YOGA AND AYURVEDA : PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF HEART DISEASES Acharya Balkrishna Vice- chancellor, University of patanjali, Haridwar

, India


Introduction From the commencement of human civilization various natural treatment systems were being used. Yoga and Ayurveda are prevalent all over the whole world as the oldest Natural treatment system. Yoga and Ayurveda among various healing systems, from the commencement were scientifically well organized. Similar to modern science Ayurveda and Yoga is also a well equipped unique healing science based on various fundamental principles like, body composition, with information relevant to diagnostic science, pharmacology, medicine, surgery, pediatrics, gynecological disorders etc. Science of yoga and Ayurveda have emphasized more on prevention before the treatment which has been applied by modern science in the form of preventive medicine. Systematic life style, thought and behavior, systematic food and then systematic non herbal treatment. (yogasana, pranayama , meditation, mantra and naturopathy), and herbal therapy (herbs, minerals etc.) are prescribed in yoga and Ayurveda. It is believed that modern medical science has its origin in the ayurvedic science.

Ayusau vedah Ayurvedah menas Vedas of age, deals with Ayurveda concept of age.

This means an adequate union of body, sense, mind and soul is age. Means only to earn money is not the goal of health and whole life (age). Instead achievement of mental peace and human emotion is also very important. The therapeutic benefits of yoga, pranayama and Ayurveda are being accepted by large number of people due to the contributions made by many scientific researches and clinical benefits.

The heart is an important part of the body, which has been counted in Ayurveda as important Trimurma (Shir, vasti and hridaya). Spiritually the heart is regarded as the location (seat) of mind. Located in the thoracic cavity, the heart is also the shelter of food juice, blood and ojas. The term hridaya is meaningfully explained in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. According to this, hridaya term is made from three elements ' hey harne' ' dad dane' and 'in gatau'.


Ojas located in the heart is the basis of life. mamsa (flesh).1. fear. In this state individual does not feel anger. The heart has an important place in Ayurveda and spiritual scriptures. 3 .Withdrawal of juice made from digestive processes and re-withdrawal of impure blood circulating in whole body is the meaning of 'hey element'. Mental disorders like anxiety. As given in the Brihaddaranyaka Upanishad we come to know that the ancient Indian sages had very clear knowledge about the cardiovascular system. self confidence awake and helps in achieving success in the struggle of life. 3. Heart is the location of Avalambhak kapha and vital air and is the root of rasvaha (juice carrying). fear. Pranamaya kosha----The cause for all the activities in the life of an individual is pranamaya kosha (vital sheath). Death is inevitable when ojas is destroyed. Sadhak pitta located in the heart keeps intelligence. Going outdoors in the morning in open surroundings and deeply inhaling the pure air through pranayama is very beneficial for the heart. thirst.this sheath control the intellectual activities of an individual. jealousy etc. thousands of years ago. Anandamaya kosha--. meda (fat).This sheath is responsible for mental activities which also controls the sensory and motor activities. rakta (blood). Annamaya kosha--.On achieving this state. Vigyanamaya kosha--. individuals experience bliss. Manomaya kosha-.This sheath is nurtured by food and water. It gives long life and protects the body from all the invasion of disease. 2. Here is the seat of consciousness and mind. etc. It includes ras (juice). Spiritual scriptures consider that the human body is made from five Koshas (Sheaths or Layers). Providing pure blood to the whole body is the meaning of 'dad element'. sadness. majja (bone marrow) and sukra (reproductive cells). hunger. anger. Incessant movement in the form of contraction (systole) and retraction (diastole) is the meaning of 'in element'. asthi (bone). have a profound negative effect on the heart.

