This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Prepared for: Prof. Prashant Kulkarni Prepared by: Raj Shah ( 323 ), MBA(Tech.) – Manufacturing / DIV C Date: 27th March 2013
Q1. (a) What is business process management and how it is related to your area of management?
(b) Does business process management always involve information technology?
Business process management (BPM) has been referred to as a "holistic management" approach to aligning an organization's business processes with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach. These processes are critical to any organization, as they can generate revenue and often represent a significant proportion of costs. As a managerial approach, BPM sees processes as strategic assets of an organization that must be understood, managed, and improved to deliver value-added products and services to clients. This foundation closely resembles other Total Quality Management or Continuous Improvement Process methodologies or approaches. BPM goes a step further by stating that this approach can be supported, or enabled, through technology to ensure the viability of the managerial approach in times of stress and change. In fact, BPM offers an approach to integrate an organizational "change capability" that is both human and technological. As such, many BPM articles and pundits often discuss BPM from one of two viewpoints: people and/or technology. BPM or Business Process Management is often referred to as 'Management by Business Processes'. The term "business" can be confusing as it is often linked with a hierarchical view (by function) of a company. It is therefore preferable to define BPM as "corporate management through processes". By adding BPM the second meaning of 'Business Performance Management' used by Pr Scheer in his article "Advanced BPM Assessment", BPM can therefore be defined as "company performance management through processes". And it's this resolutely performance-oriented definition which is chosen here. Dominique Thiault, in Managing Performance Through Business Processes defines BPM as a management-through-processes method which helps to improve the company's performance in a more and more complex and ever-changing environment. Management through processes is a management method based on two logical levels: process governance and process management: . Process governance is all of the company's governance activities which, by way of allocating on the processes, work towards reaching its objectives, which are both operational and progress-related. . Process management is all the management activities of a given process which work towards reaching the objectives allocated for this process.
Roughly speaking, the idea of business process is as traditional as concepts of tasks, department, production, and outputs. The management and improvement approach as of 2010, with formal definitions and technical modeling, has been around since the early 1990s. Note that the IT community often uses the term "business process" as synonymous with the management of middleware processes; or as synonymous with integrating application software tasks. This viewpoint may be overly restrictive - a limitation to keep in mind when reading software engineering papers that refer to "business processes" or to "business process modeling". Although BPM initially focused on the automation of business processes with the use of information technology, it has since been extended to integrate human-driven processes in which human interaction takes place in series or parallel with the use of technology. For example (in workflow systems), when individual steps in the business process require deploying human intuition or judgment, these steps are assigned to appropriate members within the organization. More advanced forms such as human interaction management are in the complex interaction between human workers in performing a workgroup task. In this case, many people and systems interact in structured, ad-hoc, and sometimes completely dynamic ways to complete one to many transactions. BPM can be used to understand organizations through expanded views that would not otherwise be available to organize and present, such as relationships between processes. When included in a process model, these relationships provide for advanced reporting and analysis. BPM is regarded by some as the backbone of enterprise content management. Because BPM allows organizations to abstract business process from technology infrastructure, it goes far beyond automating business processes (software) or solving business problems (suite). BPM enables business to respond to changing consumer, market, and regulatory demands faster than competitors - creating competitive advantage. As of 2010 technology has allowed the coupling of BPM to other methodologies, such as Six Sigma. BPM tools allow users to: • • • • • • vision - strategize functions and processes define - baseline the process or the process improvement model - simulate the change to the process analyze - compare the various simulations to determine an optimal improvement improve - select and implement the improvement control - deploy this implementation and by use of user-defined dashboards monitor the improvement in real time and feed the performance information back into the simulation model in preparation for the next improvement iteration • re-engineer - revamp the processes from scratch for better results
Although there have been many technical studies on operational business processes both in the public and in the private sector. The compliance aspect in BPM is highly important for governmental organizations. Although a key aspect of business processes is flexibility. Also. As of 2012 research on BPM has paid increasing attention to the compliance of business processes. As of 2010 BPM approaches in a governmental context largely focus on operational processes and knowledge representation. . policies and government regulations should also be ensured. researchers have rarely taken legal compliance activities into account. for instance the legal implementation processes in public-administration bodies. as business processes continuously need to adapt to changes in the environment.This brings with it the benefit of being able to simulate changes to business processes based on real-life data (not just on assumed knowledge). the coupling of BPM to industry methodologies allows users to continually streamline and optimize the process to ensure that it is tuned to its market need. compliance with business strategy.
