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decoration.gt. p. trunk. the shield may be as simple as the plain parrying stick of the Australians. S. i. which begins the classic series of Lane Fox. Native K.. Shields worked Internal. structure. Cornelius Tacitus doth pleasantly quip and jest at the men of war of our ancient Gaules. 197. and the surviving Mexican shields. The circular shield characterizes the Western Hemisphere. with this idea in view. Zelia Nuttall is authority. rounded on the lower side. n. &amp. is the first defensive weapon both in point of time and of While the shield on first thought may seem merely intended as a covering for the vulnerable points of the body. titiiu. nearly all hide. and distribution. . the development of the shield becomes clear. National Museum. U. and body armor. conveys the idea that the Iroquois had shields of different shapes. 1892. National I. sometimes. The Mexican area is perhaps an exception. II. Thus. The shield usefulness. MONTAIGNE.t Lafitau &quot. pt. the parrying stick is a natural and adequate defense. Vol. n. Some shields were of an ordinary size. MuMira deH Sauvugc8 AiU ri&amp. ervAIf one bears in mind that defensive weapons are the concomitants of offensive weapons. though the Codices almost invariably depict the round shield. p. 34-53.&amp.&quot. 1 . legs. SHIELD. It would seem that the broad shield is the countergrowth of the bow. for the defense of the head.eiden. The North American shield is convex and from 12 to 26 inches in diameter. Department ARMOR Ph. Therefore. 1724. fur Ethnologie. Zelia. These defensive weapons may be classed as parrying armor... so armed. Of The Parthian Armes. Vol. . Archiv. &quot. mythology.|iiui)s. Paris. Vol. on Aucieiit Mexican Shields. of Ethnology. on which Mrs.! As ^ to material. only to maintaine themselves.lt. mate rial. its impor tance is far greater in parrying. v.. are circular. as they that have no means either to be offended or to raise them selves being overthrowne. The subject will be treated under form.* The Nahua shield was sometimes rounded and sometimes oval. S. function. where missile weapons are used. In the U. and arms. that of the buffalo *Nuttall. or the shield. others were intended to cover the entire body and were constructed so that Avhen not in use they could be folded up and carried under the arin. Where missiles are given greater velocity with the throwing strap. 407. the shield must cover the body better. Museum there are many examples of primitive American armor.lt. D.it.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN By WALTER HOUGH. .-u-rs of the acilic. the throwing stick. or the bow. II. . 1 and American shields are made of thick -raw elk being most available. pp.

7. S.VW1 U.S. No. Bancroft.Another kind of shield was made of small laths closely interwoven with cords. N&amp. &quot. Bancroft. when not required for use. Gift jf the Trocadero used as shields. it could be shut up like a fan. S. Bancroft. Vol. p. 75881. now in pn-ss. 8401. or -of thick rawhide.. U. Two bent wood t t || Hariot. grass. fl Flat disk of light wood. H. and of of round shields blo tribes &quot. eter. 33 inches. 407. resemldingtents. N. Maranon) Peru. Wooden shield.&quot. &quot.&amp.628 REPORT OP NATIONAL MUSEUM. like those of the Dyaks are found. No. Decorated with triangular figures in red and yellow. U. as the Malay spec silver.&quot.. 893. hides. Heeds. Diam Indians of the Upper Amazon (Rio (Cat. F. out from a single piece of wood.Vol. IJCushing. cit.. 579. thicker in the center. N. op.. Paris). M. cit. Among the Oeris and Chicoratos of New Mexico. 1).&quot. Peru.lt. WOODEN Cat. Thomas. p. f In Tobasco and along the coast. n. forming a step. c/*.). on the Rio Maraiioii in South America (fig. article sheets in IH-\V edition. loc.gt. op. I.* The Virginia Indians used targets made of barcks.. &quot.&quot. handles wrapped with bark are sprung into holes in the rear of the shield. and was carried under the arm. Virginia. tortoise shells inlaid with gold. H. Museum.N. Pans.curried heavily basketry. or copper were commonly imen from Singapore. in such a manner that. p. PneMos. 24. closely || netted cotton. Gift of the Trocadero Museum. in Johnson s Cyclopedia. from advanced .M. which may be connected with the rod armor of the Athapascans and the similar cane shields of the Nahuas of Mexico. &quot. M.t The Navajoes made a shield of cedar rods twined together with cord (Cat. symbolically * painted. SHIELD. H. or nequen-cloth coated with The Pue India rubber served to protect an Aztec common soldier.

when the dance ceases and the fire is put out. with little pegs through holes made near the edges over the of the skin. and almost ball. the skin it is is most dexterously kept tight whilst contracts to one-half of its size. as the case may be. S. N. Sioux shield made of the skin of the buffalo s neck. Creel.f PR1MJ#IVE AMERICAN ARMOR. 129671. M. tect him from Jiari^i. ABAPAHOE SHIELD. him and as large in diameter as he designs to make his shield. The ingenious and process of contracting was fire hide the by hardening common. th0&quot. is at first twice as large as the size of the required shield but having got his particular and best friends (who are invited on this occasion) into a ring . inside of those in the ground. and over it. a few inches higher than the ground. The skin. an owl. or other animal. It is then fringed with eagles quills or other ornaments he .~skiu is pegs. which done. Collected by H. U.. the figure of an eagle. No. In this he builds a fire. in their estimation.smoking the shield&quot. proof). M. shield is For this to con purpose a young struct for man about a shield digs a hole of 2 feet in depth in the ground. a buffalo. same of the joints cess of &quot. is a very curious as well as important one. taking up the glue and increasing in thickness until it is rendered as thick and hard as required (and his friends to have pleaded long enough make it arrow. Dakoti. and sing about it and solicit the Great Spirit to instill into it the power to protect him harmless against his enemies. as they are gradually giving away and being pulled up by the contrac tion of the skin. hardened with the hoofs and glue extracted from The pro animal. When iH is cooled and cut into the shape that he desires.OF THE . it is often painted with his medicine or totem upon it. which he trusts will guard and pro Fig Cat. ) 629 given in detail by The construction of the North American George Qatlin. and a second busily drives other and other it the glue which as is in. he spreads over to dance rubbed and dried heated. 2.. be stretches the rawhide horizontally driven fire. By this curious process.

a curl of cow s tail. and black. U. M. plain in front with four perforations through which the thong forming the handle is passed.) Plate I. Made of rawhide with cover of muslin symbolically painted in green. A third painted cover for this shield has been discovered. there remains a thong for suspension. held at the rate ceremonial of the shield. The background above is yellow and below green. Kept. of shield with covers. + 1892. which is to protect the inner cover and the feathers whitened with pipeclay. American Anthropologist.* The shield was invariably held on the left arm. xi. were found in a cave with war clubs on Superstition Mountain in Arizona. and a circle in red outlined with green. i. Two eagle claws are fastened at opposite sides. Texas. Wooden handles. an owl. V. yellow. Collected by H. S. U. shield with 2 covers.) It is the custom of most tribes to put one or more covers of dressed buckskin over the shield.. p. U. 2d An. Pis. Nuttall has treated on this aspect of the Mexican shield. 1848. 1. The inner cover is of buckskin.) The decoration of the North fruitful sources for the religious beliefs American shield forms one of the most and practices of the Indians. S. George. 2. believed to have belonged to Phna Indian shields. ante. back view of same. S. Mr. Catlin. H. chosen and slung with a broad leather strap that crosses his breast. x. No. lojmches. U. Joe. The decoration was inspired by a revelation through a dream. McElderry. with a band of flannel bordered with eagle feathers and having a woven band hang outer ing down. Vol. p. 17^ inches. The protection of the shield has largely become fetichistic and in many cases the survival of this ancient means of defense has been brought about by its cult relations. by Dr. No. gaudily decorated. which are almost invariably fought from their horses backs. The covers are gashed around the edge and supplied with a gathering string for securing the cover tightly over the shield. 2. follow among the Crows the terrible initiation ceremony and among all tribes following an ordeal. N. 241. No.. 8/uWd. 8443. and from it depends a flannel band with rows of large eagle feathers having horsehair cemented to their ends. for their protection in battles. Bu. DESCRIPTION OF FIGURE 2 AND PLATE I. (Cat. See the paper by Mr. Diameter of shield proper. 7C028. and two tufts of shredded cloth with a bit of brass chain. Palmer. the covers being decorated. Cushing on Manual Concepts. Diameter 18 inches (Cat. upper figure to the right). 7th ed. Dakota. The warrior fraternities of the Moki and Zufii tribes have an elabo In the Moki ceremony.! (See. The are also painted and cover. (figure to left. Collected by Dr. Creel. The complete shield is shown in the upper figure to the left. and edged (figure to right). M. Ethnol. Arapahoe Indians.630 may have REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. the sun and moon. Fig. The thongs for holding have disappeared. S. viz. ing || * t Loud. Cushing. To the triangular handle are attached long cow tails. A. an eagle feather. The shield proper is of hardened buffalo hide of con vex form. 129871. See Zuiii Fetiches. ciL. M. Fort Griffin. 40. 1893. (Cat. A bunch of eagle feathers is fastened at the upper edge. The figures are on the yellow portion and represents two dragon flies. North American Indians.i and fig.. || Mrs. (lower figure). pl. Four charms are attached to it. p.) Comanche Indians. N. M. red. James Mooney is preparing a paper upon this branch of the subject. 290. E. .t usually by a simple thong of buckskin attached to the interior.. N. These shields are carried by all the warriors in these regions. p.

