EBT 423 – Materials Selection Design Mid Semester 1 Test Academic Session 2009/ 2010 Time : 60 minit This

question paper has ONE question. Answer ALL questions. Question A schematic diagram of a tube illustrated in Fig. 1 is one of numerous tubes that failed in the boiler located at first stage superheater tubes. The tubes were found cracked after 3 months of service. It had been moderately cold-bent during installation, and was not stress-relief-annealed. The steam drum lacked adequate devices for separation of steam and water, and load swings were frequent, possibly causing carryover of boiler water. Microstructural analysis revealed plastically deformed grains from the cold bending. The cracks were highly branched and ran between the grains (intergranular) as they passed through the tube wall. The corrodent was sodium hydroxide from boiler-water carryover. The tube was then removed and sends to your consultancy firm for further failure investigation.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram shows the transverse crack in a bent carbon steel superheater tube. Note small "window" that has been blown out of the wall.


To initiate the failure investigation, you have to make a site visit to the plant to get some background information. Identify the important information needed from plant engineers that could helps you getting some primary clues. [20 marks]

1. Location, 2. name, 3. Part No, 4. Description, 5. Manufacturer or fabricator 6. Function of item 7. Maintenance procedures 8. Maintenance history 9. Cleaning procedures 10. Cleaning history 11. Operational procedures (temp./ pressure etc) 12. Type of materials (Chemical composition) 13. Operational documentation
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 13.

Service deviations 15. “Micro structural analysis revealed plastically deformed grains from the cold bending” shows an elongated grain proves the presents of residual/internal stress 5. 18. 20. Drawings 14. 15. “The steam drum lacked adequate devices for separation of steam and water. what your hypothesis regarding the root cause of the tube failure? [10 marks] Stress-corrosion cracking Exactly Accurate 10 Acceptable 5 Less Acceptable 3 Confuse 1 Nonsense 0 iii) Give four (4) reasons to justify your hypothesis. Opinions of related personnel 19. Precipitating events 18.5 Nonsense 0 . possibly causing carryover of boiler water” results hot water enter the tube & forces the acceleration of oxidation reaction 4. Photographs 20. Normal stress orientations 16. Previous inspections reports. “Not stress-relief-annealed” results residual/ internal stress still present in the tube 3. “Moderately cold-bent during installation” results residual/ internal stress 2. “ran between the grains (intergranular)” shows the presents of corrosion 7.(standard. 21. “The corrodent was sodium hydroxide from boiler-water carryover” shows hydroxide ion from NaOH acts as active corrosion agent Given statement Exactly Accurate 2 Exactly Accurate Acceptable 1 Reason Accurate Acceptable Less Acceptable Confuse Nonsense Confuse 0./ pressure etc) 14. and load swings were frequent. Extent of incident 17. 19. [20 marks] 1. 16. 17. temp. “The cracks were highly branched” shows the presents of stress 6. ## 1 POINT = 1 MARK ii) From the above statement. 21.

plan the procedures that should be carried out to implement failure analysis on the failed tube and briefly give reason for each of procedures [30 marks] Procedures 1) Obtaining background data Reason • To investigate the basic information to be a primary clue of the root cause analysis. . 3) Chemical composition analysis by using XRF or spark emission spectrometer  To make sure whether the material meets the specified composition limits.  To record of the original & locations condition 2) Visual examination followed by closed-up photographs by digital camera.3 2 1 ½ ¼ 0 iv) Concisely.

 For documentation  To be send to customer Procedure 6) Fractographis analysis (SEM) & microanalysis (EDS) 7) Determination of failure mechanism & recommendations 7) Report writing Procedure & equipment stated 3 Exactly Accurate 4 v) Only Procedure stated 1 Only equipment stated 1 Nonsense 0 Reason Accurate 3 Acceptable 2 Less Acceptable 1 Confuse 0.5 Nonsense 0 Considering the root cause of failure. to determined and the relationship between the microstructure and the type of materials. 3.  EDS: to Identify of the chemical species present in the corrosion deposits  Failure mechanism: to determine the root cause of the failure.5) Metallographic analysis by metallurgical microscope.  Recommendations to determine whether the components should be replaced or not and to eliminate or reduce the frequency of future failures. and 1. to identify the presence of defects such as inclusions and voids or microstructural anomalies  Etched microstructure. 4.5 marks) Max = 6 marks b) three (3) corrective actions that should be taken in order to prevent the same future failure. manufacturing process and/ or the damage mechanism  SEM analysis: to identify of the fine scale features fracture mode.  As-polished microstructure. recommends a) two (2) types of tube materials that should be replacing carbon steel. 2. Killed carbon steel (3 marks) Stainless steel (3 marks) High chromium steel (1 marks) Superalloys (0. [20 marks] .

Signal analysis and artificial intelligence (3) 7. Avoid cold bending during installation process (3) 3. Intelligent corrosion monitoring and smart sensors (3) 6. (3) 4. First-class practice in inspection management (3) 8. Proper stress-relief-annealing (4) 5. Expert system on failure analysis (3) 10.1. Implement fitness for service test before operation (3) 9. Avoid bending in the plant’s design. (2) 2. Mind setting aim for zero failure (3) Max = 14 marks . Reduce the concentration of chemical species that promotes corrosion.

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