ieared and
not reverenced by His creat ures.
Soci ety, in it s great relat i ons, is as much t he creati on oI Heaven as is the
syst em oI the Uni verse. II that bond oI gravi tat i on t hat holds al l worlds
syst ems toget her, were suddenly severed, t he uni verse woul d Ily i nt o wi ld
and boundless chaos. And i I we were t o sever al l the moral bonds that
hold soci ety together; iI we coul d cut oII Irom i t every convi cti on oI
Trut h
and Int egri ty, oI an authori ty above i t, and oI a conscience wit hi n it , i t
woul d i mmediately rush to di sorder and Iright Iul anarchy and ruin.
The rel igi on we teach is thereIore as real ly a pri nciple oI thi ngs, and as
certai n and t rue, as gravi tat i on.
Fait h i n moral princi pl es, i n virtue, and i n God, is as necessary Ior the
guidance oI a man, as inst i nct is Ior the guidance oI an ani mal . And
t hereIore t hi s Iai th, as a principl e oI man' s nature, has a mi ssi on as t ruly
authentic in God' s Provi dence, as t he pri nci ple oI insti nct. The pleasures
oI t he soul , t oo, must depend on certai n pri nci ples. They must recogni ze a
soul, i ts propert ies and responsi bil it i es, a conscience, and t he sense oI an
authori ty above us; and t hese are the principl es oI Iait h. No man can
suIIer and be pat ient, can st ruggle and conquer, can i mprove and be
happy, wit hout conscience, wit hout hope, wi thout a reli ance on a just ,
wi se, and beneIi cent God. We must oI necessi ty embrace the great t ruths
t aught by Masonry, and l ive by them, to li ve happily. Everything in the
universe has Ii xed and certai n l aws and pri nciples Ior i ts act ion; - the star
i n
i ts orbi t , the ani mal in it s act ivity, t he physical man i n his Iuncti ons. And
has l i kewi se Ii xed and certai n l aws and pri nciples as a spi ri tual being.
Hi s
soul does not di e Ior want oI al i ment or guidance. For the rat ional soul
t here is ampl e provisi on. From t he l oIty pi ne, rocked i n t he darkening
t empest , t he cry oI the young raven is heard; and it would be most strange
i I t here were no answer Ior t he cry and call oI t he soul , t ortured by want
and sorrow and agony. The total rej ecti on oI all moral and rel igi ous beli eI
woul d st ri ke out a pri nciple Irom human nature, as essent ial to i t as
gravit at ion t o t he st ars, inst i nct to ani mal l iIe, t he circulat ion oI the bl ood
t o
t he human body.
God has ordai ned that l iIe shal l be a social stat e. We are members oI a
ci vi l communi ty. The l iIe oI that communi ty depends upon it s moral
condi ti on. Publ ic spi ri t, intel li gence, uprightness, temperance, kindness,
domest ic purity, wi ll make i t a happy communi ty, and give i t prosperi ty
conti nuance. Wi de-spread selIi shness, dishonesty, i ntemperance,
l ibert ini sm, corrupt i on, and cri me, wil l make it mi serable, and bri ng
dissol ut ion and speedy rui n. A whole people li ves one li Ie; one mighty
heart heaves in i t s bosom; i t is one great pul se oI exist ence that t hrobs
t here. One stream oI li Ie Il ows there, wit h t en t housand intermi ngl ed
branches and channels, through al l the homes oI human l ove. One sound
as oI many waters, a rapturous jubi l ee or a mournIul sighi ng, comes up
t he congregat ed dwel l ings oI a whol e nat i on.
The Publ i c i s no vague abst ract ion; nor shoul d t hat whi ch i s done agai nst
t hat Publ ic, against publ ic interest , law, or virt ue, press but l ightly on t he
conscience. It i s but a vast expansi on oI i ndi vi dual l iIe; an ocean oI t ears,
an at mosphere oI sighs, or a great whole oI joy and gladness. It suIIers
wi th t he suIIeri ng oI mi ll i ons; it rejoi ces wi th the j oy oI mi ll ions. What a
cri me does he commit , - pri vate man or publ ic man, agent or contractor,
l egislator or magi st rat e, secretary or presi dent , -who dares, wi th i ndi gnity
and wrong, t o st ri ke t he bosom oI the Publi c WelIare, to encourage
venali ty and corrupti on, and shameIul sal e oI t he elect i ve Iranchi se, or oI
oIIice; t o sow di ssension, and to weaken the bonds oI ami ty that bi nd a
Nat ion t oget her! What a huge i niqui ty, he who, wit h vices li ke t he
oI a parricide, dares to pi erce that mighty heart , in whi ch t he ocean oI
exist ence i s Ilowing!
What an unequalled i nterest li es i n t he virtue oI every one whom we l ove!
In hi s virt ue, nowhere but i n his virt ue, i s garnered up the i ncomparable
t reasure. What care we Ior brot her or Iri end, compared wi th what we care
Ior hi s honor, hi s Iideli ty, his reputat i on, his ki ndness? How venerable is
t he recti t ude oI a parent! How sacred hi s reput ati on! No blight that can
upon a chi ld, is l ike a parent ' s dishonor. Heat hen or Chri st ian, every
parent would have hi s chi ld do wel l; and pours out upon hi m all t he
Iul l ness oI parental l ove, i n t he one desi re that he may do wel l; t hat he
may be worthy oI his cares, and his Ireely bestowed pai ns; t hat he may
wal k in the way oI honor and happiness. In t hat way he cannot wal k one
st ep wi thout virtue. Such is li Ie, in i ts relat i onshi ps. A thousand ti es
embrace it , l ike t he Iine nerves oI a del icate organi zati on; l ike t he stri ngs
oI an i nstrument capabl e oI sweet melodies, but easi ly put out oI t une or
broken, by rudeness, anger, and selIi sh i ndulgence.
II li Ie coul d, by any process, be made insensi ble t o pain and pl easure; i I
t he human heart were hard as adamant , then avarice, ambi ti on, and
sensuali ty might channel out t heir paths in it , and make i t t heir beat en
way; and none woul d wonder or protest . II we coul d be pat ient under t he
l oad oI a mere worl dly l iIe; iI we coul d bear t hat burden as t he beasts
i t; t hen, li ke beasts, we might bend all our thought s t o t he eart h; and no
cal l Irom the great Heavens above us woul d startl e us Irom our ploddi ng
and earthly course.
But we art not i nsensi bl e brut es, who can reIuse the call oI reason and
conscience. The soul i s capabl e oI remorse. When t he great
dispensati ons oI li Ie press down upon us, we weep, and suIIer and
sorrow. And sorrow and agony desi re other compani onshi ps than
worl dl iness and irrel igi on. We are not wil l ing to bear those burdens oI the
heart , Iear, anxiety, disappoi nt ment , and troubl e, wit hout any obj ect or
use. We are not wi ll ing to suIIer, t o be sick and aIIl ict ed, to have our
and mont hs lost t o comIort and j oy, and overshadowed wi t h calamity and
grieI, wi t hout advant age or compensat ion; t o barter away the dearest
t reasures, the very suIIerings, oI the heart ; to sell t he l iIe-bl ood Irom
Iail i ng
Irame and Iading cheek, our tears oI bi tt erness and groans oI anguish, Ior
nothing. Human nat ure, Irai l, Ieel ing, sensi ti ve, and sorrowi ng, cannot
t o suIIer Ior nought.
Everywhere, human l iIe i s a great and solemn di spensat i on. Man,
suIIeri ng, enj oyi ng, l oving, hat ing, hopi ng, and Iearing, chai ned to t he
earth and yet explori ng t he Iar recesses oI t he uni verse, has the power t o
commune wit h God and His angels. Around thi s great act ion oI exi stence
t he curt ains oI Ti me are drawn; but t here are openi ngs t hrough t hem
which give us gli mpses oI eternity. God looks down upon thi s scene oI
human probati on. The wi se and t he good in all ages have i nterposed Ior it
wi th t heir t eachi ngs and their blood. Everythi ng t hat exist s around us,
every movement i n nat ure every counsel oI Provi dence, every
i nterposit ion oI God, cent res upon one point - t he Iideli ty oI man. And
i I t he ghost s oI t he departed and remembered coul d come at mi dnight
t hrough the barred doors oI our dwell ings, and t he shrouded dead should
gl ide through the aisl es oI our churches and si t i n our Masoni c Templ es,
t heir t eachi ngs would be no more el oquent and i mpressive than t he Great
reali t i es oI l iIe; than t hose memori es oI misspent years, those ghosts oI
depart ed opport unit ies, that , poi nt ing to our conscience and et erni ty cry
conti nually i n our ears, "Work whi le the day l asts! Ior the ni ght oI deat h
comet h, in whi ch no man can work. ¨
There are no tokens oI publi c mourni ng Ior t he calamity oI the soul . Men
weep when the body dies; and when i t is borne t o i ts last rest , they Ioll ow
i t wit h sad and mournIul procession. But
Ior the dying soul t here is no open lamentati on; Ior the l ost soul t here are
no obsequi es.
And yet t he mi nd and soul oI man have a val ue whi ch not hi ng el se has.
They are wort h a care which nothing else is wort h; and to t he si ngle,
soli tary i ndi vi dual , t hey ought to possess an i nterest whi ch not hing else
possesses. The stored treasures oI the heart, the unIat homable mi nes
t hat are in the soul t o be wrought , t he broad and boundless real ms oI
Thought , t he Ireight ed argosy oI man' s hopes and best aIIect i ons, are
brighter t han gol d and dearer than treasure.
And yet t he mi nd is i n reali ty l it tle known or consi dered. It i s all whi ch
permanent ly is, hi s inward bei ng, hi s di vi ne energy, hi s i mmort al t hought ,
his boundless capacity, his i nIini t e aspi rat ion; and nevertheless, Iew
i t Ior what it i s worth. Few see a brother-mi nd in ot hers, t hrough t he rags
wi th which poverty has clothed it , beneat h t he crushing burdens oI li Ie,
amidst t he cl ose pressure oI worldly t roubl es, wants and sorrows. Few
acknowl edge and cheer i t in that humbl e bl ot, and Ieel t hat t he nobi li ty oI
earth, and t he commencing glory oI Heaven are there.
Men do not Ieel the worth oI t heir own souls. They are proud oI their
mental powers; but the i ntri nsic, i nner, inIi nit e wort h oI their own mi nds
t hey do not perceive. The poor man, admit t ed t o a palace, Ieel s, l oIty and
i mmortal bei ng as he i s, l ike a mere ordinary thi ng amid t he splendors
t hat
surround hi m. He sees the carriage oI wealt h rol l by hi m, and Iorgets the
i ntri nsic and eternal dignity oI hi s own mi nd in a poor and degradi ng
and Ieels as an humbl er creat ure, because ot hers are above hi m, not in
mind, but i n mensurati on. Men respect t hemsel ves, according as t hey are
more weal t hy, higher in rank or oIIice, l oIti er i n the world' s opinion, able
t o
command more votes, more the Iavori t es oI the people or oI Power.
The diIIerence among men i s not so much in their nat ure and intrinsi c
power, as in the Iaculty oI communi cat ion. Some have t he capaci ty oI
utteri ng and embodying in words thei r thoughts. All men, more or l ess,
t hose thought s. The gl ory oI geni us and t he rapt ure oI virtue, when
revealed, are di IIused and shared among unnumbered mi nds. When
el oquence and poetry speak; when those gl ori ous art s, st atuary, painti ng,
and music, take audible or vi si bl e shape; when patrioti sm, charity, and
speak wi th a t hril li ng potency, t he hearts oI thousands gl ow wit h a
j oy and ecst asy. II it were not so, t here would be no eloquence; Ior
el oquence i s that t o whi ch ot her heart s respond; it is the Iaculty and
oI maki ng other heart s respond. No one i s so l ow or degraded, as not
someti mes to be touched wi t h the beauty oI goodness. No heart is made
oI material s so common, or even base, as not someti mes to respond,
t hrough every chord oI i t, to t he call oI honor, patrioti sm, generosity, and
virtue. The poor AIri can Slave wi l l die Ior t he master. or mi stress, or in
deIence oI the chi ldren, whom he l oves. The poor, l ost, scorned,
abandoned, out cast woman wi l l , wit hout expectat ion oI reward nurse
t hose who are dyi ng on every hand, ut ter strangers t o her, wi th a
contagi ous and horri d pesti lence. The pickpocket wil l scal e burning wal ls
t o rescue chi l d or woman, unknown t o hi m, Irom the ravenous Ilames.
Most gl orious i s this capacity! A power to commune wit h God and His
Angels; a reIl ecti on oI the Uncreated Light ; a mi rror that can col lect and
concentrate upon it sel I all t he moral splendors oI t he Universe. It i s t he
soul alone t hat gives any value to t he t hi ngs oI t hi s worl d. and it is only
raisi ng t he soul to i t s j ust elevati on above al l other t hi ngs, t hat we can
l ook
rightly upon the purposes oI t his eart h. No sceptre nor throne, nor
st ructure oI ages, nor broad empire, can compare wi th the wonders and
grandeurs oI a single t hought . That al one, oI al l things that have been
made, comprehends t he Maker oI all . That alone is the key whi ch unl ocks
al l the treasures oI the Uni verse; the power t hat rei gns over Space, Ti me,
and Eterni ty. That, under God, i s t he Sovereign Di spenser t o man oI all
t he blessings and gl ori es t hat li e wi t hin the compass oI possession, or the
range oI possi bil ity. Vi rt ue, Heaven, and Immort al ity exist not, nor ever
wi ll
exist Ior us except as they exi st and wi l l exi st, i n t he percept ion, Ieel ing,
and t hought oI t he gl orious mi nd.
My Brot her, i n the hope t hat you have li stened t o and understood the
Inst ruct i on and Lecture oI t hi s Degree, and that you Ieel the di gni ty oI
own nature and t he vast capacit ies oI your own soul Ior good or evi l, I
proceed brieIly to communicat e t o you the remaini ng inst ructi on oI thi s
The Hebrew word, in t he old Hebrew and Samarit an character, suspended
i n t he East , over the Iive col umns, i s ADONAÏ, one oI the names oI God,
usual ly t ranslated Lord; and whi ch the
Hebrews, in readi ng, al ways substi t ute Ior t he True Name, whi ch is Ior
t hem
i neIIabl e.
The Ii ve columns, in t he Iive di IIerent orders oI archi tect ure, are
emblemati cal to
us oI t he Iive pri nci pal divi sions oI the Ancient and Accepted Scot ti sh
Ri te:
1. - The Tuscan, oI t he t hree bl ue Degrees, or the pri mi t ive Masonry.
2. - The Doric, oI the i neIIabl e Degrees, Irom the, Iourth to t he
Iourteent h,
i ncl usive.
3. - The Ionic, oI t he Ii Iteenth and si xteent h, or second temple Degrees.
4. - The Corint hi an, oI t he seventeent h and eight eenth Degrees, or t hose oI
t he
new law.
5. - The Composi te, oI t he phil osophi cal and chivalri c Degrees
i ntermi ngl ed, Irom
t he nineteent h t o the thirty-second, i ncl usive.
The Nort h St ar, al ways Ii xed and i mmutable Ior us, represents t he poi nt in
t he
cent re oI the circl e, or t he Dei ty i n t he centre oI t he Universe. It i s t he
especi al
symbol oI duty and oI Iait h. To it , and t he seven t hat conti nual ly revol ve
around i t ,
myst i cal meani ngs are at tached, which you wi ll learn hereaIter, iI you
shoul d be
permi tt ed to advance, when you are made acquaint ed wit h the
phil osophi cal
doctri nes oI t he Hebrews.
The Morning Star, ri sing in the East, Jupit er, cal l ed by the Hebrews
Tsadõc or
Tsydyk, Just , is an emblem t o us oI t he ever approachi ng dawn oI
perIect ion and
Masonic light .
The three great l ights oI the Lodge are symbols t o us oI t he Power,
Wisdom, and
BeneIi cence oI the Dei ty. They are also symbol s oI t he Iirst three
Sephiroth, or
Emanati ons oI the Dei ty, according to the Kabal ah, Kether, t he omnipotent
divi ne
wi ll ; Chochmah, t he divine intel lect ual power t o generat e thought , and
Bi nah, the
divi ne int el l ect ual capacity t o produce i t - the two latt er, usually
t ranslated
Wisdom and Understandi ng, bei ng t he act ive and the passive, t he posi t i ve
t he negati ve, which we do not yet endeavor to explain to you. They are
t he
columns Jachi n and Boaz, t hat stand at t he ent rance t o t he Masonic
In anot her aspect oI t his Degree, the Chi eI oI the Archi tect s | , Rab
Banai m, |
symbol i zes t he const i tuti onal execut ive head and chieI oI a Iree
government ; and
t he Degree teaches us that no Iree government can l ong endure, when the
peopl e cease
t o sel ect Ior t heir magi st rat es t he best and t he wi sest oI their statesmen;
when, passing these by, they permi t Iact ions or sordi d int erest s t o sel ect
Ior them t he smal l, the l ow, t he i gnoble, and t he obscure, and i nto such
hands commi t t he count ry' s dest ini es. There is, aIter al l , a "di vine right "
t o
govern; and i t is vested in t he ablest , wi sest, best , oI every nat i on.
"Counsel i s mine, and sound wi sdom: I am understanding: I am power: by
me ki ngs do reign, and pri nces decree j usti ce; by me pri nces rule, and
nobl es, even al l the magi strates oI t he eart h. "
For the present, my Brother, let t hi s suIIice. We wel come you among us,
t o t hi s peaceIul ret reat oI virtue, t o a part icipat ion i n our privil eges, t o a
share i n our joys and our sorrows.

WHETHER the legend and hi story oI this Degree are hi st orically true, or
but an al legory, containi ng in it selI a deeper trut h and a proIounder
meani ng, we shal l not now debate. II i t be but a l egendary myth, you must
Iind out Ior yourselI what i t means. It is certai n that t he word whi ch the
Hebrews are not now permi t t ed t o pronounce was in common use by
Abraham, Lot, Isaac, Jacob, Laban, Rebecca, and even among tri bes
Iorei gn to the Hebrews, beIore the ti me oI Moses; and that i t recurs a
hundred ti mes in the lyri cal eIIusions oI David and ot her Hebrew poets.
We know t hat Ior many centuri es t he Hebrews have been Iorbidden to
pronounce the Sacred Name; t hat wherever it occurs, they have Ior ages
read t he word Adonaï inst ead; and t hat under i t, when t he masoreti c
points, whi ch represent the vowel s, came to be used, they placed t hose
which bel onged to t he l att er word. The possessi on oI t he t rue
pronunci ati on was deemed to conIer on hi m who had it ext raordinary and
supernatural powers; and the Word it sel I, worn upon the person, was
regarded as an amulet , a prot ect i on agai nst personal danger, sickness,
and evi l spi ri t s. We know that all this was a vai n supersti t i on, nat ural to a
rude people, necessari ly di sappearing as the i ntel lect oI man became
enlightened; and wholly unwort hy oI a Mason.
It is not iceable t hat t his not ion oI the sancti ty oI t he Di vi ne Name or
Creati ve Word was common to al l the ancient nati ons. The Sacred Word
HOM was supposed by the ancient Persians (who were among the
earli est emigrant s Irom Nort hern India) to
be pregnant wi th a mysterious power; and t hey taught that by it s utterance
t he worl d was creat ed. In India i t was Iorbi dden to pronounce the word
AUM or OM, the Sacred Name oI t he One Deity, maniIested as Brahma,
Vi shna, and Seeva.
These superst it i ous not ions i n regard to t he eIIi cacy oI t he Word, and the
prohi bit ion agai nst pronounci ng i t , coul d, bei ng errors, have Iormed no
part oI t he pure pri mit ive rel igi on, or oI the esot eric doct ri ne taught by
Moses, and the Iull knowl edge oI which was conIined t o t he Init iates;
unless the whole was but an ingenious i nventi on Ior the conceal ment oI
some other Name or t ruth, t he i nt erpretati on and meani ng whereoI was
made known only to the select Iew. II so, t he common noti ons in regard to
t he Word grew up i n t he mi nds oI the people, li ke other errors and Iabl es
among al l the anci ent nat ions, out oI origi nal t ruths and symbol s and
al legories mi sunderst ood. So it has al ways been t hat al legories, intended
as vehicles oI t ruth, t o be understood by t he sages, have become or bred
errors, by bei ng li terally accepted.
It is true, that beIore t he masoretic point s were i nvented (which was aIter
t he beginning oI t he Chri sti an era), the pronunci ati on oI a word in t he
Hebrew language coul d not be known Irom the characters in whi ch it was
writ ten. It was, thereIore, possi bl e Ior that oI the name oI t he Dei ty to
been Iorgot ten and lost . It i s cert ain t hat it s true pronunciat ion i s not that
represented by the word Jehovah; and thereIore that t hat i s not t he true
name oI Deity, nor the IneIIabl e Word.
The ancient symbol s and al legori es always had more t han one
i nterpretat ion. They al ways had a doubl e meani ng, and someti mes more
t han two, one servi ng as t he envel ope oI the ot her. Thus t he pronunciat ion
oI t he word was a symbol ; and t hat pronunci at i on and the word it sel I
l ost , when t he knowl edge oI the true nature and at tri but es oI God Iaded
out oI t he mi nds oI t he Jewi sh people. That i s one int erpretat ion - true,
not the inner and proIoundest one.
Men were Iigurat ively said to Iorget t he name oI God, when t hey lost t hat
knowl edge, and worshipped the heat hen deit ies, and burned incense t o
t hem on the hi gh places, and passed t hei r chil dren t hrough t he Iire t o
Thus the at tempts oI the anci ent Israeli tes and oI the Ini ti at es t o ascertai n
t he True Name oI the Dei ty, and it s pronunciat i on, and the loss oI t he
Word, are an all egory, in whi ch are
represented the general i gnorance oI the true nature and at tributes oI
God, the proneness oI the people oI Judah and Israel to worship other
deit ies, and the low and erroneous and dishonori ng noti ons oI t he Grand
Archi tect oI t he Universe, which al l shared except a Iew Iavored persons;
Ior even Sol omon bui lt alt ars and sacri Iiced t o Astarat, t he goddess oI t he
Tsi dumm, and Malcüm, the Aamünit e god, and buil t hi gh places Ior
Kamüs, the Moabi te dei ty, and Mal ec t he god oI t he Beni -Aamün. The
t rue
nature oI God was unknown t o them, li ke Hi s name; and t hey worshi pped
t he cal ves oI Jeroboam, as in the desert they di d t hat made Ior them by
The mass oI t he Hebrews di d not bel ieve in the exi st ence oI one only God
unti l a l at e peri od in their hi st ory. Their. early and popular i deas oI t he
Dei ty were si ngularly low and unworthy. Even whi le Moses was receivi ng
t he l aw upon Mount Si nai , they Iorced Aarün to make t hem an i mage oI
t he Egyptian god Api s, and Iell down and adored i t. They were ever ready
t o return to t he worship oI t he gods oI t he Mi tzrai m; and soon aIter t he
deat h oI Joshua t hey became devout worshippers oI t he Ialse gods oI all
t he surroundi ng nat ions. "Ye have borne," Amos, t he prophet , sai d t o
t hem, speaking oI t heir Iorty years' journeying in t he desert, under Moses,
"the tabernacl e oI your Malec and Kai ün your idols, the star oI your god,
which ye made t o yourselves. "
Among them, as among ot her nati ons, t he concepti ons oI God Iormed by
i ndi vi dual s vari ed accordi ng t o thei r int el lect ual and spirit ual capaci t i es;
poor and i mperIect , and i nvesti ng God wi th t he commonest and coarest
at tributes oI humani ty, among t he i gnorant and coarse; pure and loIty
among the vi rt uous and ri chly gi It ed. These concepti ons gradually
i mproved and became puri Iied and ennobl ed, as the nat ion advanced i n
ci vi li zati on - bei ng l owest in t he hist orical books, amended i n the
propheti c
writ ings, and reaching t heir highest el evati on among t he poet s.
Among al l t he anci ent nat ions t here was one Iait h and one i dea oI Deity
Ior the enl ightened, i nt ell igent, and educat ed, and anot her Ior the
peopl e. To t his rule t he Hebrews were no except i on. Yehovah, t o the
mass oI t he peopl e, was li ke t he gods oI the nati ons around t hem, except
t hat he was the peculiar God, Ii rst oI t he Iami ly oI Abraham, oI that oI
Isaac, and oI that oI Jacob, and aIt erward the Nati onal God; and, as t hey
believed, more powerIul t han the ot her gods oI t he same nat ure
by t heir nei ghbors - "Who among the Baal i m i s l ike unto thee, O
Yehovah?" - expressed their whole creed.
The Deity oI t he early Hebrews t alked t o Adam and Eve i n t he garden oI
delight, as he walked i n it in t he cool oI the day; he conversed wit h
he sat and ate wi th Abraham in hi s tent; t hat pat ri arch required a vi sible
t oken, beIore he would bel ieve in hi s posi t ive promise; he permit ted
Abraham t o expostul at e wit h hi m, and to induce hi m t o change his Iirst
determinati on in regard to Sodom; he wrest led wit h Jacob; he showed
Moses his person, though not his Iace; he dict ated the mi nutest police
regulat i ons and t he di mensi ons oI the tabernacl e and i ts Iurni ture, to the
Israel it es; he i nsi sted on and deli ght ed i n sacri Iices and burnt-oIIeri ngs;
was angry, jeal ous, and revengeIul, as wel l as wavering and irresol ut e; he
al lowed Moses to reason hi m out oI hi s Ii xed resol uti on ut terly to dest roy
his peopl e; he commanded the perIormance oI t he most shocking and
hideous act s oI cruelty and barbari ty. He hardened the heart oI Pharaoh;
he repented oI t he evil t hat he had sai d he would do unt o the people oI
Ni neveh; and he di d it not, to t he di sgust and anger oI Jonah.
Such were the popul ar not i ons oI t he Deity; and eit her the priest s had
none bett er, or took l i tt le t roubl e t o correct these not ions; or the popul ar
i ntell ect was not enough enl arged to enable t hem t o ent ert ain any higher
concept ions oI t he Al mighty.
But such were not t he ideas oI the intel lect ual and enl ight ened Iew among
t he Hebrews. It is certai n t hat t hey possessed a knowledge oI the true
nature and at tributes oI God; as the same cl ass oI men did among t he
other nati ons - Zoroaster, Menu, ConIucius, Socrates, and Pl ato. But t heir
doctri nes on this subj ect were esoteric; they di d not communi cate t hem t o
t he peopl e at large, but only to a Iavored Iew; and as t hey were
communi cated in Egypt and Indi a, i n Persi a and Phoeni cia, in Greece and
Samothrace, in the great er myst eri es, t o the Init iat es.
The communi cat ion oI t hi s knowledge and ot her secret s, some oI which
are perhaps lost , const it uted, under other names, what we now cal l
Masonry, or Free or Frank-Masonry. That knowledge was, i n one sense,
t he Lost Word, which was made known t o t he Grand Elect, PerIect , and
Subli me Masons. It would be Iol ly t o pret end that t he Iorms oI Masonry
were t he same in t hose ages as they are now. The present name oI the
Order, and it s t it les, and the names oI the Degrees now in use, were not
t hen known.
Even Blue Masonry cannot trace back i ts aut hent i c hi st ory, wit h it s
Degrees, Iurther t han the year 1700, iI so Iar. But , by whatever name i t
was known i n thi s or t he other country, Masonry exist ed as it now exist s,
t he same i n spiri t and at heart , not only when Solomon bui lded t he
t empl e,
but centuri es beIore - beIore even the Ii rst colonies emigrated into
Southern India, Persi a, and Egypt, Irom the cradle oI the human race.
The Supreme, Sel I-exi stent, Eternal , All -wise, Al l-powerIul , InIi nit ely
Pityi ng, BeneIicent, and Merci Iul Creat or and Preserver oI the Uni verse
was the same, by whatever name he was cal led, t o the intel lect ual and
enlightened men oI all nat ions. The name was not hing, i I not a symbol
representat ive hi eroglyph oI his nat ure and at tribut es. The name AL
represented hi s remot eness above men, hi s i naccessi bi li ty; BAL and
BALA, hi s mi ght ; ALOHIM, hi s vari ous potencies; IHUH, exi stence and
t he
generati on oI t hings. None oI his names, among the Ori entals, were the
symbol s oI a di vi nely inIi nit e l ove and tenderness, and al l-embraci ng
mercy. As MOLOCH or MALEK he was but an omnipotent monarch, a
t remendous and i rresponsi ble Wi l l ; as ADONAÏ, only an arbit rary LORD
and Master; as AL Shadaï, pot ent and a DESTROYER.
To communicat e true and correct ideas in respect oI the Dei ty was one
chieI object oI the mysteries. In t hem, Khürüm the Ki ng, and Khürüm the
Master, obtai ned their knowledge oI hi m and hi s at tri butes; and in t hem
t hat knowledge was t aught t o Moses and Pythagoras.
WhereIore nothi ng Iorbi ds you to consi der t he whole legend oI t hi s
Degree, l ike that oI the Master' s, an al legory, representi ng t he
perpet uat ion oI t he knowledge oI the True God in the sanct uari es oI
i ni t i ati on. By t he subterranean vault s you may understand t he places oI
i ni t i ati on, which in the anci ent ceremoni es were generally under ground.
The Templ e oI Sol omon presented a symbolic i mage oI t he Universe; and
resembl ed, in i ts arrangement s and Iurnit ure, al l the temples oI t he
anci ent
nati ons that practi sed the myst eri es. The system oI numbers was
i nt i mately connected wi th their religions and worshi p, and has come down
t o us i n Masonry; t hough t he esoteric meani ng wit h which the numbers
used by us are pregnant i s unknown to the vast maj ority oI those who use
t hem. Those numbers were especi ally employed that had a reIerence t o
t he Dei ty, represent ed his attri but es, or Iigured i n t he
Irame-work oI t he worl d, in t i me and space, and Iormed more or less the
bases oI that Irame-work. These were uni versally regarded as sacred,
being the expressi on oI order and intel l igence, t he utt erances oI Di vi nity
Hi msel I.
The Holy oI Holi es oI t he Templ e Iormed a cube; i n whi ch, drawn on a
plane surIace, t here are 4 ¹ 3 ¹ 2 ÷ 9 l i nes visi ble, and three sides or
Iaces. It corresponded wi th the number Iour, by whi ch t he ancients
present ed Nat ure, i t bei ng t he number oI subst ances or corporeal Iorms,
and oI t he element s, the cardinal poi nts and seasons, and the secondary
colors. The number t hree everywhere represented the Supreme Bei ng.
Hence the name oI t he Dei ty, engraven upon t he t ri angul ar plate, and that
sunken into the cube oI agate, taught the anci ent Mason, and teaches us,
t hat the true knowledge oI God, oI His nature and His at tribut es is wri tt en
by Hi m upon t he l eaves oI the great Book oI Universal Nature, and may
read t here by all who are endowed wi t h t he requisi te amount oI i ntel l ect
and i ntelli gence. Thi s knowledge oI God, so writ ten t here, and oI which
Masonry has i n al l ages been the interpreter, is t he Mast er Mason' s Word.
Wi t hi n the Temple, all t he arrangement s were myst ical ly and symbol ical ly
connect ed wi t h t he same system. The vault or cei l i ng, st arred li ke t he
Iirmament , was support ed by t wel ve col umns, represent ing the twelve
mont hs oI the year. The border that ran around the columns represent ed
t he zodi ac, and one oI the t wel ve cel est i al si gns was appropri ated to each
column. The brazen sea was support ed by t wel ve oxen, t hree looki ng t o
each cardi nal point oI the compass.
And so i n our day every Masonic Lodge represent s the Uni verse. Each
extends, we are told, Irom t he ri sing to the sett ing sun, Irom t he Sout h t o
t he Nort h, Irom t he surIace oI the Eart h to the Heavens, and Irom t he
same to t he cent re oI t he gl obe. In i t are represented the sun, moon, and
st ars; three great torches in the East, West, and Sout h, Iorming a t ri angl e,
gi ve i t li ght : and, li ke t he Delta or Triangle suspended i n t he East , and
i ncl osing the IneIIable Name, indicat e, by t he mat hemat ical equal ity oI
t he
angl es and si des, t he beaut iIul and harmonious proporti ons whi ch govern
i n t he aggregate and detai ls oI the Uni verse; whi l e t hose sides and angles
represent, by their number, three, the Trinity oI Power, Wisdom, and
Harmony, which presided at t he buil di ng oI thi s marvel l ous work These
t hree great l ight s al so represent the
great mystery oI the three pri nci ples, oI creati on, di ssol uti on or
dest ructi on,
and reproduct i on or regenerati on, consecrated by al l creeds i n t hei r
Trinit ies.
The luminous pedest al, li ght ed by t he perpet ual Ilame wi thi n, is a symbol
t hat li ght oI Reason, given by God to man, by which he is enabl ed t o read
i n
t he Book oI Nat ure t he record oI t he thought, the revelat ion oI t he
at tributes oI
t he Dei ty.
The three Masters, Adoni ram, Joabert, and Stolki n, are types oI t he True
Mason, who seeks Ior knowledge Irom pure mot i ves, and t hat he may be
t he
better enabled t o serve and beneIi t his Iel low-men; whi le the di scont ented
and presumpt uous Masters who were buri ed i n the ruins oI the arches
represent those who stri ve t o acquire i t Ior unholy purposes, t o gai n
over their Iel lows, to grat iIy t heir pri de, their vanity, or t heir ambi ti on.
The Lion t hat guarded t he Ark and held in hi s mout h the key wherewi t h t o
open it , Iigurat ively represents Solomon, t he Lion oI t he Tri be oI Judah,
preserved and communi cated the key to the true knowledge oI God, oI His
l aws, and oI the proIound myst eries oI the moral and physical Uni verse.
ENOCH | Khanõc|, we are told, wal ked wit h God three hundred years,
aIter reaching the age oI si xty-Ii ve - "walked wi th God, and he was no
Ior God had taken hi m. " His name signiIied in the Hebrew, INITIATE or
INITIATOR. The l egend oI the col umns, oI granite and brass or bronze,
erected by hi m, is probably symbol ical . That oI bronze, which survi ved
t he
Ilood, i s supposed to symbol ize the myst eri es, oI whi ch Masonry is the
l egit i mate successor - Irom the earl iest t i mes the cust odi an and deposi tory
t he great phi l osophi cal and rel igi ous trut hs, unknown t o t he worl d at
l arge,
and handed down Irom age to age by an unbroken current oI tradi t i on,
embodied in symbol s, embl ems, and all egories.
The legend oI t hi s Degree is t hus, parti ally, i nt erpret ed. It i s oI l it tl e
i mport ance whether it i s in anywise hist ori cal. For it s val ue consist s i n
t he
l essons which i t inculcates, and t he duti es which it prescri bes t o those
receive it . The parables and all egori es oI t he Scriptures are not l ess
t han hi story. Nay, they are more so, because anci ent hi story i s l i t tl e
i nstruct i ve, and t ruths are concealed i n and symboli zed by t he l egend and
t he
There are proIounder meani ngs concealed in t he symbols oI thi s Degree,
connect ed wi t h t he phil osophi cal system oI the Hebrew
Kabal i st s, whi ch you wil l learn hereaIt er, i I you shoul d be so Iortunate as
t o advance. They are unIolded i n t he higher Degrees. The li on |
Arai, Arai ah, whi ch al so means t he altar| st il l hol ds i n hi s mouth t he key
t he enigma oI t he sphynx.
But t here is one appl icat ion oI t hi s Degree, t hat you are now ent it led to
know; and which, rememberi ng that Khürüm, t he Master, i s the symbol oI
human Ireedom, you woul d probably di scover Ior yourselI.
It is not enough Ior a people t o gain it s l iberty. It must secure i t. It must
i ntrust i t to the keeping, or hol d i t at t he pleasure, oI any one man. The
keystone oI t he Royal Arch oI the great Temple oI Li berty i s a
l aw, charter, or consti tut i on; t he expression oI t he Ii xed habit s oI t hought
t he peopl e, embodi ed i n a wri tt en i nst rument , or the resul t oI t he sl ow
accreti ons and t he consol idati on oI cent uries; the same in war as i n
peace; t hat cannot be hast ily changed, nor be vi olated wit h i mpunity, but
i s
sacred, li ke t he Ark oI t he Covenant oI God, which none could t ouch and
l ive.
A permanent consti tut i on, rooted i n t he aIIect i ons, expressi ng t he wil l
j udgment , and buil t upon the inst i nct s and set tl ed habi ts oI thought oI t he
peopl e, wi th an independent judiciary, an elect ive legi slat ure oI two
branches, an executi ve responsibl e t o the peopl e, and the right oI t ri al by
j ury, wi ll guarant ee the li berti es oI a peopl e, i I i t be vi rt uous and
t emperate,
wi thout l uxury, and wi thout t he l ust oI conquest and domi ni on, and the
Iol l i es oI vi sionary t heories oI i mpossi ble perIect i on.
Masonry teaches it s Ini tiates t hat the pursuit s and occupati ons oI this l i Ie,
i ts act ivity, care, and i ngenui ty, t he predest ined development s oI the
nature gi ven us by God, t end to promote Hi s great desi gn, in making the
worl d; and are not at war wi th the great purpose oI l iIe. It t eaches t hat
everyt hi ng i s beaut iIul i n i ts ti me, in i ts place, in i ts appoi nted oIIi ce;
t hat
everyt hi ng which man is put t o do, iI right ly and Iai t hIully done,
helps to work out hi s sal vat i on; t hat i I he obeys t he genuine principl es oI
his cal li ng, he wil l be a good man: and t hat it i s only by neglect and
oI t he task set Ior hi m by Heaven, by wandering i nt o i dle
dissi pat i on, or by viol at i ng thei r beneIicent and l oIty spiri t, that he
a bad man. The appoi nt ed act i on oI li Ie i s t he great traini ng oI
Provi dence;
and i I man yiel ds hi mselI
t o i t , he wil l need neit her churches nor ordinances, except Ior the
expressi on oI his reli gious homage and grati t ude.
For there i s a reli gion oI t oil . It is not al l drudgery, a mere st ret chi ng oI
t he
l i mbs and st rai ni ng oI the sinews to tasks. It has a meani ng and an i ntent.
A l iving heart pours l iIe-blood int o the toil i ng arm; and warm aIIect ions
i nspi re and mi ngle wit h man' s labors. They are the home aIIect ions. Labor
t oi l s a-Ii eld, or pli es i ts task in cit ies, or urges t he keels oI commerce
wi de oceans; but home is it s centre; and thit her i t ever goes wi th i t s
earnings, wit h t he means oI support and comIort Ior ot hers; oIIerings
sacred t o t he thought oI every true man, as a sacriIi ce at a golden shrine.
Many Iaul t s t here are amidst the toi l s oI l iIe; many harsh and hasty words
are ut tered; but st il l the t oi l s go on, weary and hard and exasperati ng as
t hey oIt en are. For i n t hat home i s age or si ckness, or hel pl ess i nIancy, or
gent le chi ldhood, or Ieebl e woman, t hat must not want . II man had no
other t han mere selIish i mpulses, the scene oI labor which we behol d
around us would not exi st.
The advocat e who Iai rly and honest ly present s hi s case, wit h Ieeli ng oI
t rue selI-respect , honor, and conscience, to hel p the tri bunal on t owards
t he right concl usion, wit h a convict i on t hat God' s j ust ice reigns there, is
act ing a religious part , leadi ng that day reli gious l iIe; or else right and
j ust ice are no part oI rel igi on Whether, duri ng al l that day, he has once
appeal ed, i n Iorm or in terms, t o his conscience, or not ; whet her he has
once spoken oI rel igi on and God, or not ; iI there has been the i nward
purpose, the consci ous intent and desi re, t hat sacred j ust ice should
t ri umph, he has t hat day led a good and religious l iIe, and made most a
essent ial contribut ion t o t hat rel igi on oI l iIe and oI soci ety, the cause oI
equity between man and man, and oI truth and right act ion i n t he worl d.
Books, to be oI rel igi ous tendency i n the Masonic sense, need not be
books oI sermons, oI pious exerci ses, or oI prayers. What ever i ncul cates
pure, noble, and pat ri ot ic senti ments, or t ouches the heart wit h t he beauty
oI virtue, and t he excell ence oI an upri ght l iIe, accords wit h t he rel igi on
Masonry, and is t he Gospel oI l it erat ure and art . That Gospel i s preached
Irom many a book and pai nti ng, Irom many a poem and Ii ct ion, and
and newspaper; and i t i s a pai nIul error and mi serable narrowness, not to
recogni ze t hese wide-spread agenci es oI Heaven' s provi ding; not
t o see and welcome t hese many-handed coadjutors, to the great and good
cause. The oracl es oI God do not speak Irom the pulpit alone.
