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A Dissertation Project ON

A Study on Employee Motivation with special reference to HMT Pinjore


SUBMITTED TO:

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Business Administration (Session 2012-13)

Under the Guidance of :Mr.Nitin Kumar Faculty of MBA

Submitted by:Rakhi Pundir MBA- 4th Sem. Univ. Roll No.

YAMUNA GROUP OF INSTITUTION

GADHOLI, DISTT. : YAMUNA NAGAR


(Approved by AICTE and HRD Ministry , affiliated to Kurkshetra University, Kurukshetra)

CONTENTS
CHAPTER - 1 Introduction to Topic

Chapter - 2
Review of Literature Chapter - 3 Industry Profile Chapter - 4 Company Profile Chapter - 5 Research Methodology Objective of the Study Research Design Significance of the Research Limitations of the Study Chapter - 6 Data Analysis and Data Interpretation Chapter - 7 Discussion and Findings Chapter - 8 Conclusion and Recommendations Chapter - 9 Conclusion Annexure Questionnaire & Bibliography

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
Every management tries to coordinate various factors of production in such a way that their contribution is maximum in achieving organisation goals. The performance of non-human factors like machines etc. will depend upon the level of technology and competence of those who use them. To improve the overall performance in a business it become essential to increase the efficiency of human being. The performance of person depend upon two factor (i) ability to do work (ii) motivation. Motivation is an important factor which encourages person to give their best performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation will be enable the increased output of employee but a negative motivation will reduce their performance. DEFINING MOTIVATION What is Motivation? May be the place to begin is to say what motivation isnt many people incorrectly view motivation as personal trait-that is, some have it and others dont. in practise in experienced managers often label employee who seem to lack motivation as lazy. Such label assumes that an individual is always lazy or is lacking in motivation our knowledge of motivation tells us that this just isnt true. What we know is that motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. Certainly individuals differ in their basic motivational drive. Today virtually all people practitioner and scholars have their own definition of motivation one or more of the following words are included desires wants, wishes, aims, goals, needs, drives, motives and incentives. Technically the term motivation can be traced to the lain word mover which means to to move. DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION 1. According to Berelson and Steiner, A motive is an inner state that energies, activates or moves and directs channels behaviour goals 2. According to Lillis, It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon ones will and promoting or driving it to action. 3. According to Encyclopedia of Management, Motivation refers to degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces, including the degree of readiness 4. According to Likert, It is the core of management which shows that every human being gives him a sense of worth in face to face groups which are most important to him. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and a recognition of their personal worth 5. According to Dubin, Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation 6. According to Vance, Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions ones will that the individual is properly lead into action

NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a psychological phenomena which generates within an individual. A person feels the lack of certain needs to satisfy to satisfy which he feels working the need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. From definition given earlier the following inferences can be derived. 1. Motivation is an inner feeling which energies a person to work more? 2. The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a particular work. 3. There are unsatisfied needs of a person which disturb his equilibrium 4. There are dormant energies in a person which are activated by channelising them into action. 5. A person moves to fulfil his unsatisfied by conditioning his energies. 6. Motivation is a inner psychological force which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner. 7. Motivation process is influenced by personality traits learning abilities, perception and competence of an individual. 8. Highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others. 9. Motivation originates from the needs and wants of an individual. It is a tension of lacking, something in his mind which forces him to work efficiently. 10. Motivation is also a process of stimulating and challelisng an energy of an individual for achieving set goals. 11. Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance highly motivated employee will get higher satisfaction his personality, needs, competence and other factors. 12. Motivating force and it degree may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality, needs, competence and other factors. 13. The process of motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behaviour and finding out that how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behaviour. 14. Motivation may be positive as well as negative. Positive motivation includes incentives, rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment, fear, use of force etc. 15. The process of motivation contribution to and boosts up the morale of the employee and high degree of motivation may lead to high morale.

TYPES OF MOTIVATION
When a manager wants to get more work from his subordinates then he will have to motivate them for improving their performance. They will either be offered incentive for more work, or may be in the space of rewards. Better reports, recognition etc., or he may instill fear them or use force for getting desired work. The following are the types of motivation. 1. Positive Motivation:- Positive motivation or incentive motivation is based on reward. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. The incentive may be the shape of more pay, promotion, recognition of work etc. The employee are offered the incentives and try to improve performance willingly. According to better for placement, high standard of performance information adequate for self control and the participation of the worker as a responsible citizen in the plant community. Positive motivation is achieved by the co-operation of employees and they have a feeling of happiness. 2. Negative Motivation:- Negative or fear motivation is based on force or fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. In case, they to not act accordingly then they may be punished with demotion or lay-offs. The feal acts as a push mechanism. The employees do not willingly cooperate, rather they want to avoid the punishment. Though employees work upto a level where punishment is avoided but this type of motivation causes anger and frustration. This type of motivation generally becomes a causes of industrial unrest. Inspite of the drawbacks of negative motivation, this method is commonly used to achieve desired result. There may be hardly any management which has not used negative motivation at one or the other time.

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is an important part of managing process. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organisation. It is only through motivation process. They contribute maximum for accomplishing objectives. Without motivation, they may not have an urge to maintain or improve their efficiency. Importance maintain or improve their efficiency. Importance of motivation in management be judged on the basis of the following factors. 1. Effective use of Resources:- In business, all physical resources are got to be used through human force effective and efficient and efficient use these resources depends on the ability and readiness of work force. Thus team of highly motivated employees greatly help in making optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. 2. Higher Efficiency:- Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency highly motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. They produce more as compared to other employees. 3. Accomplishment of Organisational Goals:- As stated earlier, the process of motivation helps in shaping the working behaviour of the employees and making. It desirable for achieving objectives highly motivated employees would make goal directed efforts. They are more committed and cooperative for seeking organisational goals. 4. Reduce Labour Turnover and Absenteeism:- Highly motivated employees are the most important and variable assets of the organisation. They are more loyal and sincere, therefore, they remain punctual and regular in their work schedule and prefer to stay on-the-job for longer period of time. These factors helps in reducing absenteeism and labour turnover. 5. Healthy Industrial Relations:- Motivation is considered as a background good industrial relation effectively motivated employees get more satisfaction and carry high morale which makes them more disciplined. In such a situation, the possibilities of industrial disputes and unrest is reduced to minimum and industrial relations gets improved. 6. Improved Corporate Image:- Motivation also helps in improving an image of organisation, if employees are motivated. They produce more they maintain self-discipline and productive internal environment in the organisation ultimately gives better impression to the outsiders dealing with an organisation and it is image is enhanced. 7. High Performance:- Motivated employees will put maximum efforts for achieving organisational goals. The untapped reservoirs, physical and mental abilities are tapped to the maximum. Better performance will also result in higher productivity. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity is raised. The employees should be offered more incentives for increasing their performance motivation will act as a stimulant for improving the performance of employees. 8. Acceptability to Change:- The changing social and industrial situation will require changes and improvements in the working of enterprises. There will be a need to introduce new and better methods of work from time to time generally, employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment. When the employees are given various

opportunities of development then they can easily adopt to new situations. They will think of positive side of new change and will cooperate with the management. If the employees are satisfied with their work and are not offered better avenues then they will oppose everything suggested by the management. Motivation will ensure the acceptability of new changes by the employees.

Objectives of the Study

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Motivation is an important part of management's function of 'leading'. Though this medium a spirit of dedication is created among the people working in enterprise. In brief following are the objectives of motivation : To build a fire in the employees to do more work. To satisfy the economic, social and psychological needs of the employees so that they could be motivated. To develop the harmonize human relations in the enterprise. To enhance the morale and job satisfaction of employees. To increases the efficiency and team effectiveness of employees. To get the co-operation and team spirit among employees. To establish healthy relationship between labour and management. To get maximum utilization of human resources. To achieve the operated objectives of enterprise. To make organizational changer acceptable. To reduce employee turnover and absenteeism. To create a good image of organization.