8443. S. M. 1893. . -Hough PLATE 1 . Cat. No. RAWHIDE SHIELD WITH COVERS.Report of National Museum. U. N.

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the sun is represented by a The shields shield. Pimas. there made of very thick skin. BODY ARMOR./^. u.. p. 1761.* Lafitau and the earlier mission aries. Apaches. 631 . Eskimo and Oiukchis. however. hoofs and horns. / II. that the use of body and shield armor was widespread in America. Several have been handed djown from father to son for a period of sixty.gt. The form assumes that of a sleeveless jacket. If tLatitau. Sioux. of the shield shows &quot. Journal of a Voyage to North America. by Dr. and skins of animals. de. and attack and defense is graphically dramatized. or wide band going around the trunk. 338. t Some South American tribes who use body armor are said to be unacquainted with the shield. Vol.. i. while the evidence in North s America of the migration of inventions awakens no less interest. 197. There is strong presumption. etc. are The distribution also personal fetiches. p. These shields are from the tribes of the western portion of the con tinent and include the Crows.five years. - of North America was intended to protect the organs and to allow free movement of the limbs&amp. Navajoes.&quot. loc. Charlevoix. viz: Plate armor. cit.%at most of the tribes possessed the shield. Mokis. perforated and lashed. of the sun warrior fraternities are decorated with the totems of the individual societies. hung to shields. F. * Charlevoix. X. writing of the Iroquois. Kiowas. suspended from the shoulders. observes that while the western tribes use bucklers of buffalo hide. winter solstice by the warrior societies. Thus we find that at the period of the disuse of armor by the aborig ines there were six types of body armor found on the North Amer ican Continent and contiguous regions. J. Utes. some collected as early as 1830. Zuuis. . There are probably fifty American shields in the National Museum. liows of overlapping plates.. u it is pretty surprising that other Indian nations never use them. 4 The various feathers. Likewise the Eskimo seem to be desti tute of this weapon. Lond. Comanches. coat. as historical notices show. The selection of defensive vital The aboriginal armor materials and their adaptation to defensive covering for the body form an interesting study in native invention. They had them of all sizes and all sorts of figures.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. description of this ceremony will soon be pub A lished Walter Fewkes. however. credit the Iroquoian people with the shield in the following words: are some Their shields were of ozier or bark covered with one or many pcanx passees. and a majority appear to American have had no other weapon of defense. etc.

Siberia. according to his is historical. These plates are slightly imbri Fig. one containing 10 plates. Gape Prince of Wales. (Cat. The lower row contains 43 plates. protecting the breast. Fragment consisting of 9 iron plates similar to those on Japanese armor. Bands of skin arranged in telescoping fashion. while the third In the interior of the continent. Lawrence Island. The National Museum possesses a number* of examples of EskimoChukchis plate armor from Cape Prince of Wales. plate armor. protecting the upper part of the back.) (2) Asiatic- side. 44 inches. Klainaths. torical notices. and Cape Wankarem. Coluni bia River tribes. so as to ward off more effectually the weapons of the enemy. Shastas^ Iroquois. Isthmians. Pawnees. Three well-defined areas. U.N. extending from Sitka through northern California to Mexico. (3) inhabited by Algonkian and Iroquoian tribes. etc. There is. Virginia Indians. 153491. Sitkans. SJtin armor. Wooden slats twined together. The most perfect specimens are from Cape Prince of Wales and Dioinede Island. Wooden rods twined together. Iroquois.) Eastern area. BERING STRAIT AREA. This armor very closely resembles that of Japan. Rod armor. or rod. . and the middle 38.M. and skin armor. Made of three rows of walrus-ivory plates. plate armor. averaging 1 inch in width and 6 inches in length. 1893. No.) The area first two areas are known by actual specimens. through which pass rawhide thongs. rod. will be now considered. 2 and 3. Tlingits. Fig. (Plate Western area. Chinooks.Band armor. St. viz (1) Bering Strait area. (Slat. several stocks used armor. 1. including the above-mentioned types of North American body armor. Mexicans. suffi cient testimony to show that if not universal the use of armor was at least general among the North American 1. Length when spread out. This speciimm was : . Diomede Island. Sitkans. Collected by H. cated. The uppjer consists of two sections. Chukchis. R. islands as far north as and the armor. REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. Alaska. Mohawks. etc. Haidas. Coats of hardened hide.S. Hupas. therefore. the other 8 plates. Navajoes. Eskimo row of Cape Prince of Wales. (Slat.. Alaska. . Thornton). 2. and Peruvians. extending from southeastern Canada to Virginia. the American shore of Bering Sea. and bound with three lashings of rawhide. Cotton-padded armor.632 Slat armor. and the . Shoshones. and skin and the central basin armor. Hupas.) * * DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 2. Conianches. (See pis. Each plate contains 6 holes. tribes. inhabited by the Coast Chukchis. Virginia Indians. as are also the different rows. inhabited by the Eskimo. A rawhide strap passes over the shoulders and supports the armor. Aleuts. thus lashing the plates together.

f I nhilVERS TY OF THE .Report of National Museum. Hough. PLATE 2. 1893.

which extendscontinuously over the wings. the suit The whole armor is very heavy and clumsy. Made of sea-lion skin stretched over Back. (Cat. N. . Chukchis. id. These bands are connected by heavy thongsand hang in an enlarging series. S. 256. It serves as a shield and resembles the neck fender of the Kingsmill Island armor. P. formed of 2 vertical pieces of three-eighth inch board lashed together with whalebone and covered with hide.* (pi. lioop armor. 2436. and tied through perfora tions on the edges. S. as in a thatch fastened by thongs. also hoop armor. 15. No. 4. spread out it was in shape of a band with cuts below the armpits and having suspending straps going over the shoulders. Washington. No. From an figured in pi. 4. The blade is kept very sharp and highly polished. N. DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 2437. aquarelle made by W. showing. Cruise of the Corwin.t fig. a common occurrence in all savage warfare. Herendeen. U. 5| inches wide. designed. and whipped together at the edges. armor. 31. (See pi. the hide being creased at the joints and in the crease is laid a rounded thong which is held at intervals by loops of whale bone passing through the edges of the plates. Over the joints were applied other strips of whalebone. . selected for thickest baleen was not making the armor. Eastern Siberia. Upper portion of plates of wood. (Cat. 270.M. 1. Made of seven bands of sea-lion skin. 2436 r U. The strips were arranged vertically. Collected by Commodore John Rogers. that this * When Hewitt. A more clumsy contrivance than this fen der can scarcely be imagined. 72 inches.N. after the interpretation of the artist. U. The Chukchis told my informant. Fig. 4. The plates are movable. has been much discussion. The method is shown in plate 5.N.S.) The coat was tied at the back with cords. t p. These weapons are often beautifully inlaid with brass ornamented figures. p. Width. requiring the assistance of another person. and are purchased from the Russian traders at Gazhaga. 2. 20 inches. The wings consist of 4 wooden plates on one side and 5 on the other. On the back are two whalebone tog gles for attachment to the lower portion.J Captain Hooper says: of wearing Their war spears and those used in hunting bears are made of steel. U. 36 inches height. 1) is tipper portion of this war panoply unique. E.634 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. This armor is the lower portiomof No. height. John. t- DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 5. to protect the warrior from attack in the rear. the method of wearing the armor ChuJcchis warrior and family. Collected by Commodore John Rogers. being a very large skin turned over and sewed on the upper edge. The Chukchis The of Plover strips of baleen. The free ends of the bauds overlap in front. Diameter. reaching Bay formerly wore a cuirass made of long from the neck to the middle of the thigh. Owing to the material and construction this armor was somewhat elastic. resem bling the Hnpa armor. with a handle about 6 feet long.S. 1884. shield shaped. A square breastplate of doubled hide protects the neck.M. like an inverted telescope drinking cup. Eastern Siberia. without doubt. growing shorter toward the front and terminating on the left side in a section without wooden lining. 1881. Alexander in 1797. passing through perfora tions at their edges and in the middle of the foundation strips. Chukchis. 2437. from a frame of whalebone covered with hide. Capt. The 1893. doubled Fig. Ancient armor. p. en echelon. 28 inches.