This deformation is called heart disease. The place of mind is as a moderator between the subtle and gross body. Heart is the location of "Anahat chakra". Vatta. A report from the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that Asian youth people (youth) have more chances of suffering from heart attack as compared to other countries. Pitta . When the parts of the heart is in its natural condition.Like this annamaya kosha represents the gross body and rest of four koshas constitutes the subtle body. the function of the body takes place smoothly. Heart is the foundation of blood circulation through contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole). 3.sadhak pitta. Heart ailments According to World Health Organization there were approximately 1 crore and sixtyseven lakh people who died from heart disorder which was equal to 29% of total deaths.avalambhak kapha. Two types of diseases occur in the heart. In India (south Asia) 60 years ago heart ailments were in the ninth place as a fatal disease but now it has come to third place. Functional deformation 4 . the need is to accept its usefulness by applying in the whole world and presenting it in scientific way. Various bodily dosha (impurijties) arepresent in heart are: 1.vyana Vayu 2. Kapha. deformation or distortion in any part of the heart or activity leads to distortion in the functioning of the whole body. pranayama and Ayurveda. Heart and stroke foundation Canada reveals that in every minute one Canadian dies due to heart ailments or heart attack. It is the organ which supplies blood in the whole body. 1. Prevention and treatment of complicated disease like heart ailments is possible through Yoga. Six chakras are found in human body. Originative deformation 2.

The speed of the heart is 70. Acharya Charaka has explained five types of Heart diseases in the Astodariya adhyaya (C. Therefore. the heart also requires blood supply for its function. The muscles of the heart work incessantly throughout life. In heart 5 . Paitik (fire) heart disorder 3. Vattic (air) heart disorder 2. exercise. Blood is supplied in heart through coronary artery and these are mainly three. nutrition. Kaphaj (cough) heart disorder 4. 17). Chi. Trimarmya Chikitsa adhyaya (C. less blood is supplied to the heart and the individual (patients) suffers from angina. When the flow of blood suddenly stops in the heart then the individual suffers heart attack. 26) and Rog ki Samkhya vala adhyaya (C.90 per minute and in one stroke it distributes 70-80 ml of blood in various parts of the body. no other source of hope is visible. In this critical situation except yoga. The muscle of the heart is called myocardium. Heart disease (Angina and heart attack): Not only in India but in whole world the number of persons suffering from heart diseases (angina and heart attack) is increasing rapidly. Heart patients are in every class of the society and its treatment is very expensive and treatment through surgery (bypass surgery) is almost impossible for most of the people.Explaination of heart ailments according to Ayurveda: 1. 19). When obstruction comes in the blood flow of the coronary arteries. pranayama. Su. Su. Heart works as a pump in the body. Sannipatik heart disorder 5. Krimaj heart disorder. ayurveda and lifestyle reformation. Mostly heart is composed of muscles. What is most surprising and a cause of worry is that now this disease is seen in younger age.

In stress the persons feels like eating more of fatty food. LDL in the liver for transferring it to other parts of the body. Hyperlipidemia: Fat is not soluble in the body. These lipoproteins are of the following types: 1.attack the death of the muscles of the heart takes place and efficiency of the heart functions decreases. Firstly this fat is transform into VLDL. HDL. Low density lipoprotein 4. To make it soluble. After digestion fat is transferred from the intestine in the form of chylomicrons through the medium of blood to the liver. its’ deposition in arteries obstructs the blood secretion therefore resulting in harmful effects on the body and the person suffers from heart attack. High level of lipid is the meaning of hyperlipidemia. nature has given a unique carrier system to the body. Due to stress or tension stress hormone become more in blood. which is known as lipoprotein. Since these three carry fat to the peripheral tissues. this can be due to stress effect on limbic and hypothalamus. Harmful effect of stress generate disorders in the limbic system and hypothalamus and these are reduced through Yoga and pranayama which helps to make food habit alteration negligible. High density lipoprotein. There are various condition in the hyperlipidemia but 6 . angina etc. When obstruction becomes more than 70% then the problem of angina arises and if the Atherosclerotic plague breaks off due to some cause then the blood starts clotting in the region and obstruction becomes 100% and at this stage heart attack occurs. Triglycerides 2. LDL and triglycerides increases due to stress hormone and the amount of HDL decreases. Atherosclerotic plague rapidly increases when LDL and HDl ratio becomes 3:1. Main activities of the body takes place through lipid but it can be harmful for the body. Lipid is the scientific term for fat present in the blood. Very low density lipoprotein 3.