There i s also a religion oI society. In business, t here is much more than
sal e, exchange, price, payment ; Ior t here is the sacred Iai th oI man i n
man. When we repose perIect conIi dence i n the integrity oI another; when
we Ieel that he wi ll not swerve Irom t he right, Irank, st raight Iorward,
conscienti ous course, Ior any temptat ion; hi s i ntegri ty and
conscienti ousness are t he i mage oI God t o us; and when we bel ieve in it ,
i t i s as great and generous an act, as when we beli eve in the rect it ude oI
t he Dei ty.
In gay assembl ies Ior amusement , t he good aIIecti ons oI li Ie gush and
mingle. II t hey did not, these gatheri ng-places woul d be as dreary and
repul sive as t he caves and dens oI out laws and robbers. When Iriends
meet , and hands are warmly pressed, and t he eye ki ndl es and t he
count enance i s suIIused wi t h gladness, t here is a rel igi on between t heir
hearts; and each loves and worshi ps t he True and Good t hat i s in t he
other. It is not poli cy, or sel I-interest, or selIi shness t hat spreads such a
charm around that meet ing, but the hal o oI bri ght and beaut iIul aIIect ion.
The same splendor oI ki ndly li king, and aIIect i onat e regard, shi nes l ike
t he
soIt overarching sky, over al l t he world; over al l pl aces where men meet,
and wal k or toi l together; not over lovers' bowers and marri age-al t ars
al one, not over the homes oI purity and t enderness al one; but over al l
t il led Ii elds, and busy workshops, and dusty highways, and paved streets.
There i s not a worn st one upon t he si dewal ks, but has been the alt ar oI
such oIIeri ngs oI mut ual ki ndness; nor a wooden pi ll ar or iron rail ing
agai nst whi ch heart s beat ing wit h aIIect i on have not leaned. How many
soever other element s there are in t he stream oI l iIe Ilowing through t hese
channel s, t hat is surely here and everywhere; honest , heartIelt ,
disi nterested, i nexpressi bl e aIIect ion.
Every Masonic Lodge i s a t emple oI rel igi on; and i t s teachi ngs are
i nstruct i on i n rel igi on. For here are i ncul cated di sinterestedness,
aIIect ion,
t olerat ion, devot edness, pat ri ot i sm, t ruth, a generous sympat hy wi t h t hose
who suIIer and mourn, pity Ior the Iall en, mercy Ior the erri ng, reli eI Ior
t hose in want , Fait h, Hope, and Charity. Here we meet as bret hren, t o
l earn to know and l ove each ot her. Here we greet each other gladly, are
l enient to each other' s Iaul ts, regardIul oI each other' s Ieel ings, ready t o
reli eve
each ot her' s want s. Thi s i s t he t rue rel igi on revealed to the anci ent
patri archs; which Masonry has t aught Ior many cent uries, and whi ch i t
wi ll
conti nue to teach as l ong as ti me endures. II unwort hy passi ons, or
sel Ii sh, bit ter, or revengeIul Ieel i ngs, contempt , disl ike, hatred, enter
t hey are i ntruders and n t welcome, strangers uninvit ed, and not guest s.
Certai nly t here are many evi ls and bad passi ons, and much hate and
contempt and unkindness everywhere in the worl d. We cannot reIuse t o
see t he evil -that i s i n l iIe. But all is not evi l . We st i ll see God i n t he
worl d.
There i s good ami dst t he evil . The hand oI mercy leads wealt h to the
hovel s oI poverty and sorrow. Truth and si mpl ici ty li ve amid many wiles
and sophi st ries. There are good heart s underneath gay robes, and under
t att ered garment s also.
Love clasps t he hand oI love, amid al l t he envyings and dist ract ions oI
showy competi ti on; Iidelity, pity, and sympat hy hol d t he l ong ni ght-wat ch
by t he bedsi de oI t he suIIeri ng neighbor, amidst the surrounding poverty
and squali d mi sery. Devot ed men go Irom ci ty to city t o nurse those
smi t ten down by t he t erri ble pesti l ence that renews at i nt ervals i ts
mysterious marches. Women wel l-born and deli cately nurt ured nursed the
wounded sol di ers in hospit al s, beIore it became Iashi onabl e t o do so; and
even poor lost women, whom God al one loves and pi ti es, tend t he
plaguest ri cken
wi th a pati ent and generous heroism. Masonry and it s ki ndred
Orders teach men t o l ove each other, Ieed t he hungry, cl othe the naked,
comIort t he si ck, and bury t he Iriendless dead. Everywhere God Ii nds and
blesses t he kindly oIIi ce, t he pi tyi ng t hought , and t he l ovi ng heart .
There i s an el ement oI good in al l men' s lawIul pursuit s and a di vi ne
breat hing i n al l thei r lawIul aIIect ions. The ground on which they tread i s
holy ground. There i s a natural rel igi on oI l i Ie, answeri ng, wit h however
many a broken tone, to the religion oI nature. There is a beauty and gl ory
i n Humanity. , in man, answeri ng, wit h however many a mi ngli ng shade, to
t he l oveli ness oI soIt landscapes and swel l i ng hil ls, and the wondrous
Men may be virt uous, selI-i mproving, and reli gious i n t hei r empl oyment s.
Preci sely Ior that , those employments were made. Al l their social
relat i ons,
Iri endship, l ove , t he ties oI Iamily, were made t o be holy. They may be
reli gious, not by a ki nd oI prot est
and resist ance against thei r several vocat i ons; but by conIormi ty t o their
t rue spi ri t. Those vocat ions do not excl ude rel igi on; but demand it , Ior
t heir
own perIecti on. They may be religious l aborers, whet her in Iiel d or
reli gious physici ans, lawyers, sculptors, poet s, pai nters, and musici ans.
They may be reli gious i n al l the toil s and i n al l the amusement s oI l iIe.
Thei r li Ie may be a reli gion; the broad eart h i ts alt ar; i ts i ncense the very
breat h oI l iIe; it s Iires ever ki ndl ed by t he bri ght ness oI Heaven.
Bound up wi t h our poor, Irai l l iIe, i s t he mighty thought t hat spurns the
narrow span oI al l vi sibl e exist ence. Ever the soul reaches outward, and
asks Ior Ireedom. It looks Iort h Irom the narrow and grat ed wi ndows oI
sense, upon the wide i mmeasurable creati on; i t knows t hat around it and
beyond it l i e out stretched t he i nIinite and everlast ing pat hs.
Everyt hing wi thi n us and wi thout us ought to sti r our minds t o admi rat ion
and wonder. We are a myst ery encompassed wi t h mysteries. The
connect ion oI mi nd wit h matt er i s a myst ery; t he wonderIul tel egraphic
communi cati on bet ween t he brai n and every part oI t he body, the power
and act ion oI t he wil l. Every Iamil iar step i s more than a st ory i n a land
enchant ment . The power oI movement i s as myst eri ous as the power oI
t hought . Memory, and dreams t hat are the indi sti nct echoes oI dead
memories are ali ke i nexpl icabl e. Universal harmony spri ngs Irom inIinit e
compl icat ion. The momentum oI every step we take in our dwell ing
contri butes in part to the order oI t he Universe. We are connected by ti es
oI t hought , and even oI matt er and it s Iorces, wi th the whole boundl ess
Universe and al l the past and comi ng generat ions oI men.
The humblest object beneath our eye as compl etely deIies our scrut i ny as
t he economy oI t he most distant star. Every leaI and every blade oI grass
holds wi thin it selI secret s which no human penet rat ion wi l l ever Iathom.
man can tel l what i s it s pri nciple oI li Ie. No man can know what hi s
oI secreti on is. Bot h are inscrutabl e mysteri es. Wherever we pl ace our
hand we lay it upon the l ocked bosom oI myst ery. St ep where we wi ll , we
t read upon wonders. The sea-sands, the clods oI t he Iield, t he wat er-worn
pebbl es on the hi ll s, the rude masses oI rock, are t raced over and over, in
every directi on, wi th a handwrit ing ol der and more signi Ii cant and
subli me
t han all t he anci ent rui ns, and al l the overt hrown and buried cit ies t hat
generati ons
have leIt upon the eart h; Ior it i s the handwrit ing oI the Al mighty.
A Mason' s great business wi th li Ie is to read the book oI it s teaching; t o
Iind t hat li Ie is not t he doing oI drudgeri es, but the hearing oI oracles.
old mythology i s but a leaI in t hat book; Ior it peopled t he worl d wit h
spirit ual nat ures; and science, many-leaved, st il l spreads beIore us t he
same tal e oI wonder.
We shal l be just as happy hereaIt er, as we are pure and upri ght , and no
more, j ust as happy as our character prepares us to be, and no more. Our
moral, li ke our ment al character, is nut Iormed in a moment; i t i s t he
oI our mi nds; the resul t oI many t hought s and Ieel ings and eIIorts, bound
t oget her by many nat ural and strong t ies. The great l aw oI Retributi on i s,
t hat all coming experience is t o be aIIect ed by every present Ieeli ng;
Iut ure moment oI being must answer Ior every present moment ; one
moment , sacri Iiced to vice, or l ost t o i mprovement, is Iorever sacri Ii ced
and l ost; an hour' s del ay t o enter the right path, i s to put us back so Iar,
i n
t he everlasti ng pursuit oI happi ness; and every sin, even oI t he best men,
i s t o be thus answered Ior, i I not accordi ng t o t he Iul l measure oI it s
i ll desert,
yet accordi ng t o a rule oI unbendi ng recti tude and i mpart ial i ty.
The law oI ret ri but i on presses upon every m an, whet her he thinks oI i t or
not. It pursues hi m t hrough all t he courses oI li Ie, wi th a step t hat never
Ialt ers nor t ires, and wi th an eye that never sleeps. II it were not so,
God' s
government woul d not be i mpart ial ; ' there woul d be no di scri mi nat ion; no
moral domini on; no light shed upon t he mysteri es oI Providence.
Whatsoever a man sowet h, that, and not somet hi ng el se, shal l he reap.
That which we are doing, good or evil , grave or gay, that which we do
t oday
and shal l do to-morrow; each thought , each Ieeli ng, each act i on, each
event; every passing hour, every breat hi ng moment; al l are contri but ing to
Iorm the charact er according to whi ch we are to be j udged. Every part icl e
oI i nIluence t hat goes t o Iorm that aggregate, - our character, - wil l, i n
t hat
Iut ure scrut i ny, be siIted out Irom the mass; and, part icl e by parti cle, wit h
ages perhaps interveni ng, Ial l a di st i nct contribut i on to t he sum oI our
j oys
or woes. Thus every idl e word and idle hour wi ll give answer in the
j udgment .
Let us take care, thereIore, what we sow. An evil t emptat ion comes upon
us; t he opport uni ty oI unri ght eous gain, or oI unhal lowed
i ndulgence, ei ther i n t he sphere oI business or pl easure, oI soci ety or
soli tude. We yield; and pl ant a seed oI bit terness and sorrow. To-morrow
i t
wi ll t hreaten di scovery. Agi t ated and alarmed, we cover the si n, and bury
i t
deep i n Ialsehood and hypocri sy. In the bosom where it l ies concealed, i n
t he Iert il e soi l oI ki ndred vi ces, t hat sin di es not , but t hri ves and grows;
other and st il l other germs oI evi l gather around t he accursed root; unt i l,
Irom that si ngle seed oI corrupt ion, there spri ngs up i n t he soul al l t hat i s
horri ble in habi tual lying, knavery, or vice. Loathi ngly, oIten, we take
downward st ep; but a Iright Iul power urges us onward; and the hel l oI
debt, di sease, i gnominy, or remorse gat hers it s shadows around Our
st eps even on earth; and are yet but t he beginnings oI sorrows. The evi l
deed may be done in a si ngle moment ; but conscience never di es,
memory never sl eeps; guil t never can become innocence; and remorse
can never whi sper peace.
Beware, t hou who art t empt ed to evi l! Beware what t hou layest up Ior t he
Iut ure! Beware what t hou layest up i n the archi ves oI eternity! Wrong not
t hy neighbor! lest the t hought oI hi m thou inj urest, and who suIIers by
t hy
act , be to t hee a pang which years wi l l not depri ve oI it s bi tt erness! Break
not int o the house oI i nnocence, to ri Il e i t oI it s t reasure; lest when many
years have passed over t hee, the moan oI i ts dist ress may not have di ed
away Irom thine ear! Bui ld not the desol ate throne oI ambit ion i n thy
heart ;
nor be busy wit h devices, and circumvent ings, and selIi sh schemings; l est
desol at ion and l onel iness be on thy pat h, as it st ret ches i nt o t he l ong
Iut urity! Live not a useless, an i mpi ous, or an i nj urious li Ie! Ior bound up
wi th t hat l i Ie is t he i mmut abl e pri nciple oI an endless retri but ion, and
el ement s oI God' s creat ing, whi ch wil l never spend t heir Iorce, but
conti nue ever to unIol d wi th the ages oI eterni ty. Be not deceived! God
has Iormed t hy nature, thus t o answer to the Iuture. Hi s law can never be
abrogat ed, nor Hi s j usti ce el uded; and Iorever and ever it wi l l be true,
t hat
"What soever a man soweth, t hat also he shall reap. ¨

|PerIect El u. |
It is Ior each indi vidual Mason to di scover t he secret oI Ma-
sonry, by reIlect ion upon it s symbol s and a wi se considerat ion and
analysi s oI what i s sai d and done i n the work. Masonry does not
i ncul cate her trut hs. She stat es t hem, once and brieIly; or hint s
t hem, perhaps, darkly; or i nterposes a cl oud bet ween t hem and
eyes that would be dazzled by them. "Seek, and ye shal l Ii nd,"
knowl edge and t he t ruth.
The pract ical obj ect oI Masonry is the physi cal and moral
amel i orati on and the int el lect ual and spirit ual i mprovement oI
i ndi vi dual s and soci ety. Neit her can be eIIect ed, except by t he
dissemi nat ion oI truth. It i s Ial sehood i n doct ri nes and Ial l acy
i n pri nci ples, t o whi ch most oI the mi seri es oI men and t he mis-
Iortunes oI nati ons are owing. Publ ic opini on is rarely right on
any point ; and there are and al ways wi l l be i mportant trut hs t o
be subst it ut ed i n that opinion i n the place oI many errors and
absurd and injuri ous prej udices. There are Iew t ruths that public
opinion has not at some t i me hat ed and persecut ed as heresi es;
and Iew errors t hat have not at some t i me seemed to i t trut hs radi-
ant Irom t he i mmediate presence oI God. There are moral mala-
dies, al so, oI man and society, the treat ment oI which requires not
only boldness, but al so, and more, prudence and di scret ion; since
t hey are more the Irui t oI Ialse and perni cious doctrines, moral,
poli t ical , and religious, t han oI vi cious i ncl inat ions.
Much oI t he Masonic secret maniIests i tsel I, wi thout speech
reveali ng it to hi m who even part i ally comprehends al l t he De-
grees in proport ion as he receives them; and parti cularly t o t hose
who advance t o the highest Degrees oI the Ancient and Accepted
Scot ti sh Ri te. That Ri t e rai ses a corner oI t he veil , even i n the
Degree oI Apprent ice; Ior it t here declares t hat Masonry i s a
Masonry labors t o i mprove the social order by enl ightening
men' s mi nds, warming t heir heart s wit h t he love oI t he good, i n-
spiring them wit h t he great pri nci ple oI human Irat erni ty, and
requi ri ng oI it s di sciples t hat t heir l anguage and act ions shall con-
Iorm to that pri nci pl e, t hat they shal l enli ght en each ot her, con-
t rol thei r passi ons, abhor vi ce, and pi ty t he vi ci ous man as one
aIIl ict ed wi t h a depl orable mal ady.
It is t he uni versal, eternal , i mmut able rel igi on, such as God
plant ed it in t he heart oI universal humani ty. No creed has ever
been l ong-li ved that was not buil t on this Ioundat ion. It i s t he
base, and they are the superst ruct ure. "Pure rel igi on and unde-
Iil ed beIore God and t he Father is t hi s, t o visi t the Iat herless and
wi dows i n t heir aIIlicti on, and to keep hi msel I unspott ed Irom the
worl d." "Is not t his t he Iast t hat I have chosen ? to l oose t he
bands oI wi ckedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to l et the
oppressed go Iree, and t hat ye break every yoke ?" The mi ni sters
oI t hi s religion are all Masons who comprehend it and are devoted
t o i t ; i ts sacri Iices to God are good works, t he sacriIices oI t he
base and disorderly passi ons, t he oIIeri ng up oI sel I-i nterest on
t he al tar oI humanity, and perpet ual eIIort s to at tai n t o al l the
moral perIecti on oI whi ch man is capabl e.
To make honor and duty the steady beacon-l ights t hat shal l
guide your l iIe-vessel over the stormy seas oI ti me; to do t hat
which it i s right t o do, not because it wil l i nsure you success, or
bri ng wi th i t a reward, or gain t he applause oI men, or be "the
best poli cy," more prudent or more advisabl e; but because it i s
right, and thereIore ought t o be done; t o war i ncessant ly agai nst
error, i nt olerance, ignorance, and vi ce, and yet t o pity t hose who
err, t o be t olerant even oI i nt olerance, to teach the ignorant, and
t o l abor t o reclai m the vi cious, are some oI the dut ies oI a Mason.
A good Mason i s one t hat can l ook upon deat h, and see it s Iace
wi th t he same countenance wi t h whi ch he hears i ts st ory; that
can endure al l the labors oI hi s l iIe wi th hi s soul support ing hi s
body, t hat can equal ly despi se riches when he hath them and
when he hat h t hem not; that i s, not sadder i I they are in hi s nei gh-
bor' s exchequer, nor more l iIted up iI t hey shine around about hi s
own wal ls; one t hat is not moved wi th good Iortune coming to
hi m, nor goi ng Irom hi m; that can look upon anot her man' s lands
wi th equani mity and pleasure, as iI t hey were his own; and yet
l ook upon hi s own, and use them too, j ust as i I they were anot her
man' s; t hat nei t her spends his goods prodigally and Iool i shly, nor
yet keeps them avari ciously and li ke a mi ser; t hat weighs not
beneIi ts by wei ght and number, but by the mi nd and circumst ances
oI hi m who conIers t hem; t hat never t hi nks hi s charity expen-
si ve, iI a wort hy person be the recei ver; that does nothing Ior
opinion' s sake, but everythi ng Ior conscience, bei ng as careIul oI
his t hought s as oI hi s act ing i n markets and t heatres, and in as
much awe oI hi mselI as oI a whol e assembly; t hat i s, bount i Iul
and cheerIul to hi s Iriends, and chari table and apt to Iorgi ve his
enemi es; t hat loves his count ry, consult s i ts honor, and obeys i ts
l aws, and desires and endeavors not hi ng more t han that he may
do his duty and honor God. And such a Mason may reckon hi s
l iIe t o be the l iIe oI a man, and comput e hi s mont hs, not by
t he course oI the sun, but by the zodi ac and ci rcl e oI hi s vir-
t ues.
The whol e worl d i s but one republ ic, oI whi ch each nat ion i s a
Iami ly, and every indi vidual a chi ld. Masonry, not i n anywi se
derogat ing Irom t he diIIering duti es whi ch the di versi ty oI stat es
requi res, tends t o create a new people, whi ch, composed oI men oI
many nat i ons and tongues, shall al l be bound t oget her by t he
bonds oI science, morali ty, and virtue.
Essent ial ly phi lanthropic, phil osophical , and progressi ve, i t has
Ior the basi s oI i ts dogma a Iirm bel ieI in t he exist ence oI God
and his providence, and oI the i mmort ali ty oI the soul; Ior it s
object , the disseminati on oI moral , pol it i cal , phi losophi cal, and
reli gious t ruth, and t he practi ce oI al l the vi rt ues. In every age,
i ts devi ce has been, "Li berty, Equali ty, Frat erni ty," wi t h consti tu-
t ional government, l aw, order, di scipl ine, and subordi nat i on to
l egit i mate authority--government and not anarchy.
But i t is neit her a poli ti cal party nor a reli gious sect . It
braces al l part ies and all sects, to Iorm Irom among them all a vast
Irat ernal associ ati on. It recognizes the di gni ty oI human nat ure,
and man' s right to such Ireedom as he is Ii tt ed Ior; and it
knows not hi ng t hat should pl ace one man bel ow anot her, except
i gnorance, debasement, and cri me, and t he necessi ty oI subordina-
t ion t o lawIul wi ll and aut hori ty.
It is phi lanthropic; Ior it recogni zes t he great truth t hat all
men are oI t he same origi n, have common i nterests, and should
co-operate together t o the same end.
ThereIore i t teaches it s members t o l ove one anot her, to give to
each ot her mut ual assi stance and support i n al l the circumst ances
oI l i Ie, to share each other' s pains and sorrows, as wel l as their
j oys and pleasures; to guard t he reputat ions, respect the opini ons,
and be perIect ly tol erant oI the errors, oI each ot her, in mat ters
oI Iait h and beli eIs.
It is phi li sophical because i t t eaches t he great Truths concern-
i ng t he nature and exist ence oI one Supreme Dei ty, and the exi st-
ence and i mmort al i ty oI the soul. It revi ves t he Academy oI
Plat o and the wise teachi ngs oI Socrates. It rei terates t he max-
i ms oI Pythagoras, ConIuci us, and Zoroaster, and reverenti ally
enIorces t he subli me lessons oI Hi m who died upon the Cross.
The ancients t hought t hat uni versal humanity act ed under t he
i nIl uence oI t wo opposing Pri nci ples, the Good and t he Evi l : oI
which the Good urged men t oward Trut h, Independence, and De-
votedness and t he Evi l toward Fal sehood, Servi li ty, and Sel Ii sh-
ness. Masonry represents the Good Pri nci pl e and constant ly wars
agai nst the evi l one. It i s t he Hercul es, t he Osi ri s, the Apol lo, t he
Mi thras, and the Ormuzd, at everl asti ng and deadly Ieud wi th
t he demons oI i gnorance, brutal ity, baseness, Ialsehood, slavish-
ness oI soul, intol erance, superst it ion, tyranny, meanness, t he in-
solence oI wealt h, and bigotry.
When despot ism and superst it ion, t wi n-powers oI evil and dark-
ness, reigned everywhere and seemed invi ncible and i mmortal , it
i nvented, t o avoid persecut ion, the myst eri es, t hat is to say, t he
al legory, t he symbol, and the emblem, and t ransmi t t ed i ts doc-
t ri nes by t he secret mode oI i nit iati on. Now, ret aining it s anci ent
symbol s, and in part i ts ancient ceremonies, i t displays i n every
ci vi li zed country i ts banner, on whi ch i n let ters oI l iving light it s
great pri nci ples are wri tten; and it smiles at the puny eIIort s oI
kings and popes to crush i t out by excommunicat ion and i nter-
dict ion.
Man' s vi ews i n regard to God, wil l contain only so much posi -
t ive trut h as the human mi nd is capable oI recei vi ng; whet her
t hat trut h is at tai ned by the exercise oI reason, or communi cated
by revelat ion. It must necessari ly be bot h l i mit ed and all oyed, to
bri ng i t wit hi n t he competence oI Ii ni te human i ntell igence. Be-
i ng Ii nit e, we can Iorm no correct or adequate idea oI the InIini te;
being material, we can Iorm no clear concepti on oI t he Spi rit ual.
We do beli eve in and know t he i nIini ty oI Space and Ti me, and
t he spirit ual ity oI t he Soul ; but the idea oI t hat inIi ni ty and
spirit ual i ty eludes us. Even Omnipotence cannot inIuse inIi ni te
concept ions i nto Iini t e mi nds; nor can God, wi thout Iirst enti rely
changing the condit ions oI our bei ng, pour a complete and Iul l
knowl edge oI His own nature and attri but es into t he narrow
capaci ty oI a human soul. Human int ell igence coul d not grasp
i t, nor human l anguage express i t . The visi ble is, necessarily, t he
measure oI the i nvi si ble.
The consci ousness oI the i ndi vi dual reveals it sel I alone. Hi s
knowl edge cannot pass beyond t he l i mi t s oI his own bei ng. His
concept ions oI other t hi ngs and ot her bei ngs are only hi s concep-
t ions. They are not those thi ngs or bei ngs t hemsel ves. The li ving
pri nci ple oI a l ivi ng Uni verse must be INFINITE; whi le all our
i deas and concepti ons are Ii ni te, and appl icable only t o Ii nite bei ngs.
The Deity i s thus not an obj ect oI knowledge, but oI Iai th; not
t o be approached by t he understandi ng, but by the moral sense;
not to be concei ved, but t o be Ielt . Al l attempt s t o embrace the
InIinit e i n t he concept ion oI t he Finit e are, and must be only ac-
commodat i ons t o t he Irail ty oI man. Shrouded Irom human com-
prehension i n an obscuri ty Irom which a chastened i magi nat ion i s
awed back, and Thought retreats i n conscious weakness, the
Di vi ne Nat ure i s a t heme on whi ch man is l it tl e entit led t o dog-
mati ze. Here the phi losophi c Intel lect becomes most pai nIully
aware oI i ts own insuIIiciency.
And yet i t is here that man most dogmat i zes, classi Ii es and de-
scribes God' s att ri butes, makes out hi s map oI God' s nat ure, and
his i nventory oI God' s quali ti es, Ieeli ngs, i mpul ses, and passions;
and t hen hangs and burns his brother, who, as dogmatically as he,
makes out a di IIerent map and invent ory. The common under-
st andi ng has no humi li ty. Its God i s an incarnat e Di vi nity. Im-
perIect ion i mposes i ts own li mi tat ions on t he Illi mi table, and
cl ot hes t he Inconcei vabl e Spirit oI t he Uni verse in Iorms that
come wi t hin t he grasp oI t he senses and the intel l ect , and are
deri ved Irom that i nIini t e and i mperIect nat ure which is but God' s
creati on.
We are al l oI us, though not all equal ly, mi staken. The cher-
i shed dogmas oI each oI us are not, as we Iondly suppose, the pure
t ruth oI God; but si mply our own speci al Iorm oI error, our
guesses at t ruth, t he reIracted and Iragment ary rays oI l ight t hat
have Iallen upon our own minds. Our l it t l e syst ems have t hei r
day, and cease to be; t hey are but broken li ght s oI God; and He
i s more than t hey. PerIect trut h i s not att ai nable anywhere. We
style thi s Degree t hat oI PerIecti on; and yet what i t teaches is
i mperIect and deIect ive. Yet we are not to relax i n t he pursuit
oI t ruth, nor content edly acquiesce i n error. It i s our duty al ways
t o press Iorward i n t he search; Ior though absol ut e trut h is unat-
t ainable, yet the amount oI error in our views is capable oI pro-
gressi ve and perpetual di mi nuti on; and t hus Masonry i s a con-
t inual struggle toward the l ight .
Al l errors are not equally i nnocuous. That which is most i n-
j urious i s to ent ert ain unworthy concepti ons oI t he nat ure and
at tributes oI God; and it is this t hat Masonry symboli zes by igno-
rance oI t he True Word. The true word oI a Mason i s, not t he
entire, perIect , absolut e t ruth in regard to God; but t he highest
and nobl est concept ion oI Hi m t hat our minds are capabl e oI
Iormi ng; and this word i s IneIIabl e, because one man cannot
communi cate t o anot her hi s own concepti on oI Dei ty; si nce every
man' s concept ion oI God must be proport i oned t o hi s mental cul -
t ivati on and int ell ectual powers, and moral excel lence. God i s, as
man conceives Hi m, the reIlect ed i mage oI man hi msel I.
For every man' s concepti on oI God must vary wi t h his mental
cult ivat i on and mental powers. II any one cont ent s hi msel I wit h
any lower i mage than his int ell ect is capable oI grasping, t hen he
contents hi mselI wi t h that which i s Ial se t o hi m, as well as Ialse in
Iact. II l ower t han he can reach, he must needs Ieel it to be Ial se.
And i I we, oI the ni neteenth cent ury aIt er Christ , adopt t he con-
cept ions oI the ni neteenth cent ury beIore Hi m; iI our concept i ons
oI God are t hose oI the ignorant, narrow-minded, and vi ndict ive
Israel it e; then we thi nk worse oI God, and have a lower, meaner,
and more li mi ted vi ew oI His nature, than t he Iacul ties whi ch He
has bestowed are capable oI graspi ng. The highest view we can
Iorm is nearest to the truth. II we acquiesce i n any l ower one,
we acqui esce in an unt ruth. We Ieel t hat it i s an aIIront and an
i ndi gni ty to Hi m, to concei ve oI Hi m as cruel , short-sight ed, ca-
pri ci ous, and unjust; as a jeal ous, an angry, a vi ndi ct i ve Bei ng.
When we examine our concepti ons oI His charact er, i I we can
concei ve oI a l oIti er, nobl er, higher, more beneIicent, glori ous, and
magniIicent charact er, t hen this l at t er is to us t he true concept ion
oI Deity; Ior nothing can be i magi ned more excell ent than He.
Rel igi on, t o obtain currency and i nIl uence wit h t he great mass
oI manki nd, must needs be al l oyed wi t h such an amount oI error
as t o place it Iar below the st andard at tai nabl e by the hi gher
human capaci ties. A rel igi on as pure as the loIt iest and most cul-
t ivated human reason coul d di scern, would not be comprehended
by, or eIIect ive over, t he l ess educat ed porti on oI mankind. What
i s Trut h t o the phi losopher, woul d not be Truth, nor have the
eIIect oI Truth, t o t he peasant . The reli gi on oI the many must
necessarily be more incorrect t han that oI the reIi ned and reIl ect i ve
Iew, not so much in it s essence as in it s Iorms, not so much i n the
spirit ual idea whi ch l ies lat ent at the bot t om oI it , as in t he sym-
bols and dogmas in which that i dea is embodied. The truest
reli gion woul d, in many points, not be comprehended by the igno-
rant , nor consolat ory to t hem, nor gui di ng and support i ng Ior
t hem. The doct ri nes oI the Bibl e are oIten not cl ot hed in the
l anguage oI st rict trut h, but i n t hat whi ch was Iit test t o convey
t o a rude and ignorant people t he pract ical essent ial s oI t he doc-
t ri ne. A perIectly pure Iai th, Iree Irom al l extraneous admi xt ures,
a system oI noble theism and loIty morali ty, woul d Ii nd too l it tl e
preparati on Ior it in t he common mi nd and heart , to admi t oI
prompt recepti on by the masses oI mankind; and Trut h mi ght
not have reached us, iI i t had not borrowed the wi ngs oI Error.
The Mason regards God as a Moral Governor, as well as an
Origi nal Creator; as a God at hand, and not merely one aIar oII
i n t he dist ance oI inIini t e space, and in t he remot eness oI Past
or Fut ure Et ernity. He concei ves oI Hi m as t aking a wat chIul
and presiding interest in the aIIairs oI the world, and as i nIluenc-
i ng t he heart s and act i ons oI men.
To hi m, God i s the great Source oI the World oI Li Ie and Mat -
t er; and man, wit h his wonderIul corporeal and ment al Irame,
Hi s direct work. He bel ieves that God has made men wi th di IIer-
ent i nt ell ectual capaci ti es, and enabled some, by superi or i ntel lect -
ual power, to see and origi nate trut hs whi ch are hi dden Irom t he
mass oI men. He bel ieves that when it is Hi s wil l that manki nd
shoul d make some great step Iorward, or achi eve some pregnant
discovery, He cal l s i nto bei ng some int ell ect oI more than ordi -
nary magni tude and power, to give bi rt h t o new i deas, and
grander concepti ons oI t he Trut hs vi t al to Humani ty.
We hol d that God has so ordered mat t ers i n t hi s beaut i Iul and
harmoni ous, but myst eri ously-governed Universe, that one great
mind aIter another wi l l arise, Irom t i me t o t i me, as such are
needed, to reveal t o men the trut hs t hat are want ed, and t he
amount oI trut h t han can be borne. He so arranges, that nat ure
and t he course oI event s shal l send men into the worl d, endowed
wi th t hat higher ment al and moral organi zat ion, i n which grand
t ruths, and subli me gleams oI spi ri tual l ight wil l spont aneously
and i nevi tably ari se. These speak t o men by inspirati on.
Whatever Hiram real ly was, he is t he type, perhaps an i mag-
i nary type, t o us, oI humani ty i n i ts highest phase; an exemplar
oI what man may and should become, in the course oI ages, in hi s
progress t oward t he reali zat ion oI his desti ny; an indi vidual giIted
wi th a glorious i ntellect , a noble soul , a Ii ne organizati on, and a
perIect ly bal anced moral bei ng; an earnest oI what humanity may
be, and what we bel ieve it wi ll hereaIt er be i n God' s good ti me;
t he possibi l ity oI the race made real.
The Mason beli eves t hat God has arranged t hi s glori ous but per-
plexing worl d wi th a purpose, and on a pl an. He holds that every
man sent upon t hi s eart h, and especial ly every man oI superi or
capaci ty, has a duty t o perIorm, a mi ssion to IulIil l, a bapt i sm to
be bapt i zed wi t h; that every great and good man possesses some
port ion oI God' s trut h, whi ch he must proclai m to the worl d, and
which must bear Iruit i n his own bosom. In a true and si mpl e
sense, he bel i eves al l the pure, wise, and intel lect ual to be inspired,
and t o be so Ior t he i nst ructi on, advancement , and elevat ion oI
manki nd. That ki nd oI i nspirati on, li ke God' s omnipresence, i s
not li mi ted t o t he Iew writ ers clai med by Jews, Chri st ians, or
Mosl ems, but is co-extensi ve wit h the race. It i s t he consequence
oI a Iai thIul use oI our Iacul ti es. Each man is it s subject , God i s
i ts source, and Trut h it s only test. It di IIers i n degrees, as t he
i ntell ectual endowment s, t he moral wealt h oI t he soul , and t he de-
gree oI cul ti vat ion oI those endowments and Iacul t i es di IIer. It is
l i mit ed to no sect, age, or nati on. It is wi de as the worl d and
common as God. It was not given t o a Iew men, in t he i nIancy
oI manki nd, t o monopoli ze inspirati on, and bar God out oI the
soul. We are not born in the dotage and decay oI t he worl d. The
st ars are beauti Iul as in their pri me; the most ancient Heavens
are Iresh and st rong. God is sti ll everywhere i n nature. Wher-
ever a heart beat s wi t h l ove, wherever Fai th and Reason ut ter
t heir oracl es, t here is God, as Iormerly in the heart s oI seers and
prophet s. No soi l on eart h i s so holy as the good man' s heart;
nothing i s so Iul l oI God. Thi s i nspi rat ion is not given t o t he
l earned al one, not al one to the great and wi se, but to every Iait hIul
chil d oI God. Certai n as t he open eye dri nks i n t he l ight , do t he
pure in heart see God; and he who li ves truly, Ieel s Hi m as a pres-
ence wit hi n t he soul . The consci ence i s t he very voi ce oI Dei ty.
Masonry, around whose alt ars the Christ ian, t he Hebrew, the
Mosl em, t he Brahmi n, the Ioll owers oI ConIucius and Zoroast er,
can assembl e as bret hren and unit e i n prayer t o t he one God who
i s above al l the Baal i m, must needs leave i t t o each oI i ts Init i at es
t o l ook Ior t he Ioundat ion oI his Iai t h and hope to the writ ten
scriptures oI his own rel igi on. For i t sel I i t Iinds t hose truths
deIi nit e enough, which are wri t t en by t he Iinger oI God upon t he
heart oI man and on t he pages oI the book oI nat ure. Views oI
reli gion and duty, wrought out by the medi tati ons oI the st udious,
conIi rmed by t he allegi ance oI the good and wi se, stamped as
st erl ing by t he response t hey Ii nd in every uncorrupted mi nd, com-
mend themselves t o Masons oI every creed, and may well be ac-
cept ed by al l.
The Mason does not pretend t o dogmat ic certainty, nor vai nly
i magi ne such certai nty at t ainable. He consi ders that i I there
were no writ ten revel at ion, he coul d saIely rest the hopes that ani-
mate hi m and t he pri nci ples that guide hi m, on the deduct i ons oI
reason and the convicti ons oI i nsti nct and consciousness. He can
Iind a sure Ioundat ion Ior his reli gious belieI, in these deducti ons
oI t he int el l ect and convicti ons oI t he heart . For reason proves
t o hi m t he exist ence and at tributes oI God; and those spi ri tual
i nst inct s which he Ieels are t he voice oI God i n his soul , i nIuse
i nt o hi s mi nd a sense oI his relat ion to God, a convi cti on oI t he
beneIi cence oI hi s Creat or and Preserver, and a hope oI Iuture ex-
i stence; and hi s reason and conscience ali ke unerri ngly poi nt to
virtue as the hi ghest good, and the desti ned ai m and purpose oI
man' s l i Ie.
He st udi es the wonders oI the Heavens, t he Irame-work and
revol ut ions oI t he Earth, t he mysteri ous beaut ies and adaptat ions
oI ani mal exi stence, t he moral and material consti tut i on oI the
human creat ure, so IearIully and wonderIully made; and is sat i s-
Iied that God IS; and that a Wise and Good Bei ng is the aut hor
oI t he starry Heavens above hi m, and oI the moral worl d wi thin
hi m; and his mind Ii nds an adequate Ioundati on Ior i ts hopes, i ts
worship, i ts pri nci ples oI acti on, i n t he Iar-stretching Universe, i n
t he glorious Iirmament , i n t he deep, Iull soul, bursti ng wit h un-
utterabl e t houghts.
These are t ruths whi ch every reIlecti ng mind wil l unhesit at i ngly
receive, as not to be surpassed, nor capabl e oI i mprovement; and
Iit ted, i I obeyed, t o make eart h i ndeed a Paradise, and man only a
l it tl e l ower than t he angels. The wort hl essness oI ceremonial
observances, and t he necessi ty oI act ive virt ue; the enIorcement
oI purity oI heart as t he securi ty Ior puri ty oI l iIe, and oI the
government oI the thought s, as the origi nat ors and Iorerunners oI
act ion; uni versal phi lant hropy, requiri ng us to l ove all men, and
t o do unt o ot hers t hat and that only which we shoul d t hi nk it
right, just, and generous Ior t hem to do unto us; Iorgi veness oI
i nj uries; the necessity oI selI-sacri Ii ce i n t he discharge oI duty;
humi li ty; genui ne si nceri ty, and bei ng t hat whi ch we seem to be;
al l these subl i me precept s need no miracl e, no voice Irom the
cl ouds, t o recommend t hem to our al legiance, or t o assure us oI
t heir divine origi n. They command obedience by virtue oI t heir
i nherent rect i tude and beauty; and have been, and are, and wi ll
be the law in every age and every country oI t he worl d. God
revealed t hem to man i n t he beginning.
To the Mason, God i s our Father in Heaven, t o be Whose
especi al chil dren i s t he suIIici ent reward oI the peacemakers, t o see
Whose Iace t he hi ghest hope oI the pure i n heart ; Who i s ever at
hand to strengthen His t rue worshi ppers; to Whom our most Ier-
vent love i s due, our most humbl e and pat ient submi ssion; Whose
most acceptable worship i s a pure and pi tyi ng heart and a beneIi-
cent l iIe; in Whose constant presence we l ive and act, to Whose
merci Iul di sposal we are resigned by t hat deat h which, we hope
and bel ieve, i s but the ent rance t o a bet t er l iIe; and Whose wi se
decrees Iorbid a man t o lap hi s soul i n an elysium oI mere indol ent
As t o our Ieeli ngs t oward Hi m and our conduct toward man,
Masonry teaches li tt le about which men can diIIer, and l it tl e Irom
which they can di ssent. He i s our Father; and we are al l bret h-
ren. This much l i es open to the most ignorant and busy, as Iully
as t o those who have most lei sure and are most learned. This
needs no Pri est to teach i t , and no aut hori ty t o i ndorse i t; and i I
every man did t hat only which i s consi stent wit h i t, i t woul d exi le
barbari ty, cruelty, int ol erance, unchari tabl eness, perIi dy, treach-
ery, revenge, selIishness, and al l thei r ki ndred vices and bad pas-
si ons beyond t he conIines oI the worl d.