1. Back view/ .. 2.Report of National Museum. Fig. Fig. ESKIMO PLATE ARMOR. PLATE 3. 1893. Front view. Hough.

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No. 2437.CHUKCHIS Hoop ARMOR. M. Upper Lower portion. U. . 2. 2436. Cat. Fig. S. Cat. N. portion. M. 1. N. Fig. No. S. U.

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Report of National Museum. PLOVER BAY. CHUKCHIS WEARING HOOP ARMOR. PLATE 5. 1893. Hough. .

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(fig. Schrenck. Peters burg. arrows. we notice that the Colletske make use of a leather coat covered with plates of iron about 6 inches long plates having neck covers. Herendeen. As far as known the Chuk chis did not use either hel mets or shields. t p. PL XLIV. Descending the coast toward Japan. SIHERIA. L. 202 Pallas. In the perforations and arrangement this armor resembles the armor of the Eskimo. St. 1854. as that material is very scarce on the Asiatic side.56. fossil was made Driftwood is also very rare on the Siberian coast. AlW Schrenck. but has its counterpart in the cocoanut-fiber armor of the Polynesians and the plaited armor of the Malays. Drawing from Reisen und Forschungen im Amur-Lande. 3).PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. f Grieve.* They also wear an ingeniously constructed conical helmet with a neck The Giliak coat of plaited thongs. by Dr.56. 1891. 635 armor was used in going over to trade with the hostile Eskimo of St. 3. which was dangerous and compelled sleepless caution. The quest for this indispensable material must have been a strong incentive for the Asiatic migrants to cross the straits. figured in the same work. 1854. Of interest in comparison with the Eskimo Chukchis armor is that used by the Giliaks of Siberia. Hist. but. . 1891. while on the islands and American shore it is abundant. of Kamtschat. ivory plate armor by the Chukchis. does not occur in America. GILIAK HELMET AND BODY ARMOR.t The Kalmucks have coats of mail bought from their neighbors. Lawrence Island. Petersburg. Gloucester. V. Leopold V. 4) among the Chukchis. In any event. Capt. Ivory was not observed by Capt.ka.:): They use lances.. 143. Helmet and detail of armor of the Giliaks of the Amoor. 1764. St. This is Fig. Description offig. 1. p. which seems to be the origin of the plate armor ranging from that country into tbe American continent. The Kamtschadales have bows. and a coat of mail made of mats or plaited thongs. the materials for plate armor were procured by barter with Eskimo. composed of plates of iron lashed together cover. Siberia. no doubt. Heremleen also saw the band armor (pi. spears. and a pot-shaped helmet of smaller *Schrenck. 3. Reisen mid Forschungen im Amur-Lande.

width. height. Plate 9. shows the parts and method of wearing the slat armor. protects the back of the neck. A. 74343. A baud of weaving of 3 inches width is carried along the front at the top and the weaving is continued dowilward in two places. side view.M.M. the one on the right being fastened by a slash and toggle.S. Tlingit. WESTERN AREA. woven together by means of fine sinew cord so as to admit of considerable flexibility. especially the inter locking joinery at the edges.N. A. 74437. 3 of which are intact. These specimens are very old. The middle series of slats. H.* taken from Ni black after Lisiansky. show ing buckle. . slat armor (back and front). (lower right-hand figure) sketch showing the method of wearing the armor. . S.). Collected by J. The slat coat or coat of slats and rods combined is always made in two sections. which is held in the teeth to keep the visor in place (Cat. N. . . Tlingit Indians. wood woven together weaving of line sinew and other cord. Made of 32 slats of cedar and other by free bending of the thighs. Alaska. 18 inches (Cat.N. Height. 19 inches.636 KEPOKT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. Made of slats and rods of hard wood 1 to 1 inches wide. Sitka. 24 inches height. is placed iii front of the throat. and fastened on the left side by a loop and thong. (upper .) Plates 7 and S. . M. No. while the rod is in a single piece. The rods and slats are pared down to form channels for the reception of the cord weaving. 20 inches width of front portion. Tlingit Indians. . and Plates 7 and 8* show the combined rod and slat armor. 9243. . Plate 6 * shows the front and back of the slat coat. The slat armor has some resemblances to the Eskimo coat. The woodwork shows great skill. five-sixteenths inch thick. extends below the other 4 inches. Wooden helmet secured to the head by straps fastened under the chin (figure in upper left corner) wooden mask or visor. U. 8 in number. in. being connected by cords of leather on the left side and on the right side by a loop and toggle. 8 in number. 21| inches. Collected by Dr. Alaska. .S. A toggle on the left side of the collar in front was probably for suspension of the quiver. Width of rear portion. . No. while 2 on either side are united. The armor is held in place by a broad The front and back baud of elk skin over the right shoulder. J. No. forming a swallowtail and allowing the Plate riue 6. Hoft U. coat * DESCRIPTIONS OF PLATES 6-9.) Plate 9. meeting a baud crossing the bottom and forming a geometrical figure. 7 in number. S. The hardest wood procurable was selected.right-hand corner). 1893. showing holes for eyes (middle figure) body armor (lower left-hand figure) mask or visor. while the rod type runs south ward and is central among theTinne of British Columbia. A section of short slats. and a similar row. The rods on the border of the rear of armor are neatly toed The neck portions are made up of short slats and sewed on by means of a strip of rawhide 1 inches wide. 2. U. (Cat. U. and might be regarded as the working out of the plate-armor idea in a region where wood is abundant and twined weaving common. one for the front aud the other for the back. Sitka. and usually sinew cord was employed to join the slats. joined by elk-skin cords at the sides. The front and back portions are woven separately. &quot. 20 inches. tral In the western area the slat type of wooden armor seems to be cen among the Koluschans in the north.&quot. are distinct. The shoulder supports are of very thick elk hide. McLean. slat armor.

h PLATE 6. No. 2. S. 1893 _Houe. .Report of National Museum. M. 9243. Cat. Front view. Fig. Back view. Fig. N. U. TLINGIT SLAT ARMOR. 1 .

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Report of National Museum. TLINGIT SLAT AND ROD ARMOR. S. M. Front view. 74437. . Cat. Hough PLATE 7. U. No. 1893. N.

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Back view. TLINGIT SLAT AND ROD ARMOR. U. Hougn PLATE 8. Cat.Report of National Museum. 74437. S. No. 1893. M. . N.

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Hough. 1893. TLINGIT HELMETS AND SLAT ARMOR. . PLATE 9.Report of National Museunn.