PROCESS OF MOTIVATION
The process of motivation means an attempt to know from where it starts and where does it end. The work of motivation is not completed at one go but it is a combination of many steps. Koontz and ODonnell have shown the process of motivation as Need want satisfaction chain in the following way:

Needs

Give rise to

Wants

Which cause

Tensions

Which give rise to

Actions

Which result in

Satisfaction

'NEED WANT SATISFACTION' CHAIN


First of all a man feels the need of something meaning thereby that a desire is born in his mind. When a need become powerful it gets changed into a want. It means that he starts feeling that it should be fulfilled or satisfied. When such thoughts come to his mind, tension takes place. It means that the very thought of it makes him tense. The only way to get rid of this tension is to do some work. Hence, the situation of action is created. When a men acts to remove the tension created by his need which has turned itself into a want, he achieves his objective. In other words he feels satisfaction. Employees are made to realise their needs through motivation and a feeling to achieve them is born in their mind. The managers make available all the facilities for work performance and, finally, the employees achieve their objective by satisfying their needs. After one need is satisfied, the other is born and this chain continues. It must be made clear that the objective of motivation is not only to satisfy the needs of the employees but to achieve successfully the objectives of the organisation. TECHNIQUES OF INCREASE MOTIVATION Financial Motivation Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries because profit sharing leave with pay, medical reimbursements company paid insurance any of the other thing that may be given to employees for performance be give to employees for performance. The economists and most managers consider money and financial incentives as important motivators behavioural scientist, on the other hand tend to place them low. Neither view is probably right. Money is the most important to people who are young and are raising their families then to those who have aligned at a stage when money needs are

less. Money needs go on changing from time to time. He may like to have a comfortable house later on. For some persons money remains to be motivator and for others it may never be. Non-Financial Motivators These motivators are in the nature of better status, recognition, participation, job security etc. some of these motivators are discussed here:1. Recognition:Every person wants his work to be recognised by his superiors. When he knows that his performance is known to his boss then he will try to improve it more and more. The recognition may be in the form of a word of praise, a latter of appreciation entry in annual confidential report etc. 2. Participation:participation has be considered a good technique for motivation. It implies physical and mental involvements of people in decision making process. They feel important when asked to made suggestions in their field of activity. There is no doubt that the most of the people know the problem they will face and their possible solutions. 3. Status:It refers to a social status of a person and it satisfies egoistic needs. A management may create some status symbol in the organisation. This can be done by way of giving various facilities to the persons. These may be superior furniture carpets on the flood, attachments of peons, personal assistance etc. 4. Competition:In some organisations competition is used as a motivator various persons are given certain objectives and everybody tries to achieve them head of others. They may be praises, apperception letters, financial incentives to those who reach the goals first. The competitions encourage person to improve their performance. 5. Job Enrichment:Job enrichment has been recognised an important motivator by various resources. The job made more important and challenging for the workers, may be given wide latitude in deciding about their work methods. The employee will also perform the management functions of planning and control so far as the work is concerned.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
No organisation can succeed without highly motivated and committed team of employees. It is only through thermal other physical resources, like land, building, capital and machine etc. There are some theories by which we can motivate the employees very well. Maslow Hierarchy of need theory This theory has received more attention from the manager than any other theory. Abraham Maslow an eminent us psychologist has classified human need in a logical convenient way that has one important implication for managers. In this theory he has a pointed out and explained that how needs influence human behaviour. Maslow viewed human motivation as a hierarchy of five need ranging from basic physiological needs to the highest need for self actualisation. On of the most popular reffered to theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) in 1943. Maslow classified human need as under 1. Physical need 2. Safety and security need 3. Social needs 4. Ego needs 5. Self realization need As each these becomes substantially satisfied, the next becomes dominant. In term of diagram the individual moves up the step of the hierarchy. From the stand point of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So it you want to motivate someone, according to Maslow you need to what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying the needs at or above that level. According to Maslow mans needs, having a sequence of domination are arranged in a hierarchical level of importance, as the diagram illustrated below shows:-

Maslows Need Hierarchy Diagram (5) Self expression or Self realization needs Needs for self-assertion excertise Creative expression, achievement etc.

(4) Ego or self-esteem needs Needs for self-esteem and esteem from others, feelings of achievement recognisation appreciation, status, etc.

(3) Social Needs Needs for sociability, informal contacts. Friendly greeting and conversation, sense of belonging, recognition, etc.

(2) Safety and security Needs for security from bodily harm, steady employment and provision for old age, insurance against risk, etc.
(1) Physical needs Needs for feed, water, air, clothing, shelter, etc.

Maslow need hierarchy is widely accepted today in management theory and practice, because it seems to make sense and is easy to understand. This theory of motivation is based on two important assumptions: 1. Each persons needs depend on what he already has only need not yet satisfied can influence behaviour. A satisfied need cannot influence behaviour. 2. Needs are arranged in a hierarchy of important. One of needs is satisfied another emerges and demands satisfaction. He placed all the need in a frame work he called that the hierarchy of needs. This is presented in the figure. Maslow stated that is all of a persons needs are unsatisfied a particular time. The most basic needs will be more pressing than the others. Needs at a lower level must be satisfied before higher level need come into play and only when they are sufficiently satisfied do the next in line become significant. Let us briefly examine each need level. The unsatisfied needs are displayed on the left of figure. Some areas that managers can influence for each of the five needs categories are presented in figure. Manager can have a significant impact in helping employees satisfy needs in each of Maslow categories. At the lowest level are place physical needs, the next higher level is that of safety and security, the next higher level is that of social needs, then ego or self esteem needs appear at the 4 th higher level, then come self-expression self-realisation needs at the top of the hierarchy of needs. 1. Physical Needs Physical needs relate to physiological maintenance of the body. These are basic or primary needs present in all people and must be satisfied to sustain life. The elementary and essential physiological need include food to satisfy hunger, water to quench thirst, oxygen to breathe. 2. Safety and Security Needs For many people, this is a difficult need to satisfy. People who live in earthquake or hurricane zones, or in politically explosive area, can never satisfy their needs for safety & security. Safety needs include protection from physical harm, ill health, economic discusses and the unexpected. From a managerial standpoint, safety needs manifest themselves in attempts to ensure job security and to move towards greater financial support. 3. Social Needs Social needs are related to the social nature of people and to their need for companionship. This level in the hierarchy is a point of departure from the physical or quasi-physical needs of the two previous levels. Non satisfaction in their level of needs may affect the mental health of the individual. 4. Ego or Self-esteem Needs In the hierarchy of needs level when the lower level needs the physical needs the safety and security needs and the social needs have been reasonably satisfied, the ego or self-esteem needs, being of the greatest significance both to the management and the man himself, make their appearance.

Ego or Self-esteem needs of two kinds. 1. Need concerning ones self esteem and esteem from others needs for self-confidence, for independence, for achievement, for initiative, concerned with prestige and respect and individual imparting feeling of worthiness and. 2. Need concerning ones reputation needs for status, needs for recognition, for appreciation, for esteem of others. 5. Self-experience on of Self-realisation Needs Self- expression or self-realisation needs the highest level of needs in the hierarchy of need is the need for fulfillment and self-realisation. These needs is the need influence the behaviour of the individual at all times but they tend to dominate only after all above need physical needs, the safety and security needs, the social needs an the ego or self- esteem have been relationship well satisfied. The two factor theory of motivation Frederick Herzberg advanced a theory of motivation based on a study of need satisfaction and on the reported motivational effects of those satisfactions on 200 engineers and accountants. Herzberg asked the subject of his study to think of times when they felt especially good and especially bad about their jobs. each subject was then asked to describe the conditions that caused those feelings. Based on this research, herzberg reaches the following two conditions. 1. Although employees are dissatisfied by the absence of some; of condition the presence of those conditions does not cause strong motivation. Herzberg called such conditions maintenance factor since they are necessary to maintain minimum level of need satisfaction. The conduct 10 maintenance factors namely. 1. Company policy an administration. 2. Technical supervision. 3. Interpersonal relating with supervisor. 4. Interpersonal relation with peers. 5. Interpersonal relation with subordinates. 6. Salary 7. Job security 8. Personal life 9. Work condition 10. Status 2. Sonic job factors, which Herzberg calls motivators cause high levels of motivation and job satisfaction when present. However the absence of these factors does not prove highly dissatisfying Herzberg described six of these motivational factors. a) Achievement b) Recognition c) Advancement d) The work itself e) The possibility of personal growth f) Responsibility Prior to Herzberg research, manager viewed job satisfaction and dissatisfaction at opposite ends of the same continuum, Herzbergs research

findings introduced the notion of two continuums, if employees are not satisfied they indicate no satisfaction, and not dissatisfaction. Form of the categorized responses, Herzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs were signifiantly different from the replies give when they felt bad. As seen in diagram certain characteristics tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction.