7 . In Brahma-muhurta (early morning) the flow of vital energy is more and also the amount of oxygen is more in the atmosphere before sunrise. Various diseases are treated through this method. instead it is achieved by bringing reformation in behavior and life style. which cannot be achieved by blessings from some person or by consuming medicine. Finally plaque when deposited in the large vessels stops the blood flow in blood vessels. Oxygen is the vital air which enters in our internal body through breath and increases the immunity of the body. Health is the result of pranayama. Heart Disease:. management and treatment Pranayama and Yoga treatment in heart disease: A Scientific explaination Yoga is sadhana (spiritual practice) by which mind becomes calm and knowledge is experienced. High lipid level gives rise to one process which is known as atherosclerosis or stiffness of blood vessels. that we call disease. Medical science had presented these discrepancies as very dangerous and we now consider this hormonal imbalance of our own body as a difficult to cure disease. Plaque is formed from other forms of lipid which circulates in blood and as the plaque goes on thickening our blood vessels start thinning and hardening. Human body is made up of five elements. Pranayama makes breath balanced which finally makes both body and mind of the individual healthy. which is known as plaque. makes body healthy and life longer.moreover it means that the level of high cholesterol and high triglyceride. Normally our blood vessels are soft and barrier free. breath is balanced through pranayama which invigorates vital energy. Disorders are generated in the body due to imbalance in hormones which can be balanced by the practice of pranayama.Prevention. The treatment of disease depends on the diagnostic process and the nature of pranayamas which are practiced systematically. Life is the balance of breathing and foundation of vital energy. however with the increase in age a substance is deposited in its walls. This is spontaneously achieved by the body from nature but the individual who acts opposite to the law of nature in them the harmony of five elements is disturbed which cause reverse impact in the nervous system of the body and discrepancies start coming in them.

Exhalation of breath rapidly and forcefully opens blockages in the heart and bypass surgery can be avoided.The effect of pranayama given by Swami Ramdevji has proved that now there is no incurable disease. Anulom-vilom: Anulom-vilom pranayama harmonize the respiratory system of the body which changes whole biochemistry of the body. Bhastrika: Bhastrika pranayama in which air is deeply inhaled and exhaled upto our own capacity. Impure air inside the body is expelled outside and inhaled air through the respiratory system oxygenates the blood which invigorates the whole body with vital energy. Cleansing of the lungs makes respiratory system strong and regular. Expiration of impure air and inhalation of oxygen inside the body purifies the blood. Kapalabhati: The second pranayama kapalabhati is most effective in treating diseases. it is practiced with exhaling forcefully. Inhaling air through left nostril an exhaling through right nostril then inhaling air through right nostril and exhaling through left brings synchronization so that we get rid of impurities from the whole body and harmony comes in the body. pulsates the heart which make inactive body active. eating habits and imbalances daily 8 . This helps difficult to cure diseases like asthma. heart is strengthened and respiratory system starts functioning appropriately. which removes heart disease spontaneously. The disease which has been generated by our internal imbalance can be ended by balancing it. It has been proven by research on yoga and observation on yoga treatment by medical science as well as on the basis of experiences of the one week yoga participants that the diseases are caused due to irregular lifestyle. Strengthening of internal energy brings a glow to the face due to elimination of disorders and impurities. Bhastrika. Kapalabhati and anuloma-viloma are the three pranayamas for heart disease which can work as a panacea. Abdominal fat and weight both are reduced when abdominal contraction and relaxation are done rapidly for exhaling breath outside. Yoga sadhana (Practice) is the name of this bodily harmony which makes incurable disease curable. while exhaling impurities are exhaled out. Increase in amount of oxygen exchanged in the lungs increases the oxygenated and purified blood circulation.

P. disease and health is human himself. The vibration produced due to these pranayamas becomes more supreme and are transformed into the very high dimension of commands which enters into air passage and produces vibration in blood of the blood vessels and which opens the blockages of the heart. Practice of Udgeeth pranayama for 11 times. 3. The cause for joy and sorrow. eliminates the waste in the lungs and activates digestion and excretory system. Pranayama practice reduces stress hormone through continous decrease in chronic stress and the level of endorphin and encephalin increases which in turn increases the level of HDL and in contrast decreases LDL. Yoga is a complete (holistic) medical science. The sadhak's (spiritual aspirant) intellect becomes pure and egoless. Secondly kapalabhati for 5-15 minutes (maximum). Extra/excess vital air (pure oxygen) comes inside the body through pranayama. It is the Sanjivani (Rejuvenating plant) of the world. it removes blockages of the heart. VLDL and triglycerides. 4. anger and ego. Extra oxygen burns and removes the unnecessary fat and gives energy to the body. is eradicated at the root level. The arrogance of mind and body are removed by practicing yoga. First bhastrika only for two minutes. Bhramari and Udgeeth: Divine vibrations are produced by bhrahmari and udgeeth pranayama.activities and treatment can be done through physical activities. Pranayama is always practiced systematically in the following series: 1. it is an amazing pranayama for achieving divine blessing and grace. We should practice each round of kapalabhati as per our capacity and stop it and have rest by taking long and deep breath for 3-4 times till breath becomes normal and again start the next round. We might be surprised to know that HDL removes the deposited LDL and triglycerides from the atherosclerotic plaque of heart and transforms them in liver and gradually the obstruction 9 . Kapalabhati can heal almost all the diseases present in the world. Burning of fat rapidly decreases body weight and the body becomes light and active. This pranayama helps to get rid of heart disease. Practice of anulom-viloma for 10-15 minutes opens the blockage of the heart and high B. Practice of bhramari pranayama for 11 times removes mental stress. 2. 5.