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They make a breast plate of wood and an arrow-proof coat of thin flexible strips bound with * strings like a woman s stays. accommodate the instep and knee joint. Capt. and 8 rods woven together with twisted sinew cord. such as Malespina Island. . The portion not covered with weaving bears a totemic painting. I incline to believe them to beTlingit. . we have a picture of an Alaskan warrior armed cap-a-pie. not published. 105. (Cat. 372. tCook. T. which are also beveled. or armor This for the lower leg (pi. . Captain Cook noticed that They incase almost the entire body in a wooden or leathern armor. 10)4 unnoticed fact that the Nortliw^st unique piece discloses the hitherto Coast waxriors were more completely armed than had been imagined. 17^ inches width of lower edge. Length. With heavy wooden helmet. 16i inches. CapeMuzon. This greave leads to the inference that a similar protection was extended to the upper legs and the arms. There are 4 suits of this type in the Museo Arqueologico in Madrid. When curved around the leg. If one may judge by the Spanish names which have remained on the map. 1. No. 11. 15 inches width of upper edge. A kind of jacket. The weaving is diversified in the central portion by carrying the threads in pairs alternately over the rods. one piece of armor of unknown function in the National collection was found to be a greare. They wear helmets with curiously carved visors. Greave made tip of 12 slightly tapering hard wood slate t Description of Plate 10. Bancroft. In no way was this armor inferior to that employed in ancient or feudal times or at a The resemblance of the specimen in late period among the Japanese. as far as I can learn.t It seems. Tied at the front with thongs. Cordova Bay. the Malespina Expedition explored the north side of Dixon Entrance and came in contact with the Haidas as well ns the Tlingits. When the greave is curved around the calf of the leg. S. Alaska. McLean. Vol. therefore. Navy. M.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. J. Emmons. Tlingit Indians. question to the Japanese greave is striking. The holes along the upper edge are probably for attaching the greave to the armor for the upper leg. op. N. James. p. U. wood slats and 8 rods The portion not covered with weaving bears a totemic painting. They were collected by the Malespina Expedition of 1791. the slat coat and armor for the Mmbs. 74438. made of thin laths bound together with sinews which makes it quite flexible. though so close as not to admit an arrow or dart.. S. U. and others. It is made up of 12 slightly tapering hard woven together with sinew * cord. where the arts of the ethnic units can scarcely be ditterenclose study as marked out by Niblack and shown in the care tiated. may disentangle the borrowings of the stocks of this area. The exact locality is not stated and an account of Malespina s exploration was ful collections of Lieut. 637 As representative of the northwestern coast culture the Tlingits and Haidas are most prominent. During the course of this study. A G. the hollowed out portions. clt. or coat of mail. Although there is some probability of these armors being Haidan. necessary to treat the Northwest Coast as one cul ture area. Collected by J. p. Third Voyage.

The lower series containing 68 rods. the upper series.638 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. rod armor. 11. This view shows also a portion of the inner side and the projecting ends of the whalebone binding strip which has been broken. I. in speaking of the Iroquois. height. The rod type of armor of the western area is well represented by specimens in the National Museum. one-half inch in diame ter and different lengths. engaging with the horizontal sewing.* i. Md. At the lower and upper edges of the armor the ends of the rods are chamfered. the hollowed ont portions accommodate the iustep and knee joint. 1761. Same coat as shown in pi. It was secured by thongs and probably with a band or garter. * Charlevoix. The sections are joined by a rickrack lashing. e. Charlevoix. From a burial cave in tho Island of Amaknak. Henuig. and the method of lashing. 25 inches. showing the position upon the body in wearing the armor. In the covering leg. de. says They had even formerly a kind of mail for the arms and thighs made of the same : material. rendering the armor flexible. 143. leaving two long ends. and a central sec tion containing 22 rods with curved side pieces. In form the Aleut armor.. and so forth. the cord being brought through the hole in the first rod. W. The rods are perforated from side to side and a thin rod of whalebone drawn through. No. striking in other instances. during his exploration of the caves of the Aleutian Under the Islands.M. of the figures in the Mexican codices The rod and slat types are mixed. Width. and a combination of both types in the same piece. Lond. 579. DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 11 AND 12. Vol. t The resemblance between the North America is culture of the west and east coasts of /^Mauy and sculptures wear a of around the calf the which may be the greave. rod armor. (Cat. 1763. Lond. Letters to the Duchess of Lesdiguieres. The perforation of the rods. Dall. instead of following the Eskimo type. found the armor figured in pis. from this or Yucatan greave sculptures legging seems to be of horizontal bands and square plates. F. I D Orbigny. p.. show Eskimo handiwork.. Made up of two series of cedar rods. 7 &quot. 1893. U. The holes along the upper edge are probably for attaching the greave to the cuissard. while among the Tlingits. two side sections of 10 rods and a curved piece each. In some localities the broad band of rods is alone found. slat armor. Collected by E. 338. H. belongs with the rod type of the Indians. in the method of twining together the elements they are identical. p. painted red. p.N. All the examples extant range from Sitka to northern California in a region comparatively lately explored. 17249. Plate 12. There are two wooden toggles on the right side. as well as skin armor. occur rod armor.S. doubled together.) . 40 inches. however. The rods are perforated through either cud and held in series by a sewing of finely plaited sinew cord. Voyages. Plate 11. small pliable sticks pretty well wrought. X. These are brought past each other from opposite sides through the hole in the next rod.&quot.. or around Sitka. 11 and 12. Dr. u Les arines defensives cousistaient en uue cotte de 13 Orbigny says: joncs tresses qui leur couvrait tout le corps.

. 1893.i port of National Museum. PLATE 10. Hougn.

o? THE

(WIT IE!
t

&

Report of National Museum, 1893

Hough.

PLATE 11

PREHISTORIC ALEUTIAN ROD ARMOR.
Cat. No. 17249, U. S. N. M.

Hough. . PLATE 12.Report of National Museum. 1893.

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The ends of the rods are neatly hollowed out. Collected by Herbert G.S. Rod armor. 18. The small rods of which &quot. into which wooden buttons were inserted. forming cup cavities. united by sinew cords and with iiicely carved wooden pieces about the armholes. 13). The rods are bunched in the middle of the band. and are made to pass over and under the rods in pairs. 639 net was inserted a piece of wooden body armor (17249) composed of small.. painted red. Smithsonian Contrib. but in such manner that the overlappings alter nate from one row to the next. round rods of proper size. H. No.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. (Cat.t Lieut. with two loops of sinew. where la and *Dall. and there are 4 equidistant vertical bands of red paint. p. Remains of Later Prehistoric Man in the Islands. to Knowledge.) . . slight as Fig. This is shown in detail in fig. The armor. Xiblack says.* the bone tection against In the northern portion of this area. Width. it was. must have been a tolerably good pro and stone arrowheads of the natives.M. Ogdeu. both specimens having been secured from the same native. the rod armor is an oblong band composed of peeled rods of uniform length and diameter held in series by bands of weaving (pi. 4. t Caves of the Aleutian DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 13. There appears to be no device to prevent the rod band slip ping down. This is the only piece of It was fastened behind this aboriginal armor known to be in existence. it is composed were about three-fourths of an inch in diameter. in describing this armor. SHOWING DETAIL OF WEAVING ROD AND SLAT ARMOR OF THE NORTHWEST COAST. 4. W. held in vertical series by alternate bands of weaving of woolen and sinew cord. No. 168158. except in the Aleutian Islands. that The threads are sometimes single and sometimes in pairs. 30 inches height. 318.N. Composed of 72 peeled rods of uniform length and diameter. southeastern Alaska. 23 inches. U.&quot. This baud was probably worn with a skin coat. Taku Indiana.