THEORY X AND THEORY Y


Douglas Mc Gregor puposed two distinct views of human beings on basically negative, labeled theory X and the other basically positive, labeled theory Y. after viewing the way in which manager dealt with employees Mcgregor conducted that a managers view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or the tends to mold his or her behaviour to ward employees according to these assumptions. Under theory X the four assumption held by manager are:1. Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible will attempt to avoid it. 2. Since employee dislike work they must be corced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. 3. Employees will avoid responsibility and seek formal direction whenever possible. In contrast to these negative views about the nature of beings Mcgregor listed four positive assumption that he called theory of Y. 1. Employee can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. People will exercise self direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. 3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. Theory Y assumes that higher order needs dominate individuals. Mcgregor himself held to the belief that theory Y assumption were more valid than theory X. Therefore he purposed such ideas as participative decision making responsible and challenging jobs and god group relations as approaches that would maximize an employees job motivation.

ALDERFERS FRG THEORY


Clayton Alderfer reformulated Maslows need hierarchy theory. The ERG need theory developed by Alderfer, condenses the five needs given by Maslows into three needs. 1. Existence Needs:The existence needs combine the physiological needs and safety need of Maslows need. These needs include the basic survival of human beings. 2. Relatedness Needs:Relatedness needs, include Maslows social and esteem needs, which are derieved from other people. These include relationship with other people we care about. 3. Growth Needs:These needs are similar to Maslows self-actualidation need. This need involves person making creative efforts to achieve full potential in the existing environments. 1. 2. Maslows need hierarchy follow a might step like progression. The ERG theory on the other hand assumes, that the existence need must be satisfied at the same time. The ERG theory also improves the Maslows theory on the ground that a person does not stay at a certain level untill that need is satisfied. Maslow was of the opinion that a person will move to next level if the need of the previous level are satisfied.

Vrooms Expectancy Theory Victor vroom made an important contribution to the understanding of the concept of motivation and the decision processes that people use to determine how much effort they will expend on their jobs. criticising Herzberg two factors theory he said that a persons motivation towards an action at any time would led to a specific outcome and his personal preference for the outcome. Motivation = Valence expectancy instrumentality 1. Valence:Valence means the attraction (or-repulsion) of an outcome to the individual whenever on individual has preference for a reward valence is the strength of that preference. 2. Expectancy:Expectancy is also reffered to as the effort performance probabilty. It refers to the extent to which the person believes has efforts will lead to the first level of outcome. 3. Instrumentality:Instrumentality refers to the probabilities attacked by the individual to each possible performance outcome alternative just as the individual previously assigned probabilities to various level of effort leading to different level of performance.

First level out come

Instrumentally Secondary level outcomes

Expectancy Outcome 1a Outcome 1 Outcome 2 b Outcome 1 c Motivational force Outcome 2a Outcome 2 Outcome 2 b Outcome 1 c Porter and Lawler Model of Motivation Porter and lawerlers modelis a more complete model of motivation. This model has been practically applied also in their study of managers. This is a multivariate model which explains the relationship that exists between job attitudes and job performance. This model s based on four basic assumption about human behaviour:(i) As mentioned above it is multivariate model. According to this model individual behaviour is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and in the environment. (ii) Individual are assumed to be rational human beings. (iii) Individual have different needs desires and goals.

Value of Reward

Ability & Traits

Perceived equitable rewards

Intrinsic reward
Efforts

Performance accomplishment

Role Perception
Perceived effort reward probability

Extrinsic reward

Satisfaction

1) 2)

Effort:Efforts refers to the amount of energy which person exerts on a job

Value of Reward:First of all people try to figure out whether reward that are likely be received from doing a job will be attractive to them. 3) Perceived effort reward probability:In addition before people put for the any effort they will also try to assets the probability of a certain level of effort leading to desired level of performance. 4) Reward:Performance leads to certain outcomes the shape of two types of reward extrinsic & & intrinsic reward. 5) Satisfaction:Satisfaction will result from both extrinsic and intrinsic reward.

Reinforcement Theory Focus is attention as to what control behaviour. In contrast goal setting which is cognitive approach is initiated by internal events. Reinforcement theory argues that behaviour is reinforced and controlled by external events. The

famous experiments of Pavlov to teach dogs to salivate in response to ringing a bell in a case point of reinforcement theory. What Pavlov did is classical conditioning Based on this Harward Psychologis B.F. skinner did for operant conditioning. Operant condition is voluntary rather than reflective. Operant is active where as classical is passive skinner argued that by rewarding or pleasing a type of behaviour the chances are move that similar behaviour is repeated. Reward must be immediate to get desired response alternatively.

ESSENTIALS OF A SUCCESSFUL MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEM OR PRINCIPLES OF MOTIVATION


According to Koontz and O' Donnell a successful system of motivation must have the following four essential qualities: 1) Productive : The first essential of a successful motivational system is to implement such a system as to increase the efficiency of the subordinates. By following such a system they become more productive. 2) Competitive: The motivational system should create a spirit of competition among the employees so that everybody tries to put in his best effort for the attainment of pre-determined objectives. For example, while determining the time and quality of an particular work if it is announced that the persons achieving this target will be rewarded, all the employees will work with a competitive spirit to get the prize. As a result of this their efficiency will increate. 3) Comprehensive : A system of motivation will be considered if it has the quality of being comprehensive comprehensiveness can be considerate in tow ways. Firstly, a system will be called comprehensive which is applicable equally to all the employees, and secondary a system which satisfies all the top and low hierarchy needs of the employer. 4) Flexible: The system of motivation should be flexible so that it can be changed easily in times of need without any opposition system. Apart from the above there are many other important facts affect the success of motivation system. They are the following: 1) Easy implementation: Motivated system should have the quality of easy implementation 2) Regular motivation: Motivation system provide regular motivation to the employees. It should not be a system which provides motivation for a short span of time but should motivates the employees for a long time. 3) Based on organizational goals:- Motivational system should be directly linked with the goals of the enterprise. In other words, the system should be designed to achieve easily the pre-determined objectives of the enterprise. 4) Based on standards:- Standards signify the work expected of the subordinates so that the reward can be determined by comparing the standard work with the actual work performance. Therefore, the motivation system should be based on standard. 5) Related to efforts: The motivational system should be directly related to the efforts put in by the employees or their efficiency. In other words the system should be so formulated as to appreciate every effort put in by the employee. 6) Justifiable:- The motivational system should be justifiable. It means that there should be equal motivational for equal achievement. The above analysis make it clear that a man that a manager should pay special attention to take facts while choosing a success put motivation system.

PROBLEMS OR HURDLES IN MOTIVATION


Motivation is the outcome of a certain relation between the superiors and the subordinates. For this the superiors or the managers make special efforts different from the daily control or functions. It is not necessary that the efforts made by the managers will be unanimously acceptable. It can also be opposed. In this way there are many hurdles in implementing a motivational system. 1) A Costly efforts: A major aim of implementing a motivational system is to raise the efficiency of the employees. If the labour put in its implementation becomes successful, it is not at all costly. It is however, often seen that even after making all efforts the expected level of efficiency is not attained. In such a situation it proves to be a costly process. 2) Trouble making employees: In every enterprise there are some troublesome employees. Their only purpose is to create trouble and not to allow the policies to be implemented. The problems of such employees are altogether different and serious. It is a tough job to motivate them. Therefore, these people can be a hindrance in the implementation of any motivational plan. 3) Motivation is an internal feeling: Generally, it is understood that motivation is an inner feeling of man. This feeling cannot be had by giving some order or be inspired by implementing any plan. So long as the employee does not have an urge to work from within all efforts come to naught. For example, those people who have the inner urge to work, they do not need any motivation. On the other, hand, those who lack this urge cannot be motivated by any number of efforts. 4) Opposition to changes: Human nature does not accept changes easily. People get accustomed to the system in vogue and want to work with that system. Therefore, whenever some new plan is implemented they oppose it and become a hindrance in its success. In this way there are many opposing factors which make efforts to make motivational system unsuccessful. But a successful manager faces these hurdles dauntlessly and achieves his objective.