students and heart patients. Yogasanas: However it is normally considered heart patients should avoid exercise but yogasanas cannot be counted in the category of exercise. Trikonasana: It awakens the consciousness of nervous system. destroys all the ailments and its practice awaken the kundalini (dormant potencies). 10 . Snake (cobra) and bhujanga are synonymous term. reduces abdominal fat. This asana is beneficial for individual who does mental task. Harmonizes all the tri doshas (Vat-pittakapha) which is beneficial for the heart. Even though it should be noted that all asanas are not prescribed for heart patient. It is a very good practice for stabilizing the fickle mind. heaviness of the abdomen. This asana is very beneficial for individual performing intellectual the artery of heart decreases and the individual get freedom from angina and heart attack. Padmasana: Heart and mind has a close relationship. Intestinal flatus is passed. contemplation and also it is beneficial for all. advocates. Practice of this asana stimulates the digestive fire. writers. Pawanmuktasana: Practices of this asana removes the unwanted air from the abdomen. businessmen. doctors. The text. Tadasana: This asana makes heart strong which reduces the chances from suffering heart disease. Gherand Samhita has explained it with its benefit. Bhujangasana: It is also known as the cobra asana. stops shaking of body parts in old age and gives strength to the lung. and makes the heart very firm. Simple asanas are prescribed for heart patients. teachers. removes laziness. Apart from this it brings agility and enthusiasm. abdominal fat is reduced and the body becomes slim.

Janusirsasana: Practice of this asan is beneficial for spleen. Dhanurasana: It is useful for all the disease related to abdomen and makes the heart very firm. blood circulation and removes vatta and Kapha. throat. Khagasana: Practice of this asana destroys the ailments of heart. liver. It is very beneficial for spleen. 11 . The abdominal gases are passed out. Parvatasana: Practice of this asana removes disorder of lungs. asthma and in simple fever. Abdominal and intestinal disease is removed by this. Respiratory disorders are removed and chest expands and heart becomes stronger. It removes obesity and strengthens the mental power. Matsyasana : Practice of this asana makes whole body very firm. liver and heart. It is also beneficial in sciatica. Its practice increase digestion. Hridayastambhanasana: As it is clear from its name that this asana is for vibration of heart. Uttanapadasana: Practice of this asana destroys the disorders of blood and is beneficial for heart. chest and abdominal ailments are removed and breathing function improves which is useful for heart. neck. give relive in respiratory disease and strengthen the heart.Yogmudrasana: It is considered that if this asana is practiced properly it can awaken the kundalini. Vajrasana: Removes the flickering of mind and improves blood circulation so it is useful for heart patients. chest and abdomen. throat. cough. Individual whosoever practices this asana regularly his heart can never be obstructed. It also makes heart very firm.