^ kind of vest. (Cat. As stated.&quot. Hupas. p. also the rank of the wearer. and then sewed together and fixed on the body like a waistcoat. All the rods are split at either end. Collected by Capt. the latter probably derived from ropes. made of small round sticks of The Chinooks wear the size and shape of arrows 12 inches long. M. U. rod armor. N. rod armor (Tal-luck). bound with buckskin painted red. 21 inches. S. Lond.) JMorice. Rept. The specimens are from the Shastas. xxv.. t references may be of interest: Western Tinne: &quot. height. T. Proc. A. 230. 1889. . low. Ross.. U. Just where this form begins it is not possible to say with exactness. U. Amelanchier alnifolia. California. S. M. P. 1849. Short rods are worked in below the armpits. 2094. nearly. bound with buckskin on upper and lower edges and armholes. (Cat. 41 inches. S. Plate 14. 1. lust. . Oregon. p. Ray could obtain. this method of running the cords or twine is varied by occasionally running them in pairs. A. The surface of the armor shows 4 horizontal bands of red paint. and there are no shoulder straps to prevent the armor slipping down over the hips. Emmons. The checkered portion in black is woven with cord made of human hair. Vol. &quot.a * The Indians of the Northwest Coast. woven with native cord of wild hemp. Srnithson. 21 inches. 126909. fig. they are laid side by side. 269. G. P. Ray. bying straps Klaat the sides. p. arranged in parallel order and kept together The following with babiche lines interlaced in several places. denote the number of enemies slain or captives taken. 38 inches. 1& represent the part of one cord. (The Ray Collection. Made of 118 peeled rods. The shoulder straps are of otter ( ?) fur. N.. fig.. rod armor (Klnig-ldicyst-e-cue-it-ivul}. probably with the Tinne. 38 inches height. and 2a and 26 represent those of another. showing 7 rods in both plan and section. 14 and 15). math Indians. 1888. Alexander. No. 1893. 1886. Shoulder straps of leather. M.) Made up of 44 oval rods of pin^ Plate 15. Width. Modern.) Indians. 89. 6 horizontal stripes of red cord cross The red lines It is tied across the breast from left to right. 2928. 30 inches. Made of 74 strips of wood formed by splitting branches. No. 140. U. Niblack. N. It is cut out for the arms and has shoulder straps. No. northern California and Oregon. N. Canad. encircling the body below the armpits. woven together with native twine. The weaving is diversified by using cords colored red and yel &quot.. Collected by L.. p. on the Oregon and Columbia rivers. G. This class of armor was in common use among the Natanos and Kennucks before the introduction of firearms. Dyar. In addition the armor is bound on the upper and lower edges with skin sewed with sinew. the Western D6ne~s. Width. The view represents the upper left-hand corner of the weaving and two upper threads. S. shoulder straps of buckskin. wood. The cord is of native hemp and cords made from sisal. etc. Col lected by Lieut. U. Huap 1. S. Shasta Indians.While on the warpath they also wore a kind of armor or cuirass consisting of dried sticks of the same kind of wood. Width. To the southward the rod band assumes a more effective form. the finishing cords drawn into the split to secure the weaving. and Klamaths of Oregon and California (pis.&quot. height. H.640 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM.) Plate 15. Part n. A. the front of the coat. but it is now obsolete. This is the only complete suit that Lieut. adventures. * Bands of rods of this character are intended to be worn under or over the skin armor. t Report of Smithsonian Inst. (Cat. DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 14 AND 15. 2. S.

f .i*wi. .Report of National Museum.gt. PLATE 13.. Hough.-ij-- !!i:t &amp. *. 1893. -. .v-.

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S. PLATE 14. 2928. . N. U. No. Hough. 1893. M.Report of National Museum. SHASTA ROD COAT. Cat.

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Hupa 2. Cat. Fig. S N Klamath rod armor. Fig. N. U. Cat. M. 126909.Report of National Museum. U. 1. No. rod armor. PLATE 15. 1893 Hough. S. No. 2094. M . ROD COATS.

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p. O. Rep. 16 and 17). This will be noticed in the &quot. * t Mason. A. was th. subjected to a thorough rubbing over sand. but it is now nearly obsolete. scarfed Sewed around the border with rawhide. Padded in the truncated portion with heavy pieces of hide.&quot. Vol. 641 Among the Hupas there is another kind of armor made of wattles and twine. wpven and bound with buckskin. 1886. so that it* afforded protection to the whole body save the head iu^ hard fights the Dane s invari ably shot kneeling. which. Canad. On the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains and on the Great Plains the natural defensive protection of the great land and sea mammals. says : Another sort of armor. The Ray Collection. protected the back of the neck. J Sometimes a slash was made over the thigh and in front of the throat. Proc. The skin was often doubled. t 140. The garment has been patched at the edges eaten away by rats. Father Morice. then repeatedly rubbed on the sandy shores of a stream or Mke and dried with the sand and small pebbles adhering thereto. &quot. Formerly worn as an undergarment for protection Plate 16. skin armor. transferred by man to his own body. the right side of the garment remaining open. . it formed an armor perfectly invulnerable to arrows ov er the parts which were new coating of the aforesaid glue. This class of armor was in common use among the ]S&quot. when sewed according to the proper pattern. Made against daggers. obtained from the sturgeon. but more frequently the coat was reinforced with pieces of thick hide. This had the form of -a sleeveless.swallowtail&quot.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR.. for the protection of the pubic region. 230. p. leaving an orifice for the head and with a hole cutout of the left side for the left arm. or which assumes this shape by the cutting away of portions of the skirt over the groins (pis. 184. the principal ingredient of which was boiled isinglass. Smithsonian Institution. The rear portion. The armor or cuirass was of moose skin. 2 41 . it received a When this process had been repeated three or four r times. 1889). being a little longer. xxv (Oct. tection.e peoesta (wherein one sits). &quot. DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 16 AND 17.. becomes. thus protected. of two thicknesses of caribou hide. sewed above the shoulders. before drying. It will be seen that the leather coats from Sitka are short and follow the type of slat armor. Mis. The Western Den6s. G.tunic falling to the knees. Fig 1. indigenous to the Dene nation... his efficient armor. rregularly to secure flexibility. in his clear description of the process. worn before the introduction H. . and are often coated with glue and sand over certain portions. The skins of the elk and moose on the northwest coast and the bison in the interior to the south furnish excellent material for defensive clothing. spears. Being again. T. after which it was thoroughly coated with a species of very tenacious glue. t The skin coats were always made in one piece folded over. pt. Morice. These skins are invariably tanned to render them flexible. and arrows. Outside was worn a rod band as a further pro This specimen is very ancient and primitive. Inst.ataiio and Kenuck Indians before the introduction of firearms. Sometimes shoulder guards were added. in turn.* The rod coats were put on like a vest and were tied in front. This is worn in battle to protect the body it is tied across the breast from left to right. was soaked in water. The red lines denote the number of enemies slain or captives taken also the rank of the wearer.

28 inches. by thongs.M.N. Sewed over the shoulders and strengthened inside by hinge pieces. No.i. (Cat. Width. 46464. U. by which. skin armor. Made of tanned caribou skin folded in the usual way Fringed 011 the right side. as described by Father Morice among the Tinue&quot. (Cat.) Made of thick tanned elk or moose skin folded twice into Fig. lined inside with another piece sewed around the lower portion. Lent by Max B. probably. A double shoulder protector has been sewed to the left side of the neck opening. oblong form like a sheet of note paper. Lent by tied. as it is put on in the reverse of the other coats described. Fastened with thongs on the right side. Rear view of armor. Southeastern Alaska. height.M. U. four in all. this armor must have been Fig. J. with cor rugated appearance. Inside the armor at the back is a finely drawn and painted totem circle 10| inches in diameter. of very heavy hide. 1. No. Two loops in front are probably for the bow. To the southward the coat seems outline (pis. 32 inches. 37 inches. No. U. has been sewed to the left side. Width.S. Richardson. U. worn by a left-handed man. 1893. 18. height.642 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. 130588. made of a heavy piece of folded hide.N. 26 inches . McLean. skin armor. and the skin has been cut and enlarged by gussets to protect the-right shoulder.s . A short slit down left side below the shoulder leaves a passage for the left arm. The front of the coat is discolored and dented as though an attempt had been made to render the leather more dense by hammering. and reinforced.N. 60240. Curiously.N. The leather has apparently been stiffened with glue. DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 18 AND Front view. Tlingit Indians. No. Alaska. No. very heavy. 2. Ogu. Fig. 1. Collected by J.) Plate 19. cut from a painted garment. 2. Width. 36 inches. 2 1 inches. or added over one or both shoulders. Col Plate 17 skin armor. probably for the attachment of the or dagger.M. lected by J.S. The coat is longer than those worn to the North. Alaska. 29 inches.M. Made admits of free movement of the knee. bow and quiver On the right side the armor was usually fringed. 25 (Cat. J. height. T. This baud was often decorated. length. 60239. . Width. skin armor. The buckskin loops in front are for the attachment of the quiver. the band over the right shoulder is buttoned over a wooden toggle.M. 37| inches.gt. A slit cut in the skirt of the coat skin armor. Bean. The swallowtail&quot. Made of one piece of heavy elk skin apparently smoketanned.. Alaska. * Tlingit Indians. skin armor.) . 19. Open along right side the edges cut into coarse fringe. Width. JVfax B. two thicknesses.N. Fig.) Plate 18. A strip of lighter leather. The feature of this coat is that two very heavy pieces of hide go over the shoulders and form a slit in front of the neck. loops of buckskin. * to become longer and simpler in of firearms.N. H&amp. was suspended the dagger.M. U. For convenience in putting on or off the armor. (Cat. 20 inches height. The shoulder guards were worked out of the hide at the left armOn the front are one or two hole.S. H. and in some cases a baud of lighter skin was sewed along the same side. Taku Indians. Collected by F^rbert G. making &quot. Width. U. (Cat. Over the left shoulder is fastened an epauliere. About midway near the right side is fastened a wooden toggle. Tlingit Indians. Alaska. 33 inches. 19). Collected by Dr. Chilcat Indians. The fringe is wrapped with strips of grass. The coat is inches. single thickness. Made of tanned hide. 30 inches height. Richardson.S. The sewing is done with sinew. No. (Cat. Ample cuts for arm holes. portion is reinforced with two extra thicknesses. 130587.S. McLean. . sewed along the upper edge.S.) Fig 2. The leather has perhaps also been treated with glue. on the left side. Alaska.