(a) List seven generic steps involved in many BPM projects. (b) List and discuss seven fundamental principles to keep in mind when undertaking a BPM initiative. .Q2.
drop it. High Value: Gartner believes that only a fraction of all business processes are perceived as having high inherent value in achieving end results. Such projects should focus on achieving results. This clearly requires a sound. Goal Agreement: This is easier said than done but it's crucial to get all process stakeholders to agree on what is the desired performance improvement. will champion the project's success. "Furthermore. Gartner advises project managers to get business users on board by making a process view easy to understand and intriguing. and focusing on a few projects that will deliver highly visible results are two of the seven major fundamentals to business process management success. says Gartner. and to spread the word of a high-value payoff. Gartner adds. common performance goal that must be agreed upon before the get-go. Limited Scope: Instead of diving into a major end-to-end process improvement project." says Gartner. improved level of performance. The Right Metrics: Okay.Starting small. it is essential that performance-baseline data be available as a basis for comparison of current results versus prior results. The individual isn't necessarily in charge of the project. as defined by Gartner. The researcher says this can be accomplished by deploying good modeling and visualization methods that present meaningful measures of performance. Business User Engagement: Many people dislike change and that can be a big challenge for BPM projects. Gartner advises enterprises to start small. oftentimes no more than 60 to 90 days. disciplined post-project review and/or audit — and potentially even a longer-term review of results. 2. Gartner warns that this process may take as much effort as that of business process modeling. Focus on projects for which organizations have the skills.” says Gartner. the project should directly contribute to the attainment of a targeted goal. and that are straightforward." Gartner says. shared. . This includes agreeing on a primary. "The time frame should be relatively near-term. "Success here can mean that users realize that they are the experts. particularly if they're influential in the organization. Enthusiastic Business Sponsor: If your project doesn't have a sponsor. they feel a sense of ownership about what they do and they engage in seeing how things could actually be done better. 5. Whether the goals are to raise stock prices or get employees on Twitter. Clear Alignment to Goals: No surprise here as Gartner advises that BPM projects should align with important organizational or business-unit goals and strategies. 1. 3. Gartner says the requirement of having an enthusiastic business sponsor is vital because he or she. so how do you know the project is achieving high results? Gartner says enterprises must employ a few measurement metrics that are clearly understood and accepted by the rest of the organization. 7. but is the primary beneficiary of the new. with the hierarchy being developed and clearly understood. 6. The quantitative degree of improvement is vital to make a strong impression. 4.
and speed. BPR re-evaluates the processes used by the enterprise from the very basics and thoroughly redesigns them. BPR has a higher degree of risk for enterprises. enabling enterprises to have significant breakthroughs in cost. (a) Compare and Contrast between Business Process Management (BPM) and Business Process Re-engineering. Therefore.Q3. (b) Explain what is JIT. . service. Therefore. then BPR is a method. How can it be used as a Business Strategy in a FMCG Company. Cite examples. BPR is for the whole enterprise and may even include basic organization structures in its large modifications. The following compares the difference between BPM and BPR: BPR (Business Process Reengineering) If BPM is a system software. Converting the enterprise processes into electronic form is a required competitive weapon in this competitive global battleground! From Business Process Re-engineering (BRP) efforts by enterprise to covert to electronic processes. to investments in various resource integration efforts for Business Process Management (BPM) system are all weapons that enterprises use to survive. and create a new organization structure. BPR can enable enterprises to reform from deep within.