The true Mason, si ncerely hol di ng t hat a Supreme God creat ed
and governs this world, bel ieves also that He governs it by laws,
which, t hough wi se, just , and beneIicent , are yet steady, unwaver-
i ng, inexorabl e. He bel ieves that his agonies and sorrows are or-
dained Ior hi s chasteni ng, his st rengtheni ng, his el aborat i on and
development ; because they are the necessary result s oI t he opera-
t ion oI laws, the best that coul d be devi sed Ior t he happi ness and
puri Ii cati on oI t he speci es, and t o give occasion and opport uni ty
Ior the practi ce oI al l the virt ues, Irom the homel iest and most
common, to t he nobl est and most subl i me; or perhaps not even
t hat , but the best adapted to work out t he vast , awIul, glori ous,
et ernal designs oI the Great Spi ri t oI t he Universe. He bel ieves
t hat the ordai ned operat i ons oI nat ure, which have brought mi sery
t o hi m, have, Irom the very unswerving tranqui li ty oI their
career, showered bl essings and sunshi ne upon many anot her pat h;
t hat the unrel ent ing chari ot oI Ti me, which has crushed or mai med
hi m in i t s all ot t ed course, i s pressi ng onward to the accompli sh-
ment oI t hose serene and mighty purposes, t o have contributed t o
which, even as a vict i m, is an honor and a recompense. He t akes
t hi s vi ew oI Ti me and Nat ure and God, and yet bears hi s l ot wi th-
out murmur or di strust ; because i t is a port ion oI a system, t he
best possible, because ordained by God. He does not bel ieve t hat
God l oses sight oI hi m, whil e superi ntendi ng t he march oI t he
great harmoni es oI t he Universe; nor that i t was not Ioreseen,
when t he Uni verse was created, it s laws enacted, and t he l ong suc-
cession oI it s operat i ons pre-ordained, t hat i n t he great march oI
t hose event s, he would suIIer pain and undergo calami ty. He be-
l ieves that his individual good ent ered int o God' s consi derati on, as
wel l as the great cardinal resul ts to whi ch the course oI al l thi ngs
i s tendi ng.
Thus bel ieving, he has att ai ned an emi nence in vi rtue, the hi gh-
est , amid passi ve excell ence, whi ch humanity can reach. He Ii nds
his reward and hi s support in t he reIl ecti on that he is an unrel uc-
t ant and sel I-sacriIici ng co-operat or wi th the Creat or oI t he Uni-
verse; and in the noble consci ousness oI bei ng worthy and capabl e
oI so subl i me a concepti on, yet so sad a dest i ny. He is then truly
enti tl ed t o be call ed a Grand El ect, PerIect , and Subli me Mason.
He is content to Ial l early i n t he batt le, iI his body may but Iorm
a st eppi ng-stone Ior t he Iut ure conquests oI humani ty.
It cannot be t hat God, Who, we are certai n, is perIect ly good,
can choose us to suIIer pai n, unless ei ther we are ourselves to re-
cei ve Irom it an anti dot e t o what i s evil i n oursel ves, or el se as
such pai n i s a necessary part i n t he scheme oI the Uni verse, which
as a whole i s good. In ei ther case, the Mason recei ves it wit h
submi ssion. He woul d not suIIer unless i t was ordered so. What -
ever his creed, iI he bel ieves that God i s, and t hat He cares Ior
Hi s creat ures, he cannot doubt that; nor that i t woul d not have
been so ordered, unless it was ei t her bett er Ior hi mselI, or Ior
some other persons, or Ior some t hi ngs. To compl ain and lament
i s t o murmur agai nst God' s wi l l , and worse than unbel ieI.
The Mason, whose mi nd i s cast i n a nobler moul d t han those oI
t he i gnorant and unreIlect ing, and i s inst i nct wi th a di vi ner li Ie, -
who l oves trut h more t han rest, and t he peace oI Heaven rat her
t han the peace oI Eden, --t o whom a l oIt i er being bri ngs severer
cares, --who knows t hat man does not li ve by pl easure or content
al one, but by t he presence oI the power oI God, --must cast be-
hind hi m the hope oI any other repose or tranquil li ty, than t hat
which is the last reward oI long agonies oI thought; he must re-
l inqui sh al l prospect oI any Heaven save t hat oI which trouble i s
t he avenue and portal ; he must gird up his loi ns, and tri m his
l amp, Ior a work that must be done, and must not be negl igently
done. II he does not l ike t o l i ve i n t he Iurni shed l odgings oI tra-
dit i on, he must bui ld hi s own house, hi s own syst em oI Iai t h and
t hought , Ior hi msel I.
The hope oI success, and not t he hope oI reward, should be our
st i mulati ng and sust aini ng power. Our obj ect , and not oursel ves,
shoul d be our inspiri ng thought. SelIi shness is a si n, when t em-
porary, and Ior t i me. Spun out to eterni ty, it does not become
celest i al prudence. We shoul d t oi l and die, not Ior Heaven or
Bl iss, but Ior Duty.
In t he more Irequent cases, where we have t o j oi n our eIIorts to
t hose oI thousands oI others, to cont ribute to the carryi ng Iorward
oI a great cause; merely to ti ll t he ground or sow the seed Ior a
very dist ant harvest, or t o prepare t he way Ior the Iuture advent
oI some great amendment; the amount which each one contri b-
utes t o the achievement oI ult i mate success, t he porti on oI the
pri ce whi ch j ust ice shoul d assi gn to each as his especial produc-
t ion, can never be accurat ely ascertai ned. Perhaps Iew oI those
who have ever l abored, in t he patience oI secrecy and sil ence, to
bri ng about some poli ti cal or social change, which t hey Ielt con-
vinced would ul ti mat ely prove oI vast service t o humani ty, li ved
t o see the change eIIected, or t he anticipat ed good Il ow Irom it .
Fewer st il l oI t hem were able to pronounce what appreciable
weight their several eIIorts cont ri but ed to the achievement oI the
change desi red. Many wi ll doubt , whether, i n t rut h, t hese exer-
t ions have any inIl uence whatever; and, discouraged, cease al l
act ive eIIort.
Not to be t hus di scouraged, the Mason must l abor t o el evate
and puri Iy hi s moti ves, as wel l as sedul ously cheri sh t he convi c-
t ion, assuredly a true one, that i n thi s worl d there i s no such thing
as eIIort t hrown away; that in all labor t here is proIi t; t hat all
si ncere exerti on, i n a ri ghteous and unsel Iish cause, is necessari ly
Iol l owed, in spi te oI all appearance t o the cont rary, by an appro-
pri at e and proporti onat e success; that no bread cast upon t he
wat ers can be wholly l ost; t hat no seed planted in the ground can
Iail t o quicken i n due ti me and measure; and t hat , however we
may, i n moments oI despondency, be apt to doubt , not only
whether our cause wi l l t ri umph, but whet her, i I it does, we shall
have contributed t o i ts triumph, --t here is One, Who has not
only seen every exert i on we have made, but Who can assign
t he exact degree in whi ch each sol dier has assi st ed t o gain t he
great vict ory over soci al evi l. No good work is done wholly i n
The Grand Elect , PerIect , and Subli me Mason wi ll i n nowi se
deserve that honorabl e t it l e, iI he has not that strength, t hat wi ll ,
t hat selI-sustai ning energy; that Fait h, that Ieeds upon no earthly
hope, nor ever t hi nks oI vi ct ory, but , cont ent in it s own consum-
mati on, combat s, because it ought t o combat , rej oici ng Iight s, and
st il l rej oici ng Ial ls.
The Augean Stables oI the World, t he accumul ated uncl eanness
and mi sery oI cent uries, requi re a mighty river t o cl eanse t hem
t horoughly away; every drop we contri but e ai ds t o swel l that
river and augment i t s Iorce, in a degree appreciable by God,
t hough not by man; and he whose zeal is deep and earnest , wil l
not be over-anxi ous that his individual drops shoul d be di st i n-
guishable amid t he mighty mass oI cl eansing and Ierti l i zi ng
wat ers; Iar l ess t hat , Ior the sake oI dist incti on, i t should Il ow in
i neIIect i ve singleness away.
The true Mason wi ll not be careIul t hat hi s name shoul d be
i nscribed upon the mi te which he casts i nt o the treasury oI God.
It suIIi ces hi m to know t hat i I he has labored, wi th puri ty oI pur-
pose, i n any good cause, he must have contri but ed to it s success;
t hat the degree in which he has contributed is a mat ter oI inIi-
nitely small concern; and st il l more, that the consci ousness oI
having so cont ri but ed, however obscurely and unnot iced, i s hi s
suIIici ent , even i I it be his sole, reward. Let every Grand El ect,
PerIect, and Subl i me Mason cheri sh thi s Iait h. It is a duty. It
i s t he bril l iant and never-dying light that shines wi thi n and
t hrough the symbol ic pedest al oI alabast er, on which reposes t he
perIect cube oI agat e, symbol oI duty, i nscribed wi th the di vi ne
name oI God. He who industri ously sows and reaps is a good
l aborer, and wort hy oI hi s hi re. But he who sows t hat which
shal l be reaped by ot hers, by t hose who wi ll know not oI and care
not Ior the sower, is a laborer oI a nobler order, and, wort hy oI a
more excel lent reward.
The Mason does not exhort others t o an asceti c underval uing
oI t hi s l i Ie, as an i nsigniIicant and unworthy porti on oI exi stence;
Ior that demands Ieeli ngs whi ch are unnatural, and whi ch, t here-
Iore, i I attained, must be morbi d, and iI merely proIessed, insi n-
cere; and t eaches us to l ook rat her t o a Iut ure l iIe Ior the com-
pensati on oI soci al evil s, t han to t his l i Ie Ior t hei r cure; and so
does i njury to t he cause oI vi rt ue and t o t hat oI social progress.
Li Ie is real , and is earnest , and i t is Iul l oI duti es t o be perIormed.
It is t he begi nni ng oI our i mmort al ity. Those only who Ieel a
deep i nterest and aIIecti on Ior thi s worl d wil l work resol utely Ior
i ts amel iorati on; t hose whose aIIect i ons are transIerred t o Heaven,
easily acquiesce in the mi seri es oI earth, deeming t hem hopeless,
beIi tt ing, and ordai ned; and console themsel ves wi th the i dea oI
t he ammends which are one day t o be t heirs. It i s a sad trut h, that
t hose most decidedly given t o spiri t ual cont empl at ion, and to
making religi on rule in t heir hearts, are oIten most apathetic to-
ward all i mprovement oI t hi s world' s systems, and in many cases
virtual conservati ves oI evil , and hosti le to pol i ti cal and social re-
Iorm, as di verti ng men' s energi es Irom et ernity.
The Mason does not war wit h his own inst i nct s, macerate the
body into weakness and disorder, and di sparage what he sees to be
beauti Iul, knows t o be wonderIul, and Ieel s to be unspeakably
dear and Iascinat i ng. He does not put asi de the nat ure whi ch
God has given hi m, t o struggle aIter one which He has not be-
st owed. He knows that man is sent int o the world, not a spi r-
i tual, but a composit e being, made up oI body and mi nd, t he body
having, as is Ii t and needIul i n a mat eri al world, i t s Iul l, right Iul,
and al lotted share. His l i Ie i s gui ded by a Iull recogni ti on oI this
Iact. He does not deny it i n bold words, and admit i t in weak-
nesses and inevit able Iai li ngs. He bel ieves that his spiri tual ity
wi ll come i n the next stage oI his being, when he puts on t he spir-
i tual body; t hat hi s body wi l l be dropped at death; and that , unt il
t hen, God meant i t t o be commanded and control led, but not neg-
l ected, despised, or i gnored by t he soul, under pai n oI heavy con-
Yet t he Mason i s not i ndiIIerent as t o t he Iate oI t he soul , aIt er
i ts present l iIe, as to i ts conti nued and et ernal being, and the char-
acter oI the scenes i n which that being wi ll be Iul ly devel oped.
These are t o hi m t opi cs oI t he proroundest i nt erest, and t he most
ennobli ng and reIi ning contempl at i on. They occupy much oI his
l eisure; and as he becomes Iamil iar wi th t he sorrows and calami-
t ies oI this l iIe, as hi s hopes are di sappoint ed and his vi si ons oI
happi ness here Iade away; when l iIe has weari ed hi m i n i ts
race oI hours; when he i s harassed and t oi l -worn, and t he bur-
den oI his years wei ghs heavy on hi m, the balance oI at tracti on
gradual ly incl i nes i n Iavor oI anot her li Ie; and he cli ngs t o hi s
l oIty speculati ons wit h a tenaci ty oI i nterest whi ch needs no i n-
j unct ion, and wil l li sten to no prohibi t ion. They are the consol-
i ng pri vi lege oI the aspiring, t he wayworn, the weary, and the
To hi m the cont emplat i on oI t he Fut ure let s i n l ight upon t he
Present, and devel ops the hi gher port ions oI his nature. He en-
deavors ri ght ly to adj ust the respecti ve cl ai ms oI Heaven and
earth upon his ti me and t hought , so as t o gi ve the proper propor-
t ions t hereoI to perIorming the dut ies and enteri ng i nt o t he i nt er-
est s oI t his world, and t o preparat ion Ior a bet ter; to the cul ti va-
t ion and puri Ii cati on oI hi s own character, and t o t he publ ic servi ce
oI his Iel low-men.
The Mason does not dogmat i ze, but entertai ning and ut tering
his own convi ct i ons, he leaves every one else Iree to do t he same;
and only hopes t hat the ti me wi l l come, even i I aIt er t he l apse oI
ages, when all men shal l Iorm one great Iami ly oI bret hren, and
one l aw al one, the law oI l ove, shal l govern God' s whol e Uni -
Beli eve as you may, my brother; i I the Uni verse is not , t o you,
wi thout a God, and iI man is not li ke the beast t hat peri shes, but
hath an i mmortal soul, we wel come you among us, t o wear, as we
wear, wi th humil ity, and consci ous oI your demeri ts and short-
comings, t he ti tle oI Grand Elect , PerIect, and Subl i me Mason.
It is not wi thout a secret meani ng, that twel ve was the num-
ber oI the Apost les oI Christ , and seventy-two t hat oI hi s Di s-
ci ples: t hat John addressed his rebukes and menaces to the Seven
churches, t he number oI the Archangels and t he Pl anet s. At
Babylon were the Seven St ages oI Bersi ppa, a pyramid oI Seven
st ories, and at Ecbat ana Seven concentric incl osures, each oI a
diIIerent col or. Thebes also had Seven gat es, and t he same num-
ber i s repeated again and again in t he account oI t he Il ood. The
Sephiroth, or Emanat ions, ten in number, three in one class, and
seven i n t he ot her, repeat the myst ic numbers oI Pyt hagoras.
Seven Amschaspands or planetary spi ri t s were invoked wi th
Ormuzd: Seven inIeri or Rishi s oI Hindustan were saved wi th the
head oI t hei r Iami ly i n an ark: and Seven anci ent personages
al one ret urned wit h t he Brit ish just man, Hu, Irom t he dale oI
t he grievous waters. There were Seven Hel i adae, whose Iat her
Hel ias, or t he Sun, once crossed t he sea in a gol den cup; Seven
Ti tans, chil dren oI t he ol der Tit an, Kronos or Sat urn; Seven
Corybantes; and Seven Cabi ri , sons oI Sydyk; Seven pri meval
Cel esti al spirit s oI t he Japanese, and Seven Karlest ers who
escaped Irom t he deluge and began t o be t he parent s oI a new
race, on t he summit oI Mount Albordi. Seven Cyclopes, al so,
buil t the wall s oI Tiryus.
Cel us, as quoted by Origen, tel ls us t hat t he Persi ans repre-
sent ed by symbols t he two-Iold moti on oI t he st ars, Ii xed and
planet ary, and t he passage oI t he Soul through t heir successi ve
spheres. They erected i n t heir holy caves, in whi ch the myst ic
ri t es oI t he Mi thri ac Ini ti at i ons were pract i sed, what he denomi -
nates a high ladder, on the Seven st eps oI which were Seven
gat es or port als, according to t he number oI the Seven pri nci pal
heavenly bodies. Through t hese t he aspirant s passed, unt il t hey
reached the summi t oI the whole; and thi s passage was styled a
t ransmigrati on t hrough the spheres.
Jacob saw in hi s dream a ladder pl anted or set on t he earth,
and i ts top reaching to Heaven, and t he Mal aki Al ohi m ascending
and descending on i t, and above it st ood IHUH, decl ari ng Hi msel I
t o be Ihuh-Al hi Abraham. The word t ranslated l adder, is
Salam, Irom Salal , raised, elevated, reared up, exalted, pil ed
up i nt o a heap, Aggeravi t. Salalah, means a heap, rampart ,
or ot her accumul ati on oI earth or stone, art iIici ally made; and
Salaa or Salo, i s a rock or cl i II or boulder, and the name oI
t he ci ty oI Petra. There i s no anci ent Hebrew word t o desi gnat e
a pyramid.
The symboli c mountai n Meru was ascended by Seven steps or
st ages; and al l the pyrami ds and arti Ii cial t umuli and hill ocks
t hrown up in Il at countries were i mi tati ons oI thi s Iabulous and
myst i c mount ai n, Ior purposes oI worship. These were the "High
Places" so oIt en ment i oned i n the Hebrew books, on which the
i dol aters sacriIiced to Ioreign gods.
The pyramids were someti mes square, and someti mes round.
The sacred Babylonian tower |Magdol |, dedicat ed t o the
great Father Bal , was an art i Ii cial hi l l , oI pyrami dal shape, and
Seven st ages, bui lt oI bri ck, and each st age oI a diIIerent col or,
representi ng t he Seven pl anet ary spheres by the appropri ate color
oI each pl anet . Meru i tsel I was said t o be a si ngle mountain, ter-
minati ng i n t hree peaks, and t hus a symbol oI t he Tri murt i. The
great Pagoda at Tanj ore was oI si x stori es, surmounted by a tem-
ple as the sevent h, and on thi s t hree spi res or towers. An anci ent
pagoda at Deogur was surmount ed by a tower, sust aini ng the
myst i c egg and a trident. Herodotus tel ls us t hat the Temple oI
Bal at Babylon was a tower composed oI Seven t owers, resti ng on
an eighth that served as basi s, and successi vely di mi ni shing i n
si ze Irom the bot tom to the top; and Strabo tel ls us i t was a
Faber thi nks that t he Mit hriac l adder was real ly a pyrami d wit h
Seven st ages, each provided wi th a narrow door or apert ure,
t hrough each oI which doors the aspi rant passed, to reach the
summi t , and t hen descended t hrough si mi l ar doors on t he opposit e
si de oI the pyramid; the ascent and descent oI t he Soul bei ng
t hus represent ed.
Each Mi thri ac cave and all the most ancient temples were
t ended to symbol i ze t he Universe, which i tsel I was habi tually
cal led the Temple and habi tat ion oI Deity. Every templ e was
t he worl d in mi niature; and so t he whol e worl d was one grand
t empl e. The most anci ent templ es were rooIl ess; and thereIore
t he Persians, Celt s, and Scythi ans strongly di sli ked art i Iici al cov-
ered ediIices. Cicero says t hat Xerxes burned the Grecian tem-
ples, on the express ground that t he whol e worl d was the MagniIi-
cent Templ e and Habi tat ion oI t he Supreme Deity. Macrobi us
says that t he entire Uni verse was judici ously deemed by many t he
Temple oI God. Pl at o pronounced the real Templ e oI t he Dei ty
t o be t he worl d; and Heracl it us declared t hat the Universe, vari e-
gat ed wi th ani mal s and pl ant s and st ars was the only genuine
Temple oI t he Di vi nity.
How compl etely t he Templ e oI Sol omon was symbol ic, i s
maniIest , not only Irom t he cont i nual reproduct ion i n i t oI
t he sacred numbers and oI ast rological symbol s i n t he hist or-
i cal descri pt ions oI i t; but also, and yet more, Irom t he de-
t ail s oI t he i magi nary reconstruct ed ediIice, seen by Ezekiel
i n his visi on. The Apocalypse compl etes the demonst rat ion,
and shows t he kabal i st i c meanings oI t he whole. The Sym-
bola Archi tect oni ca are Iound on t he most ancient ediIices;
and t hese mathemat i cal Ii gures and inst ruments, adopted by
t he Templ ars, and identi cal wit h those on t he gnosti c seals and
abraxae, connect their dogma wit h t he Chaldaic, Syri ac, and
Egypt ian Oriental phil osophy. The secret Pythagorean doc-
t ri nes oI numbers were preserved by the monks oI Thi bet, by
t he Hierophants oI Egypt and El eusi s, at Jerusal em, and in
t he ci rcular Chapters oI t he Drui ds; and they are especial ly
consecrated i n t hat mysteri ous book, t he Apocalypse oI Saint
Al l temples were surrounded by pi llars, recordi ng the number
oI t he constellati ons, the signs oI t he zodi ac, or t he cycles oI the
planet s; and each one was a microcosm or symbol oI t he Universe,
having Ior rooI or ceil ing t he st arred vault oI Heaven.
Al l temples were origi nally open at t he top, havi ng Ior rooI the
sky. Twel ve pi l lars descri bed t he bel t oI t he zodiac. Whatever
t he number oI the pi l l ars, t hey were mysti cal everywhere. At
Abury, the Drui dic temple reproduced all t he cycl es by i t s col -
umns. Around t he t empl es oI Chil mi nar i n Persi a, oI Baal bec,
and oI Tukhti Schl omoh in Tart ary, on the Ironti er oI China,
st ood Iorty pil lars. On each side oI the templ e at Paestum were
Iourteen, recording t he Egypt ian cycl e oI t he dark and light sides
oI t he moon, as described by Plut arch; the whole t hi rty-eight
t hat surrounded t hem recordi ng the two met eoric cycles so oIten
Iound i n t he Druidic t emples.
The theat re bui lt by Scaurus, i n Greece, was surrounded by
360 columns; t he Templ e at Mecca, and t hat at Iona i n Scotl and,
by 360 st ones.
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
15º - Kni ght oI t he East, 16º - Prince oI Jerusal em
17º - Kni ght oI t he East and West, 18º - Knight Rose Croi x .
|Knight oI the East , oI the Sword, or oI the Eagle. |
Thi s Degree, l ike all others i n Masonry, is symbol i cal . Based
upon hi stori cal t ruth and aut hent ic tradi ti on, it i s st il l an all e-
gory. The leading lesson oI t hi s Degree is Fideli ty to obligati on,
and Constancy and Perseverance under diIIi cul ti es and di scour-
Masonry i s engaged i n her crusade, --against i gnorance, intol er-
ance, Ianati ci sm, superst it ion, unchari tableness, and error. She
does not sail wit h the trade-winds, upon a smooth sea, wit h a
st eady Iree breeze, Iair Ior a wel comi ng harbor; but meets and
must overcome many opposi ng current s, baIIli ng wi nds, and dead
cal ms.
The chieI obstacl es to her success are t he apat hy and Iai thless-
ness oI her own sel Ii sh chil dren, and t he supi ne i ndi IIerence oI
t he worl d. In t he roar and crush and hurry oI li Ie and busi ness,
and t he t umult and uproar oI poli ti cs, t he quiet voice oI Masonry
i s unheard and unheeded. The Ii rst lesson which one learns, who
engages in any great work oI reIorm or beneIi cence, is, that men
are essent ial ly careless, lukewarm, and indiIIerent as to every-
t hi ng t hat does not concern their own personal and i mmedi ate
wel Iare. It i s to single men, and not to the unit ed eIIort s oI
many, t hat al l t he great works oI man, struggl ing toward perIec-
t ion, are owing. The ent husi ast, who i magines t hat he can in-
spire wi th hi s own ent husi asm the mult it ude that eddies around
hi m, or even t he Iew who have associated t hemsel ves wit h hi m as
co-workers, i s grievously mi staken; and most oIt en t he convict i on
oI his own mi st ake is Iol l owed by discouragement and di sgust.
To do al l , to pay al l, and t o suIIer all , and t hen, when despi te al l
obstacl es and hi ndrances, success is accompl i shed, and a great
work done, to see those who opposed or l ooked col dly on it , cl ai m
and reap al l the praise and reward, i s t he common and al most uni -
versal lot oI the beneIactor oI hi s ki nd.
He who endeavors to serve, t o beneIit , and i mprove t he worl d,
i s l ike a swi mmer, who st ruggles agai nst a rapid current , in a river
l ashed int o angry waves by t he winds. OIten t hey roar over hi s
head, oIt en t hey beat hi m back and baIIle hi m. Most men yield
t o t he stress oI the current, and Il oat wi t h it t o t he shore, or are
swept over the rapids; and only here and t here the st out, st rong
heart and vigorous arms st ruggle on toward ul t i mat e success.
It is t he moti onl ess and stat i onary t hat most Iret s and i mpedes
t he current oI progress; t he sol i d rock or st upi d dead t ree, rest ed
Iirmly on t he bot tom, and around whi ch t he ri ver whi rl s and
eddies: t he Masons that doubt and hesit ate and are discouraged;
t hat di sbel ieve in the capabi li ty oI man t o i mprove; that are not
disposed t o t oi l and labor Ior t he int erest and wel l-bei ng oI gen-
eral humanity; t hat expect others t o do all , even oI t hat whi ch
t hey do not oppose or ri di cule; whil e t hey si t, applauding and
doing nothi ng, or perhaps prognosticati ng Iail ure.
There were many such at the rebui ldi ng oI the Temple. There
were prophets oI evi l and misIortune--t he l ukewarm and the in-
diIIerent and the apat het ic; those who st ood by and sneered; and
t hose who thought t hey di d God service enough i I they now and
t hen Iai ntly appl auded. There were ravens croaking i l l omen,
and murmurers who preached t he Iol ly and Iuti l i ty oI t he at tempt.
The worl d is made up oI such; and t hey were as abundant then
as t hey are now.
But gl oomy and discouragi ng as was the prospect , wit h l uke-
warmness wi thi n and bit t er opposi t ion wi thout , our anci ent breth-
ren persevered. Let us leave t hem engaged i n the good work,
and whenever t o us, as t o them, success is uncertai n, remote, and
conti ngent , let us sti ll remember that t he only questi on Ior us to
ask, as t rue men and Masons, i s, what does duty requi re; and not
what wil l be t he resul t and our reward iI we do our duty. Work
on, the Sword i n one hand, and the Trowel i n t he other!
Masonry teaches that God i s a Paternal Being, and has an i n-
t erest in his creatures, such as is expressed i n the ti tl e Fat her; an
i nterest unknown t o all the systems oI Pagani sm, untaught in all
t he t heori es oI phil osophy; an int erest not only i n the glori ous
beings oI ot her spheres, t he Sons oI Light , t he dwell ers in Heav-
enly worlds, but in us, poor, i gnorant , and unwort hy; that He
has pi ty Ior t he erring, pardon Ior the gui lty, l ove Ior t he pure,
knowl edge Ior t he humble, and promi ses oI i mmortal l iIe Ior
t hose who trust in and obey Hi m.
Wi t hout a bel ieI i n Hi m, l iIe i s mi serable, the worl d i s dark, the
Universe disrobed oI i ts splendors, t he i nt ell ectual t ie to nat ure
broken, the charm oI exi stence di ssolved, the great hope oI being
l ost ; and t he mind, li ke a star struck Irom i ts sphere, wanders
t hrough the i nIi ni te desert oI i ts concepti ons, wi thout att ract ion,
t endency, dest iny, or end.
Masonry teaches, that , oI al l t he event s and acti ons, t hat take
place i n t he uni verse oI worlds and t he et ernal successi on oI ages,
t here is not one, even t he mi nutest , whi ch God did not Iorever
Iorsee wit h all the di sti nct ness oI i mmedi ate visi on, combi ni ng
al l, so that man' s Iree wil l shoul d be His i nst rument , li ke al l the
other Iorces oI nat ure.
It teaches that t he soul oI man i s Iormed by Hi m Ior a pur-
pose; that , bui lt up i n i ts proport ions, and Iashi oned in every
part , by i nIi ni te skil l, an emanat ion Irom His spiri t, i t s nat ure,
necessi ty, and design are virt ue. It i s so Iormed, so moul ded, so
Iashioned, so exact ly balanced, so exquisi tely proporti oned in every
part , t hat sin i ntroduced int o it is mi sery; t hat vi cious t houghts
Iall upon i t l ike drops oI poison; and guil ty desires, breat hi ng on
i ts deli cate Ii bres, make pl ague-spot s t here, deadly as those oI pes-
t il ence upon the body. It i s made Ior virt ue, and not Ior vice;
Ior puri ty, as it s end, rest, and happiness. Not more vainly woul d
we at tempt t o make the mount ain sink t o the level oI the vall ey,
t he waves oI t he angry sea turn back Irom it s shores and cease t o
t hunder upon the beach, the st ars t o hal t i n t heir swi It courses,
t han to change any one l aw oI our own nat ure. And one oI t hose
l aws, ut t ered by God' s voice, and speaki ng t hrough every nerve
and Iibre, every Iorce and el ement, oI t he moral consti tut i on He
has given us, i s that we must be upri ght and vi rt uous; that i I
t empt ed we must resi st; t hat we must govern our unruly pas-
si ons, and hold in hand our sensual appet i tes. And t hi s i s not t he
dictate oI an arbit rary wil l , nor oI some stern and i mpracti cabl e
l aw; but i t is part oI t he great Ii rm law oI harmony that binds
t he Universe t oget her: not the mere enact ment oI arbitrary wi ll ;
but the di ctat e oI InIinit e Wi sdom.
We know t hat God is good, and t hat what He does i s right.
Thi s known, t he works oI creati on, the changes oI li Ie, t he dest i-
nies oI eternity, are all spread beIore us, as the di spensat ions and
counsel s oI i nIi ni te love. This known, we t hen know that the
l ove oI God i s worki ng t o issues, li ke i t sel I, beyond all t hought
and i magi nati on good and gl ori ous; and t hat t he only reason
why we do not underst and i t, is that i t is t oo glori ous Ior us t o un-
derstand. God' s love t akes care Ior all , and not hing i s neglected.
It watches over al l, provi des Ior al l, makes wi se adapt ati ons Ior
al l; Ior age, Ior i nIancy, Ior mat uri ty, Ior chi ldhood; in every
scene oI thi s or anot her world; Ior want, weakness, j oy, sorrow,
and even Ior sin. Al l i s good and wel l and right ; and shal l be so
Iorever. Through the eternal ages the l ight oI God' s beneIicence
shal l shi ne hereaIt er, discl osi ng al l, consummati ng al l, rewardi ng
al l that deserve reward. Then we shal l see, what now we can only
believe. The cloud wil l be l i Ited up, the gate oI myst ery be
passed, and t he Iul l light shi ne Iorever; t he l ight oI whi ch t hat
oI t he Lodge i s a symbol . Then that which caused us t ri al shal l
yield us tri umph; and that whi ch made our heart ache shall Iil l
us wi th gladness; and we shal l t hen Ieel t hat there, as here, t he
only true happi ness is t o learn, t o advance, and to i mprove; whi ch
could not happen unless we had commenced wi th error, ignorance,
and i mperIect ion. We must pass through t he darkness, t o reach
t he l ight .

We no longer expect t o rebui l d t he Templ e at Jerusal em. To
us it has become but a symbol . To us the whol e world is God' s
Temple, as i s every upright heart. To establi sh al l over t he worl d
t he New Law and Rei gn oI Love, Peace, Chari ty, and Tolerati on,
i s t o buil d t hat Templ e, most acceptable to God, i n erecti ng which
Masonry i s now engaged. No l onger needing t o repair t o Jerusa-
l em to worshi p, nor t o oIIer up sacri Ii ces and shed blood to propi-
t iat e t he Dei ty, man may make the woods and mountai ns his
Churches and Templ es, and worshi p God wi t h a devout grat it ude,
and wi th works oI charity and beneIicence t o his Iel l ow-men.
Wherever t he humbl e and cont rite heart si lently oIIers up it s
adorat ion, under the overarching trees, i n t he open, level meadows,
on t he hil l -side, i n t he glen, or i n t he city' s swarming st reet s; t here
i s God' s House and t he New Jerusalem.
The Princes oI Jerusalem no l onger si t as magi strates t o judge
between the people; nor is t hei r number li mi ted t o Iive. But
t heir dut ies st il l remain subst ant ial ly the same, and their i nsignia
and symbol s retai n t hei r old signiIi cance. Just i ce and Equi ty
are sti ll t hei r charact eri stics. To reconcil e di sputes and heal di s-
sensi ons, t o restore amity and peace, t o soothe di sli kes and soIten,
prej udi ces, are their peculi ar dut ies; and t hey know that t he
peacemakers are blessed.
Thei r embl ems have been al ready explained. They are part oI
l anguage oI Masonry; t he same now as it was when Moses
l earned i t Irom the Egypt ian Hierophant s. .
Sti l l we observe the spiri t oI the Divine law, as thus enunci ated
t o our anci ent brethren, when t he Temple was rebui lt , and the
book oI t he l aw agai n opened:
"Execut e t rue judgment; and show mercy and compassi on
every man to hi s brot her. Oppress not the wi dow nor t he Iather-
l ess, t he st ranger nor the poor; and l et none oI you i magi ne evil
agai nst hi s brot her in hi s heart. Speak ye every man t he t ruth
t o his neighbor; execute t he judgment oI Truth and Peace in
your gates; and love no Ialse oath; Ior al l these I hate, sai th the
"Let t hose who have power rul e in righteousness, and Princes
i n j udgment . And l et hi m t hat i s a j udge be as an hi di ng-place
Irom the wind, and a covert Irom t he t empest ; as rivers oI wat er
i n a dry pl ace; as the shadow oI a great rock i n a weary land.
Then the vi l e person shall no more be cal led li beral; nor the
churl bount i Iul ; and the work oI just i ce shal l be peace; and the
eIIect oI j ust i ce, qui et and securi ty; and wisdom and knowledge
shal l be t he st abi l i ty oI t he t i mes. Walk ye righteously and speak
upri ght ly; despise the gains oI oppressi on, shake Irom your hands
t he contaminati on oI bribes; st op not your ears against t he cries
oI t he oppressed, nor shut your eyes that you may not see t he
cri mes oI t he great; and you shal l dwel l on high, and your pl ace
oI deIence be l ike muni ti ons oI rocks."
Forget not these precepts oI the ol d Law; and especi al ly do
not Iorget , as you advance, t hat every Mason, however humbl e, i s
your brot her, and t he labori ng man your peer! Remember always
t hat all Masonry is work, and t hat t he t rowel is an embl em oI t he
Degrees in t his Council . Labor, when right ly underst ood, i s both
nobl e and ennobl ing, and i ntended to develop man' s moral and
spirit ual nat ure, and not to be deemed a di sgrace or a mi sIort une.
Everyt hing around us is, in it s beari ngs and i nIl uences, moral .
The serene and bright morni ng, when we recover our conscious
exist ence Irom the embraces oI sl eep; when, Irom that i mage oI
Deat h God cal ls us t o a new li Ie, and again gives us exist ence, and
Hi s merci es vi sit us in every bright ray and glad thought , and
cal l Ior grati tude and content; the si lence oI that early dawn, t he
hushed sil ence, as it were, oI expect ati on; the holy event i de, it s
cooli ng breeze, i ts lengt heni ng shadows, i ts Iall ing shades, i t s st il l
and sober hour; the sul try noonti de and t he st ern and sol emn
midnight; and Spring-t i me, and chast eni ng Aut umn; and Sum-
mer, t hat unbars our gat es, and carri es us Iorth ami dst t he ever-
renewed wonders oI the world; and Wi nt er, t hat gat hers us
around t he eveni ng hearth :--all t hese, as they pass, touch by t urns
t he spri ngs oI t he spirit ual l iIe in us, and are conducti ng that l iIe
t o good or evi l. The i dl e wat ch-hand oIten poi nt s t o something
wi thin us; and t he shadow oI the gnomon on the di al oIten Ial ls
upon the conscience.
A l iIe oI l abor i s not a stat e oI i nIeri ori ty or degradat ion. The
Al mi ghty has not cast man' s l ot beneat h the qui et shades, and
amid glad groves and l ovely hil ls, wi th no task to perIorm; wi t h
nothing to do but to ri se up and eat, and t o l ie down and rest .
He has ordai ned that Work shall be done, i n al l the dwel li ngs oI
l iIe, i n every producti ve Iiel d, in every busy ci ty, and on every
wave oI every ocean. And t hi s He has done, because it has
plrased Hi m to give man a nature dest ined t o higher ends t han
i ndolent repose and irresponsi ble proIit less i ndulgence; and be-
cause, Ior devel opi ng the energies oI such a nature, work was the
necessary and proper el ement. We might as well ask why He
could not make two and t wo be si x, as why He could not devel op
t hese energi es wi thout the i nstrumentali ty oI work. They are
equally i mpossibi l it ies.
Thi s Masonry teaches, as a great Truth; a great moral land-
mark, t hat ought to gui de t he course oI all manki nd. It teaches
i ts toi l ing chil dren t hat t he scene oI their dai ly li Ie is al l spi ri tual,
t hat the very i mpl ements oI their t oi l, the Iabri cs they weave, t he
merchandi se they bart er, are designed Ior spi ri tual ends; t hat so
believing, t heir daily l ot may be to them a sphere Ior the noblest
i mprovement. That whi ch we do in our int ervals oI rel axat ion,
our church-goi ng, and our book-reading, are especial ly designed t o
prepare our mi nds Ior t he act ion oI LiIe. We are to hear and read
and medi t ate, t hat we may act wel l ; and the act i on oI Li Ie i s i tselI
t he great Ii el d Ior spiri t ual i mprovement . There i s no t ask oI in-
dustry or busi ness, in Ii eld or Iorest , on the wharI or the shi p' s
deck, i n the oIIi ce or t he exchange, but has spirit ual ends. There
i s no care or cross oI our daily l abor, but was especi al ly ordai ned
t o nurture i n us pat ience, cal mness, resoluti on, perseverance, gen-
t leness, di sinterestedness, magnani mi ty. Nor i s there any t ool or
i mplement oI toil , but i s a part oI t he great spiri t ual instrumen-
t ali ty.
Al l the rel at i ons oI l iIe, t hose oI parent, chi ld, brother, sist er,
Iri end, associ ate, lover and bel oved, husband, wi Ie, are moral ,
t hroughout every l iving ti e and t hrill i ng nerve that blnd t hem
t oget her. They cannot subsist a day nor an hour wi thout putt ing
t he mind t o a trial oI it s trut h, Ii del ity, Iorbearance, and di sinter-
est edness.
A great city is one ext ended scene oI moral acti on. There i s
blow struck in it but has a purpose, ult i mately good or bad,
and t hereIore moral . There is no act ion perIormed, but has a
mot ive; and mot ives are t he special j uri sdi ct i on oI moral ity.
Equi pages, houses, and Iurnit ure are symbol s oI what is moral,
and t hey i n a thousand ways mi ni st er to right or wrong Ieeli ng.
Everyt hing that belongs t o us, mi ni st eri ng t o our comIort or l ux-
ury, awakens i n us emoti ons oI pri de or grati tude, oI selIishness
or vanity; t houghts oI sel I-i ndulgence, or merci Iul remembrances
oI t he needy and the desti t ute.
Everyt hing acts upon and i nIluences us. God' s great l aw oI
sympat hy and harmony is pot ent and inIl exi bl e as His l aw oI
gravit at ion. A sent ence embodying a nobl e t hought sti rs our
blood; a noise made by a chi ld Irets and exasperat es us, and i nIlu-
ences our act ions.
A worl d oI spiri tual object s, i nIluences, and relat ions l ies around
us al l . We al l vaguely deem i t t o be so; but he only l ives a
charmed l iIe, l ike that oI geni us and poeti c i nspi rat i on, who com-
munes wit h the spiri tual scene around hi m, hears the voice oI the
spirit in every sound, sees i t s signs in every passi ng Iorm oI
t hi ngs, and Ieels i t s i mpul se i n all acti on, passi on, and bei ng.
Very near to us l i es t he mines oI wi sdom; unsuspected they l ie al l
around us. There i s a secret in the si mpl est t hi ngs, a wonder in
t he plai nest, a charm i n t he dull est .
We are al l nat ural ly seekers oI wonders. We travel Iar t o see
t he majesty oI old ruins, t he venerable Iorms oI the hoary moun-
t ains, great wat er-Iall s, and gal leries oI art . And yet the worl d-
wonder i s all around us; the wonder oI sett ing suns, and evening
st ars, oI the magi c spri ng-t i me, the bl ossoming oI t he t rees, the
st range transIormati ons oI t he moth; the wonder oI t he InIini t e
Di vi ni ty and oI Hi s boundl ess revel at ion. There i s no splendor
beyond that which set s it s morning t hrone i n the gol den East ; no,
dome subl i me as t hat oI Heaven; no beauty so Iai r as that oI the
verdant, bl ossomi ng eart h; no pl ace, however i nvest ed wit h t he
sanct i t ies oI ol d t i me, li ke t hat home which i s hushed and Iol ded
wi thin t he embrace oI the humbl est wall and rooI.
And al l these are but the symbol s oI t hi ngs Iar greater and
higher. All i s but the clothi ng oI the spi ri t. In t hi s vest ure oI
t i me i s wrapped the i mmort al nat ure: i n t hi s show oI ci rcum-
st ance and Iorm st ands reveal ed the stupendous reali ty. Let man
but be, as he is, a li vi ng soul , communi ng wit h hi msel I and wi th
God, and his vi si on becomes et erni ty; hi s abode, i nIinity; hi s
home, t he bosom oI al l-embraci ng l ove.