Hough. . PLATE 16.Report of National Museum. 1893.

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No.Report of National Museum 1893 Hough PLATE 17. Cat. U. 60240. ALASKAN SKIN ARMOR WITH SHOULDER GUARDS. M. S. N. .

V U .V &quot.

. V co &quot. Hough.Report of National Museum.X Z | J. PLATE 18. 1893.

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Hough. 1853.Report of National Museum. PLATE 19. .

l?.n .

N.OF THS PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. Sitka. Report of the Smith. are formed by folding and the third is inserted between them. the resemblance being exact in particulars of cut over the front and shoulder of the back with Chinese coins sewed on with sinew cord. H. Zigzag cut for the left arm. ^ Two modern armors from Both open in front Sitka. 21). height. \^ 643 / ^ K^^Vr .S.) Width.* jf2&amp. t by Capt. (Cat. are curious. 1 UN OF I ^ \ ^ _5 A L ? O The long coat culminates among the Hupas and Klamaths. Alaska.) . long. Collected by James G. S. Four lappets for fastening in front with brass buttons of English manufac Dr. Swan. The armor was collected in 1870 (pi. Alaska. S.S. 25 inches. with the The suit has been worn left arm through the slit. the right side is a loop of buckskin. Applied bands of quill work on leather fringe have been observed. No.gt. it Since the painting is not seen. is a fetichistic protection. of a large elk skin. 126908. The fringe has been mentioned. wide skin coats from the Northwest Coast in * DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 20. No. tanned. A. and the hard neck portion of the hide comes in front and acts as a plastron to protect the belly and thighs. brass. can not be for ornament. but not formed of pieces Fastened in front with 4 lappets and sailors buttons of like the similar armor. dots. skin armor. p.S. circles.M. Joined over the shoulders by leather straps worked Skin armor (Cue it Made through a series of slashes. ture. with collar sewed on with thongs. Hoff. U.&quot. by several generations and in some of the modern battles with the whites. Collected by Dr.The Ray Collection. U. mies slain and captives taken. These are cur rent Chinese coins like those brought to this country by the Chinese There are a few Japanese coins on this coat. 23 inches. 9284. The derivation of these coins is not known. The slat armor often bore totemic devices. Fringed at the side and tying thongs on the right. H. Plated waistcoat. Ray. There are also arrow cuts which were received in The cusps and triangular figures are intended to denote the number of ene battle. but the collector supposes the work to be that of Chukchis. No. Hupa Indians.) (Cat. One is plated over the entire front and a por tion of the back with Chinese coins. the other is plain. in form of a waistcoat. and sewing. Height. to be used in gambling. A. P. althoiigh/Y some Alaskan tribes wore long coats identical with the ceremonial coats (pi. Sitka. The front and back decorated with cusps. Height. 47 inches (Cat.N. skin armor. 18927. In general shape it is that of a waistcoat. and are fastened by lappets and brass buttons of English manufacture. U. It is Avorn so as to cover the left side.N. 1. (See. hardened. and lines in red and blue paint. California. \ ^ Decoration of the war armor was infrequent. U. 2.M. On U. soninii Institution. 205. 20).. &quot. Perhaps it Two very heavy. folded on itself. Alaska (Takus and Tlingits) are elaborate colored totemic paintings. The wul). like the penny armor of Europe. probably for the dagger. while the inner portion reaches only to the knees. and the rod armor was diversified by bands of weaving of different colored cords In the interior of two coats from southern or by painted bauds. outer portion falls as a skirt to the ankles. in which the bullet marks were received. 1. the head through the opening. Made of thick tanned hide in imitation of an old-fashioned Fig. Two layers Fig. Collected 21. 1886. A. Hoff believes this coat to be the work of Chukchis. DESCRIPTION OF PLATE Made of three layers of tanned hide.M. 26 inches.

A collar composed of short interlocking slats. held together with a cord twining. Collected by J.M. roughly curried in tanning. 54 inches. width. which was used in Fig. further suggestion is that they were ceremonial. Four bauds of fringed buckskin decorated with colored grass are sewed on one side. the national collection are of problematic purpose. and the arms would be completely hampered. 52 inches. doubled. A painted. Length. Length. or caribou.M. of wood. McLean. 74440. In the other suit the collar is of hide (pi. Made of a largo tanned elk. 5. Northwest coast. t the North west Coast tribes did not have horses. The collar is a slight cut on the left side which does not penetrate the inner fold. no armhole on the left side nor projection for the shoulder. groundwork of small squares. Korea. 22). Padded armor. 36 inches. width. fringed band On the inside is an elaborate totemic paint lias been neatly sewn to the right side. No. DESCRIPTION OF PLATE Fig 1. J. is No specimens of Mexican padded armor are extant. 128344. Alaska. U. 1893. ANCIENT KOREAN COTTON ARMOR. the short Fig 2. sl-in roltc. Mexico and Central America. G.W. Cat. Deposited by Dr. skin robe.644 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM.S. t See page 646. and other points are evidently defensive. While one tribe-at least (the Shoshones of the Upper Missouri) is known to have protected their horses with arm or. No.* If these objects are defensive they could scarcely be used by a man on all fours for stalking.S. as they are too Avide and long. They were sent in as armor by the collector. Fringed at the sides. They would be most useful as armor for some animal. ing. woven fold being inside. covered with leather. is In one suit the neck opening large and is surrounded with a leather-covered collar made of short wooden slats. slightly interlocking. Of hide.N. A search of the codices and an examina tion of the sculptures will doubtless * throw much light upon this subject. 22. hide. Brown Goode. 32 inches. . In some of the sculptures quilted armor is perhaps represented by a the remaining type. however. There is. and from the thickness. U. is together with cord in the manner of the slat armor and sewed to the neck. These objects are noticed here with the view of ascertaining their A function. weight.) (Cat.

1893. PLATE 20.Report of National Museum. Cat. 126908. Hough. U. S. N. M. No. HUPA ELK-SKIN ARMOR. .

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1893. PLATE 21.Report of National Museum. Hough. .

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Report of National Museum. PLATE 22. 1893. . Hough.