BPM can integrate internal resources in an enterprise. enabling the enterprise to become a single united special forces team. BPM starts from a group of dependent processes. In an environment that stores internal and external events. As well. indicates. understands. .BPM (Business Processes Management) BPM is a concept built internally in an enterprise that continuous to manage business processes. the system can automatically make decisions based on rules and processes of the enterprise to satisfy the management needs of the enterprise. and manages the whole process. that describes. creating comprehensive core competitive force. automatically linking each department. establishing standardized business processes through a single portal.
Implemented correctly. However. the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process. JIT relies on other elements in the inventory chain as well. which tell production when to make the next part. some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed. and efficiency. however. . Quick notice which requires personnel to order new stock once existing stock is depleting is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of the JIT policy. employee involvement and quality. To meet JIT objectives. such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. For instance.JUST IN TIME Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals. which saves warehouse space and costs. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow." In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods such as applying a trailing 13-week average as a better predictor for JIT planning. quality. its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "end up with the opposite of the desired result.
The JIT inventory philosophy defines how inventory is viewed and how it relates to management. Inventory is seen as incurring costs. This does not mean to say JIT is implemented without an awareness that removing inventory exposes pre-existing manufacturing issues.The philosophy of JIT is simple: the storage of unused inventory is a waste of resources. at the right place. and in the exact amount”-Ryan Grabosky. and are therefore not a simple solution for a company to adopt. and to constantly improve those processes to require less inventory. JIT inventory systems expose hidden cost of keeping inventory. the Just-in-Time inventory system focus is having “the right material. contrary to traditional accounting. Management may be tempted to keep stock to hide production problems. production management. industrial engineering. and behavioral science. The company must follow an array of new methods to manage the consequences of the change. and inadequate capacity. or waste. The ideas in this way of working come from many different disciplines including statistics. Secondly. . In short. process variability. lack of flexibility of employees and equipment. at the right time. machine reliability. These problems include backups at work centers. without the safety net of inventory. instead of adding and storing value. This way of working encourages businesses to eliminate inventory that does not compensate for manufacturing process issues. allowing any stock habituates management to stock keeping.
At its core are two questions: "Where are we?" and "Where do we want to be?" If a company or organization does not make the best use of current resources. gap analysis is a tool that helps companies compare actual performance with potential performance. and approving the variance between business requirements and current capabilities. This comparison becomes the gap analysis. and the current allocation level. Human Resources) Business direction Business processes Information technology Gap analysis provides a foundation for measuring investment of time. This concept is similar to the base case of being below the production possibilities frontier.. Gap analysis is a formal study of what a business is doing currently and where it wants to go in the future. it may produce or perform below its potential. Such analysis can be performed at the strategic or operational level of an organization. Once the general expectation of performance in the industry is understood. documenting.g. it is possible to compare that expectation with the company's current level of performance. . Gap analysis identifies gaps between the optimized allocation and integration of the inputs (resources). Gap analysis naturally flows from benchmarking and other assessments. This reveals areas that can be improved. in different perspectives. as follows: . or foregoes investment in capital or technology. . . Organization (e. It can be conducted. money and . Gap analysis involves determining. Write Short Notes on (a) Gap Analysis In business and economics.Q4.
in particular from the use of the Boston Consulting Group Growth-share matrix—or the need may emerge from the regular process of following trends in the requirements of consumers. The organization must fill that gap to survive and grow. Note that 'GAP analysis' has also been used as a means of classifying how well a product or solution meets a targeted need or set of requirements. In this case. At some point. to turn the salary payment process from paper-based to paperless with the use of a system). 'GAP' can be used as a ranking of 'Good'. 'Average' or 'Poor'.g. a gap emerges between what existing products offer and what the consumer demands. Steps in Gap Analysis. The need for new products or additions to existing lines may emerge from portfolio analysis.human resources required to achieve a particular outcome (e. (b) DMAIC Approach .