Gomukhasana: Its’ practice brings cow like activeness in the body. Here explanations of some important herbal substances is necessary. Mandukasana: Its practice gives activeness in the body and strengthens the heart. It makes the brain healthy and it is also useful for the heart. Presently it has been provided in various scientific researches that various plants and mineral herbs explained in Ayurvedic pharmacology are useful in removing the heart disease from its root cause. Modern experiments has found anti-coagulant qualities in Arjuna. Calms down the psyche and benefits the heart. Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna): It has been proved by the scientific research that it has heart nuturing qualities. strengthens the heart muscle which makes heart to pulsate properly and reinforce the heart and also reduces the number of pulsations. It is also a blood toner. Yogasana: Blockages in the blood flow can be removed by practicing this asana. Ayurvedic balanced diet and treatment cannot only prevent the heart disease rather it can successively treat the heart disease. Nag bala (Gravia Hirsuta): It strengthens the heart and palliates the blood-pitta (bile) 12 . in Ayurveda scientific treatment. It helps in the vasoconstriction of fine blood capillaries which in turn increases blood present. firstly the cause which produces the disease is utterly released (removed). By this process heart is stimulated and becomes stronger. AYURVEDIC TREATMENT OF HEART DISEASE. It also decreases the secretion from blood vessels which removes the swelling. Astringent and calcium salt present in it works as an anti-coagulant.

13 . lucerice. inflammation or swelling of the blood. Akik. Puskaradi Kwath: it is very beneficial in heart disorders including rheumatic heart disease. blood related disorders. Karveer (Nerium Indicum): Karveer acts like digitalis. Kasisadi vati. marmelos. It purifies the blood. Akik pisti. Some ayurvedic formulations frequently used in heart disorders: Hridayarnava rasa. Besides these various other medicinal plants like Holy basil. garlic. Chintamani ras. It is heart strengthening. Shringa. jatamansi are beneficial in heart disorders and minerals like. Various ayurvedic formulation have been explained in various scriptures those explaining the context on Bhaisajya Kalpna of Ayurveda. It removes the weakness of heart. Arogyavardhini vati. Yogendra ras: It alleviates almost all heart diseases. Arjuna churna. It can be used in hypertension. Abhrak (mica ash) are useful for heart diseases. mandukaparni. Puskarmula (Inula racemosa): It stimulates the heart and is very effective in angina pain.Bala (Cida Cardifolia): It consists mainly of alkaloids which are beneficial for the heart. Vishweshwor ras. Nagarjunabhrat: A Shatapuri Abhrak which have been soaked in juice of Arjun bark for 7 days is good heart-tonic. gooseberry. poor functioning of heart. Arjuna Kshira pak. Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera): It works as anti-coagulant (blood thinner. Prabhakar vati. Numerous scientific studies have proved the efficacy of these formulations in various ailments of heart. Mukta (pearl). Yogendra ras. are being used by ayurvedic practitioners from ancient times. bloodpurifier as well as anti-inflammatory.

bitter gourd. rice. 2 tablets twice a day after meal with luke warm 5 gm 5 gm 1 gm 5 gm 10 gm. laufa gourd. cucumber. cow milk. Arjun Kwath 100 - 300 gm (1 teaspoon full) + 400 ml water boil till reduces to gm. coriander seeds. turmeric. goat milk. black pepper. increases agni (fire) or digestion and castor oil is also useful. 14 . beets. pollen grain. kakubhadi churna. fenugreek. in aamvataj (toxin) generated heart disorder aamvataghna drugs are used which digests aama (toxins. lentil pulse. Mix together and divide equally into 60 parts and Note: Arogyavardhini vati is useful in disorders of heart valves. mukta pisti. cardamom. honey. sheesham. gourd. radish. kidney-bean. Dietetics and lifestyle are very important in heart disorders so. by consuming a right nutritious food heart ailments can be prevented. garlic. tomato. Healthy diet for Heart Old wheat. drink on empty stomach twice a day.Sangeyasav pisti. longa. onion. Divya Hridyamrit vati. jinjili oil. almond. ginger. spinach. cabbage. ayurveda practitioner (Vaidya) chooses specific medicine to treat them. coriander. nagarjunabhrak ras. According to various types of heart disorders. Arjunarista etc. In case of Rheumatic heart disorder. Shringa Bhasma. Divya Hridayamrit vati water. Hridaya ratna churna. 2. Treatment (for 1 month) 1. Akik pisti Sangeyesav pisti Yogendra ras Mukta pisti Shringa bhasma consume 1 part twice a day on empty stomach with fresh water or honey. pumpkin. aniseed. carrot. asafoetida. 3. mint.