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is tied around the waist. The helmet is padded. 8. *This consists of a coat. Conquest of Peru. Hansard tells us the Spaniards invented felt covering for their horses as a protection against Floridan arrows. 30 inches. in reference to the Peruvian armor s bodies were protected by casques made either of wood or the skins of wild animals. are introduced here to show the range of armor in America. S. Brinton. helmet. In the center was a hole sufficient to admit the head and left arm to pass through. Hakluyt Soc. Visor. or buckler.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. p. 3. M. in his American Kace.5paules. so well done that the pieces looked as metal. t Probably not very different from the cuirass of hide of the northern tribes. Benzoui. The helmet has also Sanscrit dharani written upon it. and a close tunic of quilted in the cotton. No. t Hansard. describing armor from other tribes not represented by extant specimens. p. but much stiffened by four perpendicular bands of iron riveted through the cloth and termi nating in a brass ball at the apex. and are tied at either side. if they were of solid The following excerpts. 12 inches. or prayers for victory. History of the New World. and greaves for the legs and armsy all-trf wood. It consisted of helmet. and wide belt made up of many thicknesses of coarse cotton cloth covered with yellow stuff. body pieces. . The left side of the garment is sewed up. * * * Men s defensive armor consisted of a shield. however. tolerably well protected. arranged geographically. The Nass Indians of the Tsimshian stock follow the other stocks on the Northwest Coast in that Their war garments were formed of 2. 34 inches. time. The surface of portions of the coat is printed with Sanscrit dharaui. 54 inches. 23. but the right side remains open . width.. 11 inches. out to fit the neck. small wide and heavy &amp. 1. 645 countries will give Padded armor has been of widespread adoption. length of belt. N. Men same manner as with the Mexicans. Brown Goode ) tPr-jscott. covered neatly with copper or gold plates. the mode of wearing them being over the right shoulder and under the left arm. Deposited by Dr. History of Archery. says of theTarascosof Michoacan Nowhere else do we find such complete defensive armor. He also states that j: The Spaniards. Prescott says. The Korean armor (fig. plastron of cloth is hung over the A chest. who It fight on horseback with the Indians of those provinces. and is A either side at the back. one at . belt resembling those worn by Korean women at the present thicker. Dr.lt. width. (Cat. The coat is made up of two wide These flaps are cut flaps connected by a band which passes over the left shoulder. In Mongolian it survived to a recent date. Korea.. carry a doublet well lined with cotton wool. and sometimes richly decorated with metal and with precious stones sur mounted by the brilliant plumage of the tropical birds.lt. Length oi coat. p. or more folds of the strongest hides of the land animals they were able to procure. &amp. Gr. 67. height of helmet. that the Spaniards introduced this style of : armor both into Mexico and Peru. the body is. 128344 U.&quot. may be surmised &quot. 5*) : an idea of this type.

on the part which covers the breast they sometimes fix on the inside thin laths of wood.. Gabriel. Eoss says. Coast of America. p. Alex. 89. Matthews of The warriors in those days wore such armor. Advent. dressed and worked to the thickness and arrow proof. The clemal nearly covers the whole body. of elk skin.&quot. it is perhaps permissible to infer that their riders were protected in the same way. p. So it may be considered their complete defensive armor. 339. hanging down quite round. but a good deal more free. and not only strong enough to resist. longer. p. n. bia Eiver. 1893.! of the Passing eastward. Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest s New || York. which secures them from darts.. He is consequently less protected. but. They have another kind of corselet made like the corsets of our ladies. 1854. to Dr. 1814. as we understand from them. spears could not penetrate it.. Allen ed. Vol..cover their horses with dressed leather (probably bison hide). and as their heads are also covered with a sort of helmet. Island the Nootkas make use of thick tanned leather mantle. remark: They have a kind of armor. As a further security. Matthews. etc. their war garments are of two kinds. something like a coat of mail. The Mountain Chant. 253.. united by means of a mixture of glue and sand. which can not pierce two thicknesses of leather. In that wonderful origin-epic of the Navajoes the Indian singer chants suits of armor made of several layers of buckskin. when speaking of the Shoshoni Eocky Mountains. and as Du Pratz states that the Padoucas (Comanches) &quot. 246. Lond.84.. with holes for the arms.646 and both arms are REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. in reference to the former. Vol. doubled. the said tunic being very heavy and very stiff. Washington. || * t Vancouver. n. Franchere.* On Vancouver A buffalo. double. p. t is The Ohinooks of the Columbia River use skin and rod armor.. Vol. It is impenetrable for their arrows. (Eoss. Cook t Voy. one is termed denial. left at liberty for action. Lewis and Clarke. This garment is sometimes -very curiously painted. at the head of the Missouri Eiver. on the Oregon or Colum of nearly half an inch. but they wear it no &quot. I. p..j Bureau of Ethnology. Mr. of splinters of hard wood interlaced with nettle twine.) : Franchere says of the Columbian Eiver tribes For defensive armor they wear a cassock or tunic of elk skin. Lewis and Clarke. The warriors who wear this curious dress do not use the tunic of elk skin. 425. and find it impervious to the arrow. 73. . 1849. which is formed by a great many folds of dressed antelope skins. With this they cover their own bodies and those of their horses. part of it falling down to the heels. with an opening left on the right side to allow the arm free action in combat. and appears to be the skin of an elk or This is so contrived as to cover the breast quite up to the throat.&quot. Annual Report of tfa. 1883. descending to the ankles. the neck is almost the only part in which they can be wounded. Voyage. Dorsey informs me that there is reason to believe that the Pawui formerly employed a kind of hide cuirass and a defensive helmet.

. * symbolically painted. Across the body was a sash made of feathers that passed from the right shoulder to the left side of the waist. Veytia relates: The body armor worn by the principal warriors was made of double cloth padded with cotton. The ohimalli. It was commonly constructed of flexible bamboo canes bound firmly together and covered with hide. Soc. hides. or Mexican shield. with a heavy boss in the center. but from the waist to the thighs they wore short drawers. 516.. and carried round shields of basketry of heavily and closely netted cotton. Bancroft says of the Xahua Indians of Mexico: Among &quot. Reeds.. t Bancroft. in treating of theToltecs. Philos. made in one piece. silver. or nequen cloth. Costa Rica. Gabb. In Tabasco and along the coast tortoise shells inlaid with gold. Round shields were carried on the arm. or monster with defensive armor. was made of various materials and of divers forms. The private soldier painted the upper part of the body to represent armor.&quot. i. complete the Again. and of the same material. Ant. and over them fastened around the waist a kind of kilt that reached to the knee. p. Pueblos.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. The body armor of the nobles and higher grades of warriors con sisted of a breastplate made of quilted cotton. called escaupiles. covered with leather or gold plates and trimmed with feathers. one or two fingers in thickness.. grass. Mej. I.&quot. It differed from that of the Aatecs. and were constructed so that when not in use they could be folded up and carried under the arm. The face of the shield was ornamented according to the rank and taste of the wearer. pp. . served to protect an Aztec common soldier. or copper were commonly used as shields.. Gabb says that the Bri Bris and Tiribis. The cotton armor was completely arrow proof. Aug.. 647 the Pueblo tribes they also wore cuirasses of elk or bison skin. p. to be published in Johnson s Cyclopaedia. | Veytia Hist. Vol. fastened behind and decorated with feathers of the color of the company s uniform. reaching down the^ankles? and was worn over a thin white tunic. Some shields were of an ordinary size. p. to have been the principal type used in Among the Mayas of Mexico In addition to shields the Mayas had for defensive armor garments of thicklyquilted cotton. and availed them somewhat for defense. M. use u an iron-headed lance with shaft barely 4 feet long. to the Coining great civilizations of ancient Mexico. Proc. n. made of the thickest part of the hide of the * tapir. 407. and thighs. 20. Bancrc ? t. H.. and were considered impervious to arrows. Tom. or of thick rawhide. Indians of Costa Rica. which covered the body down to the lower part of the thigh. Am.ichcahuipilli. 655. 1875. sometimes rounded and sometimes oval. coated with india rubber. by F. that of a noble was generally covered with thin plates of gold. There are a few references among the Isthmian tribes of the use of armor where the skin and rod types persist. op.&quot. called Over this Avas a thick cotton coat which covered part of the arms &quot. 289-90. A. Arm and leg guards made of wood. shaped and painted to represent the head of a tiger. or of padded cotton and yucca. sometimes rounded on the lower side. t mouth open and teeth bared. Native Races of the Pacific States. || Extract from article &quot. serpent. Gushing. . t Cotton-padded armor seems Mexico. others were intended to cover the entire body. H.&quot. tit. H.