SOME FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING MOTIVATION 1. No doubt motivation, when triggered, will do its job of stimulating an individual nicely but unless the individual possesses. The required ability or capability to put in harder work for improved performance. Therefore, for improved performance, both aspects stimulation and capability for harder work, probably are necessary. The problem of motivation involves impelling forces which arouse and mobilse the activities of the individual and channelise them toward those direction, which help him accomplish his goals. When an individual is motivated, he possesses latent energy or drive which is potentially available for an efficient effort. Individuals hierarchical needs focus on how far the motivation works, as different people aspire for different reward from their jobs. There is a very close interrelationship between an appropriate behaviour and rewards, more particularly the value of the reward itself. Motivation work best, if these reward are suggestive of their scheduled timings, that quantum and their frequency. For motivation, to have its desired effect, it is necessary that reward system should be based on equity and fair justice as people are often motivated by comparison with their fellow workers. It is of vital importance that fair and equitable reward are a must in the right application of motivation. Goals or objectives are important motivator. If these objectives, as predetermine, are precisely defined in clear terms, they help increasing effort on the job.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

Review of Literature

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
INTRODUCTION For any piece of research a review of related studies in the field of investigation is of great help to investigator. That is why review of related studies is a part of the research report. Emplacing the importance of survey of related literature Barr and scales (1941) have pointed out. Survey of related literature helps us to share whether evidence already available solves problems adequately without further investigation and thus save duplication. Such a review would help the investigator to put her finger on the gaps left by the earlier researchers. The review would also help to give support to the findings of the present study ,With this mind the investigator planned to review the literature and research findings in the area of Saving behaviour. In the next few pages our attempt has been made in that direction. Goyal J.C. (1980) conducted a study of the relationship among attitudes Saving behaviour, adjustment and profession interests of teacher educators in India. The objectives of this study were, to measure the attitudes, Saving behaviour, adjustment and professional interest of the teacher educators of different categories based on sex, age, qualification and experience and to find out the relationship among attitude, Saving behaviour of teacher educators by training their attitudes, adjustment and professional interest as independent variables. The findings of the study were that a large majority of the teacher educators were favorable inclined towards their profession and were satisfied in the job and the attitude and Saving behaviour of different groups did not differ significantly and Saving behaviour could be predicted by attitude and occupational adjustment by not other variable. Cachur Thomas John (1980) conducted a study on the relationship between the Saving behaviour of secondary School subordinate administrators and their perceptions on the bases of power of their principals, leadership style based on expert, referent and legitimate power, more satisfied they will be with their job and also more productive. Gupta S.P (1980) conducted a study of Saving behaviour at three levels of teaching, the main objectives of the study were to measure the Saving behaviour of primary School teachers, secondary School teacher and to compare the Saving behaviour of married teachers will that of unmarried teachers. To compare the Saving behaviour of teachers of different age groups of Primary School Teachers and Secondary School Teachers. The findings of this study were that primary School teachers were significantly less satisfied than Secondary School Teachers. Nwaobasi Jouathan Okezie (1981): On the basis of his study. Relationship between administrative Management system, selected demographic variables and level of Saving behaviour. An analysis of principal teacher perception concluded that the more participative the system, the more likely the level of Saving behaviour would be. Rao S.N. (1981) conducted a psychological study of work adjustment and teaching success of Primary School Teachers. This study aimed at investigation of the relationship of job. Satisfaction to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Guagulwong Thawin (1981) conducted a study leadership style, maturity levels and Saving behaviour in elementary School and the result indicated a general lack of support for the basic hypothesis and situational leadership theory. The principal leadership behaviour does not contribute to and is not influenced by the maturity levels of school teachers according to this investigation also neither the skills, motivation and experience of the teachers nor the behaviour characteristics of the principles seem to have an impact upon the teachers Saving behaviour. Becker (1981) In his study concluded that individual difference in development test anxiety is usual because children become aware of academic demands in early childhood when they first had a School sitting. They compare their performance with that of their personal and by this social comparisons develop a since of personal competence or inferiority with in certain range of situation. It perceived academic demands that exceed the childs level of coping competence. Bover John Elwond (1982) In this study Leadership and motivation a study of the relationship between leadership styles and the perceived need satisfaction of administrative subordinates found that the most effective leadership style for promoting subordinate motivation is not which is high in the dimension of consideration and high in the dimension of initiating structure. Mathur, D (1982) A study of Rorschach Diagnostic indicates of intelligence, Anxiety self image and level of aspiration. The major findings of the study were, the means score, analysis of both frequency scores and proportion score indicated a generally normal pattern of distribution for the Rorschach indicators used. This suggested overall validity for discrete indicators in. Terms of usage in the very few statistically significant correlations. In the frequency scores of Rorschach indicators the significant correlation with TAT ratings were even lower out of the total correlation matrix of 320 only 14 correlations were statistically significant correlation. Sharma J.N Adolescence Interests (1982) As determined by personality factors, Anxiety and sex. In his study findings were: Personality factor affected by interests of adolescents. Anxiety effected by interests independent of sex. Sex showed anxiety independence. Persuasive interest was promoted by intelligence in High anxiety girls. By super-ego in girls and by tension in boys. Scientific interest was promoted by age strength in boys. Literacy interest was promoted by intelligence in low anxiety adolescent. Artistic interest was promoted by ego. Superego in anxiety girls. Anxiety promoted persuasive interest in boys who were submissive and shrewder. It promoted musical interest in emotionally dry girls. Anxiety promoted scientific interest in self adequate boys as well as in dominant society bold or forth right girls. Anxiety promoted literary interest in girls. Mandeep Kaur (1983) Studied on Saving behaviour among the teachers working on single teacher schools. Major findings were teacher working in single teachers School are satisfied with their jobs. But the female teacher was significantly more satisfied than male teachers. Winter Lindo Lee (1983) In the investigation Analysis of bureaucratic structure and teacher Saving behaviour,it was found that there exists a relationship between bureaucratic structure and teacher Saving behaviour. A small negative correlation between bureaucratic structure and Saving behaviour has found this study.

Paul (1983) Studied the relationship between perceived leadership style, size of school and non-instructional time on teachers Saving behaviour. He found a significant relationship between teachers Saving behaviour and perceived leadership style. Further the investigation concludes that teachers Saving behaviour was Higher when a principal exhibits a collaborative leadership style. Bhutan and Gray (1983) In their study explored the relationship of Anxiety and academic achievement of Xth class students. A random sample of 200 Xth class students was taken from Chandigarh. The study revealed that there is High negative correlation between anxiety and academic achievement. Singh S.K (1983) In his study major findings were :1. The correlation of conformity with anxiety as well as neuroticism was also found to be significant. 2. low medium and High conformity groups revealed a no of monotonic trends in case of need achievement, dominance and anxiety but the trend was weak. 3. Anxiety along or its interaction with the type of situation was not found to be a significant contributor to variance in conformity. Gyanoni T.C (1984) Stuffy of frustration Reactions are functions of achievement motivation and anxiety at different age levels found. Most of the subjects of the parents population were not very aggressive or passive frustrating situation. The students with a High level of anxiety were found to be more intropunitive and obstacle dominant, whereas the low level anxiety boys were more impunities and need persistent. Anand S.P (1984) Conducted a study on the level on Saving behaviour of teachers teaching government aided Higher Secondary School of Delhi. The major findings of the study were that in general, women teachers enjoy a Higher level of Saving behaviour than men. Porwal N.K (1984) conducted a study of personality correlates of job-satisfied Higher secondary School teachers. The objective of his study were, to identify the personality traits of satisfied and dissatisfied teachers and to examine the impact of variables like age, sex, length of service, scale of pay, location of working place and extent of employment of their Saving behaviour. The finding of his study were that personality characteristic of satisfied teacher were reserved cool, shy, trust-worthy, controlled emotions, unrestricted. The personality characteristics of dissatisfied teachers were warm hearted, easy going stubborn, socially bold, careless and frustrated and sex produced difference in the level of Saving behaviour than unmarried teachers were more satisfied than married teachers and Saving behaviour did not vary with different scales of pay. Purandara V.M (1984) Anxiety and straggles in serial verbal learning the major findings were the low anxious subjects were better in performance in the serial verbal learning task as compared to High anxious subject. Barinder M.A (1985) A study of general anxiety test anxiety with reference to the environmental factors and extraversion. Introversion Delhi students. The major findings of the study were sex was significantly related to anxiety more general anxiety as well as text anxiety. than the boy. There was a positive relationship between general anxiety and test anxiety. Social economic status did not play any role in the care of boys, neither on their general anxiety of very High socio-economic status girls and High socio economic status in case of girls.

Mistry T.C (1986) Suggests Need achievement Saving behaviour, job involvement as a functions of role stress, focus of control and participation in academic climate. A study of college and secondary School teachers. The major findings were no significant relationship were observed between focus of control and various dimensions of Saving behaviour. The climate of academic motivation was found to be significantly associated with such dimension as Saving behaviour, involvement as well as overall satisfaction. The climate of control was found to be negatively correlated with in the job aspects of Saving behaviour and with total Saving behaviour. Archer and Gage (1987) Studied Wellness in the process and state of quest for maximum human functioning that involves the body mind and spirit. Gurdish Kaur (1989) Found positive correlation between Saving behaviour and attitude of teachers of government High Schools. Darshan Kaur (1996) conducted A study of teaching competency of mathematics teachers in relation to their Saving behaviour.She found that the non-government mathematics teacher are more satisfied than government School mathematics teacher and positive correlation between the variables that is teaching competency and Saving behaviour.