The great probl em oI Humani ty is wrought out i n the humbl est
abodes; no more than t his i s done in the hi ghest . A human heart
t hrobs beneat h t he beggar' s gabardi ne; and t hat and no more st irs
wi th i t s beati ng t he Prince' s mantle. The beauty oI Love, the
charm oI Friendshi p, the sacredness oI Sorrow, t he heroi sm oI
Pati ence, the noble Sel I-sacri Ii ce, t hese and t hei r li ke, alone, make
l iIe t o be li Ie indeed, and are it s grandeur and it s power. They
are the pricel ess t reasures and glory oI humani ty; and t hey are
not thi ngs oI condit ion. Al l pl aces and all scenes are al ike cl othed
wi th t he grandeur and charm oI vi rtues such as these.
The mi ll ion occasi ons wi l l come to us all , i n the ordinary pat hs
oI our li Ie, i n our homes, and by our Ii resi des, wherein we may
act as nobly, as i I, al l our li Ie long, we led armi es, sat in senat es,
or vi si t ed beds oI sickness and pai n. Varying every hour, t he
mi l li on occasi ons wil l come in whi ch we may restrai n our pas-
si ons, subdue our hearts to gent leness and pati ence, resign our
own i nt erst Ior anot her' s advantage, speak words oI kindness and
wi sdom, rai se the Iall en, cheer the Iai nt ing and si ck in spiri t, and
soIten and assuage t he weari ness and bi tt erness oI t heir mortal lot.
To every Mason there wil l be opport uni ty enough Ior t hese. They
cannot be wri tt en on his tomb; but t hey wil l be writ ten deep i n
t he heart s oI men, oI Iriends, oI chi ldren, oI ki ndred all around
hi m, i n the book oI the great account, and, i n t heir eternal inIl u-
ences, on the great pages oI the Uni verse.
To such a dest i ny, at least , my Brethren, let us all aspi re ! These
l aws oI Masonry let us all stri ve t o obey! And so may our hearts
become true t empl es oI the Livi ng God! And may He encourage
our zeal , sust ain our hopes, and assure us oI success!

Thi s i s the Iirst oI the Phil osophical Degrees oI t he Anci ent
and Accepted Scot ti sh Ri te; and t he beginning oI a course oI in-
st ructi on which wi ll Iul ly unveil t o you t he heart and inner mys-
t eri es oI Masonry. Do not despai r because you have oIt en seemed
on t he poi nt oI at t aining the i nmost light, and have as oIten been
disappointed. In all t i me, t ruth has been hidden under symbol s,
and oIten under a successi on oI al l egories: where vei l aIt er veil
had t o be penet rated beIore the true Light was reached, and the
essent ial t ruth stood reveal ed. The Human Light i s but an i m-
perIect reIl ect i on oI a ray oI t he InIi nit e and Di vi ne.
We are about t o approach t hose ancient Reli gions which once
rul ed t he minds oI men, and whose ruins encumber t he plai ns oI
t he great Past , as the broken col umns oI Pal myra and Tadmor l ie
bleachi ng on t he sands oI the desert . They rise beIore us, t hose
old, strange, myst erious creeds and Iai ths, shrouded in the mi st s
oI anti qui ty, and stal k di mly and undeIi ned along t he l ine whi ch
divi des Ti me Irom Et ernity; and Iorms oI strange, wil d, startl ing
beauty mi ngled i n t he vast throngs oI Iigures wi th shapes mon-
st rous, grot esque, and hi deous.
The rel igi on taught by Moses, which, li ke the laws oI Egypt ,
enuciat ed t he pri nci ple oI exclusi on, borrowed, at every peri od
oI i t s exi stence, Irom all the creeds wit h whi ch i t came i n cont act.
Whi l e, by t he st udies oI the learned and wise, it enriched i tsel I
wi th t he most admi rable principl es oI t he reli gions oI Egypt and
Asi a, i t was changed, in the wanderi ngs oI t he People, by every-
t hi ng t hat was most i mpure or seduct i ve in the pagan manners
and superst i t ions. It was one t hi ng i n the ti mes oI Moses and
Aaron, another i n t hose oI David and Solomon, and st il l another
i n t hose oI Dani el and Phi l o.
At t he t i me when John the Bapt ist made hi s appearance in the
desert, near t he shores oI the Dead Sea, al l t he old phil osophical
and religi ous syst ems were approxi mat ing t oward each ot her. A
general lassit ude i ncl i ned the mi nds oI al l toward the qui etude oI
t hat amal gamat i on oI doctri nes Ior whi ch the expedit ions oI Al ex-
ander and the more peaceIul occurrences t hat Ioll owed, wi th t he
est abl i shment in Asia and AIri ca oI many Grecian dynast i es and
a great number oI Grecian col oni es, had prepared the way. AIt er
t he i nt ermi ngli ng oI diIIerent nat ions, whi ch resul ted Irom t he
wars oI Al exander i n three-quart ers oI t he globe, t he doctrines oI
Greece, oI Egypt, oI Persi a, and oI India, met and i ntermingl ed
everywhere. Al l the barri ers that had Iormerly kept the nat ions
apart , were t hrown down; and whil e t he People oI the West
readily connect ed t hei r Iai th wi th those oI t he East , t hose oI the
Orient hastened t o l earn the tradi ti ons oI Rome and t he legends
oI At hens. Whi l e t he Phi losophers oI Greece, all (except t he dis-
ci ples oI Epicurus) more or l ess Pl at oni st s, seized eargerly upon
t he beli eIs and doctri nes oI t he East , --the Jews and Egypti ans, be-
Iore then t he most exclusi ve oI al l peopl es, yielded t o that eclect i-
ci sm which prevai l ed among t heir masters, t he Greeks and Romans.
Under the same inIl uences oI tol erat i on, even those who em-
braced Christ iani ty, mi ngl ed t oget her the ol d and t he new, Chri s-
t ianity and Phi losophy, the Apost ol ic teachi ngs and t he t radit ions
oI Mythology The man oI intel lect , devot ee oI one syst em,
rarely displ aces it wi th another i n al l it s purity. The peopl e t ake
such a creed as i s oIIered t hem. Accordingly, the di sti ncti on be-
t ween t he esoteri c and the exoteric doctri ne, i mmemorial in ot her
creeds, easi ly gained a Ioothold among many oI the Chri st ians;
and i t was hel d by a vast number, even during the preaching oI
Paul , t hat t he writ ings oI t he Apostl es were incomplet e; that t hey
contai ned only t he germs oI another doctri ne, which must recei ve
Irom the hands oI phil osophy, not only the systemati c arrange-
ment whi ch was want ing, but all t he development which l ay con-
ceal ed t herei n. The wri ti ngs oI the Apostl es, they said, i n address-
i ng t hemsel ves to mankind in general , enunci ated only the art i cl es
oI t he vul gar Iai th; but transmi t ted the mysteri es oI knowledge to
superi or mi nds, t o the El ect , --myst eri es handed down Irom gen-
erati on to generat i on in esoteric tradi t i ons; and t o t hi s science oI
t he mysteries they gave t he name oI Gnosis.
The Gnost ics deri ved their leading doctrines and ideas Irom
Plat o and Phi l o, the Zend-avest a and t he Kabalah, and t he Sacred
books oI Indi a and Egypt ; and thus i ntroduced int o the bosom
oI Chri sti ani ty the cosmological and theosophi cal speculat ions,
which had Iormed t he l arger porti on oI the anci ent rel igi ons oI
t he Orient, j oined t o those oI t he Egyptian, Greek, and Jewi sh
doctri nes, which the Neo-Plat oni sts had equal ly adopt ed in the
Occi dent .
Emanati on Irom t he Dei ty oI all spirit ual bei ngs, progressive
degenerat ion oI t hese bei ngs Irom emanati on to emanati on, re-
dempt ion and return oI al l t o the puri ty oI the Creat or; and,
aIter t he re-est abl i shment oI t he pri mi ti ve harmony oI all , a Ior-
t unat e and t ruly divine condit ion oI all , i n t he bosom oI God;
such were the Iundament al teachi ngs oI Gnost ici sm. The genius
oI t he Ori ent , wi th i ts contempl at i ons, i rradiati ons, and intui t ions,
dictated it s doctri nes. It s language corresponded to i ts ori gin.
Full oI i magery, i t had all the magniIicence, t he i nconsist encies,
and t he mobi li ty oI t he Iigurat i ve style.
Behol d, i t sai d, the l ight , which emanates Irom an i mmense
cent re oI Light, that spreads everywhere it s benevol ent rays; so
do t he spirit s oI Light emanat e Irom the Divine Light. Behol d,
al l the springs which nourish, embel l ish, Iert il i ze, and puriIy t he
Eart h; t hey emanate Irom one and t he same ocean; so Irom t he
bosom oI t he Di vi ni ty emanat e so many streams, which Iorm and
Iil l the universe oI i ntell igences. Behol d numbers, whi ch al l
emanate Irom one pri mit ive number, al l resemble i t , al l are com-
posed oI it s essence, and st il l vary i nIini tely; and ut terances, de-
composable into so many syll abl es and elements, al l contai ned in
t he pri mi ti ve Word, and sti l l i nIi ni tely vari ous; so the world oI
Int el l igences emanat ed Irom a Pri mary Intell igence, and t hey al l
resembl e i t, and yet di splay an inIinit e variety oI exi stences.
It revived and combi ned the ol d doctri nes oI t he Orient and the
Occi dent ; and it Iound i n many passages oI t he Gospel s and the
Pastoral lett ers, a warrant Ior doing so. Christ hi msel I spoke in
parabl es and all egories, John borrowed t he enigmatical l anguage
oI t he Pl at onist s, and Paul oIt en i ndulged in i ncomprehensi bl e
rhapsodies, t he meaning oI which coul d have been cl ear to the
Ini ti ates alone.
It is admi tt ed t hat t he cradl e oI Gnosti ci sm i s probably to be
l ooked Ior i n Syria, and even in Palesti ne. Most oI i ts expound-
ers wrote in that corrupted Iorm oI t he Greek used by t he Hel len-
i sti c Jews, and in t he Sept uagi nt and the New Test ament; and
t here is a striking anal ogy between their doctrines and those oI
t he Judaeo-Egypt ian Phi l o, oI Alexandri a; it selI the seat oI three
school s, at once phil osophic and rel igi ous--t he Greek, the Egyp-
t ian, and t he Jewish.
Pyt hagoras and Pl at o, the most mysti cal oI the Grecian Phil os-
ophers (the lat ter hei r to the doctrines oI the Iormer), and who
had t ravel led, t he latt er in Egypt , and t he Iormer i n Phoenicia,
India, and Persia, also taught the esot eri c doctrine and the di sti nc-
t ion between the init iat ed and t he proIane. The dominant doc-
t ri nes oI Pl atonism were Iound i n Gnost ici sm. Emanat ion oI
Int el l igences Irom t he bosom oI t he Dei ty; t he going astray i n
error and t he suIIerings oI spiri ts, so l ong as t hey are remot e Irom
God, and i mprisoned i n mat t er; vain and long-cont inued eIIort s
t o arri ve at t he knowledge oI the Trut h, and re-enter i nt o t hei r
pri mi ti ve uni on wit h t he Supreme Being; all iance oI a pure and
divi ne soul wi th an irrat ional soul , t he seat oI evi l desi res; angel s
or demons who dwell i n and govern the pl anet s, having but an
i mperIect knowledge oI the ideas that presi ded at the creati on;
regenerat ion oI al l bei ngs by t heir return to the kosmos
noetos, t he worl d oI Intel li gences, and it s Chi eI, t he
Supreme Being; sol e possible mode oI re-establi shi ng t hat pri mi -
t ive harmony oI the creati on, oI which t he music oI t he spheres
oI Pyt hagoras was t he i mage; t hese were t he analogi es oI t he t wo
syst ems; and we discover in them some oI the ideas that Iorm a
part oI Masonry; i n which, i n t he present mut il ated condit ion oI
t he symbol i c Degrees, they are di sgui sed and overl aid wit h Ii cti on
and absurdity, or present t hemsel ves as casual hints that are pass-
ed by whol ly unnot iced.
The dist incti on bet ween t he esot eric and exot eri c doctrines (a
dist inct ion purely Masonic), was always and Irom t he very earl iest
t i mes preserved among the Greeks. It remounted to t he Iabul ous
t i mes oI Orpheus; and the myst eri es oI Theosophy were Iound i n
al l thei r tradi t i ons and myt hs. And aIt er t he t i me oI Al exander,
t hey resorted Ior inst ructi on, dogmas, and myst eri es, t o all the
school s, t o t hose oI Egypt and Asia, as wel l as those oI Anci ent
Thrace, Si ci ly, Etruria, and At ti ca.
The Jewi sh-Greek School oI Alexandri a i s known only by t wo
oI i t s Chi eIs, Ari st obul us and Phi lo, both Jews oI Alexandria in
Egypt . Bel ongi ng to Asi a by it s origi n, t o Egypt by i ts residence,
t o Greece by it s l anguage and st udies, i t strove to show t hat al l
t ruths embedded in the phil osophies oI ot her countri es were trans-
plant ed thi t her Irom Palesti ne. Ari stobul us decl ared t hat all t he
Iacts and detai l s oI t he Jewi sh Script ures were so many all egori es,
conceali ng t he most proIound meani ngs, and that Plat o had bor-
rowed Irom t hem all hi s Ii nest i deas. Phi l o, who li ved a cent ury
aIter hi m, Ioll owi ng the same t heory, endeavored to show t hat the
Hebrew wri ti ngs, by thei r system oI al legories, were the true
source oI all religious and phil osophical doctrines. Accordi ng t o
hi m, t he l it eral meani ng i s Ior the vulgar alone. Whoever has
medit ated on phil osophy, puriIied hi msel I by virt ue, and rai sed
hi msel I by cont empl at ion, to God and the intel lect ual world, and
received t heir i nspi rat ion, pierces t he gross envelope oI the let ter,
discovers a whol ly di IIerent order oI thi ngs, and i s init iat ed i nt o
mysteries, oI whi ch the elementary or li teral inst ructi on oIIers but
an i mperIect i mage. A histori cal Iact , a Iigure, a word, a let ter, a
number, a ri te, a cust om, t he parable or vi si on oI a prophet , veil s
t he most proIound t ruths; and he who has the key oI science wi l l
i nterpret all accordi ng t o t he light he possesses.
Agai n we see the symbol ism oI Masonry, and the search oI t he
Candi dat e Ior l ight . "Let men oI narrow mi nds wit hdraw, " he
says, "wi t h cl osed ears. We transmi t t he divi ne myst eri es to
t hose who have recei ved t he sacred ini ti ati on, t o those who prac-
t ise true piety and who are not enslaved by the empty trappi ngs
oI words or t he preconceived opinions oI t he pagans. "
To Phil o, the Supreme Bei ng was the Pri mi ti ve Light , or the
Archetype oI Light , Source whence the rays emanat e t hat il lumi -
nate Souls. He was al so the Soul oI t he Universe, and as such
acted i n al l it s parts. He Hi mselI Ii ll s and l i mit s Hi s whole Bei ng.
Hi s Powers and Virt ues Iil l and penetrate al l . These Powers
(dunamei s) are Spi ri ts di sti nct Irom God, t he "Ideas"
oI Pl at o personi Ii ed. He i s wi thout begi nni ng, and li ves i n the
prot otype oI Ti me (aion).
Hi s i mage i s THE WORD, a Iorm more bril l iant t han
Iire; that not bei ng t he pure li ght . This LOGOS dwel ls in God;
Ior the Supreme Bei ng makes to Hi mselI wi thin Hi s Int el l igence
t he types or ideas oI everyt hing that is t o become real ity i n thi s
Worl d. The LOGOS is the vehi cle by which God acts on the Uni -
verse, and may be compared t o t he speech oI man.
The LOGOS bei ng t he World oI Ideas, by means
whereoI God has creat ed visi ble things, He is t he most anci ent
God, in comparison wi th the Worl d, whi ch i s t he youngest pro-
ducti on. The LOGOS, ChieI oI Intel ligence, oI which He is t he
general represent ati ve, is named Archangel, type and represent a-
t ive oI all spirit s, even t hose oI mort al s. He i s al so styled the
man-type and pri mit ive man, Adam Kadmon.
God only i s Wi se. The wisdom oI man is but t he reIl ecti on and
i mage oI that oI God. He i s t he Father, and Hi s WISDOM t he
mother oI creat i on: Ior He unit ed Hi msel I wi th WISDOM (Sophia),
and communicated to it t he germ oI creat ion, and it
brought Iort h the materi al worl d. He creat ed the i deal world
only, and caused the materi al worl d to be made real aIt er it s type,
by Hi s LOGOS, whi ch i s Hi s speech, and at the same ti me the Idea
oI Ideas, the Intell ectual Worl d. The Intell ect ual Ci ty was but
t he Thought oI the Archi tect , who medi tat ed the creat ion, accord-
i ng t o that plan oI the Material Ci ty.
The Word i s not only t he Creat or, but occupies the pl ace oI t he
Supreme Being. Through Hi m all the Powers and Att ri butes oI
God act . On t he ot her si de, as Ii rst representat i ve oI t he Human
Family, He is the Prot ect or oI men and their Shepherd.
God gives t o man the Soul or Int el l igence, which exi sts beIore
t he body, and whi ch he unites wi th the body. The reasoning
Princi pl e comes Irom God t hrough t he Word, and communes wit h
God and wi th t he Word; but t here is also in man an irrat ional
Princi pl e, t hat oI t he i ncl i nat ions and passi ons whi ch produce
disorder, emanat ing Irom i nIeri or spi ri t s who Ii l l t he ai r as
ministers oI God. The body, taken Irom the Eart h, and t he
i rrati onal Princi pl e t hat ani mates it concurrent ly wit h the rat ional
Princi pl e, are hat ed by God, whi l e the rat ional soul which He
has given i t, is, as i t were, capt ive in thi s pri son, t hi s coIIi n, that
encompasses it . The present condit ion oI man is not hi s pri mi-
t ive condit i on, when he was the i mage oI t he Logos. He has
Iall en Irom his Ii rst est at e. But he may raise hi mselI again, by
Iol l owi ng the di rect ions oI WISDOM and oI t he Angel s
which God has commi ssi oned t o ai d hi m i n Ireei ng hi mselI Irom
t he bonds oI t he body, and combat i ng Evi l , t he exi st ence whereoI
God has permi t t ed, to Iurni sh hi m the means oI exercisi ng his
l iberty. The soul s that are puriIied, not by t he Law but by l ight,
ri se to the Heavenly regions, to enj oy t here a perIect Ieli city.
Those that persevere i n evil go Irom body t o body, t he seats oI
passi ons and evi l desires. The Iami l iar l i neament s oI t hese doc-
t ri nes will be recogni zed by al l who read the Epi st les oI St. Paul,
who wrot e aIter Phil o, t he l att er li ving t i l l the reign oI Caligul a,
and bei ng the cont emporary oI Christ .
And t he Mason i s Iami liar wit h t hese doctri nes oI Phi l o: that
t he Supreme Being is a cent re oI Light whose rays or emanat ions
pervade the Universe; Ior t hat i s the Light Ior whi ch all Masonic
j ourneys are a search, and oI which the sun and moon in our
Lodges are only emblems: that Light and Darkness, chi eI enemi es
Irom the beginni ng oI Ti me, dispute wi t h each ot her the empire
oI t he worl d; which we symboli ze by t he candidate wandering in
darkness and bei ng brought to l ight : that t he world was creat ed,
not by the Supreme Bei ng, but by a secondary agent , who i s but
Hi s WORD, and by types whi ch are but his ideas,
ai ded by an INTELLIGENCE, or WISDOM, whi ch gi ves one
oI His At tribut es; i n which we see the occul t meani ng oI the ne-
cessity oI recoveri ng "the Word"; and oI our t wo columns oI
STRENGTH and WISDOM, whi ch are al so t he t wo paral lel l ines that
bound t he ci rcl e representi ng t he Universe: that the vi si bl e worl d
i s t he i mage oI the invisi bl e worl d; that t he essence oI t he Human
Soul is t he i mage oI God, and i t exi sted beIore the body; that the
object oI i t s terrest ri al li Ie i s t o disengage it sel I oI it s body or i ts
sepul chre; and that it wi ll ascend to the Heavenly regi ons when-
ever i t shall be puri Iied; in which we see t he meani ng, now al most
Iorgot ten in our Lodges, oI the mode oI preparat ion oI t he candi-
date Ior apprent iceship, and hi s t est s and puri Iicat ions i n t he Iirst
Degree, accordi ng t o the Ancient and Accept ed Scot t i sh Rit e.
Phi l o i ncorporated in hi s ecl ecticism nei t her Egypti an nor
Oriental element s. But t here were ot her Jewi sh Teachers i n Al ex-
andri a who did both. The Jews oI Egypt were sl ightly jeal ous oI,
and a l it tl e hosti l e to, t hose oI Palest ine, part i cul arly aIter the
erecti on oI the sanct uary at Leont opol i s by the High-Pri est Onias;
and t hereIore t hey admired and magniIied those sages, who, li ke
Jeremi ah, had resi ded in Egypt . "The wi sdom oI Sol omon" was
writ ten at Alexandria, and, i n the ti me oI St . Jerome, was at trib-
uted to Phi l o; but it cont ai ns pri nci ples at vari ance wi th hi s.
It personi Ii es Wi sdom, and draws between it s chil dren and the
ProIane, t he same l ine oI demarcati on t hat Egypt had long beIore
t aught t o t he Jews. That dist incti on exi sted at the begi nni ng oI
t he Mosaic creed. Moshah hi mselI was an Initi ate in the mysteri es
oI Egypt, as he was compell ed to be, as the adopted son oI t he
daughter oI Pharaoh, Thouori s, daught er oI Sesostris-Ramses;
who, as her t omb and monument s show, was, in t he right oI her
i nIant husband, Regent oI Lower Egypt or the Del t a at t he t i me
oI t he Hebrew Prophet' s bi rt h, rei gni ng at Hel iopol is. She was
al so, as the rel ieIs on her t omb show, a Priest ess oI HATHOR and
NEITH, t he two great pri meval goddesses. As her adopt ed son,
l ivi ng in her Palace and presence Iorty years, and duri ng t hat
t i me scarcely acquainted wit h his brethren the Jews, the law oI
Egypt compel led hi s i nit iati on: and we Iind in many oI his enact -
ment s the i ntenti on oI preservi ng, bet ween t he common people
and t he Initi ates, the l i ne oI separati on which he Iound i n Egypt.
Moshah and Aharun hi s brot her, the whol e series oI High-Pri ests,
t he Counci l oI t he 70 El ders, Sal omoh and the ent ire successi on
oI Prophets, were in possessi on oI a higher science; and oI t hat
sci ence Masonry i s, at least, t he l ineal descendant . It was Iami li -
AMUN, at Iirst t he God oI Lower Egypt only, where Moshah
was reared (a word that i n Hebrew means Trut h), was t he Su-
preme God. He was styled "t he Cel esti al Lord, who sheds Light
on hidden t hi ngs. " He was the source oI t hat di vi ne l iIe, oI whi ch
t he crux ansat a i s the symbol ; and the source oI al l power. He
unit ed all the att ributes that t he Anci ent Orient al Theosophy
assigned t o the Supreme Bei ng. He was t he Pleroma,
or "Ful lness oI t hi ngs, " Ior He comprehended i n Hi msel I every-
t hi ng; and the LIGHT; Ior he was t he Sun-God. He was un-
changeable in the mi dst oI everythi ng phenomenal i n hi s worl ds.
He created not hing; but everything emanat ed Irom Hi m; and oI
Hi m all t he other Gods were but mani Iest ati ons.
The Ram was Hi s li vi ng symbol; whi ch you see reproduced in
t hi s Degree, lying on the book wit h seven seal s on the tracing-
board. He caused the creat ion oI t he worl d by t he Pri mit ive
Thought (Ennoi a), or Spi ri t (Pneuma), t hat
i ssued Irom hi m by means oI his Voi ce or t he WORD; and whi ch
Thought or Spi ri t was personiIied as the Goddess NEITH. She,
t oo, was a di vi nity oI Light , and mot her oI t he Sun; and t he Feast
oI Lamps was celebrated i n her honor at Sai s. The Creat ive
Power, anot her mani Iestat i on oI Dei ty, proceeding to the creat i on
concei ved oI i n her, t he Divi ne Intel li gence, produced wi th it s
Word the Uni verse, symboli zed by an egg i ssuing Irom t he mouth
oI KNEPH; Irom which egg came PHTHA, i mage oI the Supreme
Int el l igence as real ized i n the world, and t he type oI that mani-
Iested in man; the princi pal agent , al so, oI Nat ure, or t he creati ve
and product ive Fire. PHRE or RS, t he Sun, or Celest ial Light,
whose symbol was the point wi t hin a ci rcl e, was the son oI
PHTHA; and TIPHE, hi s wi Ie, or the celest ial Ii rmament , wi t h t he
seven celest ial bodi es, ani mated by spirit s oI genii that govern
t hem, was represented on many oI the monument s, cl ad i n blue
or yell ow, her garments spri nkl ed wit h st ars, and accompani ed by
t he sun, moon, and Ii ve pl anets; and she was the type oI Wisdom,
and t hey oI the Seven Planetary Spi ri ts oI the Gnosti cs, t hat wi th
her presi ded over and governed the sublunary world.
In t his Degree, unknown Ior a hundred years t o t hose who have
pract ised it , t hese emblems reproduced reIer t o t hese old doct ri nes.
The lamb, the yell ow hangi ngs strewed wi th stars, t he seven
columns, candl esti cks, and seal s al l recall t hem t o us.
The Lion was t he symbol oI ATHOM-RE, t he Great God oI
Upper Egypt ; t he Hawk, oI RA or PHRE; the Eagle, oI MENDES;
t he Bul l, oI APIS; and t hree oI these are seen under the pl atIorm
on which our al tar stands.
The Ii rst HERMES was t he INTELLIGENCE, or WORD oI God.
Moved wit h compassi on Ior a race l iving wi thout law, and wi shing
t o t each t hem t hat they sprang Irom His bosom, and to point out
t o t hem t he way that t hey shoul d go (t he books whi ch t he Iirst
Hermes, the same wit h Enoch, had writ ten on the myst eri es oI
divi ne sci ence, in t he sacred characters, being unknown t o t hose
who l ived aIter t he Ilood), God sent to man OSIRIS and ISIS, ac-
accompanied by THOTH, t he i ncarnat i on or terrest rial repeti ti on oI
t he Iirst Hermes; who taught men the art s, sci ence, and the cer-
emoni es oI reli gion; and then ascended t o Heaven or the Moon.
OSIRIS was t he Pri nci pl e oI Good. TYPHON, li ke AHRIMAN, was
t he pri nci ple and source oI al l that i s evi l in the moral and physi-
cal order. Li ke the Satan oI Gnosti ci sm, he was conIounded
wi th Mat ter.
From Egypt or Persia t he new Platoni st s borrowed the idea,
and t he Gnosti cs received i t Irom them, that man, in hi s t erres-
t ri al career, is successi vely under the inIl uence oI the Moon, oI
Mercury, oI Venus, oI t he Sun, oI Mars, oI Jupi t er, and oI
Saturn, unti l he Ii nally reaches t he Elysian Fi elds; an idea again
symbol i zed in the Seven Seal s.
The Jews oI Syria and Judea were the di rect precursors oI
Gnost ici sm; and in t hei r doctri nes were ampl e ori ental el ement s.
These Jews had had wi th the Orient , at t wo di IIerent peri ods, i nti -
mate relat ions, Iami l iari zi ng them wit h t he doct ri nes oI Asia, and
especi ally oI Chaldea and Persia;--t heir Iorced residence in Cen-
t ral Asia under t he Assyrians and Persians; and t hei r vol unt ary
dispersion over the whole East , when subject s oI t he Sel eucidae
and t he Romans. Li vi ng near t wo-thirds oI a century, and many
oI t hem l ong aIterward, in Mesopotamia, the cradle oI thei r race;
speaking the same language, and t heir chil dren reared wit h those
oI t he Chaldeans, Assyrians, Medes, and Persi ans, and receiving
Irom them t heir names (as t he case oI Danayal, who was cal led
Baelt asatsar, proves), t hey necessarily adopt ed many oI t he doc-
t ri nes oI thei r conquerors. Thei r descendants, as Azra and Na-
hamaiah show us, hardly desi red t o l eave Persi a, when they were
al lowed t o do so. They had a speci al juri sdict ion, and governors
and j udges taken Irom t heir own peopl e; many oI t hem hel d high
oIIice, and their chi ldren were educat ed wi t h t hose oI the hi ghest
nobl es. Danayal was the Iriend and mi ni st er oI the Ki ng, and
t he ChieI oI t he Coll ege oI t he Magi at Babyl on; i I we may be-
l ieve the book which bears hi s name, and trust to t he i nci dent s
relat ed i n it s highly Ii gurat i ve and i magi nat i ve style. Mordecai ,
t oo, occupied a high st at ion, no less t han that oI Pri me Mi ni st er,
and Esther or Ast ar, his cousi n, was the Monarch' s wiIe.
The Magi oI Babylon were expounders oI Iigurat ive wri t i ngs,
i nterpreters oI nature, and oI dreams, --ast ronomers and divines;
and Irom t hei r inIluences arose among the Jews, aIt er thei r rescue
Irom capti vi ty, a number oI sect s, and a new exposi ti on, t he mys-
t ical i nt erpretat ion, wit h al l it s wi ld Iancies and i nIinite caprices.
The Ai ons oI the Gnosti cs, t he Ideas oI Plat o, the Angels oI the
Jews, and t he Demons oI t he Greeks, all correspond to t he
Ferouers oI Zoroaster.
A great number oI Jewi sh Iami l ies remai ned permanently i n
t heir new country; and one oI t he most celebrat ed oI thei r schools
was at Babylon. They were soon Iami li ari zed wit h the doct ri ne
oI Zoroaster, whi ch it sel I was more ancient than Kuros. From
t he syst em oI the Zend-Avesta they borrowed, and subsequently
gave large development to, everyt hing that coul d be reconci led
wi th t heir own Iait h; and t hese addit ions t o t he old doctrine were
soon spread, by the constant i ntercourse oI commerce, i nto Syria
and Palest ine.
In t he Zend-Avesta, God i s Ill i mit able Ti me. No origi n can be
assigned t o Hi m: He i s so enti rely envel oped i n Hi s glory, His
nature and at tributes are so inaccessi bl e t o human Int ell igence,
t hat He can be only t he obj ect oI a silent Venerat ion. Creat ion
t ook pl ace by emanati on Irom Hi m. The Iirst emanat ion was the
pri mi ti ve Light , and Irom that t he Ki ng oI Light, ORMUZD. By
t he "WORD, " Ormuzd creat ed t he world pure. He is it s pre-
server and Judge; a Bei ng Holy and Heavenly; Int ell igence and
Knowl edge; the Fi rst -born oI Ti me wi thout l i mit s; and i nvest ed
wi th al l t he Powers oI the Supreme Bei ng.
Sti l l he i s, stri ctly speaki ng, t he Fourth Being. He had a
Ferouer, a pre-exi sti ng Soul (i n t he language oI Pl at o, a type or
i deal); and it i s said oI Hi m, t hat He exist ed Irom the begi nni ng,
i n t he pri mi ti ve Light . But , that Light bei ng but an element,
and Hi s Ferouer a type, he is, i n ordi nary l anguage, the Fi rst -born
oI Masonry; t he Man, on t he Traci ng-Board oI t his Degree; the
LIGHT t oward which al l Masons t ravel.
He created aIt er hi s own i mage, si x Geni i call ed Amshaspands,
who surround his Throne, are his organs oI communicati on wit h
i nIeri or spi ri ts and men, transmit t o Hi m their prayers, sol ici t Ior
t hem Hi s Iavors, and serve t hem as model s oI puri ty and perIec-
t ion. Thus we have the Demi ourgos oI Gnosti ci sm, and the si x
Genii t hat assist hi m. These are t he Hebrew Archangel s oI t he
The names oI these Amshaspands are Bahman, Ardi behest ,
Schariver, Sapandomad, Khordad, and Amerdad.
The Iourt h, the Holy SAPANDOMAD, creat ed t he Iirst man and
Then ORMUZD creat ed 28 Iseds, oI whom MITHERAS is t he chieI.
They watch, wi th Ormuzd and the Amshaspands, over t he happi -
ness, puri ty, and preservat ion oI t he world, which is under t heir
government ; and they are also models Ior mankind and i nterpre-
t ers oI men' s prayers. Wi t h Mi t hras and Ormuzd, t hey make a
pleroma (or compl et e number) oI 30, corresponding to t he t hi rty
Ai ons oI t he Gnosti cs, and t o the ogdoade, dodecade, and decade
oI t he Egypti ans. Mit hras was t he Sun-God, invoked wi th, and
soon conIounded wit h hi m, becomi ng the object oI a speci al wor-
ship, and ecli psi ng Ormuzd hi msel I.
The thi rd order oI pure spi ri t s is more numerous. They are
t he Ferouers, the THOUGHTS oI Ormuzd, or the IDEAS which he
concei ved beIore proceedi ng to the creat ion oI thi ngs. They t oo
are superi or to men. They prot ect them duri ng thei r li Ie on eart h;
t hey wil l puriIy t hem Irom evil at their resurrect i on. They are
t heir t ut elary geni i, Irom t he Ial l t o t he complet e regenerat ion.
AHRIMAN, second-born oI the Pri mi ti ve Li ght , emanated Irom
i t, pure l ike ORMUZD; but , proud and ambi ti ous, yiel ded to jeal-
ousy oI the First-born. For hi s hat red and pride, t he Eternal
condemned hi m t o dwell , Ior 12, 000 years, in t hat part oI space
where no ray oI light reaches; t he black empi re oI darkness. In
t hat peri od t he st ruggle between Light and Darkness, Good and
Evi l wil l be t erminated.
AHRIMAN scorned to submit , and took t he Iield against OR-
MUZD. To t he good spiri ts created by hi s Brot her, he opposed an
i nnumerable army oI Evil Ones. To the seven Amshaspands he
opposed seven Archdevs, attached t o the seven Pl anet s; t o the
Izeds and Ferouers an equal number oI Devs, which brought
upon the worl d al l moral and physi cal evi ls. Hence Poverty,
Mal adi es, Impuri ty, Envy, Chagrin, Drunkenness, Fal sehood,
Cal umny, and t hei r horri bl e array.
The i mage oI Ahri man was the Dragon, conIounded by t he
Jews wi th Sat an and the Serpent -Tempt er. AIter a reign oI 3000
years, Ormuzd had creat ed t he Mat eri al World, i n si x periods,
cal li ng successi vely i nto exist ence t he Light , Wat er, Earth, plants,
ani mals, and Man. But Ahri man concurred i n creat mg t he earth
and wat er; Ior darkness was already an element , and Ormuzd
could not excl ude it s Master. So al so the two concurred in pro-
ducing Man. Ormuzd produced, by hi s Wi l l and Word, a Bei ng
t hat was t he type and source oI universal li Ie Ior everythi ng t hat
exist s under Heaven. He placed in man a pure principl e, or LiIe,
proceeding Irom t he Supreme Bei ng. But Ahri man dest royed
t hat pure pri nci ple, i n t he Iorm wherewit h i t was cl othed; and
when Ormuzd had made, oI i ts recovered and puriIi ed essence, the
Iirst man and woman, Ahri man seduced and tempt ed t hem wi th
wi ne and Iruit s; the woman yiel ding Ii rst.
OIten, duri ng the three l att er periods oI 3000 years each, Ahri -
man and Darkness are, and are t o be, triumphant. But t he pure
souls are assi sted by the Good Spiri ts; t he Tri umph oI Good i s
decreed by t he Supreme Being, and t he peri od oI that tri umph
wi ll i nIall ibly arrive. When the world shall be most aIIl i cted wi th
t he evil s poured out upon i t by the spirit s oI perdit ion, three
Prophet s wi ll come t o bri ng rel ieI to mort als. SOSIOSCH, t he
pri nci pal oI the Three, wi l l regenerat e t he earth, and restore t o i t
i ts pri mi ti ve beauty, st rengt h, and puri ty. He wi ll judge t he good
and t he wi cked. AIt er the universal resurrect ion oI the good, he
wi ll conduct t hem t o a home oI everlast ing happiness. Ahri man,
his evil demons, and al l wicked men, wil l al so be puri Ii ed in a tor-
rent oI mel t ed metal . The law oI Ormuzd wil l reign everywhere;
al l men wil l be happy; al l, enj oyi ng unalt erable bli ss, wil l si ng
wi th Sosi osch the prai ses oI t he Supreme Being.
These doctri nes, the det ai ls oI whi ch were spari ngly borrowed
by t he Phari saic Jews, were much more Iul ly adopt ed by t he
Gnost ics; who taught the rest orati on oI all t hi ngs, thei r ret urn t o
t heir ori ginal pure condi t ion, the happiness oI t hose t o be saved,
and t heir admi ssi on t o t he Ieast oI Heavenly Wi sdom.
The doct ri nes oI Zoroaster came origi nal ly Irom Bact ri a, an
Indian Province oI Persia. Nat urally, t hereIore, i t would include
Hi ndu or Buddhist element s, as i t di d. The Iundament al idea oI
Buddhi sm was, mat t er subj ugati ng the intel ligence, and i nt ell i-
gence Ireeing it selI Irom t hat slavery. Perhaps somet hi ng came
t o Gnost ici sm Irom Chi na. "BeIore t he chaos which preceded
t he birth oI Heaven and Eart h, " says Lao-Tseu, "a si ngl e Being
exist ed, i mmense and sil ent , i mmovable and ever act i ve--the
mother oI t he Universe. I know not it s name: but I desi gnate it
by t he word Reason. Man has his type and model in the Eart h;
Eart h in Heaven; Heaven i n Reason; and Reason in Itsel I. "
Here again are the Ferouers, the Ideas, t he Ai ons--t he REASON
WISDOM oI the Gnostics.
The dominant system among the Jews aIter t heir capti vity was
t hat oI t he Pharoschi m or Phari sees. Whet her their name was
deri ved Irom that oI the Parsees, or Iol lowers oI Zoroast er, or
Irom some other source, i t is certai n that t hey had borrowed much
oI t hei r doct ri ne Irom the Persians. Like t hem t hey cl ai med t o
have t he exclusive and myst eri ous knowledge, unknown to the
mass. Like t hem they t aught t hat a constant war was waged be-
t ween t he Empi re oI Good and t hat oI Evi l. Like them they at-
t ri buted the si n and Ial l oI man t o t he demons and t heir chieI; and
l ike them they admit ted a speci al protect ion oI t he righteous by
i nIeri or bei ngs, agent s oI Jehovah. All their doctrines on these
subject s were at bot tom those oI t he Holy Books; but singularly
developed and the Ori ent was evidently t he source Irom whi ch
t hose devel opment s came.
They styled t hemselves Interpreters; a name indi cat i ng their
cl ai m t o t he exclusi ve possessi on oI the true meaning oI the Holy
Wri t ings, by vi rt ue oI the oral t radit i on whi ch Moses had re-
cei ved on Mount Si nai, and whi ch successive generat ions oI Ini-
t iat es had transmi t ted, as t hey clai med, unalt ered, unto t hem.
Thei r very cost ume, t heir belieI i n the inIl uences oI the stars, and
i n t he i mmort al i ty and transmi grat ion oI soul s, t heir system oI
angel s and t heir ast ronomy, were al l Ioreign.
Sadduceei sm arose merely Irom an opposi ti on essenti ally Jewi sh,
t o t hese Ioreign teachings, and that mi xt ure oI doctrines, adopt ed
by t he Phari sees, and which const i tuted the popul ar creed.
We come at last to t he Essenes and Therapeut s, wit h whom
t hi s Degree is part icularly concerned. That intermi ngl i ng oI
ori ent al and occi dental rites, oI Persi an and Pyt hagorean opi nions,
which we have pointed out i n the doct ri nes oI Phil o, i s unmistak-
able i n the creeds oI these two sects.
They were less dist ingui shed by met aphysical specul at i ons than
by si mpl e medit at ions and moral pract i ces. But t he l att er always
part ook oI t he Zoroastri an principl e, that i t was necessary to Iree
t he soul Irom t he t rammel s and inIl uences oI mat ter; whi ch l ed
t o a system oI abst inence and macerat ion ent irely opposed to the
anci ent Hebrai cideas, Iavorable as t hey were t o physical pleasures.
In general , t he li Ie and manners oI t hese myst ical associa-
t ions, as Phil o and Josephus descri be t hem, and parti cul arly t heir
prayers at sunrise, seem the i mage oI what t he Zend-Avest a pre-
scribes to the Iait hIul adorer or Ormuzd; and some oI t heir
observances cannot ot herwise be explai ned.
The Therapeuts resi ded in Egypt, i n t he neighborhood oI Al ex-
andri a; and the Essenes in Palest ine, i n t he vici ni ty oI the Dead
Sea. But t here was nevert hel ess a st ri ki ng coi nci dence in their
i deas, readi ly explai ned by at tri but ing it t o a Ioreign i nIluence.