Measure. The top 3-4 potential root causes are selected using multi-voting or other consensus tool for further validation. Within Six Sigma. A project charter is often created and agreed upon during the Define step. X) of the project problem are identified via root cause analysis (for example a fishbone diagram). potential resources. • Establish a high level process flow baseline. set objectives and form the project team. DMAIC is an abbreviation of the five improvement steps: Define. Write down what you currently know. project scope and high-level project timeline. • Assess the measurement system (for example. This process is repeated until "valid" root causes can be identified. A data collection plan is created and data are collected to establish the relative contribution of each root causes to the project metric. the purpose of which is to establish process performance baselines. the process Y(s) (there may be more than one output). The customer(s) . This information is typically captured within project charter document.DMAIC refers to a data-driven improvement cycle used for improving. The DMAIC improvement cycle is the core tool used to drive Six Sigma projects. DMAIC is not exclusive to Six Sigma and can be used as the framework for other improvement applications. Critical to Quality (CTQs) — what are the critical process outputs? . The performance metric baseline(s) from the Measure phase will be compared to the performance metric at the conclusion of the project to determine objectively whether significant improvement has been made. validate and select root cause for elimination. Analyze The purpose of this step is to identify. Project boundaries or scope . A large number of potential root causes (process inputs. optimizing and stabilizing business processes and designs. Seek to clarify facts. The target process subject to DMAIC and other related business processes . A problem statement . goal. that is. Analyze. Project targets or goal . All of the DMAIC process steps are required and always proceed in this order: Define The purpose of this step is to clearly articulate the business problem. Improve and Control. Y. Good data is at the heart of the DMAIC process: • Identify the gap between current and required performance. often complex . Define the following: . The team decides on what should be measured and how to measure it. It is usual for teams to invest a lot of effort into assessing the suitability of the proposed measurement systems. • Collect data to create a process performance capability baseline for the project metric. a gauge study) for adequate accuracy and precision. Measure The purpose of this step is to objectively establish current baselines as the basis for improvement. Additional detail can be filled in later. This is a data collection step.
and what might be contributing to the occurrence. it is acceptable to use basic tools if these are appropriate. Monitor the improvements to ensure continued and sustainable success. all or some can be • List and prioritize potential causes of the problem • Prioritize the root causes (key process inputs) to pursue in the Improve step • Identify how the process inputs (Xs) affect the process outputs (Ys).analysis tools are used. Data is analyzed to understand the magnitude of contribution of each root cause. Statistical tests using p-values accompanied by Histograms. Identify creative solutions to eliminate the key root causes in order to fix and prevent process problems. . Pareto charts. Improve The purpose of this step is to identify. Share your new knowledge within and outside of your organization. but try to focus on obvious solutions if these are apparent. Think about replicating the changes in other processes. • • • • Create innovative solutions Focus on the simplest and easiest solutions Test solutions using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle Based on PDSA results. test and implement a solution to the problem. business process and training records as required. Use brainstorming or techniques like Six Thinking Hats and Random Word. X. Some projects can utilize complex analysis tools like DOE (Design of Experiments). Of the "validated" root causes. Update documents. attempt to anticipate any avoidable risks associated with the "improvement" using FMEA • Create a detailed implementation plan • Deploy improvements Control The purpose of this step is to sustain the gains. Y. However. It is very important to always provide positive moral support to team members. and line plots are often used to do this. • Detailed process maps can be created to help pin-point where in the process the root causes reside. Create a control plan. to the project metric. A Control chart can be useful during the control stage to assess the stability of the improvements over time Replicate or Thank the Team This is additional to the standard DMAIC steps but it should be considered. in part or in whole.