tamarind. chilli. Limitation for heart diseases Spicy food. raisin. 6-7 leaves of pudina (peppermint) and tulsi (holy basil) clears coronary artery obstruction and brings cholesterol/ lipid profile to optimal limit. cauliflower. graphs. white sugar. sheep milk. groundnut oil. red chilli. water melon. green chilli. pomegranate. plum pulse. ice-cream. kulthi dal. mustard leaf. yoghurt. Bengal dal (pulse). muskmelon. curd. apple. potato. cold drinks. papaya. ¾ 500ml of bottle gourd Juice. coconut. Home remedies for heart disease: ¾ Arjun Kshira paka: 25 gm of Arjun bark should be boiled in 400 gm of milk and 4 times water. egg. When gets reddish and fragrance starts to come add 250 gm of milk and 50 gm sugar and prepare halwa (semi-solid). pineapple. Give this to patient with 250 ml of milk. mango. parval. old jagri. arby.banana. strain & give to the patient. 15 . sandha salt. when only milk remains. burgers. brinjal. When gets cold add 6-6 gms of root of Bal and stem of lotus power and 20 gms of honey. ¾ Wheat flour 50 gm and Arjuna powder 15 gma are fried in little ghee. lady’s finger. thymol. harad are good for heart disease. dates. raw mango powder. lichi. meat. pastry. sauce. ¾ Massage the mediastinal region with vata alleviating oil. orange. pizzas.

according to age group 4% of the patients were in 1-30 years. Demographic pattern: There were 79% male and 21% female . 51-80 yrs. After registration of patients the recent symptoms were tested before treatments. 51-80 yrs. heaviness in chest. palpitation. 4% 1-30 yrs. Symptoms of dyspnoea on exertion. 53% 31-50 yrs. syncope and vertigo were found in the patients. insomnia. 16 . Selected Criteria: Those patients were included in this study who have been found positive in angiography reports and TMT. 43% 31-50 yrs. 43% of the patients were in 31-50 years and 53% of the patients were in 51-80 years. % of Patients According to Sex 79% 80% 60% % 40% 20% 0% 21% Male Female 1 % of Patients Accoriding to Different Age Groups 1-30 yrs. weakness.SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON HEART PATIENTS IN PATANJALI YOGPEETH: INTERPRETATION Brief report of experiment conducted on heart patients are presented here.

Before 24 % 43 % 19 % 14 % After 0% 33 % 14 % 53 % ह ृद ्श ू ल Angina Pain 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Severe M oderate M ild No symptoms 0% 24% 43% 33% 19% 14% 14% Pre-Yoga Post-Yoga 53% 17 . insomnia. Results after the treatment: There was an expected significant improvement after the treatment Symptoms Angina pain Severe Moderate Mild No sym. syncope. moderate. palpitation. dyspnoea or exertion. mild and no symptoms. heaviness in the chest. Symptoms of the patients were divided in four categories on the basis of severe.Criterion for experiments and treatments: All the selected patients were tested for symptoms in the outdoor treatment department. vertigo and weakness were found as important. Out of these symptoms angina pain.

Before 33% 29% 38% 0% After 10% 14% 24% 52% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Severe M oderate M ild 14% 38% 33% 29% 24% 52% Pre-Yoga Post-Yoga No symptoms Symptoms Insomnia Severe Moderate Mild No sym.Symptoms Palpitation Severe Moderate Mild No sym. Before 24 % 14 % 48 % 14 % After 0% 19 % 24% 57% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Severe M oderate M ild 24% 19% 14% 14% 24% 48% 57% Pre-Yoga Post-Yoga No symptoms 18 .

Before 10 % 33 % 43 % 14 % After 0% 0% 43 % 57 % 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Severe M oderate M ild 0% 14% 33% 43% 43% 57% Pre-Yoga Post-Yoga No symptoms Symptoms Vertigo Severe Moderate Mild No sym. Before 39 % 29 % 24 % 8% After 0% 14 % 19 % 67 % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Severe M oderate M ild No symptoms 0% 14% Pre-Yoga 39% 29% 24% Post-Yoga 19% 8% 67% 19 .Syncope Severe Moderate Mild No sym.

Symptoms weakness Severe Moderate Mild No sym. Before 24 % 29 % 38 % 9% After 0% 24 % 29 % 47 % 50% 40% 29% 30% 20% 9% 10% 0% 0% Severe M ode r a t e Mild 24% 24% 38% 29% 47% Pre-Yoga Post -Yoga N o sy m pt oms 20 .

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