The Jews oI Egypt, under the inIl uence oI the School oI Al exan-
dri a, endeavored in general t o make t hei r doct ri nes harmoni ze
wi th t he t radit ions oI Greece; and thence came, in t he doctrines
oI t he Therapeuts, as st at ed by Phil o, the many anal ogi es bet ween
t he Pyt hagorean and Orphic i deas, on one side, and t hose oI Ju-
daism on the ot her: whil e t he Jews oI Palest ine, having less com-
muni cati on wi th Greece, or contemning i ts t eachi ngs, rat her i m-
bibed t he Oriental doctrines, which they drank in at the source
and wi th which thei r rel ati ons wi t h Persia made them Iami li ar.
Thi s at tachment was part icul arly shown in t he Kabalah, whi ch
belonged rather t o Pal esti ne t han to Egypt , t hough extensively
known i n t he l att er; and Iurnished t he Gnost i cs wit h some oI
t heir most stri king t heories.
It is a signiIi cant Iact, that whi le Chri st spoke oIten oI t he
Phari sees and Sadducees, He never once menti oned t he Essenes,
between whose doct ri nes and His t here was so great a resem-
blance, and, i n many poi nt s, so perIect an identi ty. Indeed, they
are not named, nor even dist inctly al luded to, anywhere in the
New Testament.
John, t he son oI a Priest who mi ni st ered in t he Temple at
Jerusal em, and whose mother was oI the Iami ly oI Aharun, was
i n t he desert s unti l the day oI hi s showi ng unt o Israel. He drank
neit her wine nor st rong dri nk. Cl ad i n hair-cloth, and wi th a
girdle oI leat her, and Ieedi ng upon such Iood as the desert aIIord-
ed, he preached, in the country about Jordan, the bapt i sm oI re-
pentance, Ior the remissi on oI si ns; that i s, the necessity oI repent-
ance proven by reIormati on. He taught the people chari ty and
l iberal ity; the publi cans, just ice, equi ty, and Iair deal i ng; t he
soldi ery peace, truth, and content ment ; to do vi olence to none,
accuse none Ial sely, and be content wit h t hei r pay. He incul-
cated necessi ty oI a virtuous l iIe, and the Iol ly oI t rusti ng t o
t heir descent Irom Abraham.
He denounced bot h Phari sees and Sadducees as a generat i on oI
vipers t hreat ened wi th the anger oI God. He bapti zed those who
conIessed their sins. He preached i n the desert ; and thereIore in
t he count ry where t he Essenes l ived, proIessi ng t he same doctri nes.
He was i mprisoned beIore Christ began to preach. Mat thew men-
t ions hi m wi thout preIace or expl anat i on; as i I, apparent ly, hi s
hist ory was t oo wel l known t o need any. "In those days," he
says, "came John the Bapti st, preaching in t he wi lderness oI
Judea. " Hi s di sciples Irequent ly Iast ed; Ior we Ii nd t hem wit h
t he Phari sees comi ng t o Jesus t o inqui re why Hi s Disciples di d
not Iast as oIten as t hey; and He did not denounce t hem, as Hi s
habit was to denounce the Phari sees; but answered t hem ki ndly
and gent ly.
From hi s pri son, John sent two oI his disci pl es to i nqui re oI
Chri st: "Art thou he t hat i s to come, or do we l ook Ior anot her ?"
Chri st reIerred t hem to hi s mi racles as an answer; and declared
t o t he people t hat John was a prophet , and more than a prophet ,
and t hat no great er man had ever been born; but t hat t he hum-
blest Christ ian was his superior. He declared hi m t o be Eli as,
who was to come.
John had denounced to Herod hi s marri age wi th hi s brot her' s
wi Ie as unl awIul ; and Ior t hi s he was i mprisoned, and Ii nally exe-
cuted to grat i Iy her. His di sci ples buried hi m; and Herod and
others t hought he had ri sen Irom t he dead and appeared again in
t he person oI Chri st. The peopl e al l regarded John as a prophet ;
and Chri st si lenced t he Priest s and El ders by aski ng t hem whet her
he was i nspi red. They Ieared to exci te the anger oI the people by
sayi ng t hat he was not. Christ decl ared that he came "i n t he way
oI righteousness"; and t hat the lower classes bel ieved hi m, t hough
t he Priests and Phari sees di d not .
Thus John, who was oIt en consul t ed by Herod, and to whom
t hat monarch showed great deIerence and was oIten governed by
his advice; whose doctrine prevai led very ext ensi vely among the
peopl e and the publ icans, taught some creed ol der than Chri s-
t ianity. That i s pl ai n: and i t is equal ly plai n, that the very l arge
body oI the Jews that adopt ed his doct ri nes, were nei t her Phari -
sees nor Sadducees, but t he humble, common peopl e. They must,
t hereIore, have been Essenes. It i s pl ain, t oo, t hat Christ appl i ed
Ior bapt i sm as a sacred ri t e, wel l known and l ong pract iced. It
was becoming to hi m, he said, t o Iul Ii l l al l righteousness.
In t he 18t h chapt er oI the Acts oI the Apost les we read thus:
"And a cert ain Jew, named Apoll os, born at Alexandri a, an elo-
quent man, and mighty in the Scri pt ures, came to Ephesus. Thi s
man was instructed in t he way oI t he Lord, and, bei ng Iervent i n
spirit , he spake and taught dil igently t he t hi ngs oI the Lord, know-
i ng only t he bapti sm oI John; and he began t o speak bol dly in
t he synagogue; whom, when Aquil la and Prisci lla had heard, they
t ook hi m unto them, and expounded unt o hi m t he way oI God
more perIect ly."
Translati ng t hi s Irom t he symbolic and Ii gurati ve l anguage
i nt o t he t rue ordi nary sense oI the Greek t ext , i t reads thus: "And
a certai n Jew, named Apol los, an Al exandrian by birt h, an el oquent
man, and oI ext ensi ve l earning, came to Ephesus. He had learned
i n t he myst eri es the true doct ri ne in regard t o God; and, being a
zeal ous ent husi ast , he spoke and taught dil igently t he t ruths in
regard to the Dei ty, havi ng received no other bapti sm than t hat
oI John. " He knew not hing in regard t o Christ ianity; Ior he
had resided i n Alexandri a, and had j ust then come to Ephesus;
being, probably, a di scipl e oI Phil o, and a Therapeut .
"That, in all t i mes, " says St . August ine, "i s t he Christi an re-
l igi on, whi ch to know and Iol low i s the most sure and certain
heal th, cal led accordi ng t o t hat name, but not according to the
t hi ng i tsel I, oI which it i s the name; Ior t he thi ng it sel I, which
i s now call ed the Chri st ian rel igi on, really was known t o the An-
ci ents, nor was want ing at any ti me Irom the begi nni ng oI the
human race, unt i l the ti me when Christ came in the Ilesh; Irom
whence t he t rue rel igi on, which had previously exist ed, began to
be call ed Chri st i an; and this in our days i s the Chri st ian religion,
not as havi ng been wanti ng in Iormer ti mes, but as havi ng, in
l ater t i mes, received this name. " The di sciples were Iirst cal led
"Chri sti ans, " at Ant ioch, when Barnabas and Paul began t o
preach there.
The Wanderi ng or Itinerant Jews or Exorci sts, who assumed
t o empl oy the Sacred Name i n exorci si ng evil spi rit s, were no
doubt Therapeutae or Essenes.
"And it i t came t o pass, " we read i n t he 19th chapt er oI t he Act s,
verses 1 to 4, "that while Apol los was at Cori nth, Paul , havi ng
passed through t he upper part s oI Asia Minor, came t o Ephesus;
and Iinding cert ai n di scipl es, he sai d t o them, ' Have ye recei ved
t he Holy Ghost si nce ye became Bel ievers ?' And t hey said unt o
hi m, ' We have not so much as heard that there i s any Holy
Ghost . ' And he sai d to them, ' In what, t hen, were you bapt i zed ?'
And t hey said ' In John' s bapti sm. ' Then sai d Paul, ' John in-
deed bapt i zed wit h the bapt ism oI repent ance, saying to t he peopl e
t hat they shoul d believe i n Hi m who was t o come aIt er hi m, that
i s, i n Jesus Chri st . When they heard t hi s, t hey were bapti zed in
t he name oI the Lord Jesus. "
Thi s Iait h, taught by John, and so nearly Christ iani ty, could
have been nothi ng but t he doctrine oI t he Essenes; and there can
be no doubt t hat John belonged t o that sect . The place where he
preached, his macerat ions and Irugal diet , t he doctri nes he taught,
al l prove i t concl usi vely. There was no other sect to whi ch he
could have bel onged; certai nly none so numerous as hi s, except
t he Essenes.
We Ii nd, Irom t he t wo let ters writ ten by Paul to the brethren at
Cori nt h, t hat Ci ty oI Luxury and Corrupti on, t hat there were
contenti ons among t hem. Ri val sects had al ready, about the 57th
year oI our era, reared t hei r banners t here, as Iol lowers, some oI
Paul , some oI Apol l os, and some oI Cephas. Some oI them de-
nied the resurrecti on. Paul urged t hem t o adhere to the doctrines
t aught by hi msel I, and had sent Ti mot hy to t hem to bring t hem
aIresh to their recoll ecti on.
Accordi ng to Paul, Chri st was to come again. He was to put
an end to all other Princi pal it ies and Powers, and Ii nally to Death,
and t hen be Hi msel I once more merged in God; who shoul d t hen
be all i n al l.
The Iorms and ceremoni es oI t he Essenes were symbol ical .
They had, according t o Phi lo t he Jew, Iour Degrees; t he members
being divided i nt o t wo Orders, the Pract ici and Therapeut ici ;
t he l att er bei ng t he contemplati ve and medical Brethren; and the
Iormer the acti ve, pract i cal , busi ness men. They were Jews by
birth; and had a greater aIIect ion Ior each other than the mem-
bers oI any other sect . Thei r brot herly l ove was i ntense. They
Iul Ii ll ed t he Christi an law, "Love one anot her. " They despi sed
riches. No one was t o be Iound among them, havi ng more than
another. The possessi ons oI one were intermi ngled wi th those oI
t he others; so t hat t hey al l had but one pat ri mony, and were
bret hren. Their pi ety toward God was extraordi nary. BeIore
sunri se t hey never spake a word about proIane matt ers; but put
up certai n prayers whi ch they had recei ved Irom their IoreIathers.
At dawn oI day, and beIore i t was li ght , t heir prayers and hymns
ascended t o Heaven. They were eminently Iai t hIul and true, and
t he Mi ni sters oI Peace. They had myst eri ous ceremoni es, and
i ni t i ati ons int o their mysteri es; and the Candi dat e promi sed that
he would ever practi se Ii del ity t o al l men, and especi ally t o those
i n authori ty, "because no one obt ai ns t he government wi thout
God' s assi stance. "
Whatever t hey said, was Iirmer t han an oath; but they avoided
sweari ng, and esteemed it worse t han perj ury. They were si mple
i n t hei r diet and mode oI li vi ng, bore t orture wi t h Iorti tude, and
despi sed deat h. They culti vat ed the science oI medi cine and were
very skil lIul . They deemed i t a good omen to dress i n whit e robes.
They had thei r own court s, and passed ri ght eous judgments. They
kept the Sabbat h more ri gorously t han the Jews.
Thei r chieI t owns were Engaddi , near the Dead Sea, and
Hebron. Engaddi was about 30 mi les southeast Irom Jerusal em,
and Hebron about 20 mi les sout h oI that ci ty. Josephus and
Eusebius speak oI them as an anci ent sect; and t hey were no
doubt t he Ii rst among t he Jews t o embrace Christ ianity: wit h
whose Iait h and doctri ne t heir own tenet s had so many point s oI
resembl ance, and were indeed i n a great measure t he same. Pl iny
regarded t hem as a very ancient peopl e.
In t hei r devoti ons they t urned t oward the ri sing sun; as t he
Jews generally di d toward the Temple. But they were no i dol a-
t ers; Ior they observed t he l aw oI Moses wit h scrupulous Iideli ty.
They hel d al l thi ngs i n common, and despised ri ches, their want s
being supplied by t he admi nist rat ion oI Curators or Stewards.
The Tetractys, composed oI round dot s instead oI jods, was re-
vered among t hem. Thi s bei ng a Pythagorean symbol , evidently
shows t heir connect ion wi t h t he school oI Pyt hagoras; but their
peculi ar tenet s more resemble those oI ConIuci us and Zoroast er;
and probably were adopted whi le they were prisoners in Persia;
which explai ns t hei r turni ng toward the Sun in prayer.
Thei r demeanor was sober and chaste. They submi t ted to the
superi nt endence oI governors whom t hey appoi nt ed over them-
sel ves. The whole oI their t i me was spent in labor, medi tat ion,
and prayer; and t hey were most sedulously att ent ive to every cal l
oI j ust ice and humani ty, and every moral duty. They bel ieved
i n t he uni ty oI God. They supposed the souls oI men to have
Iall en, by a di sast rous Iat e, Irom t he regions oI puri ty and l ight,
i nt o t he bodi es which they occupy; duri ng t heir cont inuance i n
which they considered them conIi ned as i n a pri son. ThereIore
t hey did not beli eve i n t he resurrect ion oI the body; but i n that
oI t he soul only. They believed in a Iuture st ate oI rewards and
puni shment s; and t hey disregarded the ceremonies or ext ernal
Iorms enjoined i n t he l aw oI Moses to be observed in the worshi p
og God; hol di ng t hat the words oI that l awgi ver were to be un-
derstood in a myst erious and recondi t e sense, and not accordi ng t o
t heir l it eral meani ng. They oIIered no sacri Ii ces, except at home;
and by medi t ati on they endeavored, as Iar as possible, to i solat e
t he soul Irom t he body, and carry it back t o God.
Eusebius broadly admit s "that t he ancient Therapeut ae were
Chri sti ans; and that t hei r ancient wri ti ngs were our Gospel s and
Epi stl es. "
The ESSENES were oI the Ecl ecti c Sect oI Phi l osophers, and
held PLATo in the hi ghest esteem; they bel ieved t hat true phil os-
ophy, t he great est and most salutary gi It oI God t o mortal s, was
scatt ered, in various port i ons, through al l the diIIerent Sects; and
t hat it was, consequent ly, the duty oI every wi se man t o gat her i t
Irom the several quart ers where it l ay di spersed, and t o empl oy
i t, t hus reuni ted, in destroying the dominion oI i mpi ety and
The great Iest ivals oI the Sol st i ces were observed i n a di sti n-
guished manner by t he Essenes; as woul d natural ly be supposed,
Irom the Iact that they reverenced the Sun, not as a god, but as a
symbol oI light and Ii re; t he Iountai n oI whi ch, the Ori ent als
supposed God t o be. They li ved i n cont i nence and abst i nence,
and had establi sl ment s si mil ar to the monasteri es oI t he early
Chri sti ans.
The wri ti ngs oI the Essenes were Iull oI mysti cism, parabl es,
enigmas, and all egori es. They beli eved in the esot eri c and exote-
ric meani ngs oI the Script ures; and, as we have already sai d, they
had a warrant Ior t hat i n t he Scri ptures t hemsel ves. They Iound
i t i n the Ol d Test ament , as the Gnost i cs Iound i t in the New.
The Christ ian wri ters, and even Chri st hi msel I, recogni zed i t as a
t ruth, t hat all Scri pt ure had an i nner and an outer meaning. Thus
we Ii nd it sai d as Iol lows, i n one oI the Gospels:
"Unt o you i t is given to know the myst ery oI t he Ki ngdom oI
God; but unt o men t hat are wi thout , al l these thi ngs are done in
parabl es; that seei ng, they may see and not percei ve, and heari ng
t hey may hear and not underst and . . . . And t he disci ples came
and sai d unt o hi m, ' Why speakest Thou the t rut h in parabl es ?' --
He answered and said unto them, ' Because i t is gi ven unt o you to
know the myst eri es oI t he Kingdom oI Heaven, but to t hem it i s
not given.' "
Paul , i n t he 4t h chapter oI his Epist le t o the Galat ians, speak-
i ng oI the si mplest Iacts oI the Ol d Test ament , asserts that t hey
are an allegory. In t he 3d chapter oI t he second let ter to t he
Cori nt hians, he decl ares hi mselI a mi nister oI the New Test ament ,
appoi nted by God; "Not oI the let ter, but oI t he spirit ; Ior the
l ett er kil let h." Origen and St. Gregory hel d t hat the Gospels
were not to be t aken in t heir l it eral sense; and Athanasius ad-
moni shes us t hat "Shoul d we understand sacred writ accordi ng t o
t he l ett er, we should Ial l into the most enormous blasphemies. "
Eusebius said, "Those who preside over t he Holy Scri pt ures,
phil osophi ze over them, and expound t hei r li t eral sense by al l e-
gory. "
The sources oI our knowledge oI the Kabal i st i c doct ri nes, are
t he books oI Jezirah and Sohar, t he Iormer drawn up in the second
cent ury, and t he l at t er a li tt le lat er; but cont aini ng mat eri als
much ol der than t hemsel ves. In t heir most characteri st ic el e-
ment s, t hey go back to t he t i me oI t he exil e. In t hem, as i n the
t eachings oI Zoroaster, everythi ng that exist s emanated Irom a
source oI inIi ni te LiGHT. BeIore everyt hing, exist ed THE AN-
CIENT OF DAYS, t he KING OF LIGHT; a t i tle oIten given t o t he
Creator in the Zend-Avesta and the code oI the Sabaeans. Wi th
t he i dea so expressed i s connected the pant hei sm oI Indi a.
t he real cause oI al l Exist ences; he is InIi nit e (AINSOPH). He i s
HIMSELF: there i s nothi ng in Hi m t hat We can cal l Thou.
In t he Indi an doctrine, not only is t he Supreme Being t he real
cause oI all , but he i s t he only real Exist ence: al l t he rest is il lu-
si on. In t he Kabalah, as in the Persian and Gnost i c doct rines,
He is t he Supreme Being unknown to all , t he "Unknown Fat her."
The worl d is hi s revel ati on, and subsist s only in Hi m. His att ri -
butes are reproduced t here, wi th di IIerent modiIi cat i ons, and in
diIIerent degrees, so that t he Uni verse is Hi s Holy Splendor:i t
i s but His Mantl e; but i t must be revered in si l ence. Al l bei ngs
have emanated Irom t he Supreme Being: The nearer a being i s
t o Hi m, t he more perIect i t is; the more remote in t he scale, t he
l ess it s puri ty.
A ray oI Light , shot Irom t he Dei ty, i s the cause and pri nci ple
oI al l that exi st s. It i s at once Fat her and Mother oI All , i n t he
subli mest sense. It penetrates everything; and wi thout i t not hi ng
can exi st an i nst ant. From t hi s doubl e FORCE, desi gnated by t he
t wo part s oI t he word I. u. H. u. U. u. H. u. emanat ed t he FIRST-BORN
oI God, the Universal Form, in which are contained al l beings;
t he Persian and Pl atonic Archetype oI things, united wi th t he
InIinit e by the pri mi t ive ray oI Light .
Thi s Fi rst -Born is the Creat ive Agent, Conservator, and ani -
mati ng Princi pl e oI t he Universe. It i s THE LIGHT OF LIGHT. It
possesses the three Pri mi t ive Forces oI the Divinity, LIGHT,
SPIRIT and LIFE. As it has recei ved
what it gives, Light and LiIe, i t i s equal ly consi dered as t he gen-
erati ve and concept ive Principle, the Pri mi ti ve Man, ADAM
KADMON. As such, it has reveal ed i tsel I in ten emanat i ons or
Sephiroth, which are not t en diIIerent beings, nor even beings at
al l; but sources oI l iIe, vessel s oI Omni pot ence, and types oI Cre-
at ion. They are Sovereignty or Wi l l, Wi sdom, Intell igence,
Beni gni ty, Severi ty, Beauty, Vi ctory, Glory, Permanency, and
Empire. These are att ri but es oI God; and this idea, that God re-
veal s Hi msel I by His at tribut es, and t hat the human mi nd cannot
perceive or discern God Hi msel I, i n his works, but only his mode
oI mani Iest ing Hi mselI, is a proIound Trut h. We know oI t he
Invi si ble only what the Visi ble reveals.
Wisdom was cal l ed NOUS and LOGOS, lN-
TELLECT or the WORD. Intel li gence, source oI t he oil oI anoint-
i ng, responds to the Holy Ghost oI t he Chri st i an Fait h.
Beauty i s represent ed by green and yellow. Victory i s YA-
HOVAH-TSABAOTH, t he column on the right hand, the col umn
Jachin: Gl ory is t he column Boaz, on the leIt hand. And t hus
our symbol s appear agai n i n t he Kabalah. And again t he LIGHT,
t he object oI our labors, appears as the creat i ve power oI Deity.
The circl e, also, was t he special symbol oI t he Iirst Sephi rah,
Ket her, or the Crown.
We do not Iurther Iol low the Kabal ah in it s Iour Worl ds oI
Spi ri ts, Azil ut h, Bri ah, Yezirah, and Asiah, or oI emanati on, crea-
t ion, Iormati on, and Iabri cati on, one inIerior to and one emerging
Irom the ot her, t he superior al ways envel oping t he i nIeri or;it s
doctri ne t hat , i n al l that exist s, there i s nothi ng purely materi al ;
t hat all comes Irom God, and in al l He proceeds by i rradiati on;
t hat everythi ng subsi sts by t he Divi ne ray that penet rates crea-
t ion; and all i s uni ted by t he Spi ri t oI God, which is the li Ie oI
l iIe; so t hat all i s God; the Exi stences that i nhabit t he Iour
worl ds, inIerior t o each ot her in proporti on to their di stance Irom
t he Great King oI Light : t he contest between the good and evi l
Angels and Princi pl es, t o endure unti l the Eternal Hi msel I comes
t o end i t and re-establ i sh t he pri mi ti ve harmony; t he Iour dist inct
part s oI t he Soul oI Man; and the migrat ions oI i mpure soul s,
unti l they are suIIi ciently puri Ii ed to share wit h the Spirit s oI
Light the contempl at ion oI the Supreme Bei ng whose Spl endor
Iil ls t he Uni verse.
The WORD was al so Iound i n the Phoeni cian Creed. As in all
t hose oI Asi a, a WORD oI God, writ ten in starry charact ers, by the
planet ary Divini t ies, and communicat ed by t he Demi-Gods, as a
proIound myst ery, to the hi gher classes oI the human race, to be
communi cated by them t o manki nd, created the worl d. The Iait h
oI t he Phoeni cians was an emanat ion Irom that ancient worship oI
t he Stars, whi ch i n the creed oI Zoroast er alone, i s connected wi th
a Iai th in one God. Li ght and Fi re are t he most i mport ant agent s
i n t he Phoeni cian Iai t h. There i s a race oI chil dren oI t he Light .
They adored t he Heaven wit h i ts Light s, deemi ng i t the Supreme
Everyt hing emanates Irom a Si ngl e Pri nci ple, and a Pri mi t ive
Love, which i s the Movi ng Power oI All and governs al l . Light ,
by i ts uni on wit h Spi rit , whereoI i t is but t he vehicl e or symbol,
i s t he Li Ie oI everythi ng, and penet rat es everyt hing. It should
t hereIore be respect ed and honored everywhere; Ior everywhere
i t governs and control s.
The Chaldaic and Jerusalem Paraphrast s endeavored t o render
t he phrase, DEBAR-YAHOVAH, t he Word oI God, a
personalty, wherever t hey met wit h it . The phrase, "And God
created man, " is, in the Jerusalem Targum, "And t he Word oI
IHUH created man. "
So, in xxvi i i. Gen. 20, 21, where Jacob says: "II God
(IHIH ALHIM) wi ll be wi th me. . . then shal l IHUH be my ALHIM;
UHIH IHUH LI LALHIM; and this st one
shal l be God' s House (IHIH BITH ALHIM):
Onkel os paraphrases i t, "II the word oI IHUH wi ll be my hel p
. . . . then t he word oI IHUH shal l be my God. "
So, in i ii . Gen. 8, Ior "The Voi ce oI t he Lord God"
(IHUH ALHIM), we have, "The Voice oI the Word oI IHUH."
In i x. Wi sdom, 1, "O God oI my Fat hers and Lord oI Mercy!
who has made al l t hi ngs wi th t hy word."
And i n xvii i . Wi sdom, 15, "Thine Al mighty Word leap-
ed down Irom Heaven."
Phi l o speaks oI the Word as bei ng the same wit h God. So i n
several places he cal l s i t the Second Di-
vini ty; the Image oI God: the Di vi ne Word t hat
made al l thi ngs: substi t ute, oI God; and the li ke.
Thus when John commenced to preach, had been Ior ages
agi tated, by t he Priest s and Phil osophers oI t he East and West,
t he great quest ions concerni ng the eternity or creat ion oI mat t er:
i mmediate or int ermedi ate creati on oI t he Uni verse by t he Su-
preme God; the origi n, obj ect , and Ii nal ext incti on oI evi l ; t he
relat i ons bet ween the intel lect ual and mat erial worl ds, and be-
t ween God and man; and t he creati on, Ial l, redempti on, and
restorati on t o his Iirst estate, oI man.
The Jewi sh doctrine, diIIering in t hi s Irom all t he other Ori ental
creeds, and even Irom the Al ohayist ic legend wi th whi ch t he book
oI Genesis commences, attri but ed t he creati on t o t he i mmediate
act ion oI t he Supreme Being. The Theosophi sts oI the ot her
Eastern Peoples int erposed more t han one intermedi ary bet ween
God and t he worl d. To place bet ween t hem but a singl e Being,
t o suppose Ior the producti on oI the world but a single int er-
mediary, was, i n t hei r eyes, t o l ower t he Supreme Maj esty. The
i nterval bet ween God, who i s perIect Purity, and mat ter, which is
base and Ioul, was t oo great Ior them to clear it at a si ngle step.
Even in t he Occi dent , neit her Plat o nor Phi lo coul d thus i m-
poverish the Int el lect ual Worl d.
Thus, Cerinthus oI Ephesus, wit h most oI t he Gnost ics, Phil o,
t he Kabal ah, t he Zend-Avest a, t he Puranas, and all t he Orient,
deemed the di stance and anti pat hy bet ween the Supreme Bei ng
and t he mat erial worl d t oo great , t o attri but e t o t he Iormer t he
creati on oI the lat ter. Below, and emanati ng Irom, or created
by, t he Ancient oI Days, the Cent ral Light, t he Beginni ng, or
First Principl e, one, two, or more Pri nci pl es, Exi st ences,
or Intel lectual Bei ngs were i magi ned, to some one or more oI
whom (wit hout any i mmediate creati ve act on t he part oI t he
Great Immovabl e, Si lent Deity), the i mmedi at e creati on oI the
material and mental universe was due.
We have al ready spoken oI many oI t he speculat i ons on t hi s
point. To some, t he worl d was creat ed by t he LOGOS or WORD,
Iirst mani Iest ati on oI, or emanat i on Irom, the Dei ty. To others,
t he beginning oI creat i on was by the emanat ion oI a ray oI
Light , creati ng t he pri nci ple oI Light and LiIe. The Pri mit i ve
THOUGHT, creati ng t he i nIeri or Dei ties, a successi on oI INTELL-
GENCES, the Iynges oI Zoroast er, his Amshaspands, Izeds, and
Ferouers, the Ideas oI Plato, t he Aions oI the Gnost ics, t he
Angels oI the Jews, the Nous, t he Demiourgos, the DIVINE REA-
SON, the Powers or Forces oI Phil o, and the Alohayi m, Forces or
Superi or Gods oI t he anci ent l egend wit h which Genesi s begi ns, -
t o t hese and ot her i nt ermediari es the creat ion was owi ng. No re-
st rai nt s were lai d on t he Fancy and t he Imaginati on. The veri est
Abstracti ons became Exist ences and Real it ies. The at tri but es oI
God, personi Iied, became Powers, Spirit s, Intel li gences.
God was the Light oI Light , Divine Fire, the Abstract Intel lec-
t ual ity, t he Root or Germ oI the Uni verse. Si mon Magus, Iounder
oI t he Gnost ic Iai th, and many oI the early Judai zi ng Chri st ians,
admit ted t hat the maniIestat ions oI t he Supreme Being, as
FATHER, or JEhOVAh, SON or CHRIST, and HOLY SPIRIT, were only
so many di IIerent modes oI Exist ence, or Forces oI t he
same God. To others t hey were, as were the mul t it ude oI Sub-
ordi nat e Int ell igences, real and di sti nct bei ngs.
The Ori ent al i magi nat ion revell ed in the creat ion oI these In-
Ieri or Int el l igences, Powers oI Good and Evi l, and Angel s. We
have spoken oI those i magi ned by t he Persians and the Kabal ist s.
In t he Tal mud, every st ar, every country, every t own, and al most
every t ongue has a Pri nce oI Heaven as i t s Protect or. JEHUEL, i s
t he guardi an oI Ii re, and MICHAEL oI water. Seven spiri t s assi st
each; t hose oI Ii re bei ng Seraphiel , Gabri el , Ni triel , Tammael,
Tchi mschiel , Hadarniel , and Sarniel . These seven are represented
by t he square col umns oI thi s Degree, whi le the columns JACHIN
and BOAZ represent t he angel s oI Iire and wat er. But the col-
umns are not represent at i ves oI these alone.
To Basi li des, God was wi t hout name, uncreated, at Iirst contain-
i ng and conceali ng i n Hi mselI t he Plenit ude oI Hi s PerIect ions;
and when t hese are by Hi m displ ayed and nianiIested, t here resul t
as many parti cular Existences, al l analogous to Hi m, and st i ll and
al ways Hi m. To the Essenes and t he Gnosti cs, t he East and t he
West both devised t his Iai t h; t hat the Ideas, Concept ions, or
Mani Iest ati ons oI t he Dei ty were so many Creat ions, so many Be-
i ngs, all God, not hing wi thout Hi m, but more t han what we now
understand by the word ideas. They emanat ed Irom and were
agai n merged in God. They had a kind oI middl e exist ence be-
t ween our modern i deas, and the int el ligences or i deas, elevat ed t o
t he rank oI geni i , oI t he Oriental mythology.
These personi Iied at tri butes oI Deity, i n t he theory oI Basil ides,
were t he First-born, Nous or Mi nd: Irom
i t emanat es Logos, or THE WORD Irom i t :
Phronesi s, Intell ect :Irom it Sophia, Wi sdom :Irom it
Dunami s, Power: and Irom i t Dikaiosune,
Ri ght eousness: t o which latter t he Jews gave the name oI
Eirene, Peace, or Cal m, t he essent ial characterist ics oI Divini ty,
and harmoni ous eIIect oI all Hi s perIect ions. The whole number
oI successi ve emanat ions was 365, expressed by the Gnosti cs, i n
Greek l ett ers, by the myst ic word Abraxas; desig-
nati ng God as mani Iest ed, or the aggregat e oI his mani Iest at i ons;
but not t he Supreme and Secret God Hi msel I. These t hree hun-
dred and si xty-Iive Intel li gences compose al t oget her the Full ness
or Plenit ude oI t he Di vi ne Emanati ons.
Wi t h the Ophites, a sect oI t he Gnost ics, there were seven i nIe-
rior spirit s (inIerior t o Ial dabaoth, t he Demiourgos or Act ual Cre-
at or : Michael , Suri el, Raphael , Gabriel , Thauthabaot h, Erataoth,
and At hani el , the geni i oI the stars call ed the Bull ; the Dog, the
Li on, t he Bear, t he Serpent , the Eagl e, and t he Ass t hat Iormerly
Iigured in the const ell at ion Cancer, and symbol ized respecti vely
by t hose ani mals; as Ialdabaot h, Iao, Adonai , El oi, Orai, and As-
t aphai were t he geni i oI Saturn, t he Moon, the Sun, Jupit er,
Venus, and Mercury.
The WORD appears i n al l these creeds. It is t he Ormuzd oI
Zoroaster, the Ainsoph oI the Kabal ah, the Nous oI Plat onism
and Phi loni sm, and the Sophi a or Demiourgos oI the Gnostics.
And al l these creeds, whi le admi t ti ng t hese diIIerent maniIesta-
t ions oI t he Supreme Being, held that His i denti ty was i mmutable
and permanent . That was Pl ato' s di sti nct ion between the Being
al ways t he same and the perpet ual Il ow oI things inces-
sant ly changi ng, the Genesi s.
The beli eI in dual i sm i n some shape, was universal . Those
who held that everythi ng emanated Irom God, aspired to God, and
re-ent ered i nto God, beli eved that, among t hose emanat i ons were
t wo adverse Pri nciples, oI Light and Darkness, Good and Evil .
Thi s prevai l ed in Cent ral Asia and in Syri a; whi le i n Egypt i t
assumed the Iorm oI Greek speculat i on. In t he Iormer, a second
Int el l ect ual Princi pl e was admi t t ed, acti ve i n it s Empi re oI Dark-
ness, audaci ous against t he Empire oI Light . So t he Persi ans and
Sabeans underst ood it . In Egypt , t hi s second Pri nci pl e was Mat -
t er, as the word was used by t he Platonic School , wi t h i ts sad at -
t ri butes, Vacuity, Darkness, and Death. In their theory, mat t er
could be ani mat ed only by the low communicat ion oI a principl e
oI divi ne l i Ie. It resist s t he i nIluences t hat woul d spiri tual ize i t.
That resisti ng Power is Sat an, the rebel li ous Matt er, Mat ter t hat
does not part ake oI God.
To many t here were two Pri nci ples; t he Unknown Father, or
Supreme and Eternal God, l iving in the cent re oI the Light,
happy in the perIect puri ty oI Hi s bei ng; the ot her, eternal Mat-
t er, t hat inert , shapeless, darksome mass, which they consi dered as
t he source oI all evil s, t he mot her and dwel li ng-pl ace oI Sat an.
To Phil o and the Pl atoni st s, there was a Soul oI t he world, cre-
at ing vi sibl e t hi ngs, and act ive i n t hem, as agent oI the Supreme
Int el l igence; reali zing t herein the ideas communicat ed t o Hi m by
t hat Intel li gence, and whi ch somet i mes excel Hi s concepti ons, but
which He executes wit hout comprehendi ng them.
The Apocalypse or Revelat ions, by whomever wri tt en, bel ongs
t o t he Ori ent and to extreme anti quity. It reproduces what i s Iar
older t han it selI. It pai nt s, wi th t he st rongest colors that t he Ori-
ental geni us ever employed, the cl osing scenes oI the great strug-
gle oI Light, and Trut h, and Good, agai nst Darkness, Error, and
Evi l; personiIied in t hat bet ween t he New Reli gion on one si de,
and Pagani sm and Judai sm on the ot her. It i s a part icul ar appl i-
cat ion oI t he ancient myt h oI Ormuzd and hi s Geni i against Ahri-
man and hi s Devs; and it celebrates the Ii nal t ri umph oI Trut h
agai nst the combined powers oI men and demons. The ideas and
i magery are borrowed Irom every quart er; and all usi ons are Iound
i n i t to t he doctrines oI al l ages. We are cont i nual ly reminded
oI t he Zend-Avesta, the Jewi sh Codes, Phil o, and the Gnosis.
The Seven Spiri ts surroundi ng t he Throne oI the Et ernal, at the
openi ng oI the Grand Drama, and acti ng so i mport ant a part
t hroughout , everywhere the Ii rst i nstruments oI t he Di vi ne Wil l
and Vengence, are the Seven Amshaspands oI Parsi sm; as the
Twenty-Iour Ancients, oIIeri ng to t he Supreme Being the Ii rst
suppl icat ions and t he Iirst homage, remi nd us oI the Mysterious
ChieIs oI Judai sm, Ioreshadow t he Eons oI Gnost ici sm, and re-
produce t he t wenty-Iour Good Spiri ts creat ed by Ormuzd and i n-
cl osed in an egg.
The Christ oI t he Apocalypse, Fi rst -born oI Creat ion and oI t he
Resurrect i on is i nvest ed wit h t he charact eri sti cs oI t he Ormuzd
and Sosi osch oI the Zend-Avesta, t he Ainsoph oI t he Kabalah
and t he Carpi st es oI the Gnostics. The idea that t he
t rue Ini tiates and Fai thIul become Ki ngs and Pri ests, is at once
Persi an, Jewi sh, Christ ian, and Gnosti c. And t he deIi nit i on oI
t he Supreme Being, t hat He i s at once Al pha and Omega, t he be-
gi nni ng and t he end--He t hat was, and is, and is to come,
i . e. , Ti me il l i mi table, is Zoroaster' s deIi ni ti on oI Zerouane-Ak-
The dept hs oI Sat an which no man can measure; hi s triumph
Ior a t i me by Iraud and vi olence; his bei ng chai ned by an angel ;
his reprobat i on and hi s preci pi tat ion i nto a sea oI met al; hi s
names oI t he Serpent and t he Dragon; t he whol e conIl ict oI t he
Good Spirit s or cel esti al armi es agai nst the bad; are so many
i deas and desi gnat ions Iound al ike in t he Zend-Avest a, t he Ka-
balah, and the Gnosis.
We even Ii nd in the Apocalypse t hat si ngular Persi an idea,
which regards some oI the lower ani mals as so many Devs or ve-
hicles oI Devs.
The guardianship oI t he eart h by a good angel , the renewing oI
t he earth and heavens, and t he Iinal triumph oI pure and holy
men, are t he same vict ory oI Good over Evi l, Ior which t he whol e
Orient looked.
The gold, and whit e rai ments oI the t wenty-Iour El ders are, as
i n t he Persian Iai t h, t he si gns oI a loIty perIecti on and divine
puri ty.
Thus the Human mi nd labored and struggl ed and t ortured it selI
Ior ages, t o expl ai n t o i t sel I what it Ielt , wit hout conIessi ng it , to
be inexpli cable. A vast crowd oI indist inct abstracti ons, hoveri ng
i n t he i maginat ion, a trai n oI words embodying no tangi bl e mean-
i ng, an i nextricable l abyrinth oI subtl eti es, was the result .
But one grand idea ever emerged and st ood prominent and un-
changeable over t he wel tering chaos oI conIusi on. God i s great,
and good, and wi se. Evi l and pai n and sorrow are temporary,
and Ior wi se and beneIi cent purposes. They must be consi stent
wi th God' s goodness, puri ty, and inIinit e perIect ion; and there
must be a mode oI expl aining them, iI we coul d but Ii nd i t out ;
as, in al l ways we wi ll endeavor t o do. Ult i mately, Good wil l pre-
vail , and Evi l be overt hrown. God, alone can do t his, and He wi ll
do i t, by an Emanati on Irom Hi msel I, assuming the Human Iorm
and redeemi ng the world.
Behol d the object , t he end, the resul t , oI t he great specul ati ons
and l ogomachi es oI ant iqui ty; t he ulti mat e annihil at i on oI evi l,
and restorati on oI Man to hi s Iirst est ate, by a Redeemer, a Ma-
sayah, a Chri stos, t he incarnate Word, Reason, or Power oI Deity.
Thi s Redeemer is the Word or Logos, the Ormuzd oI Zoroast er,
t he Ai nsoph oI t he Kabalah, t he Nous oI Pl atoni sm and Phi lon-
i sm; He that was in the Begi nning wit h God, and was God, and
by Whom everyt hing was made. That He was looked Ior by al l
t he People oI the East i s abundantly shown by t he Gospel oI John
and t he Let ters oI Paul ; wherei n scarcely anythi ng seemed neces-
sary t o be said i n prooI that such a Redeemer was t o come; but
al l the energies oI the wri ters are devot ed to showing that Jesus
was that Chri stos whom al l the nat ions were expect ing; t he
"Word, " the Masayah, the Anoi nt ed or Consecrated One.
In t his Degree t he great contest between good and evi l, in ant i ci -
pati on oI the appearance and advent oI t he Word or Redeemer i s
symbol i zed; and t he mysterious esot eri c t eachi ngs oI t he Essenes
and t he Cabali sts. OI the practi ces oI t he Iormer we gai n but
gl i mpses i n t he ancient wri ters; but we know that , as t heir doc-
t ri nes were t aught by John the Bapti st, t hey greatly resembl ed
t hose oI great er purity and more nearly perIect, taught by Jesus;
and t hat not only Pal est ine was Iull oI John' s di sci ples, so that t he
Priests and Phari sees di d not dare to deny John' s inspirat ion; but
his doctri ne had extended to Asi a Mi nor, and had made convert s
i n l uxurious Ephesus, as i t al so had i n Alexandri a i n Egypt; and
t hat they readily embraced t he Chri sti an Iai th, oI whi ch they had
beIore not even heard.