Industry Profile

INDUSTRY PROFILE
After establishing two machine tools factories and a watch factory in Bangalore, the Pinjore unit was established as the third machine tool factory. It went into production on 1st October 1963. The factory has been designed, built and commissioned entirely by Indian talent in a record period of 17 months of breaking the ground on the may 2, 1962. The main points we will discuss in this chapter are: The profile of HMT Ltd. Corporate vision, mission and objectives Various units of HMT HMT at a glance Awards over the years HMT UNIT PINJORE Location Machine & Tractor Division Product profile (Tractor) Historical Growth Organization Structure Human Resource Position Technological Aspects SWOT Analysis

Company Profile

COMPANY PROFILE
In 1949, the idea of the major public sector tool proved to be a corner stone for the countrys industrial development plans. This lead to the birth of HMT at Bangalore in 1953, by the technical collaboration with OBSERVIKONBUHRLE holding and machine tools works, Switzerland. The constantly growing demand for machine tools promoted the company to conceive a planned approach to diversification and expansion, which resulted in setting up new units spread all over India. The six machine tool factories of HMT together with horological machinery division now produce a very wide range of machine tools. The product mix for each factor has been evolved to produce specific families of machine tool. Wristwatches were taken u for production as first stop towards diversification in the early 1960s. HMT precision manufacturing capabilities led the company to watch manufacturing. Over the years HMT has also diversified into manufacturing of other engineering products like Tractors, Printing machines, Presses, Die-casting and Plastic screws & Electronic gauging. HMT machine tool expertise has been developed to such an extent that it can design any kind of machine. Pioneering the concept of CNC technology in India, MHT has the distinct of being the first company to successfully manufacture its own CNC systems, in association with Semens. HMTs commitment to the development of the machines technology is clearly reflected from the fact that HMT has as many as eleven ISO 9000 certified exclusive tools units spread across the country. In 1975, HMTs International Ltd. was set up to handle the international marketing of HMTs own products and technical services. HMT Ltd. is a public sector undertaking with its head office at Bangalore and having units and subsidiaries in various corners of India. HMT is organized in the under mentioned business group of which Machine Tools (MTP) AND Tractor Business Group (TRP) are located at PINJORE. CORPORATE VISION, MISSION & OBJECTIVES CORPORATE VISION To be leading GLOBAL ENGINEERING CONGLOMERATE. Focused on CUSTOMER DELIGHT in our fields of endeavour. CORPORATE MISSION To establish ourselves as one of the worlds premier companies in the engineering field having strong international competitiveness. To achieve market leadership in India through ensuring customer satisfaction by supplying internationally competitive products and services. To achieve sustained growth in the earning of the group on the behalf of shareholders. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES & GOALS To encourage the modernization of Indian industry through the supply of engineering goods and services of world class excellence. To maintain technological leadership through continuous efforts to update product technology and manufacturing methods.

To globalize our operations by developing a mix of international markets and business. To ensure a satisfactory return on capital employed, to meet the growth needs and the aspirations of our stakeholders. To present an active, pleasant and productive working environment. To improve and sustain the quality of the work life for employees through enhancement of human skills and working moral. To become highly innovative and responsive to meet the challenges of changing environment. Location/state Banglore (Karnataka) Baglore (Karnataka) Pinjore (Haryana) Kalamessery (Kerala) Hydrabad (Andhra Preadesh) Ajmer (Rajasthan) Banglore (Karnataka) Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) Tamkar (Karnataka) Ranibagh Year 1953 1971 1963 1971 1965 1972 1967 1972 1973 1962 1975 1972 1982

VARIOUS UNITS & DIVISIONS OF HMT Units Product/division I. Machine Tools II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Die casting ball screws Machine Tools & Tractors Machine Tools Printing Machings Machine Tools Presses Machine Tools Wrist Watches Hierological Machines Wrist Watches Wrist Watches Wrist Watches

AWARDS OVER THE YEARS YEAR 1982-83 1984-85 1984-85 DESCRIPTION NPC AWARD FOR PRODUCTIVITY TO MACHINE TOOLS AWARD FOR LONGEST ACCIDENT FREE PERIOD BY NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL TO TRACTOR AND MACHINE TOOLS AWARD FOR HIGHEST REDUTION IN ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATE BY HARYANA LABOUR DEPARTMENT TO TRACTOR AND MACHINE TOOLS FIE FOUNDATION / PMT TRUST AWARD TO MACHINE TOOLS AWARD FOR BEST CANTEEN ARRANGEMENT BY HARYANA LABOUR DEPARMENT TO TRACTOR AND MACHINE TOOLS RUNNERS UP NATIONAL SAFETY AWARD OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA / MINISTRY OF LABOUR TO TRACTOR AND MACHINE TOOLS CII AWARD FOR EXCELLENCE IN PRODUCTIVITY TO TRACTORS RUNNERS UP NATION AL SAFETY AWARD OGF GOVERNMENRT OF INDIA / MINISTRY OF LOBOUR TO TRACTOR AND MACHINE TOOLS INDIRA GANDHI MEMORIAL AWARD OF AP PUBLIC ENTERPRISES EMPOYEE FEDERATION TO TRACTORS SECOND BEST AWARD FROM NPC TO TRACTOR SECOND BEST AWARD FROM NPC TO TRACTOR BEST PRODUCTIVITY AWARD FROM NPC TO TRACTOR BEST PRODUCTIVITY AWARD FROM NPC TO TRACTOR SECOND BEST AWARD FROM NPC TO MACHINE TOOLS FIE / PMT CMTI TRUST AWARD IN IMTEX-95 FOR HMC-320 HM/C TO MACHINE TOOLS HARYANA STATE AWARD FOR PROMOTION OF SMALL SCALE AND ANCILLARIES TO TRACTOR FIE AWARD IN IMTEX-98 FOR HM/C TO MACHINE TOOLS ISO 9001 CERTIFICATION FROM KEMA, HOLLAND TO MACHINE TOOLS

1985-86 1985-86 1986-87 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1997-98 2000-01

HMT LIMITED PINJORE


October 23rd 1963 was a great day not only to those who have the proud privilege of belonging to HMT, but to the entire nation. India took another step forward on the road to industrialization when prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru declared open the 3rd unit of HMT factory at Pinjore situated 22kms away from Chandigarh on the national highway linking Shimla & Delhi. The factory is spread over an area of approx. 900 acres, generously gifted by the govt. of Punjab. This factory was designed, built and commissioned by Indian talent without any foreign collaboration in record period of 17 months. At a capital investment of Rs. 75 lacs (including a township) and formally inaugurated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the prime minister of India. Later in 1971, HMT Tractor project commenced here. A further investment of about Rs. 6096 has since been made for the Tractor project. As on 31-03-2005, 750 persons were employed in the machine tool division and 2250 in the Tractor Business Group. LOCATION Located at the foothills of the Himalayas at Pinjore in the north Indianstate of Haryana is HMTs state of the art of manufacturing facility. Pinjore was chosen as the ideal plant site as it is centrally located and well connected by both rail and road. Situated close to the legendary Grand Trunk Road, it is 250kms from New Delhi and only 20kms from Chandigarh, the symb India. Apart from easily accessible, Pinjore is in the hub of highly mechanized market and is in close proximity to the thriving ancillary industry in North India. PRODUCT RANGE At present, HMT has on its production line, for six models in the range of 25 H.P, 35 H.P, 45 H.P, 59 H.P, and 75 H.P ranges. Out of these, the 35 H.P, and 45 H.P models were developed by HMTs own efforts. HMT also manufacturing and marketing Industrial Product, engines (stationery engines) of different configurations. Like the product of the Machine Tools Division, the product of the Tractor Division has been well received. Though HMT was virtually the last one to enter the tractor industry, it enjoys sizeable market share and is the manufacture of the widest range of tractors in spite of competition from old and established manufacturers. HMT tractor have also received over whelming response in the international market, it has received and executed export orders from U.S.A, AUSTRALIA, SRILANKA, NEPAL, ZAMBIA, MAURITIUS, SLOVANIA, CROATIA, GHANA etc.