It is the method by which this 'most relevant' information is determined (i. .. processes. and the modern performance management tools including Balanced Scorecard are significantly improved . and proposed design methods that focused on choosing measures and targets associated with the main activities required to implement the strategy. and much of the early literature on balanced scorecard focused on suggestions of alternative 'perspectives' that might have more relevance to these groups. As a model of performance.being more flexible (to suit a wider range of organisational types) and more effective (as design methods have evolved to make them easier to design. the design processes used to select the content) that most differentiates the various versions of the tool in circulation. and use). that can be used by managers to keep track of the execution of activities by the staff within their control and to monitor the consequences arising from these actions. The balanced scorecard also gives light to the company's vision and mission.one relevant to a mid-sized US business. The report is not meant to be a replacement for traditional financial or operational reports but a succinct summary that captures the information most relevant to those reading it.a semistandard structured report. the proposal was translated into a form that made sense to a typical reader of that journal .those of "customer. initial designs were encouraged to measure three categories of non-financial measure in addition to financial outputs . As the initial audience for this were the readers of the Harvard Business Review. supported by design methods and automation tools. Accordingly.(c) Balanced Scorecard The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a strategy performance management tool . and has been widely adopted in English-speaking western countries and Scandinavia in the early 1990s). These two elements must always be referred to when preparing a balance scorecard." "internal business processes" and "learning and growth.e." Clearly these categories were not so relevant to non-profits or units within complex organizations (which might have high degrees of internal specialization). the balanced scorecard is effective in that "it articulates the links between leading inputs (human and physical). It is perhaps the best known of several such frameworks (it is the most widely adopted performance management framework reported in the annual survey of management tools undertaken by Bain & Company. The characteristic of the balanced scorecard and its derivatives is the presentation of a mixture of financial and non-financial measures each compared to a 'target' value within a single concise report." The first versions of balanced scorecard asserted that relevance should derive from the corporate strategy. and lagging outcomes and focuses on the importance of managing these components to achieve the organization's strategic priorities. Modern balanced scorecard thinking has evolved considerably since the initial ideas proposed in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
In all. While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor. . small group. when done correctly. suggestion system. the word Kaizen in English is typically applied to measures for implementing continuous improvement. the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. cross-departmental scale in companies. The format for kaizen can be individual. it is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week and is referred to as a "kaizen blitz" or "kaizen event"." Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement. and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes. as frequently used in the context of modern management discussions. or even taken to mean a "Japanese philosophy" thereof. humanizes the workplace. and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power. The word refers to any improvement. in the same sense as the English word "improvement".(d) Kaizen The Japanese word "kaizen" simply means "good change". Kaizen is a daily process. one-time or continuous. Kaizen on a broad. generates total quality management." People at all levels of an organization participate in kaizen. It is also a process that. These are limited in scope. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results. However. In modern usage. the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. or large group. as well as external stakeholders when applicable. sometimes this is the line supervisor's key role. especially in the case of oft-emulated practices spearheaded by Toyota. given the common practice in Japan of labeling industrial or business improvement techniques with the word "kaizen" (for lack of a specific Japanese word meaning "continuous improvement" or "philosophy of improvement"). Large-scale preplanning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments. eliminates overly hard work ("muri"). The discussion below focuses on such interpretations of the word. then adjusting. which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested. from the CEO down to janitorial staff. the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture the company's human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities. This philosophy differs from the "command and control" improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. with no inherent meaning of either "continuous" or "philosophy" in Japanese dictionaries or in everyday use. it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. large or small. At Toyota.
(e) Six Sigma .
4 defects per million).99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.5 sigma level. and this goal became a byword for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it. "Green Belts". and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Champions". The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing. including statistical methods. "Black Belts".Six Sigma is a set of tools and strategies for process improvement originally developed by Motorola in 1985. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. A six sigma process is one in which 99. Six Sigma became well known after Jack Welch made it a central focus of his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction and/or profit increase). Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. this defect level corresponds to only a 4. Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing operations. etc. specifically terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. although. "Orange Belts".) who are experts in these very complex methods. and today it is used in different sectors of industry. It uses a set of quality management methods. .