These old controversies have died away, and t he old Iai ths have
Iaded int o obl i vion. But Masonry st il l survi ves, vi gorous and
st rong, as when phi l osophy was taught in the schools oI Al exan-
dri a and under t he Port ico; teachi ng t he same old trut hs as t he
Essenes t aught by t he shores oI the Dead Sea, and as John the
Bapt ist preached in the Desert; trut hs i mperi shabl e as t he Dei ty,
and undeni abl e as Light . Those trut hs were gat hered by the
Essenes Irom the doct ri nes oI t he Ori ent and t he Occi dent , Irom
t he Zend-Avest a and t he Vedas, Irom Plat o and Pythagoras, Irom
India, Persi a, Phoeni ci a, and Syria, Irom Greece and Egypt, and
Irom the Holy Books oI t he Jews. Hence we are cal led Knights
oI t he East and West , because t heir doctrines came Irom both.
And t hese doctri nes, t he wheat si Ited Irom t he chaII, t he Truth
seperated Irom Error, Masonry has garnered up in her heart oI
hearts, and t hrough the Ii res oI persecuti on, and t he st orms oI
calami ty, has brought them and deli vered t hem unt o us. That
God i s One, i mmutable, unchangeabl e, inIinit ely just and good;
t hat Light wil l Ii nally overcome Darkness, --Good conquer Evil ,
and Trut h be vi ct or over Error ; --these, rejecti ng al l the wi ld and
usel ess speculat ions oI t he Zend-Avest a, the Kabalah, t he Gnost ics,
and t he Schools, are the rel igi on and Phi l osophy oI Masonry.
Those specul ati ons and Ianci es i t is useIul t o st udy; t hat know-
i ng i n what wort hless and unIrui t Iul i nvest igat ions t he mi nd may
engage, you may the more val ue and appreci at e t he plai n, si mple,
subli me, universal ly-acknowledged trut hs, whi ch have i n all ages
been t he Light by which Masons have been gui ded on t hei r way;
t he Wi sdom and Strengt h t hat l ike i mperishabl e columns have
sust ained and wi ll conti nue t o sust ain i ts glorious and magniIicent

|Pri nce Rose Croi x. |
Each oI us makes such appli cati ons to hi s own Iait h and creed,
oI t he symbols and ceremonies oI t his Degree, as seems to hi m
proper. Wi t h t hese speci al int erpret at i ons we have here nothing
t o do. Like the legend oI the Mast er Khurum, in whi ch some
see Iigured the condemnati on and suIIerings oI Christ ; ot hers
t hose oI the unIort unat e Grand Mast er oI the Templ ars; ot hers
t hose oI the Ii rst Charl es, King oI England; and ot hers sti l l t he
annual descent oI t he Sun at t he wi nt er Solst ice t o the regi ons oI
darkness, t he basis oI many an ancient l egend; so the ceremoni es
oI t hi s Degree recei ve diIIerent expl anati ons; each interpret ing
t hem Ior hi mselI, and being oIIended at the int erpret ati on oI no
In no ot her way could Masonry possess i ts character oI Uni ver-
sal ity; that character which has ever been peculi ar to it Irom i t s
origin; and which enabl es t wo Kings, worshi ppers oI di IIerent
Dei ti es, t o si t together as Mast ers, whi le the wall s oI the Ii rst tem-
ple arose; and the men oI Gebal, bowing down t o t he Phoeni cian
Gods, t o work by t he si de oI the Hebrews t o whom those Gods
were abomi nat ion; and to sit wi th them in the same Lodge as
bret hren.
You have al ready learned that t hese ceremonies have one gen-
eral si gni Ii cance, to every one, oI every Iai th, who believes i n God,
and t he soul' s i mmort al i ty.
The pri mi ti ve men met i n no Templ es made wi th human hands.
"God, " sai d St he exist ence oI a single uncreat ed
God, in whose bosom everythi ng grows, i s devel oped and t rans-
Iormed. The worshi p oI t hi s God reposed upon t he obedience oI
al l the bei ngs He created. Hi s Ieasts were t hose oI the Solst ices.
The doct ri nes oI Buddha pervaded Indi a, China, and Japan. The
Priests oI Brahma, proIessi ng a dark and bl oody creed, brutal ized
by Supersti t i on, unit ed toget her against Buddhism, and wi th t he
ai d oI Despot ism, exterminat ed it s Iol l owers. But t heir blood
Iert il i zed t he new docIi rst Iall ing themsel ves, and plunged i n misery and
t empt ed man to hi s Ial l , and brought sin i nto t he worl d. Al l be-
l ieved i n a Iut ure l iIe, t o be at tai ned by puri Iicat ion and tri al s; in
a st at e or successive stat es oI reward and puni shment; and in a
Medi at or or Redeemer, by whom t he Evil Princi pl e was t o be
overcome, and the Supreme Deity reconci led to Hi s creat ures.
The beli eI was general , that He was t o be born oI a Vi rgin, and
suIIer a pai nIul death. The Indi ans cal led hi m Chrishna; t he
Chinese, Ki oun-t se;t he Persi ans, Sosiosch; the Chal deans, Dhou-
vanai; t he Egypt ians, Har-Oeri ; Pl at o, Love; and the Scandi na-
vians, Balder.
Chri shna, the Hi ndoo Redeemer, was cradled and educat ed
among Shepherds. A Tyrant , at t he ti me oI his birt h, ordered
al l male chi ldren to be sl ain. He perIormed mi racles, say hi s
l egends, even rai sing the dead. He washed t he Ieet oI t he Brah-
mins, and was meek and lowly oI spiri t. He was born oI a Vir-
gi n; descended t o Hell , rose agai n, ascended to Heaven, charged
his disci ples to teach hi s doctrines, and gave them t he gi It oI mir-
The Ii rst Masoni c Legi slat or whose memory i s preserved to us
by hi story, was Buddha, who, about a t housand years beIore t he
Chri sti an era, reIormed t he rel igi on oI Manous. He called t o t he
Priesthood all men, wi thout di st i nct ion oI cast e, who Ielt t hem-
sel ves i nspi red by God to i nstruct men. Those who so associ ated
t hemsel ves Iormed a Soci ety oI Prophet s under the name oI Sa-
maneans. They recognized the exist ence oI a singl e uncreat ed
God, in whose bosom everythi ng grows, i s devel oped and t rans-
Iormed. The worshi p oI t hi s God reposed upon t he obedience oI
al l the bei ngs He created. Hi s Ieasts were t hose oI the Solst ices.
The doct ri nes oI Buddha pervaded Indi a, China, and Japan. The
Priests oI Brahma, proIessi ng a dark and bl oody creed, brutal ized
by Supersti t i on, unit ed toget her against Buddhism, and wi th t he
ai d oI Despot ism, exterminat ed it s Iol l owers. But t heir blood
Iert il i zed t he new doctrine, which produced a new Soci ety under
t he name oI Gymnosophi sts; and a large number, Ileei ng to
Ireland, plant ed thei r doct ri nes t here, and t here erect ed t he round
t owers, some oI which st il l stand, soli d and unshaken as at Iirst,
visi ble monument s oI t he remot est ages.
The Phoeni cian Cosmogony, l ike all ot hers i n Asi a, was t he
Word oI God, wri tt en i n astral characters, by t he planetary Di vi n-
i ti es, and communi cated by the Demi -gods, as a proIound mystery,
t o t he bri ght er int el l igences oI Humani ty, to be propagat ed by
t hem among men. Their doctri nes resembl ed t he Ancient Sabe-
i sm, and bei ng t he Iai t h oI Hiram the Ki ng and hi s namesake t he
Arti st, are oI i nterest to all Masons. Wi th them, the Fi rst Pri n-
ci ple was hal I mat eri al , hal I spirit ual , a dark ai r, ani mated and
i mpregnat ed by t he spirit ; and a di sordered chaos, covered wi t h
t hick darkness. From t hi s came the Word, and thence creati on
and generati on; and t hence a race oI men, chil dren oI l ight, who
adored Heaven and it s Stars as t he Supreme Being; and whose
diIIerent gods were but i ncarnati ons oI the Sun, t he Moon, the
Stars, and the Et her. Chrysor was the great igneous power oI
Nat ure, and Baal and Mal akarth represent ati ons oI t he Sun and
Moon, the lat ter word, i n Hebrew, meaning Queen.
Man had Ial l en, but not by t he t empt ing oI t he serpent. For,
wi th t he Phoenici ans, the serpent was deemed t o part ake oI the
Di vi ne Nat ure, and was sacred, as he was i n Egypt . He was
deemed to be i mmortal , unl ess sl ai n by viol ence, becoming young
agai n i n his old age, by entering into and consumi ng hi mselI.
Hence the Serpent in a circle, holding hi s tai l in hi s mout h, was
an embl em oI et erni ty. Wi t h the head oI a hawk he was oI a
Di vi ne Nat ure, and a symbol oI t he sun. Hence one Sect oI the
Gnost ics t ook hi m Ior thei r good geni us, and hence t he brazen ser-
pent reared by Moses i n the Desert , on whi ch t he Israel it es l ooked
and l ived.
"BeIore the chaos, t hat preceded t he birt h oI Heaven and
Eart h, " sai d t he Chi nese Lao-Tseu, "a single Bei ng exist ed, i m-
mense and si lent , i mmut abl e and al ways acti ng; the mother oI
t he Universe. I know not the name oI t hat Being, but I designat e
i t by t he word Reason. Man has his model in the eart h, the
earth in Heaven, Heaven i n Reason, and Reason in it sel I. "
"I am," says Isi s, "Nature;parent oI al l things, t he soverei gn
oI t he El ements, the pri mi t ive progeny oI Ti me, t he most exal ted
oI t he Deit ies, the Ii rst oI the Heavenly Gods and Goddesses, the
Queen oI t he Shades, t he uni Iorm countenance; who di spose
wi th my rod t he numerous l ight s oI Heaven, the salubrious breezes
oI t he sea, and the mournIul si l ence oI the dead; whose si ngle
Di vi ni ty the whol e worl d venerates i n many Iorms, wi th vari ous
ri t es and by many names. The Egypt ians, ski ll ed i n ancient lore,
worship me wi t h proper ceremoni es, and cal l me by my t rue name,
Isis the Queen."
The Hindu Vedas thus deIi ne t he Dei ty:
"He who surpasses speech, and t hrough whose power speech i s
expressed, know thou that He is Brahma; and not t hese perish-
able t hi ngs t hat man adores.
"He whom Intel li gence cannot comprehend, and He al one, say
t he sages, through whose Power t he nature oI Intel li gence can be
understood, know t hou t hat He i s Brahma; and not t hese peri sh-
able t hi ngs t hat man adores.
"He who cannot be seen by the organ oI sight , and through
whose power the organ oI seeing sees, know thou t hat He is
Brahma; and not these peri shabl e t hi ngs t hat man adores.
"He who cannot be heard by t he organ oI heari ng, and through
whose power the organ oI hearing hears, know t hou t hat He i s
Brahma; and not these peri shabl e t hi ngs t hat man adores.
"He who cannot be percei ved by t he organ oI smell i ng, and
t hrough whose power the organ oI smell ing smel ls, know thou t hat
He is Brahma; and not these perishable t hi ngs t hat man adores. "
"When God resolved t o create the human race, " sai d Ari us,
"He made a Bei ng t hat He call ed The WORD, The Son, Wi sdom,
t o t he end that t hi s Being might give exi stence t o men. " Thi s
WORD i s t he Ormuzd oI Zoroast er, t he Ai nsoph oI the Kabal ah,
t he Nous oI Pl ato and Phil o, t he Wi sdom or Demiourgos oI t he
Gnost ics.
That i s the True Word, the knowledge oI which our ancient
bret hren sought as the pricel ess reward oI their l abors on t he
Holy Templ e: the Word oI Li Ie, the Di vine Reason, "in whom
was LiIe, and t hat LiIe t he Light oI men";"whi ch long shone i n
darkness, and t he darkness comprehended it not ;" the InIini te
Reason t hat is the Soul oI Nat ure, i mmortal , oI which t he Word
oI t hi s Degree reminds us; and t o beli eve wherei n and revere it , is
t he peculi ar duty oI every Mason.
"In the begi nning, " says the ext ract Irom some older work,
wi th which John commences hi s Gospel, "was the Word, and t he
Word was near t o God, and the Word was God. Al l things were
made by Hi m, and wi thout Hi m was not anything made that was
made. In Hi m was LiIe, and t he li Ie was the Light oI man; and
t he l ight shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not cont ain it . "
It is an old tradi ti on that t hi s passage was Irom an older work.
And Phi lostorgi us and Nicephorus stat e, that when t he Emperor
Juli an undert ook to rebui ld the Templ e, a st one was t aken up,
t hat covered the mouth oI a deep square cave, int o which one oI
t he l aborers, bei ng let down by a rope, Iound i n the centre oI
t he Iloor a cubical pi ll ar, on whi ch l ay a rol l or book, wrapped in
a Ii ne l inen cl oth, in whi ch, i n capit al let ters, was the Ioregoi ng
However this may have been, it is plain that John' s Gospel is a
polemic against t he Gnost ics; and, stati ng at the outset t he current
doctri ne i n regard to the creat ion by t he Word, he t hen addresses
hi msel I to show and urge t hat t his Word was Jesus Chri st .
And t he Iirst sentence, Iul ly rendered i nt o our language, woul d
read t hus: "When the process oI emanati on, oI creati on or evolu-
t ion oI exi stences inIeri or t o t he Supreme God began, t he Word
came int o exi stence and was: and this word was
near t o God; i . e. the i mmediate or Iirst emanat ion Irom God: and
i t was God Hi msel I, devel oped or mani Iest ed i n that part icul ar
mode, and i n acti on. And by that Word everythi ng t hat i s was
created. "-And thus Tertul l ian says t hat God made the Worl d out
oI not hi ng, by means oI His Word, Wi sdom, or Power.
To Phil o the Jew, as to the Gnosti cs, t he Supreme Being was
t he Pri mit ive Light, or Archetype oI Light, -Source whence t he
rays emanate that i l l uminate Souls. He i s t he Soul oI the Worl d,
and as such act s everywhere. He hi mselI Ii l ls and bounds his
whole exi st ence, and his Iorces Ii ll and penetrate everythi ng. His
Image is t he WORD |LOGOS|, a Iorm more bri l liant than Ii re, which
i s not pure li ght . Thi s WORD dwel ls in God; Ior i t is wi t hin Hi s
Int el l igence that t he Supreme Being Irames Ior Hi mselI the
Types oI Ideas oI al l that i s t o assume reali ty in t he Universe.
The WORD is the Vehicl e by which God act s on t he Uni verse; t he
Worl d oI Ideas by means whereoI God has created vi si ble t hi ngs;
t he more Anci ent God, as compared wit h t he Mat eri al Worl d;
ChieI and General Represent at ive oI al l Intell igences; t he Arch-
angel and representat ive oI all spirit s, even t hose oI Mortal s;
t he type oI Man; the pri mit i ve man hi mselI. These ideas are
borrowed Irom Plato. And this Word i s not only t he Creat or |"by
Hi m was everyt hing made t hat was made"|, but act s in t he place
oI God and through hi m act all t he Powers and Att ri butes oI
God. And al so, as Iirst representat ive oI t he human race, he i s
t he prot ect or oI Men and t hei r Shepherd, the "Ben H' Adam, " or
Son oI Man.
The act ual condi ti on oI Man i s not hi s pri mit ive condi t ion, that
i n which he was the i mage oI the Word. Hi s unruly passi ons
have caused hi m to Ial l Irom hi s origi nal l oIty est ate. But he may
ri se agai n, by Iol lowing t he t eachings oI Heavenly Wi sdom, and
t he Angel s whom God commi ssi ons t o ai d hi m i n escapi ng Irom
t he entangl ement s oI t he body; and by Iighti ng bravely agai nst
Evi l, t he exist ence oI which God has all owed solely to Iurnish hi m
wi th t he means oI exercising hi s Iree wil l .
The Supreme Being oI t he Egyptians was Amun, a secret and
concealed God, t he Unknown Father oI the Gnostics, t he Source
oI Divi ne LiIe, and oI al l Iorce, the Pl eni tude oI al l, comprehend-
i ng al l things i n Hi mselI, the origi nal Light. He creat es nothing;
but everythi ng emanat es Irom Hi m: and al l other Gods are but
his mani Iestati ons. From Hi m, by t he ut terance oI a Word, ema-
nated Nei t h, the Di vine Mot her oI al l thi ngs, the Pri mi t i ve
THOUGHT, t he FORCE t hat puts everyt hi ng i n movement , the
SPIRIT everywhere ext ended, t he Dei ty oI Li ght and Mot her oI
t he Sun.
OI t hi s Supreme Bei ng, Osiris was the i mage, Source oI al l
Good in the moral and physical worl d, and constant Ioe oI
Typhon, t he Genius oI Evi l, the Satan oI Gnosti cism, brute mat -
t er, deemed to be al ways at Ieud wit h the spiri t t hat Il owed Irom
t he Dei ty; and over whom Har-Oeri , the Redeemer, Son oI Isis
and Osi ri s, i s Iinally t o prevai l .
In t he Zend-Avesta oI the Persi ans t he Supreme Being is
Ti me wit hout li mi t, ZERUANE AKHERENE. --No origin could be
assigned t o Hi m; Ior He was enveloped in His own Glory, and
Hi s Nat ure and Attri but es were so inaccessi ble to human Intel li -
gence, t hat He was but the object oI a si l ent venerat i on. The com-
mencement oI Creat ion was by emanat ion Irom Hi m. The Ii rst
emanati on was t he Pri mi t ive Light, and Irom t his Light emerged
Ormuzd, t he Ki ng o| Li ght, who, by t he WORD, creat ed the World
i n i t s puri ty, i s i t s Preserver and Judge, a Holy and Sacred Be-
i ng, Intel li gence and Knowledge, Hi mselI Ti me wit hout li mi t,
and wi elding all t he powers oI the Supreme Bei ng.
In t his Persi an Iai th, as t aught many centuries beIore our era,
and embodi ed in the Zend-Avest a, t here was i n man a pure Pri n-
ci ple, proceeding Irom the Supreme Bei ng, produced by t he Wi l l
and Word oI Ormuzd. To that was united an i mpure pri nci ple,
proceeding Irom a Ioreign inIl uence, that oI Ahri man, t he Dragon,
or pri nci ple oI Evi l. Tempt ed by Ahri man, t he Iirst man and
woman had Ial l en; and Ior t welve thousand years t here was t o be
war bet ween Ormuzd and t he Good Spirit s creat ed by hi m, and
Ahri rnan and t he Evi l ones whom he had call ed i nt o exist ence.
But pure soul s are assi sted by the Good Spirit s, t he Tri umph oI
t he Good Pri nci ple is determi ned upon i n the decrees oI the Su-
preme Being, and the peri od oI that t ri umph wi l l inIal l i bly arri ve.
At t he moment when the earth shall be most aIIli cted wi th the
evil s brought upon i t by t he Spi rit s oI perdi ti on, t hree Prophet s
wi ll appear to bring assistance t o mortal s. Sosi osch, Chi eI oI t he
Three, wil l regenerate t he worl d, and rest ore to i t it s pri mit ive
Beauty, Strengt h, and Puri ty. He wi l l j udge the good and the
wi cked. AIt er the universal resurrect ion oI the Good, t he pure
Spi ri ts wil l conduct them to an abode oI eternal happiness. Ahri-
man, hi s evi l Demons, and al l the world, wi ll be puri Ii ed i n a tor-
rent oI l iquid burning met al . The Law oI Ormuzd wil l rul e
everywhere: all men wi ll be happy: all , enjoying an unal terable
bli ss, wi ll unit e wi th Sosiosch in singi ng the praises oI t he Su-
preme Being.
These doctri nes, wi t h some modiIicat ions, were adopt ed by t he
Kabal i st s and aIterward by the Gnosti cs.
Apol lonius oI Tyana says:"We shal l render t he most appropri-
at e worshi p t o the Deity, when t o that God whom we cal l the
First , who i s One, and separat e Irom al l , and aIt er whom we recog-
nize the ot hers, we present no oIIeri ngs what ever, kindle to Hi m
no Iire, dedi cat e t o Hi m no sensi ble thing; Ior he needs not hing,
even oI al l that natures more exal ted t han ours could give. The
earth produces no pl ant, t he ai r nouri shes no ani mal , there i s i n
short nothi ng, whi ch would not be i mpure in hi s sight . In ad-
dressi ng oursel ves t o Hi m, we must use only the higher word, that ,
I mean, whi ch i s not expressed by t he mout h, --t he si lent i nner
word oI t he spirit . . . . . From t he most Gl ori ous oI all Bei ngs, we
must seek Ior bl essings, by t hat whi ch i s most glori ous in our-
sel ves; and that i s t he spirit , whi ch needs no organ. "
Strabo says: "Thi s one Supreme Essence is t hat which embraces
us al l , the wat er and the land, that which we cal l the Heavens,
t he World, t he Nat ure oI t hi ngs. This Highest Being shoul d be
worshipped, wit hout any visi ble i mage, i n sacred groves. In such
retreat s t he devout should lay themselves down to sleep, and
expect signs Irom God i n dreams. "
Arist ol t e says:"It has been handed down i n a mythi cal Iorm,
Irom the earl iest ti mes to post eri ty, that there are Gods, and t hat
The Divine compasses ent ire nat ure. Al l besides thi s has been
added, aIt er the mythi cal styl e, Ior t he purpose oI persuading the
mul ti t ude, and Ior t he i nterest oI t he l aws and t he advantage oI
t he State. Thus men have given to t he Gods human Iorms, and
have even represent ed them under t he Iigure oI other beings, i n
t he t rai n oI whi ch Iict ions Iol lowed many more oI the same sort .
But i I, Irom al l thi s, we separate t he ori ginal pri nci ple, and con-
si der it al one, namely, that t he Iirst Essences are Gods, we shall
Iind t hat this has been di vi nely sai d; and si nce it i s probabl e t hat
phil osophy and the art s have been several t i mes, so Iar as that i s
possible, Iound and lost, such doct ri nes may have been preserved
t o our ti mes as the remai ns oI ancient wi sdom. "
Porphyry says: "By i mages addressed t o sense, the ancients
represented God and hi s powers--by t he visi ble they typi Iied t he
i nvi sible Ior t hose who had learned to read, i n t hese types, as i n
a book, a treati se on the Gods. We need not wonder i I the igno-
rant consi der t he i mages t o be not hing more than wood or stone;
Ior just so, they who are ignorant oI wri ti ng see not hi ng i n monu-
ment s but st one, nothi ng in tablet s but wood, and i n books but a
t issue oI papyrus. "
Apol lonius oI Tyana hel d, that birt h and deat h are only in ap-
pearance; that which separates it sel I Irom t he one substance (t he
one Di vi ne essence), and i s caught up by mat t er, seems to be born;
t hat , agai n, which releases i tsel I Irom the bonds oI mat ter, and is
reuni t ed wi t h the one Di vi ne Essence, seems t o die. There is, at
most , an alt erat ion between becoming vi sible and becomi ng in-
visi ble. In al l there i s, properly speaking, but the one essence,
which alone act s and suIIers, by becomi ng al l things to all ;t he
Eternal God, whom men wrong, when t hey deprive Hi m oI what
properly can be at tributed t o Hi m only, and transIer i t to ot her
names and persons.
The New Plat oni sts subst it ut ed t he idea oI the Absol ute, Ior
t he Supreme Essence i tsel I;--as the Iirst, si mplest pri nci ple, ant e-
rior to all existence; oI whi ch not hi ng det erminate can be predi-
cated; to whi ch no consci ousness, no selI-contempl ati on can be
ascribed; inasmuch as t o do so, would i mmediat ely i mply a qual -
i ty, a di st i nct ion oI subject and object . This Supreme Ent ity can
be known only by an intel lect ual int ui ti on oI t he Spi ri t, t rans-
scending it selI, and emanci pati ng it selI Irom i ts own l i mi ts.
Thi s mere l ogi cal t endency, by means oI which men thought to
arri ve at t he concept ion oI such an absol ut e, t he ov, was uni ted
wi th a certai n myst ici sm, whi ch, by a transcendent st ate oI Ieel -
i ng, communicat ed, as it were, t o thi s abst ract ion what the mi nd
woul d receive as a reali ty. The absorpti on oI the Spiri t i nt o that
superexist ence, so as to be enti rely
i dent iIied wi th it , or such a revelat ion oI the lat ter to t he spiri t
raised above i tselI, was regarded as t he hi ghest end whi ch the
spirit ual li Ie coul d reach.
The New Plat oni sts' idea oI God, was that oI One Si mple Origi-
nal Essence, exal ted akes a di sti ncti on bet ween t hose who are in the
proper sense Sons oI God, having by means oI contemplat ion
raised themselves t o t he highest Being, or at tained to a knowl edge
oI Hi m, i n His i mmedi at e sel I-maniIestat ion, and those who know
God only i n his mediate revel ati on through his operat i on--such as
He declares Hi msel I in creat ion--in t he revelat ion st il l vei led in
t he l ett er oI Scri pt ure--t hose, i n short , who att ach t hemsel ves
si mply to the Logos, and consi der t hi s to be the Supreme God;
who aren; and aIt er it has ri d i tsel I
Irom all that pert ains to sense-Irom al l mani Iol dness. They are
t he mediators between man (amazed and stupeIi ed by mani Iol d-
ness) and t he Supreme Uni ty.
Phi l o says:"He who disbel ieves the mi raculous, si mply as t he
miracul ous, nei ther knows God, nor has he ever sought aIter Hi m;
Ior ot herwise he would have underst ood, by l ooking at that truly
great and awe-inspiri ng sight, t he miracl e oI the Uni verse, t hat
t hese miracl es (i n God' s provi dent ial gui dance oI Hi s people) are
but chi ld' s pl ay Ior the Di vine Power. But t he t ruly miracul ous
has become despised through Iami li ari ty. The uni versal , on the
contrary, alt hough i n it selI insigniIicant , yet, through our love oI
novel ty, transport s us wit h amazement. "
In opposit i on to the ant hropopathism oI t he Jewish Scri ptures,
t he Alexandri an Jews endeavored to puriIy t he idea oI God Irom
al l admi xt ure oI the Human. By the exclusi on oI every human
passi on, i t was subl i mat ed t o a somet hi ng devoi d oI all att ributes,
and wholly transcendent al ; and t he mere Bei ng, the Good,
i n and by i tsel I, the Absol ut e oI Plat onism, was subst i t uted Ior
t he personal Dei ty oI t he Old Testament . By soari ng up-
ward, beyond all creat ed exi st ence, the mi nd, disengagi ng i tsel I
Irom the Sensibl e, attains to the intel lect ual intuit i on oI t hi s Ab-
solut e Being; oI whom, however, i t can predi cate not hi ng but
exist ence, and set s asi de al l other determi nat i ons as not answering
t o t he exal ted nat ure oI t he Supreme Essence.
Thus Phil o makes a di sti nct ion bet ween those who are in t he
proper sense Sons oI God, having by means oI contemplat ion
raised themselves t o t he highest Being, or at tained to a knowl edge
oI Hi m, i n His i mmedi at e sel I-maniIestat ion, and those who know
God only i n his mediate revel ati on through his operat i on--such as
He declares Hi msel I in creat ion--in t he revelat ion st il l vei led in
t he l ett er oI Scri pt ure--t hose, i n short , who att ach t hemsel ves
si mply to the Logos, and consi der t hi s to be the Supreme God;
who are t he sons oI t he Logos, rat her than oI t he True Being.
"God, " says Pythagoras, "is nei ther t he object oI sense, nor
subject t o passi on, but invi si bl e, only i ntell igi ble, and supremely
i ntell igent . In Hi s body He i s li ke t he l ight, and in Hi s soul He re-
sembles trut h. He i s the universal spirit t hat pervades and diI-
Iuset h i tsel I over all nature. Al l bei ngs recei ve thei r li Ie Irom
Hi m. There i s but one only God, who is not , as some are apt t o
i magi ne, seat ed above the world, beyond t he orb oI t he Universe;
but bei ng Hi msel I all in al l, He sees al l the bei ngs t hat Ii ll Hi s
i mmensity; t he only Pri nci ple, the Light oI Heaven, t he Father
oI al l. He produces everythi ng; He orders and disposes every-
t hi ng; He i s the REASON, the LIFE, and t he MOTION oI all bei ng. "
"I am t he LIGHT oI the worl d;he t hat Iol l owet h Me shal l not
wal k in DARKNESS, but shall have t he LIGHT oI LIFE. " So said
t he Founder oI t he Chri st i an Rel igi on, as His words are report ed
by John the Apost le.
God, say t he sacred writ ings oI t he Jews, appeared to Moses i n
a FLAME OF FIRE, i n the mi dst oI a bush, whi ch was not consumed.
He descended upon Mount Si nai , as t he smoke oI a Iurnace; He
went beIore t he chil dren oI Israel, by day, i n a pi ll ar oI cloud,
and, by night , in a pi l lar oI Ii re, t o give them l ight. "Cal l you on
t he name oI your Gods, " said Eli jah t he Prophet t o t he Priest s
oI Baal , "and I wil l call upon the name oI ADONAI; and the God
t hat answeret h by Ii re, let hi m be God. "
Accordi ng to the Kabal ah, as according t o t he doctri nes oI
Zoroaster, everythi ng that exi st s has emanat ed Irom a source oI
i nIi nite li ght . BeIore all t hings, exist ed the Pri mit ive Being, THE
ANCIENT OF DAYS, the Ancient Ki ng oI Light; a t it le the more
remarkabl e, because i t is Irequent ly given t o t he Creat or in the
Zend-Avest a, and i n the Code oI the Sabeans, and occurs i n t he
Jewish Scri ptures.
The worl d was Hi s Revel ati on, God revealed; and subsi sted
only in Hi m. Hi s att ri butes were t here reproduced wit h vari ous
modi Ii cati ons and in di IIerent degrees; so that t he Uni verse was
Hi s Holy Splendor, Hi s Mantl e. He was t o be adored in si lence;
and perIect ion consist ed in a nearer approach to Hi m.
BeIore the creat ion oI worl ds, the PRIMITIVE LIGHT Iil led all
space, so that t here was no void. When the Supreme Bei ng, ex-
i sti ng i n thi s Light , resolved t o display His perIecti ons, or mani-
Iest them i n worl ds, He wi t hdrew wi thin Hi mselI, Iormed around
Hi m a void space, and shot Iort h His Iirst emanati on, a ray oI
l ight ; the cause and pri nci ple oI everyt hing that exi sts, uni ti ng
both t he generati ve and concept ive power, which penet rat es every-
t hi ng, and wit hout whi ch not hing coul d subsi st Ior an instant .
Man Iel l, seduced by the Evil Spi ri t s most remote Irom t he
Great King oI Light; t hose oI the Iourth world oI spirit s, Asiah,
whose chieI was Beli al. They wage incessant war agai nst t he
pure Intel li gences oI t he ot her worlds, who, l ike t he Amshaspands,
Izeds, and Ferouers oI the Persians are the tutelary guardians oI
man. In t he begi nning, al l was uni son and harmony; Iull oI t he
same di vi ne l ight and perIect purity. The Seven Ki ngs oI Evi l
Iell , and t he Universe was troubled. Then t he Creator took Irom
t he Seven Ki ngs t he pri nci ples oI Good and oI Light , and divi ded
t hem among t he Iour worlds oI Spirit s, givi ng to the Ii rst t hree
t he Pure Intell igences, uni t ed i n love and harmony, whil e t o t he
Iourt h were vouchsaIed only some Ieeble gli mmeri ngs oI l ight.
When the stri Ie bet ween t hese and t he good angels shall have
conti nued t he appoi nted t i me, and t hese Spi rit s envel oped i n dark-
ness shal l l ong and in vai n have endeavored to absorb t he Divine
l ight and l iIe, then wi ll t he Eternal Hi msel I come to correct them.
He wi l l del iver t hem Irom t he gross envelopes oI matt er that hol d
t hem capt ive, wi ll re-ani mat e and st rengt hen the ray oI l ight or
spirit ual nat ure whi ch t hey have preserved, and re-establi sh
t hroughout t he Universe t hat pri mit i ve Harmony which was i t s
bli ss.
Marcion, t he Gnost ic, said, "The Soul oI the True Chri st ian,
adopt ed as a chi ld by the Supreme Bei ng, to whom i t has l ong
been a st ranger, recei ves Irom Hi m t he Spi ri t and Di vine l iIe. It
i s led and conIi rmed, by thi s gi It , i n a pure and holy li Ie, l ike that
oI God; and i I i t so compl etes it s earthly career, i n chari ty,
chast i ty, and sanct i ty, i t wi ll one day be di sengaged Irom it s ma-
t eri al envel ope, as t he ripe grai n is detached Irom t he st raw, and
as t he young bi rd escapes Irom it s shel l . Like the angel s, i t wil l
share i n t he bli ss oI t he Good and PerIect Father, re-cl othed i n an
aerial body or organ, and made li ke unt o t he Angel s in Heaven."
You see, my brot her, what is the meani ng oI Masoni c "Light . "
You see why t he EAST oI the Lodge, where t he i ni t i al let ter oI t he
Name oI t he Deity overhangs the Master, is the pl ace oI Light.
Light , as contradi sti ngui shed Irom darkness, i s Good, as cont radis-
t ingui shed Irom Evil : and it is that Light , t he t rue knowl edge oI
Dei ty, the Eternal Good, Ior whi ch Masons in all ages have sought.
Sti l l Masonry marches st eadi ly onward toward that Light that
shines in the great di st ance, t he Light oI t hat day when Evil ,
overcome and vanquished, shall Iade away and disappear Iorever,
and Li Ie and Light be the one law oI the Uni verse, and i ts eternal
The Degree oI Rose Croi x teaches three t hi ngs;--t he uni ty, i m-
mutabil ity and goodness oI God; the i mmort ali ty oI t he Soul ;
and t he ult i mate deIeat and ext i ncti on oI evil and wrong and sor-
row, by a Redeemer or Messi ah, yet to come, i I he has not al ready
It replaces t he t hree pi l l ars oI the ol d Templ e, wit h t hree t hat
have already been explai ned to you, --Fai th |in God, mankind, and
man' s sel I|, Hope |i n t he vict ory over evil , t he advancement oI
Humani ty, and a hereaIt er|, and Charity |reli evi ng t he wants,
and t olerant oI t he errors and Iaul ts oI ot hers|. To be trustIul ,
t o be hopeIul, t o be indul gent ; these, in an age oI sel Iishness, oI il l
opinion oI human nature, oI harsh and bi t ter judgment, are the
most i mportant Masoni c Virt ues, and t he true support s oI every
Masonic Templ e. And t hey are t he old pi l l ars oI the Temple
under di IIerent names. For he only is wi se who judges ot hers
chari tably; he only i s strong who i s hopeIul; and there is no
beauty li ke a Ii rm Iai t h i n God, our Iell ows and ourselI.
The second apart ment, clot hed i n mourning, the col umns oI
t he Templ e shat tered and prostrat e, and the bret hren bowed down
i n t he deepest dejecti on, represent s t he worl d under t he tyranny oI
t he Princi pl e oI Evi l; where virt ue i s persecuted and vi ce reward-
ed; where the ri ght eous st arve Ior bread, and t he wicked l ive
sumpt uously and dress in purple and Iine li nen; where i nsolent
i gnorance rul es, and l earning and genius serve; where King and
Priest trample on l iberty and t he rights oI consci ence; where Iree-
dom hi des i n caves and mount ains, and sycophancy and servi li ty
Iawn and t hrive; where the cry oI the wi dow and the orphan
st arving Ior want oI Iood, and shi vering wit h cold, ri ses ever to
Heaven, Irom a mi l li on mi serabl e hovel s; where men, wi ll ing t o
l abor, and starvi ng, they and their chi ldren and the wi ves oI t heir
bosoms, beg pl ainti vely Ior work, when the pampered capi tal i st
st ops hi s mi ll s; where the law punishes her who, starving, st eals a
l oaI, and l ets t he seducer go Iree; where t he success oI a party
j ust iIies murder, and violence and rapi ne go unpuni shed; and
where he who wi t h many years' cheat i ng and grinding the Iaces oI
t he poor grows rich, receives oIIi ce and honor i n li Ie, and aIter
deat h brave Iuneral and a splendi d mausol eum:--t hi s world,
where, si nce it s making, war has never ceased, nor man paused in
t he sad task oI t orturi ng and murderi ng his brother; and oI which
ambit ion, avarice, envy, hatred, l ust, and the rest oI Ahri man' s
and Typhon' s army make a Pandemoni um: thi s worl d, sunk i n
si n, reeki ng wit h baseness, cl amorous wi th sorrow and mi sery. II
any see i n i t al so a type oI the sorrow oI the CraIt Ior the deat h
oI Hiram, the grieI oI the Jews at the Ial l oI Jerusalem, t he misery
oI t he Templ ars at the ruin oI t hei r order and t he deat h oI De
Molay, or the world' s agony and pangs oI woe at t he death oI t he
Redeemer, it is the ri ght oI each to do so.
The thi rd apart ment represents t he consequences oI si n and
vice, and the hel l made oI t he human heart , by i t s Ii ery passions.
II any see in it al so a type oI t he Hades oI t he Greeks, t he
Gehenna oI the Hebrews, t he Tart arus oI the Romans, or t he Hel l
oI t he Christ ians, or only oI t he agoni es oI remorse and the tor-
t ures oI an upbrai di ng conscience, it i s t he right oI each t o do so.
The Iourt h apart ment represents the Uni verse, Ireed Irom t he
i nsol ent domi nion and tyranny oI t he Pri nci pl e oI Evi l, and bril -
l iant wit h t he t rue Li ght that Ilows Irom t he Supreme Dei ty;
when si n and wrong, and pain and sorrow, remorse and mi sery
shal l be no more Iorever; when t he great plans oI InIinite Eternal
Wisdom shal l be Iully devel oped; and al l God' s creat ures, seei ng
t hat all apparent evil and i ndi vi dual suIIeri ng and wrong were
but the drops that went to swell t he great ri ver oI inIi ni te good-
ness, shal l know t hat vast as i s the power oI Dei ty, Hi s goodness
and beneIi cence are inIi ni te as His power. II any see in it a type
oI t he pecul iar mysteries oI any Iait h or creed, or an al l usi on to
any past occurrences, i t is thei r right t o do so. Let each apply it s
symbol s as he pl eases. To al l oI us t hey typiIy t he universal rule
oI Masonry, -- oI i ts t hree chi eI virt ues, Fait h, Hope and Charity;
oI brotherly love and uni versal benevol ence. We l abor here t o
no other end. These symbol s need no ot her int erpretat ion.
The obl igat ions oI our Anci ent Brethren oI the Rose Croi x were t o
Iul Ii ll al l t he dut ies oI Iriendshi p, cheerIul ness, chari ty, peace, li b-
erali ty, temperance and chast ity: and scrupulously t o avoid i m-
puri ty, haughti ness, hatred, anger, and every ot her ki nd oI vi ce.
They took thei r phi losophy Irom the ol d Theology oI t he Egyp-
t ians, as Moses and Solomon had done, and borrowed i ts hiero-
glyphics and t he ci phers oI t he Hebrews. Thei r princi pal rules
were t o exerci se t he proIession oI medi cine charit ably and wi th-
out Iee, to advance t he cause oI vi rt ue, enlarge t he sci ences, and
i nduce men t o l ive as i n t he pri mi ti ve ti mes oI the world.
When thi s Degree had it s origin, i t i s not i mportant to inqui re;
nor wit h what di IIerent ri tes i t has been pract ised in di IIerent
count ri es and at various ti mes. It is oI very hi gh anti qui ty. Its
ceremonies diIIer wit h t he degrees oI lat it ude and l ongit ude, and
i t recei ves variant int erpret ati ons. II we were to exami ne al l the
diIIerent ceremoni als, t heir emblems, and thei r Iormulas, we should
see t hat all t hat bel ongs to the pri mit i ve and essent ial element s
oI t he order, i s respect ed in every sanct uary. All al ike practi se
virtue, t hat it may produce Irui t . Al l l abor, l ike us, Ior the ex-
t irpat ion oI vice, the puri Iicati on oI man, t he devel opment oI t he
arts and sci ences, and the rel ieI oI humanity.
None admit an adept to thei r loIty phil osophi cal knowl edge, and
mysterious sci ences, unt i l he has been puri Ii ed at t he al tar oI t he
symbol ic Degrees. OI what i mport ance are di IIerences oI opinion
as t o the age and geneal ogy oI t he Degree, or variance in the prac-
t ice, ceremoni al and li turgy, or the shade oI col or oI t he banner
under which each t ri be oI Israel marched, iI all revere ' t he Holy
Arch oI the symbol ic Degrees, Iirst and unal t erabl e source oI Free-
Masonry; i I all revere our conservat i ve principles, and are wi t h us
i n t he great purposes oI our organizati on ?
II, anywhere, bret hren oI a part icular rel igi ous bel ieI have been
excluded Irom this Degree, it merely shows how gravely the pur-
poses and pl an oI Masonry may be mi sunderst ood. For whenever
t he door oI any Degree is closed against hi m who bel i eves i n one
God and t he soul' s i mmort ali ty, on account oI the ot her tenets oI
his Iait h, that Degree i s Masonry no longer. No Mason has the
right t o int erpret t he symbol s oI thi s Degree Ior anot her, or to re-
Iuse hi m i ts mysteries, i I he wi ll not take them wit h t he expl ana-
t ion and commentary superadded.