MANPOWER POSITION AS ON 31.03.2010 DESIGNATION GRADE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR PS-X GENERAL MANAGER PS-IX JOINT GENERAL MANAGER PS-VIII DY.GENERAL MANAGER PS-VII ASSTT. GENERAL MANAGER PS-VI MANAGER PS-V DY. MANAGER PS-IV FOREMAN PS-III SUPERVISOR PS-II TOTAL WORKMAN (TOTAL) WG-I to WS-I GTOTAL

STRENGTH 1 3 16 21 33 76 55 73 57 335 1561 1896

SWOT ANALYSIS OF HMT LTD.


STRENGTHS Strong brand equity Highly skilled professionally qualified workforce Well-established manufacturing base Extensive marketing network Strong technological base Unit accredited with ISO 9000 certificate WEAKNESS HMT Ltd. is facing the problem of financial inflow and because of this they are not able to meet the industrial demand in time. In production dept. some machines are too old. There is no machine replacement policy. It is not able to meet its competitors in the market. OPPURTUNITIES HMT has become a generous name of tractors. So the company has great opportunities in this market, if supply is made as according to the demand and prices are made reasonable. HMT wants to manufacture jeeps also. So in that field HMT has vast opportunities. THREATS Its competitors are availing opportunities, which the company is not availing, which attract the customers towards other competitors.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT
Financial document is one of the most functional areas in HMT, Pinjore. Under the leadership of able and qualified staff, finance department work in hard with other department with the sole aim of achieving corporate goals. A systematic procedure has been charted out which coordinates with the heads of various departments. HMT is registered under the companies act 1956 and prope5r accounts are maintained. Finance department has done so by delegating such responsibilities to the various functional sections. The complete activity of finance department is divided into two sections: Wages/salaries & expenses section Main Accounts WAGES/SALARIES & EXPENCES SECTION It deals with the determination of the monthly wages and salaries of employees, fringe benefits or retirement, provident fund deduction, incentives bonus etc. all the rewards which employee get for rendering their service to the companies. History sheet for each employee is the basis to compute the payment above because it contain the wage rate which are multiplied with the no. of working days to arrive at monthly wages & salaries. The wages and salaries and salaries of different employee are different on the base of rank and grade of employees. The salary slip of an employee includes many things like: Name of employee Ticket no. Section no. Basic pay Dearness allowances Traveling allowance Provident fund washing allowance Sundry allowance Holiday allowance Medical allowance TRAVELLING ALLOWANCE There are many ways to calculate: Traveling allowance Medical allowance To calculate traveling allowance there are certain eligibility like Fare of land, train and air. Journey incidental; it includes meal of person Daily allowance Local convince allowance Other 1. Ticket cancellation 2. Telephone charges 3. Ticket reservation.

The traveling allowance is calculated differently for different person on the basis of grade of the employee.

MEDICAL ALLOWANCE Medical allowance is kind of extra amount, which is paid to the employee on the behalf of employer on the medical facilities, availed by the employees and his family members. This is a limit the medical allowances is that it should not exceed basis +D.A. of the employee. MAIN ACCOUNTS SECTION In main account section general manager (finance) head of this department. This section is divided among various sub sections:OUTWARD BILLING SECTION (OBS) This section mainly deals with accounts relating to sales. This of tractors is made through respective dealer. HMT international ltd. Bangalore makes export sale. OBS receives the demand of tractors from the dealers through marketing divisions; OBS maintains sales journal, sundry debtors journal, credit notes, warrantee credit notes and sales tax assessment statement & excise records. Working of outward billing section (OBS) in detail:To deal with the sale, a selling document is there in which: Quotations: - are sent to the department by OBS. Intimating description, quantity and cost of the product. Purchase Order: - is the document, which indicates the quantity, date of delivery and place of delivery. Order Acceptance: - This order is sent to OBS by sale department on behalf of customer. In this, the acceptance by the customer after examining the machine is placed Invoice: - is prepared by OBS in which the information regarding customer, dispatch order etc. is mentioned. At last after preparing invoice the accounting procedure start. Under this procedure, the diff. Formalities regarding sale of machinery or other material which has undergone. The company has pay sale tax (VAT), cess and freight charges etc. the company also incurs sometimes packing and forwarding charges. 2. INWARD BILLING SECTION (IBS) It deals with the purchase of the raw material and components, tool stores and spare from outsides. For purchase, requirement comes through line stores department, procurement requisition is verified by stores department & after that order is placed. When the material comes in, the inspection department inspects it. Involves are verified with purchase order then cheque payment voucher is raised .IBS maintains purchase journal, s.credit ledger and advance journal, M.I. slip register. WORKING OF INWARD BILLING SECTION (IBS) IN DETAIL:To deal with the purchase of material, certain steps are to be followed by the HMT ltd. Pinjore, which is as follow: Purchase order: for the purchase of any material firstly the company demand purchase order.

3.

Preparation of purchase order: next step is that the purchase department with the help of IBS prepares the purchase order and the copy of purchase order remains with inward billing section. Delivery schedule: after preparing the purchase order the schedule for the delivery of machineries is decided and prepared. The schedule contains the detail about the goods and the place where goods are demanded. Suppliers: Suppliers are the main component without which the purchase of goods is not possible. The company has some permanent supplier; these are those suppliers from whom the company regularly purchases the material. It is very essential that a company should have good relation is not healthy then it may be possible that the supplier will not supply goods in time and this will create problem for the company. Stores department: After making the purchase the material is kept in the stores department. Stores is a place where goods are kept with safety and released when use. MI Slip: The MI slip stands for Material Inspection Slip. The stores department in which it is mentioned that the goods slip and quantity as demanded by the company. When the stores department checks goods, bill is prepared by IBS after deducting all the taxes. Vouchers: are also prepared with different heads in which the due amount is mentioned.

COSTING SECTION As tractor is covered out by accounting record rules hence costing section was set up in 1971 & cost audit is done regularly since 1993-94, which was earlier done in alternative ups. Inventory is classified as raw material, stores, tools and tractor spares. Valuation is done on the basis of weighted average cost. Costing department is very helpful in planning, decision-making & control of inventory of inventory by giving timely information through management information system. The main purpose of the costing department is to estimate cost of the product. In HMT Ltd. Pinjore costing department estimate cost with the help of planning department. The cost of the product is estimated on the basis of prices, requirement of customer and the prices charged by the competitor. The company is able to receive the information by the marketing representatives of HMT Ltd. Pinjore spread all over the country. PROCEDURE: The costing department has to follow certain procedures to calculate the cost of the material. The procedure followed by the department is as follow: Step 1-Quantity required 1. By own company 2. By other company Step 2-Estimation of cost on the bases of: 1. Standard hours 2. Material cost and Labour cost Step 3-Selling and Administration cost Step 4-Freeight and Packing cost

4.

EXPENSES SECTION The various sections are sub-section of the main accounts section. It deals with the expenses like white wash, damage of factory building, repair & maintenance. TIME OFFICE Time office is also under accounts department. According to its name it keeps the time record of employees working in the organization. This department maintains the daily attendance report, which is signed by the HOD concern. Salaries of the employees are prepared after seeing the daily attendance register of the employee. There are 25 punching machines in the factory; these machines keep the time record of all the employees. When the employees come and go back they punch their card into the machine & the machine tells the actual working hours of the employees. After that the staff of the time office makes the entries into the attendance register of the employees. One clock keeps the record of 200 persons. Time office sends the discrepancy report to all the departments.