1810). These having been brought here (Stuart s Lake) served as models for the building of the first home-made &quot. European custom.&quot. A. having crossed the Rocky Mountains. reached L. canians is armed with swords and lances formerly used bows and The soldiers are not clothed in uniform. where the of life assumes a resemblance to that of our North American phase find of we well-known forms The cavalry of the Arauarmor. according to the slings. The Mosquito Indians says: Honduras also employed armor. made of sev eral folds of hide. had birch-bark canoes..&quot. in. Bancroft Armor is made of plaited reeds covered with tiger skins and ornamented with * feathers. The Carriers previously . Diet. Tatlutin two wooden canoes. p. probably Onondaga and On Seneca) says: Also they showed us the manner and making of their armor. 1889. HMorice. Their weapons are bows. This is shown by the following reference: Some sixty or seventy years ago a party of Iroquois. bolas. Canadian Inst.Oct. but they cover greatest part of their bodies with a sort of defense made of an undressed anta s hide. it is open in the middle. Vol. and have a shield of bull s hide for use on foot. I. 361. Proc. {Thompson. 131. speaking of the Toudamani (Iroquois. it is impenetrable to common arrows. Entering the continent of South America we find that are unacquainted with shields and targets. p. a tiger skin being sewed either in the in or out side. that the head may come through. who killed the strangers for the sake of their canoes. London. rivers with short portages rendered communication easy across this vast distance. and extended on each side as far as the elbows and middle. but not to spears and bullets. Lond. tWaitz. hardened by a peculiar mode of dressing their shields and helmets are also made of the same material. Vol. j 3. Anthropologie. G.. n. and points out a great line of migration both of peoples and inventions. p. but all wear beneath their usual dress cuirasses of leather. . cit.. Description of Patagonia. 1812. Falkner. J The Patagonians also wear a helmet with coat of mail. Cartier (Hakluyt Toy. 129. &quot. and clubs. tribes.648 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM.. of 1893. of America. * made of Bancroft. t The Abipoues In the vast continent of South America there are only scattering In the southern extremity. and Hist. || the Atlantic slope there is abundant evidence to show that the Iroquois used body armor. Alcedo s Geogr. G. 723. A. besides this they employ a breastplate of twisted cotton. I. op. 407. p. Vol. lances. EASTERN AREA. finely and cunningly wrought together. p. references to the use of armor. they are cordes and wood. There is sufficient historical evidence that the defensive weapons of The lakes and the east coast were similar to those of the west coast.dugouts. which at once excited the covetousness of a band of Carriers..

thread.|| One has been described as a plate of rich copper. 24. |[ Lucian Carr thinks these breastplates were for ornament. Loud. p. 75 in Vol. The size of the New England breastplates. with whom he was most familiar. Inst. was published in 1724. neither know they how onlie bowes made of Witch hazle. neither haj^ they any thing to defend themselves but targets made of barcks. P. but not against those mounted with iron. 338. 35 Mass. X. like those found in the Ohio mounds. Peru. wearing a headpiece of the same. and some-^rniours made of stickes wickered together with to&quot. But as this kind of armor was found not to be proof against firearms. p. but when they attacked any iutrenchment.* Sagard says that the Hurons (Iroquois) had armor made of wood. they have renounced them without putting anything in their place. 1585. 3. J Champlain. ttA brief and true report of the new-found land of Virginia.t Champlain also describes the Iroquois armor as made of wood and thread. of such a difference of statures only as wee in England. 65. p. would render them a tolerable protection if used as a plastronThe only reference to eastern skin armor is of the Mohawks. like breastplates were worn. de. gives a more detailed account of the defensive armor of the tribes of the northeastern part of the present United States and of Canada. all e^e naked. in. Prospect. as steel. J.&quot. F. having no edge tooles or weapons of yron or steele to offend make any: those weapos that they have are us withall. it is thought. **New England De Bry. Wooden Copper breastplates have been found. No.* . strongly pressed against each other. very neatly worked. or of small sticks of reed cut of proportionate lengths. whose famous work &quot.. Feb. i. Vol. They had cuissards and brassards (defensive cover ings for the thighs and arms) of the same material. He says (Vol. Vol. who wear sea-horse skins and barks of trees made by their art as impene trable. Griswold s Voyages. Charlevoix says of the Iroquois: Most had no defensive weapon. the gold breastplates of Peru. probably referring chiefly to the Iroquois and Huron. and aprons of the same rounde about their middles. Voyage des Hurons. 201. p. Hariot says &quot. HBreastplate of Gold. They had even formerly a kind of mail for the arms and thighs. \. ft * t Charlevoix. in length a foot.. . tf Archer account. viu. however. Thomas Hariot. light boards. Paris. n. p.Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains. and arrowes of reeds flat edged truncheons also of wood about a yard long. 197) : Their cuirasses were a tissue of wood.** In reference to the Virginia Indians. 305. Some have a sort of cuirass or breastplate of small. they covered their whole body with small. Anthrop. made of the same materials. 144. pliable rings. 649 Lafitau.. in width half a foot. Hakluyt s Voyages. for a breastplate. p. These cuirasses were proof against arrows armed with bone or stone. xvm. p. 1830. : They are a people clothed with loose mantles made of Deere skins. woven and enlaced very neatly with small cords made of deer skin. i. 1761.&quot. i. Historical Col lection. 1889.^ A plate in the same volume shows a warrior in armor.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR.

but should hesitate to conclude that idea of a defense for the body against arrows aud spears.650 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM. The rear and rim of the helmet bear a totemic-painted carving in low relief. called Kabuto or pot helmet. like New Zealand tattoo and painted green. There is in the collection one helmet of wood covered with leather. 9. and black. allowing it to bend. where they appear in ceremonies. TMie only other survival of helmets in North America is among the Pueblo Indians. The function of the hel met. fitting the head. cases. carved to represent a face. but an almost constant fea ture is that of inspiring fear by grotesque or horrid construction. were sedentary tribes. carved above to represent animals. body armor. is to adorn the head. may be classed with helmets. grotesque faces. Through the inner edge of the rim of the helmet four slanting holes have been bored. holding the visor in place. in the form of mask helmets. or bowed visors ingen made by cutting deep scarfs in the wood. Thus the helmet is connected with the mask. The ears at the side of the mask are accurately executed. The front is finely worked out into the form of a grotesque face.) They are always of wood^&quot. (2) . the interior of this style of visor was a projecting gromrnet which was taken between the teeth. 1893. or the migration of the invention. cheeks.. : This also implies differentiation of weapons rendering armor necessary. and forehead. As a rule. after protection. (See pi. bonnets and various head coverings of the American aborigines. These were probably for the passage of thongs which held a mask. There is a large series of Northwest Coast helmets in the National in War many Museum. chin and lips. other than the shields. had not occurred to these progressive tribes.lt. with deep furrows across the nose. Another fine helmet (Cat. or in dependent invention. The mask projects above the crown of the helmet and the upper ridge is studded with wooden pegs. Other masklike visors were suspended from the helmet with cords and a couvre de iously On nuque was often attached to the back. 168157) from the Taku Indians of southern Alaska is carved from solid wood in form of the Japanese type. which once held a fringe of sea-lion whiskers or bristles. few historical notices have been given of the helmets used by the eastern Indians. the helmet is the most striking and prominent portion of th&amp. red.visor before the face. I have not met with accounts of armor among the southern tribes. Pegs are also seen on the ing. No. summary of the main conclusions which may be drawn from the A A foregoing paper will show had advanced to the stage (1) That a majority of the American tribes where they made use of body armor that is. always painted and sometimes carved with a rim like a hat. Visors were worn. at the Muskoki group and others. etc.

North west Coast.PRIMITIVE AMERICAN ARMOR. Jin (considered. appears is not introduction of this date The Asiatic had America origin. western to the islands spread intervening southward from the narrowest part of the strait. has appeared at all times and places the prime idea of the con.y have arisen independently. across Bering armor the Here Eskimo. OF TH! / UNIVERSITY . Giliaks. which is possibly a development of the to the eastern coast plate idea. The plate armor also may have spread that plate armor be conclusive to it Hence of North America. passing into the slat armor of the &quot. following but ti an and of ftiitance weapon. and Clmkchis. . weapon in America is a clear case of the migration of inven3) Plate armor its congeners having been traced from Japan northeastward Strait by the irough the Ainos. coat of thick skin whifeli 651 L)U.

DUE on the last date stampeftbelow. o - LD 21-100m-7. 52(A2528sl6)476 . REC D LD 64 -13 o -ttr o a: !3 AM CM 5 u.UNl^RSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed.

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