Li sten, my brot her, to our expl anat ion oI t he symbol s oI the
Degree, and t hen give them such Iurther i nt erpret at i on as you
t hi nk Ii t.
The Cross has been a sacred symbol Irom the earl iest Ant i quity.
It is Iound upon al l the enduri ng monument s oI the worl d, in
Egypt , in Assyri a, i n Hindostan, i n Persia, and on the Buddhi st
t owers oI Ireland. Buddha was said to have di ed upon i t. The
Drui ds cut an oak i nto i ts shape and hel d it sacred, and buil t their
t empl es i n that Iorm. Poi nti ng t o the Iour quarters oI t he worl d,
i t was the symbol oI uni versal nat ure. It was on a cruci Iorm t ree,
t hat Chrishna was sai d to have expired, pierced wi t h arrows. It
was revered i n Mexi co.
But i ts pecul iar meani ng in this Degree, i s that gi ven to it by
t he Anci ent Egypt ians. Tl tot h or Phika i s represent ed on t he old-
est monument s carrying i n his hand the Crux Ansata, or Ankh,
|a Tau cross, wit h a ri ng or circl e over it |. He is so seen on the
double t abl et oI ShuIu and Nob ShuIu, buil ders oI t he greatest oI
t he Pyrami ds, at Wady Meghara, in the peninsula oI Si nai . It was
t he hieroglyphi c Ior li Ie, and wi t h a t ri angle preIi xed meant liIe-
gi vi ng. To us thereIore it i s t he symbol oI LiIe--oI that l i Ie
t hat emanat ed Irom the Dei ty, and oI that Et ernal LiIe Ior which
we al l hope; through our Iai th i n God' s inIini t e goodness.
The ROSE was anci ently sacred t o Aurora and t he Sun. It i s
a symbol oI Dawn, oI t he resurrect ion oI Li ght and the renewal
oI l i Ie, and thereIore oI the dawn oI t he Iirst day, and more par-
t icularly oI the resurrecti on: and t he Cross and Rose t ogether
are thereIore hi eroglyphical ly to be read, t he Dawn oI Et ernal
Li Ie which all Nati ons have hoped Ior by the advent oI a Re-
The Pel i can Ieeding her young i s an embl em oI the large and
bounti Iul beneIi cence oI Nature, oI the Redeemer oI Ial len man,
and oI t hat humanity and charity t hat ought to di sti ngui sh a
Knight oI thi s Degree.
The Eagl e was t he l iving Symbol oI t he Egyptian God Mendes
or Menthra, whom Sesostri s-Ramses made one wi th Amun-Re,
t he God oI Thebes and Upper Egypt , and t he representat ive oI
t he Sun, t he word RE meani ng Sun or Ki ng.
The Compass surmount ed wit h a crown signiIies that not wi t h-
st andi ng t he high rank attai ned in Masonry by a Knight oI the
Rose Croi x, equi ty and i mpart i ali ty are invari ably t o govern hi s
conduct .
To the word INRI, i nscri bed on the Crux Ansata over t he
Master' s Seat , many meani ngs have been assigned. The Chri st i an
Ini ti ate reverent ial ly sees in it t he ini t i als oI the i nscri pt ion upon
t he cross on which Christ suIIered---Iesus Nazarenus Rex l udce-
orum. The sages oI Ant i qui ty connect ed i t wi th one oI t he great-
est secret s oI Nat ure, t hat oI uni versal regenerat ion. They i nt er-
preted i t thus, Igne Natura renovatur int egra; |ent ire nat ure i s
renovated by Iire|: The Al chemi cal or Hermeti c Masons Iramed
Ior it t hi s aphorism, Igne nit rum rori s inveni t ur. And t he Jes-
uit s are charged wi th having appl ied to i t thi s odious axi om,
Justum necare reges i mpi os. The Iour lett ers are the init ial s oI
t he Hebrew words t hat represent t he Iour elements--l ammi m,
t he seas or water; Nour, Ii re; Rouach, t he ai r, and Iebeschah, t he
dry eart h. How we read it , I need not repeat t o you.
The CROSS, X, was t he Sign oI t he Creat ive Wi sdom or Logos,
t he Son oI God. Pl at o says, "He expressed hi m upon the Uni -
verse i n t he Iigure oI the letter X. The next Power to the Su-
preme God was decussated or Ii gured i n the shape oI a Cross on
t he Universe. " Mi thras signed hi s soldiers on the Iorehead wi th a
Cross. X i s t he mark oI 600, the myst eri ous cycle oI the Incar-
nati ons.
We const ant ly see the Tau and t he Resh uni t ed thus P . These
-, -
t wo let ters, i n t he ol d Samarit an, as Iound i n Arius, stand, the
Iirst Ior 400, t he second Ior 200÷600. This is t he StaII oI Osi ris,
al so, and hi s monogram, and was adopted by the Chri stians as a
Sign. On a medal P oI Const ani us i s t hi s inscri pt ion, "In hoc
signo vict or eris." An inscri pti on in the Duomo at Mi l an
reads, "X. et P. Christ i. Nomi na. Sancta. Tenei. "
The Egypti ans used as a Si gn oI their God Canobus, a T or a
-l- i ndi IIerently. The Vaishnavas oI India have also the same
Sacred Tau, whi ch t hey also mark wit h crosses, and wit h triangl es.
The vest ment s oI t he pt iest s oI Horus were covered wi t h these crosses.
So was t he dress oI t he Lama oI Thibet . The Sectari an marks oI the Jains
are si mil ar. The di st i nct ive badge oI t he Sect oI Xac Jaoni cus i s t he
swast ica. It i s t he Sign oI Fo, identi cal wit h the Cross oI Chri st.
On t he rui ns oI Mandore, i n India, among other myst ic embl ems, are
t he myst ic t ri angle, and t he i nterl aced t ri angle. Thi s i s also Iound
on anci ent coi ns and medal s, excavated Irom the rui ns oI Ooj ein and
other anci ent ci ti es oI Indi a.
You entered here ami d gloom and into shadow, and are clad in
t he apparel oI sorrow. Lament , wit h us, t he sad condit ion oI the
Human race, in t his vale oI tears! the calamit i es oI men and the
agonies oI nat ions! the darkness oI t he bewil dered soul , oppressed
by doubt and apprehensi on!
There i s no human soul t hat is not sad at t i mes. There i s no
t houghtIul soul that does not at t i mes despair. There i s perhaps
none, oI al l t hat t hink at al l oI anyt hi ng beyond the needs and in-
t erest s oI t he body, that i s not at t i mes st art led and terri Ii ed by t he
awIul quest i ons which, Ieeli ng as though it were a guil ty thing Ior
doing so, it whispers t o it selI in i t s i nmost depths. Some Demon
seems to t ort ure i t wit h doubt s, and to crush i t wit h despair, ask-
i ng whether, aIter all , it i s cert ai n that it s convict ions are true,
and i ts Iai th well rounded: whether i t is i ndeed sure t hat a God oI
InIinit e Love and BeneIi cence rules the Uni verse, or only some
great remorsel ess Fate and iron Necessity, hid in i mpenetrable
gl oom, and to whi ch men and t hei r suIIerings and sorrows. their
hopes and j oys, their ambit i ons and deeds, are oI no more i nterest
or i mportance than t he motes that dance i n the sunshine; or a
Being t hat amuses Hi mselI wi th the i ncredi ble vani ty and Iol ly,
t he writ i ngs and contort ions oI t he i nsi gni Iicant insect s t hat
compose Humani ty, and idly i magi ne that t hey resemble t he Om-
nipotent. "What are we, " t he Tempt er asks, "but puppet s in a
show-box ? O Omnipot ent desti ny, pul l our stri ngs gent ly ! Dance
us merci Iul ly oII our miserable li tt le st age !"
"Is it not, " t he Demon whi spers, "merely the inordinate vanity
oI man that causes hi m now t o pret end to hi msel I that he i s li ke
unto God i n i nt el l ect , sympathies and passi ons, as i t was t hat
which, at the begi nning, made hi m beli eve that he was, in hi s bodi ly
shape and organs, the very i mage oI the Deity ? Is not hi s God
merely his own shadow, project ed i n gigant ic out li nes upon t he
cl ouds? Does he not create Ior hi mselI a God out oI hi msel I, by
merely adding indeIini te ext ensi on to hi s own Iacult ies, powers,
and passi ons?"
"Who, " the Voi ce that wil l not be always sil ent whi spers, "has
ever t horoughly sati sIi ed hi mselI wi th hi s own argument s in re-
spect t o his own nat ure ? Who ever demonstrated to hi msel I, wi th
a concl usiveness t hat elevat ed the bel ieI to cert ai nty, that he was
an i mmort al spiri t, dwel li ng only temporarily i n t he house and
envelope oI t he body, and to l i ve on Iorever aIter t hat shall have
decayed? Who ever has demonst rat ed or ever can demonstrat e
t hat the i nt el lect oI Man di IIers Irom t hat oI the wi ser ani mals,
otherwi se than i n degree ? Who has ever done more than to utter
nonsense and incoherenci es i n regard t o t he diIIerence between
t he i nst incts oI the dog and the reason oI Man ? The horse, t he
dog, the elephant, are as consci ous oI t heir i denti ty as we are.
They thi nk, dream, remember, argue wi th themselves, devise,
plan, and reason. What i s t he i ntellect and i ntell igence oI the man
but the int el lect oI t he ani mal in a hi gher degree or larger quan-
t ity ?" In t he real expl anat i on oI a singl e t hought oI a dog, all
metaphysics wil l be condensed.
And wit h st il l more t erribl e si gni Ii cance, the Voi ce asks, in what
respect the masses oI men, t he vast swarms oI the human race,
have proven t hemsel ves ei t her wiser or better t han the ani mal s i n
whose eyes a higher intel ligence shi nes t han in t heir dull , uni nt el-
l ectural orbs; in what respect they have proven t hemsel ves wort hy
oI or suit ed Ior an i mmort al li Ie. Would t hat be a pri ze oI any
value to the vast maj ority? Do they show, here upon eart h, any
capaci ty to i mprove, any Ii tness Ior a stat e oI exi st ence in whi ch
t hey coul d not crouch to power, l ike hounds dreading the lash, or
tyranni ze over deIenceless weakness; i n which t hey coul d not hate,
and persecute, and t orture, and exterminate; in which they could
not trade, and specul at e, and over-reach, and entrap the-unwary
and cheat t he conIi di ng and gamble and thri ve, and sniII wi th sel I-
righteousness at the short -comi ngs oI ot hers, and thank God t hat
t hey were not li ke other men? What , t o i mmense numbers oI
men, woul d be t he value oI a Heaven where t hey coul d not l ie and
l ibel, and ply base avocat ions Ior proIi tabl e ret urns ?
Sadly we look around us, and read the gloomy and dreary rec-
ords oI the ol d dead and rot t en ages. More t han eight een centuri es
have staggered away into the spect ral real m oI t he Past, si nce
Chri st, teaching the Reli gion oI Love, was cruci Iied, t hat i t might
become a Rel i gion oI Hate; and Hi s Doct ri nes are not yet even
nomi nal ly accepted as t rue by a Iourth oI manki nd. Since Hi s
deat h, what i ncalcul abl e swarms oI human bei ngs have li ved and
died in tot al unbel ieI oI al l t hat we deem essenti al to Sal vat ion!
What mul t it udi nous myri ads oI soul s, si nce t he darkness oI i dol a-
t rous superst it ion set tl ed down, t hick and i mpenetrable, upon the
earth, have Ilocked up t oward t he eternal Throne oI God, t o
receive His j udgment ?
The Religion oI Love proved t o be, Ior seventeen long cen-
t uries, as much t he Religion oI Hat e, and i nIini t ely more t he Re-
l igi on oI Persecut ion, than Mahomet anism, i t s unconquerable ri val.
Heresi es grew up beIore t he Apost l es di ed; and God hat ed t he
Ni col ait ans, whi le John, at Pat mos, proclai med Hi s coming wrath.
Sects wrangled, and each, as it gai ned t he power, persecuted
t he other, unti l the soi l oI the whole Chri sti an world was wat ered
wi th t he blood, and Iat t ened on t he Il esh, and whitened wi t h t he
bones, oI martyrs, and human ingenuity was taxed to it s ut most
t o i nvent new modes by whi ch t ortures and agonies coul d be pro-
l onged and made more exquisi te.
"By what right ," whi spers the Voi ce, "does this savage, merci-
l ess, persecut ing ani mal , t o which t he suIIeri ngs and writ hi ngs oI
others oI i t s wret ched ki nd Iurni sh t he most pleasurable sensa-
t ions, and the mass oI which care only t o eat , sleep, be clot hed, and
wal low i n sensual pleasures, and the best oI which wrangle, hat e,
envy, and, wit h Iew except ions, regard t heir own i nt erest s alone, -
wi th what right does i t endeavor to del ude i t selI i nto t he convi c-
t ion t hat it i s not an ani mal , as the wolI, t he hyena, and the ti ger
are but a somewhat nobler, a spi ri t dest ined t o be i mmort al, a
spark oI the essent ial Light, Fi re and Reason, whi ch are God?
What ot her i mmortali ty than one oI sel Ii shness coul d t hi s creat ure
enjoy? OI what ot her is it capable? Must not i mmortali ty com-
mence here and i s not li Ie a part oI it ? How shall deat h change
t he base nat ure oI the base soul ? Why have not those other ani-
mal s that only Iai nt ly i mi t ate the want on, savage, human cruel ty
and t hirst Ior blood, t he same right as man has, t o expect a resur-
recti on and an Eterni ty oI existence, or a Heaven oI Love?
The worl d i mproves. Man ceases t o persecute, --when t he per-
secut ed become too numerous and strong, l onger t o submi t to i t.
That source oI pleasure cl osed, men exerci se t he i ngenuit ies oI
t heir cruel ty on the ani mal s and ot her li vi ng t hi ngs below them.
To depri ve ot her creat ures oI t he l i Ie whi ch God gave t hem, and
t hi s not only t hat we may eat their Il esh Ior Iood, but out oI mere
savage wantonness, is the agreeabl e employment and amusement
oI man, who prides hi msel I on being t he Lord oI Creat ion, and a
l it tl e l ower than t he Angel s. II he can no l onger use the rack, t he
gi bbet , the pincers, and the stake, he can hate, and slander,
and del ight in the t hought that he wi ll , hereaIter, luxuri ously
enjoying the sensual beat it udes oI Heaven, see wi t h pleasure the
writ hi ng agonies oI those j ust ly damned Ior dari ng t o hold opin-
i ons cont rary t o his own, upon subj ects tot ally beyond t he compre-
hensi on both oI t hem and hi m.
Where t he armi es oI the despots cease to slay and ravage, the
armi es oI "Freedom" take t heir place, and, t he bl ack and whit e
commi ngl ed, slaughter and burn and ravish. Each age re-enacts
t he cri mes as wel l as t he Ioll ies oI it s predecessors, and st il l war
l icenses out rage and t urns Iruit Iul lands i nt o deserts, and God is
t hanked i n the Churches Ior bloody hut cheri es, and t he remorse-
l ess devast at ors, even when swol l en by pl under, are crowned wit h
l aurels and receive ovat ions.
OI t he whol e oI manki nd, not one in ten thousand has any aspi-
rati ons beyond t he daily needs oI t he gross ani mal li Ie. In t hi s
age and i n al l ot hers, al l men except a Iew, i n most count ri es, are
born t o be mere beast s oI burden, co-laborers wi th the horse and
t he ox. ProIoundly ignorant , even in "ci vil i zed" lands, they think
and reason li ke t he ani mal s by t he si de oI which t hey t oi l. For
t hem, God, Soul, Spi ri t, Immortal ity, are mere words, wi thout any
real meani ng. The God oI nineteen-t wenti et hs oI t he Chri sti an
worl d i s only Bel, Mol och, Zeus, or at best Osi ri s, Mi thras, or
Adonai , under another name, worshi pped wi t h the ol d Pagan cere-
moni es and rit ual isti c Iormul as. It i s t he Stat ue oI Olympi an Jove,
worshipped as the Father, i n the Christ ian Church that was a
Pagan Templ e;i t is the St atue oI Venus, become the Virgi n Mary.
For the most part , men do not i n t hei r heart s bel ieve t hat God is
ei ther j ust or merci Iul. They Iear and shri nk Irom Hi s l ightni ngs
and dread His wrat h. For t he most part, they only think t hey
believe t hat there i s another l i Ie, a judgment, and a puni shment
Ior sin. Yet they wi ll none t he less persecute as InIidels and At he-
i sts those who do not beli eve what they themsel ves i magi ne t hey
believe, and which yet they do not bel ieve, because it is incompre-
hensi ble t o them i n thei r ignorance and want oI i nt el lect . To the
vast majori ty oI mankind, God i s but t he reIl ected i mage, in inIi -
nite space, oI the eart hly Tyrant on his Throne, only more power-
Iul , more i nscrut abl e, and more i mpl acabl e. To curse Humani ty,
t he Despot need only be, what the popular mi nd has, i n every age,
i magi ned God.
In t he great ci t ies, t he l ower strata oI the popul ace are equal ly
wi thout Iai t h and wi t hout hope. The others have, Ior the most
part , a mere bl ind Iai t h, i mposed by educat ion and ci rcumst ances,
and not as producti ve oI moral excel lence or even common honesty
as Mohammedanism. "Your property wi ll be saIe here, " sai d t he
Mosl em; "There are no Chri stians here." The phi losophi cal
and scienti Ii c worl d becomes dai ly more and more unbeli evi ng.
Fait h and Reason are not opposites, i n equi li brium; but antago-
nist ic and host i le to each ot her; the result being the darkness and
despair oI scept ici sm, avowed, or hal I-vei led as rat ional i sm.
Over more t han three-Iourt hs oI the habi table globe, humanity
st il l kneel s, l ike the camel s, to take upon it sel I the burt hens to be
t amely borne Ior it s tyrants. II a Republic occasional ly ri ses li ke a
Star, i t hastens wit h al l speed to set in bl ood. The ki ngs need not
make war upon it , to crush i t out oI t hei r way. It is only neces-
sary t o l et it al one, and it soon l ays viol ent hands upon it sel I. And
when a people l ong enslaved shake oII i ts Iet t ers, i t may wel l be
i ncredul ously asked,
Shal l t he braggart shout
For some bl ind gl i mpse oI Freedom, l ink i tsel I,
Through madness, hated by the wi se, t o l aw,
System and Empire?
Everywhere i n t he worl d labor i s, in some shape, t he sl ave oI
capi tal ; general ly, a slave t o be Ied only so l ong as he can work;
or, rather, only so l ong as hi s work is proIi table t o the owner oI
t he human chat t el . There are Iami nes i n Ireland, strikes and
st arvat ion in England, pauperism and t enement-dens in New
York, misery, squalor, ignorance, desti tuti on, t he brut ali ty oI vi ce
and t he i nsensi bi l i ty to shame, oI despairi ng beggary, i n al l the
human cesspool s and sewers everywhere. Here, a sewi ng-woman
Iami shes and Ireezes; t here, mot hers murder t heir chil dren, t hat
t hose spared may li ve upon t he bread purchased wit h the burial
al lowances oI t he dead st arveli ng; and at t he next door young
girl s prost it ute themsel ves Ior Iood.
Moreover, t he Voice says, t his besot ted race i s not sati sIi ed wit h
seei ng i ts mul t i tudes swept away by the great epi demics whose
causes are unknown, and oI t he j ust i ce or wi sdom oI whi ch the
human mi nd cannot concei ve. It must also be ever at war. There
has not been a moment since men di vi ded into Tribes, when al l
t he worl d was at peace. Al ways men have been engaged in mur-
deri ng each other somewhere. Always the armies have l ived by
t he t oi l oI the husbandman, and war has exhaust ed the resources,
wast ed t he energi es, and ended the prosperity oI Nat ions. Now it
l oads unborn posterity wi t h crushi ng debt , mortgages al l est ates,
and bri ngs upon St ates the shame and inIamy oI dishonest re-
pudi ati on.
At t i mes, t he bal eIul Ii res oI war li ght up hal I a Cont i nent at
once; as when all t he Thrones uni t e t o compel a peopl e t o receive
agai n a hat ed and detestabl e dynasty, or States deny States the
right t o dissol ve an i rksome union and creat e Ior themsel ves a
seperate government. Then again the Ilames Il icker and di e away,
and t he Iire smoul ders in i ts ashes, t o break out agai n, aIter a
t i me, wit h renewed and a more concent rat ed Iury. At ti mes, t he
st orm, revolvi ng, howl s over small areas only; at ti mes it s li ght s
are seen, li ke t he ol d beacon-Iires on t he hil ls, bel ti ng t he whol e
gl obe. No sea, but hears the roar oI cannon; no river, but runs
red wit h bl ood; no pl ain, but shakes, trampled by the hooIs oI
chargi ng squadrons; no Iiel d, but i s Iert ili zed by the bl ood oI t he
dead; and everywhere man slays, the vult ure gorges, and t he wol I
howl s in t he ear oI t he dying sol dier. No ci ty is not tort ured
by shot and shell ; and no peopl e Iail t o enact t he horri d bl as-
phemy oI t hanking a God oI Love Ior vi ctories and carnage. Te
Deums are st il l sung Ior t he Eve oI St . Bart hol omew and the
Sici l ian Vespers. Man' s i ngenui ty i s racked, and all hi s i nventi ve
powers are tasked, t o Iabricat e the i nIernal engi nery oI dest ruc-
t ion, by which human bodies may be t he more expedi ti ously and
eIIect ual ly crushed, shat t ered, t orn, and mangl ed; and yet hypo-
crit ical Humani ty, drunk wi th bl ood and drenched wi th gore,
shrieks t o Heaven at a si ngle murder, perpet rat ed t o grati Iy a re-
venge not more unchrist ian, or t o sat isIy a cupi di ty not more
i gnoble, than t hose whi ch are t he prompt ings oI t he Devil in t he
souls oI Nati ons.
When we have Iondly dreamed oI Ut opia and t he Mill enni um,
when we have begun al most to bel i eve that man is not , aIter al l , a
t iger hal I tamed, and that t he smell oI blood wil l not wake the sav-
age wi t hin hi m, we are oI a sudden st art led Irom t he del usi ve
dream, t o Iind t he thi n mask oI civil izat i on rent i n t wai n and
t hrown cont emptuously away. We l ie down to sleep, li ke t he peas-
ant on t he lava-slopes oI Vesuvius. The mount ain has been so
l ong inert , t hat we bel ieve i ts Iires ext i nguished. Round us hang
t he cl usteri ng grapes, and t he green leaves oI the ol ive trembl e in
t he soIt ni ght -ai r over us. Above us shine the peaceIul , patient
st ars. The crash oI a new erupt i on wakes us, t he roar oI t he sub-
t erranean thunders, the stabs oI the volcani c l ightni ng int o the
shrouded bosom oI t he sky; and we see, aghast, t he t ortured Ti tan
hurl ing up i ts Iires among the pal e stars, i ts great tree oI smoke
and cl oud, t he red torrents pouri ng down it s si des. The roar and
t he shri ekings oI Ci vi l War are all around us: t he l and is a pande-
moni um: man is agai n a Savage. The great armies roll al ong thei r
hideous waves, and l eave behind t hem smoking and depopulat ed
deserts. The pil lager i s in every house, pl ucki ng even t he morsel
oI bread Irom t he l ips oI t he st arving chil d. Gray hai rs are
dabbl ed i n blood, and innocent girlhood shrieks i n vai n t o Lust Ior
mercy. Laws, Courts, Const it ut ions, Chri st iani ty, Mercy, Pi ty,
disappear. God seems t o have abdi cated, and Moloch t o reign i n
Hi s stead; whi le Press and Pulpi t al i ke exult at universal murder,
and urge t he ext erminati on oI the Conquered, by t he sword and
t he Ilaming t orch; and to pl under and murder ent i t les t he human
beast s oI prey t o the thanks oI Chri st i an Senates.
Commerci al greed deadens the nerves oI sympat hy oI Nat i ons,
and makes t hem deaI to t he demands oI honor, t he i mpul ses oI
generosi ty, t he appeal s oI t hose who suIIer under injustice. Else-
where, the universal pursui t oI wealt h dethrones God and pays
divi ne honors to Mammon and Baal zebub. SelIishness rules su-
preme: t o win wealt h becomes the whole busi ness oI l iIe. The
vil lani es oI l egali zed gami ng and speculat ion become epidemic;
t reacery i s but evidence oI shrewdness; oIIice becomes the prey
oI successIul Iacti on; t he Count ry, li ke Act aeon, is torn by it s own
hounds, and t he vi l lai ns it has careIul ly educated to t heir t rade,
most greedily pl under i t , when it is in extremi s.
By what right , t he Voice demands, does a creat ure always
engaged in t he work oI mutual robbery and slaughter, and who
makes his own int erest hi s God, clai m to be oI a nat ure superior
t o t he savage beast s oI which he i s t he prot otype?
Then the shadows oI a horribl e doubt Iall upon the soul that
woul d Iain love, trust and bel ieve; a darkness, oI whi ch t hi s that
surrounded you was a symbol. It doubt s t he truth oI Revel at ion,
i ts own spiri tual i ty, t he very exi stence oI a beneIi cent God. It
asks it selI iI i t is not i dle to hope Ior any great progress oI
Humani ty t oward perIect ion, and whet her, when it advances i n
one respect, i t does not ret rogress i n some other, by way oI com-
pensati on: whet her advance i n civi l izat ion i s not increase oI sel I-
i shness: whet her Ireedom does not necessari ly lead t o l icense and
anarchy: whether t he dest i tuti on and debasement oI the masses
does not inevit ably Ioll ow increase oI populat ion and commercial
and manuIacturi ng prosperi ty. It asks it sel I whet her man i s not
t he sport oI bl i nd, merci less Fate: whet her al l phi losophi es are
not del usions, and all rel igi ons the Iantast ic creati ons oI human
vanity and sel I-concei t; and above al l, whet her, when Reason is
abandoned as a gui de, the Iai th oI Buddhi st and Brahmi n has not
t he same clai ms to sovereignty and i mpl ici t, unreasoning credence,
as any other.
He asks hi msel I whet her it i s not, aIt er all , t he evident and pal-
pable inj ust ices oI this l iIe, the success and prosperity oI the Bad,
t he cal ami t i es, oppressions, and miseries oI the Good, that are t he
bases oI all bel ieIs i n a Iuture state oI exi stence? Doubt i ng man' s
capaci ty Ior indeIi ni te progress here, he doubt s t he possi bil ity oI it
anywher; and i I he does not doubt whet her God exi st s, and i s
j ust and beneIicent , he at l east cannot si lence the const ant ly recur-
ring whi sper, that t he miseries and calami ti es oI men, t hei r l ives
and deat hs, their pai ns and sorrows, their ext ermi nati on by war
and epi demi cs, are phenomena oI no hi gher di gni ty, si gni Ii cance,
and i mport ance, in the eye oI God, t han what things oI the same
nature occur to ot her organi sms oI matt er; and t hat the Iish oI
t he ancient seas, destroyed by myriads t o make room Ior ot her
speci es, t he cont orted shapes i n which t hey are Iound as Iossi ls
t esti Iying to their agoni es; the coral i nsect s, t he ani mals and
birds and vermi n slai n by man, have as much right as he t o cl amor
at t he i nj usti ce oI t he dispensati ons oI God, and t o demand an
i mmortal i ty oI l iIe i n a new uni verse, as compensati on Ior t heir
pains and suIIerings and unt i mely deat h i n t hi s worl d.
Thi s i s not a picture pai nt ed by t he i magi nat i on. Many a
t houghtIul mi nd has so doubted and despai red. How many oI us
can say t hat our own Iai t h is so wel l grounded and complet e t hat
we never hear t hose painIul whi speri ngs wi thi n the soul ? Thri ce
blessed are t hey who never doubt , who ruminate in pat ient con-
t ent ment l ike the ki ne, or doze under t he opi at e oI a bl ind Iait h;
on whose souls never rest s t hat AwIul Shadow which is t he ab-
sence oI the Di vine Light.
To explai n to themselves the exi st ence oI Evi l and SuIIering,
t he Anci ent Persi ans i magi ned that t here were two Pri nci ples or
Dei ti es i n t he Universe, the one oI Good and t he other oI Evil ,
const ant ly i n conIl ict wi t h each other i n struggle Ior the mastery,
and al ternately overcomi ng and overcome. Over both, Ior t he
SAGES, was the One Supreme; and Ior t hem Light was i n t he end
t o prevail over Darkness, t he Good over t he Evi l , and even Ahri-
man and hi s Demons to part wi th their wi cked and vici ous natures
and share t he uni versal Sal vat i on. It di d not occur to t hem that
t he exist ence oI the Evil Princi pl e, by t he consent oI t he Omni po-
t ent Supreme, presented t he same di IIiculty, and l eIt t he exi st ence
oI Evil as unexplai ned as beIore. The human mind is al ways
content, iI i t can remove a diIIi cul ty a step Iurther oII. It cannot
believe t hat the world rests on nothing, but is devoutly cont ent
when t aught t hat it i s borne on the back oI an i mmense elephant ,
who hi mselI stands on t he back oI a tort oi se. Gi ven the tort oi se,
Fait h i s always sati sIi ed; and it has been a great source oI happi-
ness to mul t i t udes that t hey coul d beli eve i n a Devi l who coul d
reli eve God oI the odi um oI being the Author oI Sin.
But not to all i s Fai t h suIIicient to overcome t his great di IIi -
culty. They say, wi th the Suppli ant , "Lord! I bel i eve!"--but li ke
hi m they are const rained to add, "Help Thou my unbel i eI!"--Rea-
son must, Ior these, co-operat e and coi ncide wi th Fai t h, or t hey
remai n st il l in the darkness oI doubt , --most mi serable oI all con-
dit i ons oI t he human mind.
Those only, who care Ior nothi ng beyond t he int erest s and pur-
suit s oI t his li Ie, are uni nt erested i n t hese great Problems. The
ani mals, also, do not consi der them. It i s t he characterist ic oI an
i mmortal Soul , that i t should seek t o sat isIy i t sel I oI it s i mmor-
t ali ty, and to underst and this great enigma, t he Uni verse. II the
Hott ent ot and the Papuan are not troubled and t ortured by t hese
doubts and speculat ions, they are not , Ior t hat , t o be regarded as
ei ther wise or Iortunate. The swine, al so, are i ndi IIerent to t he
great ri ddl es oI t he Uni verse, and are happy in bei ng whol ly un-
aware t hat it i s the vast Revel ati on and Mani Iestati on, in Ti me
and Space, oI a Single Thought oI the InIini te God.
Exalt and magniIy Fait h as we wi ll , and say that i t begins
where Reason ends, it must, aIt er all , have a Ioundat ion, eit her in
Reason, Analogy, the Consciousness, or human t esti mony. The
worshipper oI Brahma al so has i mpli ci t Fait h i n what seems to
us pal pably Ialse and absurd. His Iai t h rest s neit her i n Reason,
Analogy, or t he Consciousness, but on t he t esti mony oI hi s Spirit -
ual t eachers, and oI t he Holy Books. The Moslem al so bel ieves,
on t he posit ive t esti mony oI the Prophet ; and t he Mormon also
can say, "I beli eve t hi s, because it i s i mpossibl e." No Iai th, how-
ever absurd or degradi ng, has ever want ed these Ioundati ons,
t esti mony, and t he books. Miracl es, proven by uni mpeachable
t esti mony have been used as a Ioundat ion Ior Fai th, i n every age;
and t he modern miracles are bett er aut hent icated, a hundred
t i mes, t han the anci ent ones.
So that , aIt er al l, Fai th must Il ow out Irom some source wi thi n
us, when t he evidence oI t hat whi ch we are to bel ieve i s not pre-
sent ed to our senses, or i t wil l in no case be the assurance oI the
t ruth oI what i s bel ieved.
The Consci ousness, or i nheri ng and i nnat e convict ion, or t he
i nst inct divi nely i mplant ed, oI t he veri ty oI things, i s the hi ghest
possible evidence, i I not t he only real prooI, oI t he veri ty oI cer-
t ain thi ngs, but only oI trut hs oI a li mi ted class.
What we cal l t he Reason, that i s, our i mperIect human reason,
not only may, but assuredly wil l, l ead us away Irom the Truth i n
regard to things invi sibl e and especi ally t hose oI the InIini te, i I
we det ermi ne to bel ieve not hi ng but that which i t can demonst rat e
or not to bel ieve t hat whi ch i t can by i ts processes oI logic prove
t o be contradict ory, unreasonabl e, or absurd. Its tape-l i ne cannot
measure the arcs oI InIi ni ty. For example, to the Human reason,
an InIi ni te Just ice and an InIini te Mercy or Love, i n t he same
Being, are i nconsi stent and i mpossi bl e. One, i t can demonst rate,
necessarily excludes t he ot her. So it can demonstrat e that as the
Creati on had a begi nni ng, it necessarily Iol lows t hat an Eterni ty
had el apsed beIore t he Deity began to creat e, during whi ch He
was inact ive.
When we gaze, oI a moonless cl ear night , on the Heavens gli t-
t eri ng wi t h st ars, and know t hat each Ii xed star oI al l the myriads
i s a Sun, and each probably possessing i ts reti nue oI worl ds, all
peopl ed wi th l ivi ng bei ngs, we sensibly Ieel our own uni mportance
i n t he scal e oI Creati on, and at once reIl ect t hat much oI what has
i n diIIerent ages been religious Iai t h, coul d never have been be-
l ieved, iI the nat ure, si ze, and dist ance oI t hose Suns, and oI our
own Sun, Moon, and Planet s, had been known t o t he Ancient s as
t hey are t o us.
To them, all t he l ights oI the Ii rmament were created only to
gi ve l ight to the eart h, as i ts l amps or candles hung above it . The
earth was supposed t o be the only inhabi ted porti on oI t he Uni-
verse. The worl d and t he Universe were synonymous terms. OI
t he i mmense si ze and dist ance oI t he heavenly bodi es, men had
no concept ion. The Sages had, i n Chaldaea, Egypt , India, Chi na,
and i n Persia, and thereIore the sages always had, an esoteric
creed, taught only i n t he mysteries and unknown t o t he vul gar.
No Sage, i n ei ther country, or i n Greece or Rome, bel ieved t he
popular creed. To t hem the Gods and the Idol s oI t he Gods were
symbol s, and symbol s oI great and mysterious trut hs.
The Vulgar i magi ned the attenti on oI t he Gods t o be conti nu-
al ly centred upon t he earth and man. The Greci an Divini t ies i n-
habit ed Olympus, an insigni Ii cant mount ai n oI t he Eart h. There
was the Court oI Zeus, t o which Neptune came Irom the Sea, and
Plut o and Persephone Irom the gl ooms oI Tartarus i n the un-
Iathomable dept hs oI t he Earth' s bosom. God came down Irom
Heaven and on Sinai dict at ed laws Ior the Hebrews to Hi s servant
Moses. The St ars were t he guardians oI mort als whose Iates and
Iortunes were to be read in their movement s, conjunct ions, and
opposit ions. The Moon was the Bride and Sister oI the Sun, at
t he same di stance above t he Eart h, and, l ike the Sun, made Ior
t he service oI manki nd al one.
II, wi th t he great t elescope oI Lord Rosse, we exami ne t he vast
nebul ae oI Hercules, Ori on, and Andromeda, and Iind t hem re-
solvable i nt o St ars more numerous than t he sands on t he sea-
shore; i I we reIlect t hat each oI these St ars is a Sun, li ke and
even many t i mes l arger t han ours, --each, beyond a doubt , wi t h i ts
reti nue oI worlds swarming wi th l iIe; --iI we go Iurt her i n i magi -
nati on and endeavor to concei ve oI al l the inIi ni ti es oI space,
Iil led wi th si mi l ar suns and worlds, we seem at once to shri nk i nt o
an incredi bl e i nsigniIicance.
The Uni verse, whi ch is t he ut t ered Word oI God, i s i nIini te in
extent. There is no empty space beyond creat ion on any side.
The Uni verse, whi ch is t he Thought oI God pronounced, never
was not , si nce God never was i nert; nor WAS, wi thout t hi nki ng
and creati ng. The Iorms oI creat i on change, the suns and worl ds
l ive and di e li ke the leaves and the insect s, but t he Uni verse i t sel I
i s i nIi ni te and eternal , because God Is, Was, and Wi l l Iorever Be,
and never did not thi nk and creat e.
Reason i s Iai n to admit t hat a Supreme Intel li gence, inIinit ely
powerIul and wi se, must have creat ed t hi s boundless Universe;
but it al so t ell s us that we are as uni mport ant i n i t as t he zoophyt es
and ent ozoa, or as the i nvi sible part icl es oI ani mat ed li Ie t hat
Iloat upon t he ai r or swarm i n t he wat er-drop.
The Ioundat i ons oI our Iait h, rest ing upon t he i magi ned int er-
est oI God i n our race, an int erest easily supposable when man
believed hi mselI t he only intel li gent creat ed being, and t hereIore
eminently wort hy the especi al care and watchIul anxi ety oI a God
who had only this eart h t o l ook aIt er, and it s house-keepi ng al one
t o superint end, and who was cont ent to creat e, in all t he i nIini te
Universe, only one si ngle bei ng, possessing a soul, and not a mere
ani mal, are rudely shaken as the Universe broadens and expands
Ior us; and t he darkness oI doubt and di strust sett les heavy upon
The modes i n which i t i s ordi nari ly endeavored t o sat isIy our
doubts, only i ncrease them. To demonstrate the necessity Ior a
cause oI the creat ion, i s equal ly to demonst rat e the necessi ty oI a
cause Ior t hat cause. The argument Irom plan and design only
removes t he di IIi cul ty a step Iurt her oII. We rest t he worl d on
t he el ephant, and the el ephant on t he t ortoise, and the tort oi se on
---nothi ng.
To tel l us t hat the ani mal s possess insti nct only and t hat Rea-
son bel ongs to us alone, i n no way tends to sati sIy us oI t he radi -
cal di IIerence bet ween us and t hem. For iI the ment al phenomena
exhi bi ted by ani mals that t hi nk, dream, remember, argue Irom
cause to eIIect, pl an, devise, combi ne, and communicat e t hei r
t hought s to each other, so as t o act rat ional ly in concert, --iI t heir
l ove, hat e, and revenge, can be conceived oI as resul ts oI the
organi zat i on oI mat ter, l i ke col or and perIume, t he resort t o the
hypot hesi s oI an i mmat eri al Soul to explain phenomena oI t he
same ki nd, only more perIect , maniIested by the human bei ng, i s
supremely absurd. That organi zed mat ter can thi nk or even Ieel ,
at al l, is the great insoluble mystery. "Inst inct" is but a word
wi thout a meani ng, or else it means i nspi rat i on. It i s eit her t he
ani mal i tsel I, or God i n the ani mal, t hat thinks, remembers, and
reasons; and insti nct , accordi ng t o the common accept ati on oI the
t erm, woul d be t he greatest and most wonderIul oI mysteries,-
no l ess a t hi ng t han t he di rect , i mmedi at e, and cont inual prompt-
i ngs oI the Deity, --Ior the ani mal s are not machines, or automat a
moved by springs, and the ape is but a dumb Aust ral ian.
Must we always remain in t his darkness oI uncertai nty, oI
doubt ? Is t here no mode oI escaping Irom the labyrint h except
by means oI a bli nd Iai th, which expl ai ns not hi ng, and in many
creeds, ancient and modern, set s Reason at deIi ance, and l eads t o
t he beli eI eit her in a God wi t hout a Uni verse, a Universe wi thout
a God, or a Universe which i s it selI a God ?
We read in the Hebrew Chronicles t hat Schlomoh t he wi se
Ki ng caused t o be pl aced i n Iront oI t he entrance t o the Templ e
t wo huge columns oI bronze, one oI which was cal led YAKAYIN
and t he other BAHAZ; and these words are rendered i n our ver-
si on St rength and Est abl ishment . The Masonry oI the Blue
Lodges gives no explanati on oI these symbol ic col umns; nor do
t he Hebrew Books advi se us that t hey were symboli c. II not so
i ntended as symbol s, t hey were subsequently underst ood to be
But as we are certai n that everyt hi ng wi thin the Templ e was
symbol ic, and t hat the whol e st ruct ure was intended t o represent
t he Universe, we may reasonably conclude t hat the col umns oI the
port ico al so had a symboli c signiIicat ion. It would be tedious t o
repeat all t he i nt erpretat ions which Iancy or dul lness has Iound
Ior them.