Research Methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
MEANING OF RESEARCH The term research refers to one systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem formulation hypothesis either in the form of solution towards the concern had problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation. Research is the art of scientific investigation. The advanced learners' dictionary of current English laid down on meaning of Research as a careful investigation or on enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Some people consider research is a movement turn the unknown to known. According to Clifford "Research" comprises solution, connecting, organizing and evaluation, data making deduction and reaching conclusion and atleast carefully testing due conclusion to determined whether they lot the formulating hypothesis. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Motivation is one of the most crucial factors that determine that efficiency and effectiveness of an organization. Higher motivation leads to job satisfaction of workers. Opportunities for need satisfaction make employees loyal and committed to the organization. As a result labour absenteeism and turnover are low. High motivation helps to reduce resistance to change. The supervisor complains that the employees are not working efficiently and effectively and also there is lack of regular dedication & hardwork among employees. Moreover employees focus on their own individual goals rather than organization goals. On the other hand, employees too have grievances, which may be either against the organization. They complain that the working condition are not proper, wages are inadequate, they are not provided proper medical and training facilities etc. all these lead to dissatisfaction, discouragement and frustration among the employees. Workers motivation is related with many other aspect of behavioral science. If a organization motivates their employees by giving them fringe benefits facilities good working conditions, proper medical & training facilities then there will be never dissatisfaction, discouragement & frustration among the employees. Motivational schemes create integration of individual interests with organizational objectives. There arises a sense of belonging and mutual cooperation at all levels.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The study is conducted in order to analyse the workers attitude toward the workers motivation in HMT Ltd., Pinjore (Haryana) of the objectives is al follows: To study the level of workers motivation in Organization. To know the crucial importance of workers motivation in organization. To know the role-played by workers motivation in the achievement of organization goals. To study the relationship between workers & management. To study the attitude of the workers towards their job, organization & its goals. To know the adequacy of various facilities provides by the organization. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS In the research the scientific methods are used for collection of data, organizing it, presenting it and analyzing it. The tools used in the collection of data is questionnaires. Questionnaires are like a form consisting of several question. Question in the questionnaires are very simple and are in the such a way that the respondents can easily understand and can easily answer them. DATA USED Here in the study both types of data used primary as well as secondary. (i) Primary Data: Data collected by the investigator for his own purpose, for the first time, from the beginning to the end is called primary data it is collected from the sources of origin the primary data is collected with the help questionnaire. Personal interviews and direct communication with respondents. (ii) Secondary Data: It is the data, which has collected by organization for some purpose or research study. This data involved reports, manuals and other information provided by the personnel department of the organization. Under study in addition to the book, magazines, journals etc are used.

RESEARCH DESIGN Collection of Data This is a case study limited to only one organization. The main objective of the study was to discover the level of workers motivation. Data has been collected mainly from primary sources i.e. with the help of structured questionnaires & also by first interesting. Organizing Of Data The data collected during data collection process was organized to present in a proper require to make it easy for understanding. The data their obtained was edited classified and finally put in a proper form to make it understandable.

Presentation of Data After the data has been properly classified and organized, it was now ready for presentation through tables, graphs, charts etc. the main objective was to put collected data in an easy readable form. Analysis of Data After the proper organizing and presentation of data the research then was proceeded towards conclusions by the logical interpretation: By bringing the raw data to measure data. Summarizing the data Applying analytical method to manipulate the data and that their interrelationship, so that quantitative measurements become evident. Interpretation of Data Interpretation means to bring all the meaning of data or to convert more data into information. From the analysis of data the various conclusions are drawn based on logic. Scope of Study The scope of this study is restricted to only one organization i.e. HMT Ltd., Pinjore (Haryana) As one person can not study more than one industrial unit at a time, therefore I preferred to select one organisaton, under study so that I can complete my research satisfactory and get the respective results. There ware many workers in the organization. Shortage of time I could only interact with 40 workers. Sincere effort have been made to cover all the aspects of motivation.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The size of the organization is very large. Contact with all workers impossible. This study only relates to one organization, so conclusion drawn may not be finding its utility in all the industries. Difficulty was faced in getting the responses to various questions because workers could not devote enough time to me. Another limitations of the study is that the size of the sample very small due to the shortage of time & resources. On various counts, the information biasness cannot be rated out. Language problem is the another limitation to interact with working. Beyond the above limitations, every efforts has been made to make the study up to data to the best possible extent.

Data Analysis & Interpretation

TABLE 4.1 KNOWLEDGE OF MOTIVATIONAL PROCESS Do you know about motivational Respondents process? Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.1 shows that all of the respondents are knows about motivational process. So, we can conclude that maximum respondents are aware of motivational process.

KNOWLEDGE OF MOTIVATIONAL PROCESS

No 0%

Yes No

Yes 100%

TABLE 4.2 WHAT MOTIVATES What Motivates You? Number 6 12 6 6 30 Basic needs Security needs Social needs All of above Total Source: Sample Survey Table 4.2 shows that 20 percent of the respondents are motivated by basic needs, 40 percent of the respondents are motivated by security needs, 20 percent of the respondents are motivated by social needs and 20 percent of the respondents are motivated by all types of need. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents are motivated by all types of need.
WHAT MOTIVATES
40 40 Percentage of Respondents 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Basic needs Security needs Social needs All of above 20 20 20

Respondents Percentage 20 40 20 20 100

TABLE 4.9 BETTER MOTIVATOR What is better motivator for you ? Respondents Number Percentage Financial incentives 23 77 Non Financial incentives 5 16 Both 2 7 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.9 shows that 77 percent of the respondents are motivated by financial incentives, 16 percent of the respondents are motivated by non-financial incentives and 7 percent of the respondents are motivated by both types of incentives. So, we conclude that maximum of the respondents are motivated by financial incentives.
BETTER MOTIVATOR
90 Percentage of Respondents 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Financial incentives Non Financial incentives Both 16 7 77

TABLE 4.4 TRAINING PROVIDER Who provides the training to the Respondents workers? Number Percentage Supervisor 24 80 Head of Deptt. 6 20 Employees Total 40 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.4 reveal that 80 percent of the respondents are of the view that training is provided by supervisor, 20 percent of the respondents are of the view that training is provided by head of the department. So, we can conclude that supervisor gives training to the employees.

TRAINING PROVIDER
90 Percentage of Respondents 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Supervisor Head of Dept. 20 80

0 Employees

TABLE 4.5 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Is your performance evaluated? Respondents Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No Don't know Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.5 shows that all of the respondents are favour that their performance is evaluated. So, we can conclude that most of the respondents are favour that their performance evaluated.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

No 0%

Don't know 0% Yes No Don't know Yes 100%

TABLE 4.6 MOTIVATION BY OFFICER Are you motivated by officer? Respondents Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.6 shows that all of the respondents are motivated by officer. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents are motivated by officer.

MOTIVATION BY OFFICER

No 0%

Yes No

Yes 100%

TABLE 4.7 RELATION WITH OFFICER What type of relation you have Respondents with your officers? Number Percentage Direct 6 20 Indirect 24 80 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.7 shows that 20 percent of the respondents have direct relation with officers and 80 percent of the respondents have indirect relations with officers. So, we can conclude that respondents have direct as well as indirect relations with officer.

RELATION WITH OFFICER


80 Percentage of Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Direct Indirect 20 Direct Indirect 80

TABLE 4.8 FEELING WHILE WORKING IN ORGANIZATION What type of feeling you have by Respondents working in organization ? Number Percentage Satisfactory 30 100 Un-satisfactory Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.8 shows that all of the respondents are satisfied while working in organization. Se, we conclude that maximum of the respondents are satisfied by working in organization

FEELING WHILE WORKING IN ORGANIZATION


100

100 Percentage of Respondents 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Satisfactory Un-satisfactory

0 Satisfactory Un-satisfactory

TABLE 4.9 RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN MANAGEMENT Do you have the right to participate in Respondents management ? Number Percentage Yes 18 60 No 12 40 Total 40 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.9 shows that 60 percent of the respondents have right to participate in management and 40 percent of the respondents have no right to participate in management. So, we can conclude that maximum of the respondents have right to participate in management.

RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN MANAGEMENT


60

60 Percentage of Respondents 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes

40 Yes No

No

TABLE 4.10 FOLLOW ALL THE STEPS IN MOTIVATIONS INSTALLATION Is your organization follow all the steps in Respondents motivations installation ? Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.10 shows that all of the respondents are in the favour of follow all the steps in motivations installation. So, we can conclude that most of the respondents are in the favour follow all the steps in motivations installation.

FOLLOW ALL THE STEPS IN MOTIVATIONS INSTALLATION


120 Percentage of Respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes 0 No Series1 100

TABLE 4.11 WORKING CONDITION IN ORGANISATION Are you satisfied with the working condition Respondents in the organisation? Number Percentage Completely 18 60 Moderate ----Partially 12 40 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.11 shows that 60 percent of the respondents are in completely satisfied with working condition and 40 percent of the respondents are partially satisfied with working condition. So, we can conclude that most of the respondents are completely satisfied with working condition.

WORKING CONDITION IN ORGANISATION


60 Percentage of Respondents 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Completely Moderate Partially 40 60

TABLE 4.12 OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS YOUR VIEW Do you the opportunity to express your view Respondents in organization? Number Percentage Yes 26 85 No 4 15 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.12 shows that 85 percent of the respondents get the opportunity to express their view and 15 percent of respondents not get the opportunity to express their views. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents get the opportunity to express their views.

OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS YOUR VIEW

No 15%

Yes No

Yes 85%

TABLE 4.13 MEMBER OF RECOGNIZE UNION Are you member of recognize union? Respondents Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No ----Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.23 shows that all of the respondents are member of recognize union. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents are member of recognize union.