(f) Fishbone Diagram .
used to produce the final product . Was the information properly circulated to all the functions? . Was the document properly interpreted? . Machines: Any equipment. Was the proper training to perform the task administered to the person? . time. Is he experienced? . etc. temperature. to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. paper. Is his work efficiency acceptable? . Was too much judgment required to perform the task? . How much experience does the individual have in performing this task? . Is he responsible/accountable? . regulations and laws . parts. Is he medically fit and healthy? . rules. herringbone diagrams. Environment: The conditions. Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality . Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention. Is he qualified? . Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. People: Anyone involved with the process . computers. Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it. etc. Are there distractions in the workplace? .Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams. such as location. can he carry out the operation without error? Machines • • • • Was the correct tool/tooling used? Does it meet production requirements? Does it meet process capabilities? Are files saved with the correct extension to the correct location? . required to accomplish the job . Did the environment influence the actions of the individual? . Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. pens. procedures. and culture in which the process operates Questions to be asked while building a Fishbone Diagram Man/Operator . Did the recipient understand the information? . tools. Is fatigue a contributing factor? . such as policies. or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event. The categories typically include: . causeand-effect diagrams. Materials: Raw materials. Were guidelines for judgment available? .
labeled properly? • Were the workers trained properly in the procedure? • Was the testing performed statistically significant? . etc. daily/weekly/monthly preventative maintenance schedule) • Does the software or hardware need to be updated? • Does the equipment or software have the features to support our needs/usage? • Was the machine properly maintained? • Was the machine properly programmed? • Is the tooling/fixturing adequate for the job? • Does the machine have an adequate guard? • Was the equipment used within its capabilities and limitations? • Are all controls including emergency stop button clearly labeled and/or color-coded or size differentiated? • Is the equipment the right application for the given job? Measurement • Does the gauge have a valid calibration date? • Was the proper gauge used to measure the part.• Is the equipment affected by the environment? • Is the equipment being properly maintained (i. used & disposed)? Method • Was the canister.. barrel. chemical. Consumables and Information ) • Is all needed information available and accurate? • Can information be verified or cross-checked? • Has any information changed recently / do we have a way of keeping the information up to date? • What happens if we don't have all of the information we need? • Is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) readily available? • Was the material properly tested? • Was the material substituted? • Is the supplier’s process defined and controlled? • Was the raw material defective? • was the raw material the wrong type for the job? • Were quality requirements adequate for the part's function? • Was the material contaminated? • Was the material handled properly (stored. process.e. dispensed. etc.? • Was a gauge capability study ever performed? • Do measurements vary significantly from operator to operator? • Do operators have a tough time using the prescribed gauge? • Is the gauge fixturing adequate? • Does the gauge have proper measurement resolution? • Did the environment influence the measurements taken? Material (Includes Raw Material. compound.
? Management • Is management involvement seen? • Inattention to task • Task hazards not guarded properly • Other (horseplay..) • Stress demands • Lack of Process • Training or education lacking • Poor employee involvement • Poor recognition of hazard Previously identified hazards were not eliminated .. vibration..• Was data tested for true root cause? • How many “if necessary” and “approximately” phrases are found in this process? • Was this a process generated by an Integrated Product Development (IPD) Team? • Did the IPD Team employ Design for Environmental (DFE) principles? • Has a capability study ever been performed for this process? • Is the process under Statistical Process Control (SPC)? • Are the work instructions clearly written? • Are mistake-proofing devices/techniques employed? • Are the work instructions complete? • Is the work standard upgraded and to current revision? • Is the tooling adequately designed and controlled? • Is handling/packaging adequately specified? • Was the process changed? • Was the design changed? • Are the lighting and ventilation adequate? • Was a process Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) ever performed? • Was adequate sampling done? • Are features of the process critical to safety clearly spelled out to the Operator? Environment • • • • Is the process affected by temperature changes over the course of a day? Is the process affected by humidity. inattention. uncomfortable temperatures. etc. noise. lighting. etc.? Does the process run in a controlled environment? Are associates distracted by noise. fluorescent lighting.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.