The key t o thei r true meani ng i s not undiscoverabl e. The per-
Iect and et ernal dist incti on oI the t wo pri mi ti ve terms oI the cre-
at ive syl logi sm, in order t o at tai n t o the demonstrat ion oI t hei r
harmony by the analogy oI contrari es, is t he second grand prin-
ci ple oI t hat occul t phi losophy vei l ed under the name "Kabalah, "
and i ndi cated by all t he sacred hi eroglyphs oI the Ancient Sanct u-
aries, and oI the rit es, so li tt l e underst ood by the mass oI the
Ini ti ates, oI t he Anci ent and Modern Free-Masonry.
The Sohar declares t hat everything in the Universe proceeds by
t he mystery oI "t he Balance, " t hat i s, oI Equi l ibri um. OI t he
Sephiroth, or Divine Emanat ions, Wi sdom and Understanding,
Severity and Benignity, or Just ice and Mercy, and Victory and
Gl ory, consti tute pairs.
Wisdom, or the Intel l ect ual Generati ve Energy, and Under-
st andi ng, or the Capaci ty to be i mpregnated by the Acti ve Energy
and produce i ntellecti on or thought, are represented symbol ical ly
i n t he Kabalah as male and Iemal e. So also are Just ice and
Mercy. Strengt h i s the i ntel lect ual Energy or Act ivi ty; Est ab-
l ishment or St abi li ty is t he int ell ectual Capaci ty t o produce, a
Tpassi vity. They are the POWER oI generat i on and t he CAPACITY
oI product ion. By WISDOM, it i s sai d, God creates, and by UN-
DERSTANDING establi shes. These are the t wo Columns oI t he
Temple, contrari es l ike the Man and Woman, l ike Reason and
Fait h, Omni potence and Liberty, InIini te Just ice and InIi nit e
Mercy, Absol ut e Power or Strengt h t o do even what i s most un-
j ust and unwise, and Absolute Wi sdom that makes i t i mpossi ble to
do i t; Ri ght and Duty. They were the col umns oI t he int ell ectual
and moral worl d, the monument al hieroglyph oI t he anti nomy
necessary t o t he grand law oI creat ion.
There must be Ior every Force a Resi st ance t o support i t , to
every l ight a shadow, Ior every Royalty a Real m to govern, Ior
every aIIirmat ive a negat i ve.
For the Kabal ist s, Light represent s t he Act ive Pri nci ple, and
Darkness or Shadow is anal ogous to the Passive Pri nci ple. There-
Iore it was that t hey made oI the Sun and Moon emblems oI t he
t wo Divine Sexes and t he t wo creat ive Iorces; thereIore, t hat they
ascribed t o woman the Temptat ion and t he Iirst sin, and t hen the
Iirst labor, t he maternal l abor oI t he redempti on, because i t is
Irom the bosom oI the darkness i t sel I that we see the Light born
agai n. The Void att ract s the Ful l ; and so i t is t hat t he abyss oI
poverty and misery, the Seeming Evil , the seemi ng empty noth-
i ngness oI li Ie, the temporary rebell ion oI the creat ures, eternal ly
at tracts t he overIl owi ng ocean oI being, oI riches, oI pi ty, and oI
l ove. Chri st compl eted t he At onement on the Cross by descend-
i ng i nt o Hell .
Justi ce and Mercy are cont raries. II each be i nIinit e, t hei r co-
exist ence seems i mpossi bl e, and being equal , one cannot even
annihil ate the other and reign al one. The myst eries oI the Di vi ne
Nat ure are beyond our Ii ni te comprehension; but so i ndeed are
t he mysteries oI our own Ii nit e nature; and it i s cert ain that in
al l nature harmony and movement are t he resul t oI the equil ibri um
oI opposing or contrary Iorces.
The analogy oI contrari es gi ves t he solut ion oI t he most i nt er-
est ing and most diIIi cul t probl em oI modern phil osophy,--t he
deIi nit e and permanent accord oI Reason and Fait h, oI Author-
i ty and Liberty oI exami nat ion, oI Sci ence and Beli eI, oI PerIec-
t ion i n God and ImperIect ion i n Man. II science or knowledge
i s t he Sun, Beli eI is the Man; it i s a reIl ect i on oI the day in the
night . Fait h is t he vei l ed Isi s, t he Supplement oI Reason, in the
shadows which precede or Iol low Reason. It emanates Irom the
Reason, but can never conIound it nor be conIounded wit h i t . The
encroachment s oI Reason upon Fai th, or oI Fait h on Reason, are
ecl ipses oI the Sun or Moon; when they occur, t hey make usel ess
both t he Source oI Light and i t s reIl ect i on, at once.
Science perishes by systems that are nothing but beli eIs; and
Fait h succumbs to reasoni ng. For t he t wo Columns oI t he Tem-
ple t o uphold t he ediIice, t hey must remain separat ed and be
paral lel to each other. As soon as it i s at tempt ed by vi olence t o
bri ng t hem toget her, as Samson did, t hey are overt urned, and the
whole edi Iice Ial ls upon t he head oI the rash bl ind man or the
revol ut ionist whom personal or nat i onal resent ment s have in ad-
vance devoted t o death.
Harmony is t he resul t oI an al ternat ing preponderance oI
Iorces. Whenever t hi s is want ing in government , government is
a Iai lure, because i t is ei t her Despot ism or Anarchy. Al l theoret -
i cal governments, however pl ausible t he theory, end in one or the
other. Governments t hat are to endure are not made i n t he cl oset
oI Locke or ShaItesbury, or i n a Congress or a Conventi on. In a
Republ ic, Iorces that seem cont raries, t hat indeed are contrari es,
al one give movement and l iIe. The Spheres are Ii eld i n t hei r
orbi ts and made to revol ve harmoni ously and unerri ngly, by the
concurrence, whi ch seems t o be the opposi ti on, oI two cont rary
Iorces. II the centri petal Iorce should overcome t he centriIugal,
t he equil ibri um oI Iorces cease, t he rush oI t he Spheres t o t he
cent ral Sun would annihi late t he system. Instead oI consol ida-
t ion, t he whole woul d be shat tered i nt o Iragment s.
Man i s a Iree agent , t hough Omni potence is above and all
around hi m. To be Iree t o do good, he must be Iree t o do evil .
The Light necessi tat es the Shadow. A St ate is Iree li ke an i ndi -
vidual in any government wort hy oI t he name. The Stat e i s less
potent than t he Dei ty, and t hereIore the Ireedom oI t he indi vidual
ci ti zen is consist ent wi th i ts Sovereignty. These are opposi tes,
but not antagonist ic. So, in a uni on oI States, the Ireedom oI t he
st ates i s consi stent wit h the Supremacy oI the Nati on. When
ei ther obt ai ns the permanent mastery over the ot her, and t hey
cease t o be i n equil ibri o, the encroachment conti nues wit h a ve-
l oci ty that i s accelerated li ke that oI a Ial l i ng body, unt i l t he
Ieebler i s annihilated, and then, there being no resi stance t o sup-
port t he st ronger, it rushes i nt o rui n.
So, when t he equipoise oI Reason and Fait h, i n t he i ndivi dual
or t he Nati on, and the al ternat i ng preponderance cease, the result
i s, accordi ng as one or the ot her is permanent vict or, Athei sm or
Superst it ion, disbel ieI or bli nd credul ity; and the Priest s ei ther
oI UnIai th or oI Fait h become despoti c.
"Whomsoever God loveth, hi m he chastenet h," i s an expressi on
t hat Iormulates a whol e dogma. The tri al s oI l iIe are the bless-
i ngs oI liIe, to the i ndi vi dual or t he Nati on, iI ei ther has a Soul
t hat is truly wort hy oI salvat ion. "Light and darkness, " said
ZOROASTER, "are t he worl d' s eternal ways." The Light and the
Shadow are everywhere and al ways i n proporti on; t he Light bei ng
t he reason oI bei ng oI the Shadow. It i s by trial s only, by the
agonies oI sorrow and the sharp di sci pli ne oI adversit ies, that men
and Nat ions at t ai n i ni ti ati on. The agoni es oI t he garden oI Get h-
semane and t hose oI the Cross on Cal vary preceded the Resurrec-
t ion and were t he means oI Redempti on. It is wit h prosperi ty
t hat God aIIl ict s Humani ty.
The Degree oI Rose i s devoted t o and symbol i zes t ne Iinal
t ri umph oI trut h over Ial sehood, oI l iberty over sl avery, oI l ight
over darkness, oI li Ie over deat h, and oI good over evi l. The
great t ruth i t i ncul cates is, that not wit hst andi ng t he exi stence oI
Evi l, God i s i nIi ni tely wi se, j ust , and good: t hat though the aIIai rs
oI t he worl d proceed by no rule oI right and wrong known to us
i n t he narrowness oI our views, yet al l i s right, Ior i t is the work oI
God; and all evi ls, al l miseries, all mi sIortunes, are but as drops in
t he vast current that i s sweeping onward, gui ded by Hi m, t o a
great and magni Iicent result : t hat , at t he appoi nt ed t i me, He wi ll
redeem and regenerate the world, and t he Pri nci pl e, t he Power,
and t he exist ence oI Evil wi ll t hen cease; t hat this wi l l be brought
about by such means and inst ruments as He chooses t o employ;
whether by t he meri ts oI a Redeemer that has already appeared,
or a Messi ah that i s yet wai ted Ior, by an incarnat ion oI Hi msel I,
or by an inspired prophet , it does not belong t o us as Masons to
deci de. Let each j udge and beli eve Ior hi msel I.
In t he mean ti me, we l abor t o hasten t he coming oI t hat day.
The morals oI ant iqui ty, oI the law oI Moses and oI Chri sti ani ty,
are ours. We recogni ze every teacher oI Moral ity, every ReIorm-
er, as a brot her i n t hi s great work. The Eagl e i s to us the symbol
oI Liberty, the Compasses oI Equali ty, the Pel ican oI Humani ty. ,
and our order oI Frat erni ty. Laboring Ior t hese, wit h Fait h,
Hope, and Charity as our armor, we wi ll wai t wit h pati ence Ior
t he Iinal triumph oI Good and the compl et e maniIestat ion oI t he
Word oI God.
No one Mason has t he right to measure Ior another, wi t hin the
wal ls oI a Masonic Templ e, t he degree oI venerati on whi ch he
shal l Ieel Ior any ReIormer, or t he Founder oI any Reli gion. We
t each a beli eI in no parti cular creed, as we t each unbel ieI i n none.
Whatever higher at tri butes the Founder oI the Christ ian Fai th
may, i n our bel ieI, have had or not have had, none can deny that
He taught and pract ised a pure and elevat ed morali ty, even at t he
ri sk and to t he ult i mat e l oss oI His li Ie. He was not only the
beneIact or oI a disi nherit ed peopl e, but a model Ior manki nd. De-
votedly He l oved the chi ldren oI Israel . To t hem He came, and
t o t hem al one He preached that Gospel whi ch Hi s disci ples aIt er-
ward carri ed among Iorei gners. He woul d Iai n have Ireed the
chosen People Irom their spi ri tual bondage oI ignorance and deg-
radat ion. As a l over oI all manki nd, l aying down His l iIe Ior the
emancipati on oI Hi s Bret hren, He should be to all , t o Chri st ian, t o
Jew, and to Mahometan, an obj ect oI grati tude and venerat ion.
The Roman worl d Ielt t he pangs oI approachi ng dissol ut ion.
Pagani sm, i t s Temples shat tered by Socrat es and Ci cero, had
spoken i t s l ast word. The God oI t he Hebrews was unknown be-
yond the li mi t s oI Palest ine. The old religions had Iai led t o gi ve
happi ness and peace to the worl d. The babbli ng and wrangl ing
phil osophers had conIounded all men' s ideas, unti l t hey doubted oI
everyt hi ng and had Iai th i n not hing: neit her i n God nor in hi s
goodness and mercy, nor i n the vi rt ue oI man, nor in themselves.
Manki nd was divided i nt o t wo great classes, -- the mast er and the
sl ave; the powerIul and the abj ect , the hi gh and t he low, the
tyrant s and t he mob; and even t he Iormer were sati at ed wi t h t he
servil ity oI the lat ter, sunken by l assi t ude and despair t o t he low-
est dept hs oI degradati on.
When, lo, a voi ce, i n the inconsi derable Roman Provi nce oI
Judea procl ai ms a new Gospel--a new "God' s Word, " to crushed,
suIIeri ng, bleedi ng humani ty. Liberty oI Thought, Equali ty oI al l
men i n the eye oI God, uni versal Frat ernity! a new doct ri ne, a
new rel igi on; the old Pri mi ti ve Trut h ut tered once agai n!
Man i s once more taught t o l ook upward t o his God. No longer
t o a God hi d i n i mpenet rable mystery, and i nIini tely remote Irom
human sympathy, emergi ng only at intervals Irom t he darkness to
smi t e and crush humanity: but a God, good, ki nd, beneIicent, and
merci Iul; a Father, lovi ng t he creat ures He has made, wit h a love
i mmeasurable and exhaustl ess; Who Ieel s Ior us, and sympa-
t hi zes wi th us, and sends us pain and want and di sast er only that
t hey may serve t o devel op in us the virt ues and excel lences t hat
beIi t us t o l i ve wit h Hi m hereaIt er.
Jesus oI Nazaret h, the "Son oI man, " is the expounder oI t he
new Law oI Love. He call s t o Hi m t he humble, the poor, the
Parai hs oI the worl d. The Ii rst sentence that He pronounces
blesses t he worl d, and announces t he new gospel: "Blessed are
t hey that mourn Ior t hey shal l be comIorted. " He pours the oi l
oI consol ati on and peace upon every crushed and bleeding heart.
Every suIIerer i s His proselyte. He shares t hei r sorrows, and
sypathi zes wit h al l thei r aIIl ict ions.
He rai ses up the sinner and the Samaritan woman, and teaches
t hem to hope Ior Iorgiveness. He pardons the woman t aken in
adult ery. He select s hi s disci ples not among t he Phari sees or t he
Phi l osophers, but among the low and humbl e, even oI the Ii sher-
men oI Gal i lee. He heal s t he si ck and Ieeds t he poor. He li ves
among the desti t ute and t he Iriendless. "SuIIer l it tl e chil dren,"
He said, "to come unt o me; Ior oI such i s t he kingdom oI Heaven !
Blessed are the humbl e-mi nded, Ior theirs is the ki ngdom oI
Heaven; the meek, Ior t hey shal l inherit the Eart h; the merci Iul ,
Ior they shal l obt ai n mercy; t he pure in heart, Ior they shall see
God; the peace-makers, Ior t hey shall be called t he chil dren oI
God! Fi rst be reconci l ed t o they brot her, and t hen come and oIIer
t hy giIt at t he al tar. Gi ve t o hi m t hat asket h t hee, and Irom hi m
t hat would borrow oI thee turn not away! Love your enemi es;
bless t hem that curse you; do good to them t hat hat e you; and
pray Ior t hem whi ch despi teIully use you and persecute you! Al l
t hi ngs whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye also
unto t hem; Ior t his is the law and the Prophets! He that t aket h
not hi s cross, and Iol lowet h aIt er Me, i s not wort hy oI Me. A
new commandment I give unt o you, t hat ye l ove one anot her: as
I have l oved you, t hat ye also love one another: by thi s shal l al l
know that ye are My di scipl es. Greater l ove hat h no man than
t hi s, t hat a man l ay down hi s li Ie Ior his Iriend. "
The Gospel oI Love He seal ed wit h His l iIe. The cruel ty oI
t he Jewish Pri esthood, t he i gnorant Ieroci ty oI t he mob, and t he
Roman indi IIerence to barbari an bl ood, nai led Hi m to the cross,
and He expi red utteri ng bl essings upon humani ty.
Dying thus, He bequeathed Hi s t eachings to man as an ines-
t i mable inheri tance. Pervert ed and corrupted, they have served as
a basis Ior many creeds, and been even made the warrant Ior in-
t olerance and persecut i on. We here teach them i n t hei r puri ty.
They are our Masonry; Ior to them good men oI al l creeds can
subscri be.
That God i s good and merci Iul, and loves and sympathizes wi th
t he creatures He has made; that Hi s Ii nger is visi ble in al l t he
movement s oI t he moral, intel lect ual, and mat erial universe; that
we are Hi s chil dren, t he obj ect s oI His paternal care and regard;
t hat all men are our brothers, whose want s we are t o supply, t heir
errors t o pardon, t heir opinions t o t ol erat e, t hei r inj uries to Ior-
gi ve; that man has an i mmort al soul , a Iree wil l , a right to Iree-
dom oI thought and act ion; t hat al l men are equal i n God' s sight ;
t hat we best serve God by humi li ty, meekness, gentl eness, kind-
ness, and the ot her vi rtues which t he l owly can practi se as wel l as
t he l oIty; t hi s is "t he new Law, " the "WORD, " Ior which t he
worl d had wai ted and pi ned so l ong; and every true Knight oI
t he Rose ¹ wi ll revere the memory oI Hi m who taught it , and
l ook i ndulgent ly even on those who assign t o Hi m a character Iar
above his own concepti ons or bel ieI, even t o t he extent oI deem-
i ng Hi m Di vine.
Hear Phi lo, t he Greek Jew. "The contemplat ive soul, un-
equally guided, somet i mes toward abundance and somet i mes t o-
ward barrenness, though ever advancing, i s i ll umi nat ed by t he
pri mi ti ve i deas, the rays that emanat e Irom t he Di vi ne Intell i-
gence, whenever it ascends toward the Subl i me Treasures. When,
on t he contrary, it descends, and is barren, it Ial l s wit hi n the do-
main oI t hose Intel ligences that are t ermed Angel s. . . Ior, when
t he soul is deprived oI t he light oI God, whi ch l eads i t t o t he
knowl edge oI thi ngs, it no l onger enj oys more t han a Ieeble and
secondary l ight , which gi ves i t, not t he understandi ng oI t hi ngs,
but that oI words only, as i n t hi s baser worl d. "
". . Let the narrow-souled wi thdraw, havi ng t hei r ears sealed
up! We communi cate the di vine mysteries t o those only who
have recei ved the sacred init i at ion, to those who pract ise true
piety, and who are not enslaved by the empty pomp oI words, or
t he doctri nes oI t he pagans. . "
". . . O, ye Ini ti ates, ye whose ears are puri Iied, receive this i n
your souls, as a myst ery never to be l ost ! Reveal it t o no ProIane !
Keep and cont ain i t wi t hi n yoursel ves, as an incorrupt i ble treas-
ure, not l ike gol d or sil ver, but more preci ous than everythi ng
besi des; Ior it i s the knowl edge oI t he Great Cause, oI Nat ure, and
oI t hat which is born oI bot h. And iI you meet an Ini tiate, be-
si ege hi m wit h your prayers, t hat he conceal Irom you no new
mysteries that he may know, and rest not unti l you have obt ai ned
t hem! For me, alt hough I was i ni tiated in the Great Myst eri es
by Moses, the Friend oI God, yet , having seen Jeremiah, I recog-
nized hi m not only as an Init iat e, but as a Hierophant; and I Iol -
l ow his school."
We, li ke hi m, recognize all Ini ti ates as our Brot hers. We be-
l ong to no one creed or school. In all rel igi ons there i s a basis oI
Trut h; in al l there i s pure Moral i ty. All t hat teach the cardinal
t enets oI Masonry we respect ; al l t eachers and reIormers oI man-
kind we admi re and revere.
Masonry also has her mi ssi on to perIorm. Wi t h her t radit ions
reaching back to t he earli est t i mes, and her symbols dat ing Iurt her
back t han even t he monumental hist ory oI Egypt extends, she i n-
vites all men oI all rel igi ons to enl ist under her banners and t o
war agai nst evi l , ignorance and wrong. You are now her knight ,
and t o her servi ce your sword i s consecrated. May you prove a
wort hy soldier i n a worthy cause!
Morals and Dogma oI t he Anci ent and Accept ed Scot t ish Ri t e oI
Freemasonry , prepared Ior the Supreme Council oI t he Thi rty Third
Degree Ior the Sout hern Juri sdi cti on oI the United St at es: Charlest on,
19º - Pont i II
20º - Master oI t he Symbol ic Lodge
21º - Noachi te or Prussi an Knight
22º - Kni ght oI t he Royal Axe or Pri nce oI Libanus
23º - Chi eI oI the Tabernacl e
The true Mason labors Ior the beneIit oI those who are to come
aIter hi m, and Ior the advancement and i mprovement oI his race.
That i s a poor ambit i on whi ch content s i tsel I wit hi n t he l i mit s oI
a si ngl e l iIe. Al l men who deserve to l ive, desi re to survive t heir
Iunerals, and to l ive aIt erward in the good t hat they have done
manki nd, rather t han in t he Iading charact ers writ ten in men' s
memories. Most men desire to l eave some work behi nd t hem that
may outl ast thei r own day and brieI generat ion. That is an i n-
st incti ve i mpulse, given by God, and oIt en Iound in the rudest
human heart; t he surest prooI oI t he soul ' s i mmortal ity, and oI
t he Iundamental di IIerence bet ween man and the wisest brut es.
To pl ant the trees t hat , aIter we are dead, shall shel ter our chi l -
dren, i s as nat ural as to love t he shade oI those our Iathers planted.
The rudest unl ett ered husbandman, pai nIully consci ous oI hi s own
i nIeri ority, the poorest widowed mot her, givi ng her li Ie-bl ood t o
t hose who pay only Ior the work oI her needle, wil l toil and sti nt
t hemsel ves to educat e t hei r chi ld, that he may take a hi gher st a-
t ion i n the world than t hey;--and oI such are the world' s great est
beneIact ors.
In hi s inIl uences t hat survi ve hi m, man becomes i mmort al, be-
Iore the general resurrect ion. The Spartan mother, who, givi ng
her son his shiel d, said, "WITH IT, OR UPON IT!" aIt erward shared
t he government oI Lacedaemon wi t h the legislat ion oI Lycurgus;
Ior she too made a l aw, t hat li ved aIt er her; and she inspired the
Spart an sol diery that aIterward demoli shed the wal l s oI At hens,
and ai ded Al exander to conquer t he Orient. The widow who gave
Marion t he Iiery arrows t o burn her own house, that it mi ght no
l onger shel ter t he enemies oI her i nIant country, t he house where
she had lai n upon her husband' s bosom, and where her chil dren
had been born, l egislated more eIIect ual ly Ior her St ate than Locke
or ShaItesbury, or t han many a Legi sl ature has done, since that
Stat e won i ts Ireedom.
It was oI sl ight i mportance to t he Ki ngs oI Egypt and t he
Monarchs oI Assyri a and Phceni cia, that the son oI a Jewi sh
woman, a Ioundl ing, adopt ed by t he daught er oI Sesost ris Ramses,
sl ew an Egypti an that oppressed a Hebrew slave, and Il ed int o the
desert, t o remai n t here Iorty years. But Moses, who might other-
wi se have become Regent oI Lower Egypt , known to us only by a
t ablet on a tomb or monument , became t he deli verer oI the Jews,
and l ed t hem Iort h Irom Egypt to t he Ironti ers oI Palesti ne, and
made Ior t hem a law, out oI which grew t he Chri stian Iait h; and
so has shaped the desti ni es oI t he worl d. He and t he old Roman
l awyers, wi th Al Ired oI England, the Saxon Thanes and Norman
Barons, the ol d j udges and chancell ors, and the makers oI t he
canons, lost i n the mi sts and shadows oI the Past, --these are our
l egislators; and we obey t he l aws t hat they enact ed.
Napoleon died upon the barren rock oI hi s exi le. His bones,
borne t o France by t he son oI a Ki ng, rest in the Hopit al des In-
vali des, i n the great city on t he Sei ne. His Thought s sti ll govern
France. He, and not t he People, det hroned the Bourbon, and
drove t he l ast King oI the House oI Orleans int o exi le. He, i n
his coIIin, and not the Peopl e, vot ed t he crown t o t he Third Napo-
l eon; and he, and not the General s oI France and England, led
t heir uni ted Iorces agai nst the grim Northern Despot ism.
Mahomet announced t o t he Arabian i dol aters t he new creed,
"There i s but one God, and Mahomet, l ike Moses and Chri st, is
Hi s Apostle. " For many years unaided, then wi th the hel p oI hi s
Iami ly and a Iew Iriends, then wi th many disci pl es, and last oI al l
wi th an army, he taught and preached t he Koran. The rel igi on
oI t he wil d Arabian ent husiast convert ing the Ii ery Tribes oI t he
Great Desert , spread over Asia, buil t up the Saracenic dynast ies,
conquered Persia and India, the Greek Empire, Northern AIri ca,
and Spai n, and dashed the surges oI i ts Iierce soldi ery against t he
batt lements oI Northern Chri st endom. The law oI Mahomet st i ll
governs a Iourth oI t he human race; and Turk and Arab, Moor
and Persi an and Hi ndu, sti ll obey t he Prophet, and pray wit h their
Iaces turned t oward Mecca; and he, and not t he l iving, rul es and
reigns in the Iairest porti ons oI the Orient .
ConIucius sti l l enacts t he l aw Ior Chi na; and t he t hought s and
i deas oI Peter t he Great govern Russia. Plat o and the other great
Sages oI Ant i qui ty sti ll rei gn as the Ki ngs oI Phi l osophy, and
have domi ni on over t he human i ntel lect . The great Statesmen
oI t he past st i ll preside in t he Counci ls oI Nat i ons. Burke st il l
l ingers i n the House oI Commons; and Berryer' s sonorous tones
wi ll l ong ri ng i n t he Legisl at i ve Chambers oI France. The in-
Iluences oI Webst er and Cal houn, conIli ct i ng, rent asunder t he
Ameri can States, and the doct ri ne oI each i s t he l aw and t he
oracle speaki ng Irom the Holy oI Holi es Ior hi s own Stat e and al l
consociated wit h it : a Iai th preached and proclai med by each at
t he cannon' s mout h and consecrat ed by rivers oI blood.
It has been wel l said, t hat when Tamerlane had buil ded hi s pyr-
amid oI IiIty thousand human skull s, and wheel ed away wi th hi s
vast armi es Irom t he gat es oI Damascus, to Ii nd new conquests,
and buil d other pyramids, a li tt le boy was playi ng i n t he st reet s
oI Ment z, son oI a poor arti san, whose apparent i mport ance i n the
scale oI bei ngs was, compared Wi th that oI Tamerlane, as t hat oI
a grain oI sand t o t he giant bulk oI t he earth; but Tamerlane
and al l his shaggy l egions, t hat swept over the East l ike a hurri-
cane, have passed away, and become shadows; whi le printi ng, the
wonderIul invent ion oI John Faust , the boy oI Ment z, has exert ed
a greater i nIluence on man' s dest inies and overturned more thrones
and dynasti es t han all the vi ctori es oI al l the blood-stai ned con-
querors Irom Ni mrod to Napol eon.
Long ages ago, t he Temple buil t by Sol omon and our Anci ent
Bret hren sank i nt o rui n, when the Assyri an Armies sacked Jeru-
sal em. The Holy City i s a mass oI hovel s coweri ng under the
domi ni on oI t he Crescent ; and t he Holy Land is a desert . The
Ki ngs oI Egypt and Assyria, who were contemporari es oI Sol o-
mon, are Iorgott en, and thei r hi stories mere Iables. The Anci ent
Orient i s a shat t ered wreck, bleaching on t he shores oI Ti me. The
WolI and t he Jackal howl among the ruins oI Thebes and oI
Tyre, and t he sculptured i mages oI the Templ es and Pal aces oI
Babylon and Ni neveh are dug Irom t hei r rui ns and carri ed into
st range lands. But t he qui et and peaceIul Order, oI whi ch the
Son oI a poor Phceni ci an Wi dow was one oI t he Grand Masters,
wi th t he Ki ngs oI Israel and Tyre, has conti nued t o increase in
st ature and i nIluence, deIyi ng t he angry waves oI ti me and t he
st orms oI persecuti on. Age has not weakened i ts wi de Iounda-
t ions, nor shat tered i t s col umns, nor marred t he beauty oI it s har-
moni ous proport ions. Where rude barbari ans, in the t i me oI Sol o-
mon, peopled i nhospi tabl e howl i ng wil dernesses, i n France and
Britain, and in t hat New World, not known t o Jew or Gent ile,
unti l the glori es oI t he Orient had Iaded, t hat Order has bui lded
new Temples, and teaches to it s mi l li ons oI Ini ti ates t hose lessons
oI peace, good-wil l, and tolerat i on, oI reli ance on God and conIi-
dence i n man, whi ch i t learned when Hebrew and Gi bl emit e
worked si de by side on t he sl opes oI Lebanon, and the Servant oI
Jehovah and t he Phoenici an Worshi pper oI Bel sat wit h t he hum-
ble arti san i n Council at Jerusalem.
It is t he Dead t hat govern. The Living only obey. And i I
t he Soul sees, aIter deat h, what passes on t hi s eart h, and watches
over the welIare oI those i t loves, t hen must it s great est happi -
ness consi st in seeing the current oI it s beneIicent inIluences
wi dening out Irom age to age, as ri vul ets widen i nto ri vers, and
ai di ng t o shape t he desti ni es oI indi vidual s, Iami l i es, St at es, the
Worl d; and it s bit terest puni shment, i n seei ng i ts evil i nIluences
causi ng mischieI and mi sery, and cursing and aIIli cti ng men, long
aIter t he Irame i t dwel t i n has become dust, and when both name
and memory are Iorgot ten.
We know not who among t he Dead control our desti nies. The
universal human race i s l i nked and bound toget her by those i nIlu-
ences and sympat hi es, which in t he t ruest sense do make men' s
Iates. Humanity i s t he uni t , oI which the man is but a Iracti on.
What ot her men in t he Past have done, said, thought , makes the
great i ron network oI ci rcumstance that envi rons and control s us
al l. We take our Iait h on t rust. We t hi nk and bel ieve as the Ol d
Lords oI Thought command us; and Reason i s powerl ess beIore
Authori ty.
We woul d make or annul a parti cular contract ; but the
Thought s oI t he dead Judges oI England, l iving when their ashes
have been col d Ior cent uries, stand between us and t hat whi ch we
woul d do, and utt erly Iorbi d i t. We woul d set t le our estat e i n a
parti cul ar way; but t he prohibi t ion oI the Engli sh Parliament ,
i ts utt ered Thought when t he Iirst or second Edward reigned,
comes echoing down t he long avenues oI t i me, and t ell s us we
shal l not exerci se t he power oI di sposi ti on as we wi sh. We would
gai n a part icular advantage oI anot her; and the t hought oI the
old Roman l awyer who di ed beIore Justi ni an, or t hat oI Rome' s
great orat or Cicero, annihi lates t he act , or makes the intent ion in-
eIIect ual . This act , Moses Iorbids; that, Al Ired. We would sell
our land; but certai n marks on a peri shable paper t ell us that our
Iather or remote ancestor ordered ot herwise; and the arm oI t he
dead, emerging Irom the grave, wit h peremptory gesture prohibit s
t he al ienati on. About to sin or err, t he t hought or wi sh oI our
dead mot her, t ol d us when we were chil dren, by words that died
upon the air i n the ut terance, and many a long year were Iorgot-
t en, Il ashes on our memory, and holds us back wi th a power that
i s resi st l ess.
Thus we obey t he dead; and thus shall the l ivi ng, when we are
dead, Ior weal or woe, obey us. The Thought s oI t he Past are t he
Laws oI the Present and t he Future. That whi ch we say and do,
i I i t s eIIect s last not beyond our li ves, is uni mport ant . That
which shall l ive when we are dead, as part oI the great body oI
l aw enact ed by t he dead, is t he only act worth doing, t he only
Thought wort h speaking. The desire t o do somet hi ng t hat shal l
beneIi t the worl d, when neit her praise nor obloquy wil l reach us
where we sleep soundly i n t he grave, is the noblest ambi t i on en-
t ert ai ned by man.
It is t he ambi ti on oI a true and genuine Mason. Knowing t he
sl ow processes by which t he Dei ty bri ngs about great resul t s, he
does not expect t o reap as wel l as sow, i n a singl e l iIeti me. It is
t he i nIl exi ble Iate and noblest dest iny, wi t h rare except ions, oI the
great and good, to work, and let ot hers reap t he harvest oI t hei r
l abors. He who does good, only t o be repaid in ki nd, or in thanks
and grati t ude, or in reputat i on and t he world' s praise, is li ke hi m
who l oans hi s money, t hat he may, aIter certai n months, recei ve it
back wi th interest. To be repai d Ior emi nent servi ces wit h slan-
der, obloquy, or ri di cule, or at best wi th st upi d indiIIerence or cold
i ngrat i tude, as it is common, so i t i s no mi sIortune, except t o t hose
who l ack t he wi t t o see or sense t o appreci at e the servi ce, or t he
nobi li ty oI soul to thank and reward wi th eul ogy, the beneIactor
oI his kind. His inIl uences l ive, and t he great Fut ure wi ll obey;
whether i t recogni ze or di sown the lawgiver.
Mi lt iades was Iort unate t hat he was exi l ed; and Ari st i des t hat
he was ost raci zed, because men wearied oI hearing hi m cal led
"The Just . " Not t he Redeemer was unIortunate; but those only
who repai d Hi m Ior the inest i mabl e gi It He oIIered t hem, and Ior
a li Ie passed i n t oi li ng Ior t heir good, by nai li ng Hi m upon t he
cross, as though He had been a sl ave or maleIactor. The perse-
cutor di es and rot s, and Posteri ty ut ters hi s name wi th execrati on:
but hi s vi cti m' s memory he has unintenti onal ly made glori ous and
i mmortal .
II not Ior slander and persecut i on, t he Mason who woul d bene-
beneIi t hi s race must l ook Ior apat hy and cold indiIIerence i n those
whose good he seeks, in t hose who ought t o seek t he good oI
others. Except when t he sl uggish depths oI the Human Mind
are broken up and t ossed as wi t h a storm, when at t he appoi nted
t i me a great ReIormer comes, and a new Fait h spri ngs up and
grows wit h supernatural energy, t he progress oI Trut h is sl ower
t han the growth oI oaks; and he who plant s need not expect t o
gat her. The Redeemer, at His death, had twelve di sci pl es, and
one bet rayed and one deserted and deni ed Hi m. It is enough Ior
us to know that t he Irui t wi ll come i n i ts due season. When, or
who shall gather it , i t does not i n t he l east concern us to know.
It is our busi ness to pl ant the seed. It is God' s right to give the
Iruit t o whom He pleases; and iI not to us, then i s our act ion by
so much t he more noble.
To sow, that others may reap; t o work and plant Ior t hose who
are to occupy the eart h when we are dead; to proj ect our i nIl u-
ences Iar i nto t he Iut ure, and li ve beyond our ti me; t o rul e as t he
Ki ngs oI Thought , over men who are yet unborn; to bless wit h
t he glorious gi It s oI Trut h and Light and Li berty t hose who wil l
neit her know t he name oI the giver, nor care i n what grave hi s
unregarded ashes repose, is the true oIIice oI a Mason and the
proudest dest iny oI a man.
Al l the great and beneIicent operati ons oI Nat ure are produced
by sl ow and oIten i mpercept ible degrees. The work oI dest ructi on
and devastat ion only is vi olent and rapi d. The Volcano and t he
Eart hquake, the Tornado and t he Avalanche, l eap suddenly i nt o
Iul l li Ie and IearIul energy, and smit e wi t h an unexpected bl ow.
Vesuvius buried Pompeii and Herculaneum i n a night; and Lis-
bon Iel l prost rate beIore God i n a breath, when t he earth rocked
and shuddered; t he Alpi ne vi ll age vani shes and is erased at one
bound oI t he avalanche; and t he ancient Iorests Iall l ike grass be-
Iore the mower, when the tornado l eaps upon t hem. Pest i lence
sl ays it s t housands in a day; and t he st orm in a night strews the
sand wi t h shat tered navies.
The Gourd oI the Prophet Jonah grew up, and was wi thered, in
a night. But many years ago, beIore the Norman Conqueror
st amped hi s mail ed Ioot on t he neck oI prostrat e Saxon England,
some wandering barbari an, oI the conti nent t hen unknown t o t he
worl d, in mere i dleness, wi t h hand or Ioot, covered an acorn wit h
a li tt le earth, and passed on regardl ess, on his j ourney to t he di m
Past. He di ed and was Iorgott en; but the acorn l ay t here sti ll ,
t he mighty Iorce wi t hin i t act ing in t he darkness. A tender shoot
st ole gent ly up; and Ied by the l ight and ai r and Irequent dews,
put Iort h i ts li t t le leaves, and li ved, because the elk or buIIal o
chanced not to pl ace hi s Ioot upon and crush i t. The years
marched onward, and t he shoot became a sapl i ng, and it s green
l eaves went and came wi th Spring and Aut umn. And sti ll t he
years came and passed away agai n, and Wi l l iam, t he Norman Bas-
t ard, parcell ed England out among hi s Barons, and st i ll the sapl ing
grew, and the dews Ied it s l eaves, and t he birds bui lded t heir nests
among it s smal l li mbs Ior many generati ons. And st i ll t he years
came and went , and t he Indian hunter sl ept in t he shade oI t he
sapl ing, and Ri chard Lion-Heart Iought at Acre and Ascalon, and
John' s bold Barons wrest ed Irom hi m the Great Charter; and
t he sapl i ng had become a tree; and st il l it grew, and t hrust it s
great arms wider abroad, and li It ed i ts head st il l higher toward
t he Heavens; strong-rooted, and deIi ant oI t he st orms t hat roared
and eddied through it s branches; and when Col umbus pl oughed
wi th hi s keel s t he unknown Western At lanti c, and Cort ez and
Pi zarro bathed t he cross i n blood; and t he Purit an, the Huguenot ,
t he Cavali er, and t he Iol l ower oI Penn sought a reIuge and a rest-
i ng-place beyond t he ocean, the Great Oak sti ll st ood, Iirm-root ed,
vigorous, stately, haughti ly domineeri ng over all t he Iorest , heed-
l ess oI all t he centuri es that had hurri ed past si nce t he wil d Indian
plant ed the li t t le acorn in t he Iorest ; --a st out and hale old tree,
wi th wi de ci rcumIerence shadi ng many a rood oI ground; and Ii t
t o Iurni sh t i mbers Ior a shi p, to carry t he thunders oI t he Great
Republ ic' s guns around the world. And yet, i I one had sat and
wat ched it every i nstant, Irom t he moment when t he Ieeble shoot
Iirst pushed i ts way t o t he l ight unt il t he eagl es buil t among it s
branches, he would never have seen the tree or sapl ing grow.
Many long centuries ago, beIore the Chal daean Shepherds
wat ched the Stars, or ShuIu bui l t the Pyrami ds, one could have
sai led in a seventy-Iour where now a thousand isl ands gem the sur-
Iace oI t he Indian Ocean; and the deep-sea l ead woul d nowhere
have Iound any bott om. But bel ow these waves were myriads
upon myriads, beyond t he power oI Ari thmet ic to number, oI
minute exi stences, each a perIect li vi ng creature, made by the Al-
mighty Creat or, and Iashi oned by Hi m Ior t he work it had t o do
There t hey t oi led beneat h the waters, each doi ng it s al l ot ted work,
and wholly ignorant oI the resul t whi ch God int ended. They
l ived and died, incalculabl e i n numbers and al most inIi nit e i n t he
successi on oI their generati ons, each addi ng hi s mit e t o t he gigan-
t ic work t hat went on t here under God' s direct ion. Thus hath He
chosen t o create great Conti nent s and Islands; and sti l l t he coral-
i nsect s li ve and work, as when they made the rocks t hat underlie
t he vall ey oI t he Ohio.
Thus God hat h chosen to creat e. Where now i s Ii rm l and, once
chaIed and thundered t he great pri meval ocean. For ages upon
ages t he mi nute shi elds oI i nIi ni te myriads oI i nIusoria, and the
st ony st ems oI encri nit es sunk i nt o i ts dept hs, and there, under
t he vast pressure oI i t s waters, hardened i nt o li mestone. Raised
sl owly Irom t he ProIound by Hi s hand, it s quarries underli e t he
soil oI al l t he cont i nent s, hundreds oI Ieet in t hickness; and we,
oI t hese remai ns oI the countl ess dead, buil d tombs and palaces,
as t he Egypti ans, whom we call anci ent , buil t their pyrami ds.
On al l t he broad l akes and oceans t he Great Sun l ooks earnestly
and l ovi ngly, and t he i nvi sible vapors rise ever up to meet hi m.
No eye but God' s behol ds t hem as t hey rise. There, i n t he upper
at mospere, they are condensed t o mi st, and gather int o clouds,
and Iloat and swi m around in t he ambi ent air. They sail wi th it s
current s, and hover over t he ocean, and rol l i n huge masses round
t he st ony shoul ders oI great mount ains. Condensed st il l more by
change oI t emperat ure, they drop upon the thirsty eart h i n gentl e
showers, or pour upon it i n heavy rains, or st orm against i t s bosom
at t he angry Equinocti al. The shower, the rain, and the storm
pass away, t he cl ouds vanish, and the bright st ars again shi ne
cl early upon the glad eart h. The rain-drops sink int o the ground,
and gat her in subterranean reservoi rs, and run in subt erranean