MEMBER OF RECOGNIZE UNION


120 Percentage of Respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes 0 No Yes No 100

TABLE 4.14 SATISFACTION ABOUT ORGANIZATION Are you satisfied with your organization Respondents management? Number Percentage Completely 18 60 Partially 9 30 Moderate 3 10 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.14 shows that 60 percent of the respondents are completely satisfied, 30 recent of the respondents are satisfied and 10 percent of the respondent are moderate satisfied with organization management. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents completely satisfied with organization management.
SATISFACTION ABOUT ORGANIZATION
60 Percentage of Respondents 50 40 30 30 20 10 10 0 Completely Partially Moderate 60

TABLE 4.15 GETTING BONUS PROPERLY Do you Bonus properly? Respondents Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No ----Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.15 shows that all of the respondents are getting bonus properly. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents are getting bonus properly.

GETTING BONUS PROPERLY


120 Percentage of Respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes 0 No Yes No 100

TABLE 4.16 FRINGE BENEFITS Do you get any fringe benefits? Respondents Number Percentage Yes 30 100 No ----Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.16 shows that all of the respondents are getting fringe benefits. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents are getting fringe benefits.
FRINGE BENEFITS
100 100 Percentage of Respondents 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 0 Yes No

TABLE 4.17 FRINGE BENEFITS YOU GET Which of these fringe benefits you Respondents get? Number Percentage Medical facility ---Transport facility ----Housing family ----Water facility ----Canteen facility ----All of above 30 100 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.17 shows that all of the respondents are getting all kind of fringe benefits provided by organization. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents getting all types of fringe benefits provided by organization.

FRINGE BENEFITS YOU SET


120 Percentage of Respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Medical facility 0 Transport facility 0 Housing family 0 Water facility 0 Canteen facility All of above 100

TABLE 4.18 RELATION WITH WORKERS UNION & MANAGEMENT How are the relations with worker union Respondents & management? Number Percentage Fine 22 73.34 Average 2 6.66 Bed 6 20 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.18 shows that 73.33 percent of the respondents have fine relation and 6.66 percent of the respondents have average relations with worker union & management. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents have fine relations with worker union & management.

RELATION WITH WORKERS UNION & MANAGEMENT


80 Percentage of Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fine Average Bed 6.66 20 73.34

TABLE 4.19 BEST MOTIVATOR According to you which are is the Respondents best motivator? Number Percentage In cash 25 84 In kind 5 16 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.19 shows that 84 percent of the respondents are consider in cash motivator and 16 percent of the respondents are consider in kind as best motivator. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents prefer cash as best motivator.

BEST MOTIVATOR

In kind 16%

In cash In kind

In cash 84%

TABLE 4.20 HOLIDAY PROVIDED IN YEAR Holiday provided to you in a year? Respondents Number Percentage 01--10 ----10--20 ----20--30 ----30--40 30 100 Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.20 shows that all of the respondents are getting 30-40 holy day in a year. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents are getting 30-40 holiday in a year.
HOLIDAY PROVIDED IN YEAR
100 Percentage of Respondents 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 01--10 0 0 10--20 0 20--30 30--40 100

TABLE 4.21 METHOD OF MOTIVATION Which method of motivation motivates Respondents you more? Number Percentage + ve method 30 100 - ve method ----Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.21 shows that all of the respondents are motivated by +ve motivation. So, we can conclude that all of the respondents are method by +ve motivation.

METHOD OF MOTIVATION
100 Percentage of Respondents 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 .+v method .-v method 0 100

TABLE 4.22 SATISFACTION WITH WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION Are you satisfied with wage & salary Respondents administration ? Number Percentage Completely 21 70 Partially 3 10 Moderate 6 20 None of those ----Total 30 100 Source: Sample Survey Table 4.22 shows that 50percent of the respondent are completely satisfied, 35percent of the respondents re partially satisfied and 15percent of the respondent are moderate satisfied with wage & salary administration. So, we can conclude that majority of the respondents are partially satisfied with wage & salary administration.

SATISFACTION WITH WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION


80 Percentage of Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Completely Partially Moderate 10 0 None of those 20 70

Discussion & Findings

DISCUSSION & FINDINGS


Majority of the respondents has knowledge about motivational process. All types of needs motivate the respondents most. Financial Incentives are better motivator for most of the respondents. Most of the respondents rewarded for achieving target. All of the respondents are rewarded for better performance. Supervisor provides training to the most of the respondents. Performance of the respondents is evaluated in the organization. Majority of the respondents are motivated by the officers. Both direct and indirect relations employees has with officer. Maximum respondents are satisfied while working organization. Maximum respondents have the right to participate in the management. Most of the respondents are satisfied with working condition, participation in decision making, superior co-operation, interpersonal relationship. Majority of the respondents are completely satisfied with the working conditions of the organization. Most of the respondents get the opportunity of express their views in the organization. All of the respondents are members of recognize union. Majority of the respondents are satisfied with management of the organization. All of the respondents getting bonus properly. All of the respondents getting all types of fringe benefits provided by the organization. Most of the respondents have fine relations with workers' union & management. Majority of the respondents prefer cash as best motivator. All of the respondents are getting above 30 holidays in a year. All of the respondents are motivated by the positive motivation. Most of the respondents are completely satisfied with wage & salary administration.

Conclusion & Recommendation

CONCLUSION
As in todays scenario Employee motivation is one of the most important function of any organization, so the scope of Employee motivation is must be necessary for growth of organization. HMT which is the top most manufacturing industry also believes that tacit knowledge of Employee motivation actually make a big difference which ultimately help to achieve the targets according to vision, mission, goals and objectives. So HMT has a very strong human resource prospective as compare to any other prospective of the company and they believe that personal growth and development of their manpower is important to be competitive by retaining competitive workforce with reference to HMT. So to develop an efficient workforce it has been taking up various kinds of training programs & motivational technique every year, which is bringing lot of positive differences with in the workforce like in their behavior, skills, working habits, efficiency, life style, up gradation of knowledge, etc And these will continue in near future also so as to remain at TOP.

RECOMMENDATION
As far as type of motivation is concerned mainly positive motivation is to be used and negative motivation only be used as lot be sort. There should be a good and of sound interpersonal relation in the organization as it motivates the employees. There should be industrial democracy in the organization. Wage and Salary Administration should be proper and reviewed periodically, as it is main motivating force. There should be sense of responsibility among employees towards their duties. Resources of the organization must be utilized properly and effectively.

Bibliography

REFERENCES
During the making of this project various books were consulted: S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Books Principle and Practices of Management Human Resource Management Management Concept and Organisation Behaviour Business Management Authors L.M. Prasad V.S. P. Rao N.K. Sahni Dr. R.K Singla

"QUESTIONNAIRE"
Q.1 Q.2 Do you know about motivational process? a) a) c) e) Q.3 a) b) a) Q.4 a) c) Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 a) a) a) a) a) Yes Basic needs Social needs b) b) d) No Security needs All of the above What motivates you?

Any other (please specify) ___________________________ Financial incentives Non-Financial incentives Both Supervisor Employees Yes Yes Direct Satisfactory Yes b) b) b) b) No No Indirect b) No Unsatisfactory c) Don't know b) Head of Deptt.

What is better motivator for you?

Who provides the training to the workers?

Is your performance evaluated? Are you motivated by the officers? What type of relation you have with your officers? What types of feeling you have by working in the organisation? Do you have the right to participate in management?

Q.10 Is your organization follow all the steps in motivations installation? a) Yes b) No Q.11 Are you satisfied with the working condition in this organisation? a) a) a) a) Completely Partially Yes Yes b) b) No No b) Moderate

Q.12 Do you get the opportunity to express your view in the organisation? Q.13 Are you member of any recognize union?

Q.14 Are you satisfied with your organisation management? a) a) a) a) a) c) e) Q.18 a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) Completely Moderate Yes Yes Medical facility Housing facility Canteen facility Fine Bad In cash 01 - 10 20 - 30 Negative method Completely Moderate b) b) d) b) b) e) In kind 10 - 20 30 - 40 Positive method Partially None of those b) b) b) d) f) b) No No Transportation facility Water facility All of the above Average b) Partially

Q.15 Do you get bonus properly? Q.16 Do you get any fringe benefit? Q.17 If yes, then which of these fringe benefit you get?

How are relation with worker union & Management?

Q.19 According to you which one is the best motivator? Q.20 Holidays provided to you in a year?

Q.21 Which method of motivation motivate you more? Q.22 Are you satisfied with wage & salary administration?