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ENHANCING WELL PERFORMANCE

Edmond NGALEMO

PETROM TECH DAY, SEP 07

AGENDA
WELL PERFORMANCE WELL PROBLEMS WELL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PRODUCTION LOGGING OPTIONS FOR ENHANCEMENT

WELL PERFORMANCE

FACTORS EFFECTING WELL PERFORMANCE


RESERVOIR STRUCTURE DRIVE MECHANISM COMPLETION SYSTEM

RESERVOIR

RECOVERY

COMPLETION

WELL PROBLEMS

WELL PROBLEMS

WELL PROBLEMS

WELL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION


RESERVOIR
Hydrocarbon water contact Detect thief zone Well test Mechanical problems Channeled cement Zonal contribution (injection, production) Water breakthrough, coning Treatment effectiveness

WELL INTEGRITY

COMPLETION

PRODUCTION LOGGING
PRODUCTION LOGGING PROVIDES DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF FLUIDS IN THE WELL DURING PRODUCTION OR INJECTION.

PL MEASUREMENTS TEMPERATURE PRESSURE TUBING/CASING SIZE FLOW DISTRIBUTION


RATE HOLD UP

PL SERVICES
Thermometer Manometer (sapphire gauge, quartz gauge) Fluid density (gradiomanometer, nuclear) Flowmeters (continuous, fullbore) FloView (digital fluid entry tool) GHOST (Gas holdup optical sensor tool) FSI (floscan imager) Gamma Ray CCL Noise (single frequency, multiple frequency) Caliper Radioactive tracer Water flow logging Gravel pack logging Three-phase holdup Downhole video SWBS WEIGHT SWRS ROLLER PBMS
GR, CCL, Temp, Press

PILS
INLINE SPINNER

PGMC
GRADIO-MANOMETER

GHOST
OPTICAL PROBES

PFCS SPINNER,
ELECTRICAL PROBES

THERMOMETER
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Platinum temperature resistor

First log down 1800 ft/hr

SPECIFICATIONS
Range: Resolution: Accuracy: 25 C to 150 C 0.006 C 1 C

TEMPERATURE
APPLICATIONS

LOCATION OF FLUID ENTRIES DETERMINATION OF FLOW BEHIND PIPE DETECTION OF GAS PRODUCTION QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF FLUID FLOW DOWNHOLE TEMPERATURE INFORMATION EVALUATION OF FRACTURE TREATMENTS EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL INTEGRITY OF A COMPLETION

TYPICAL TEMPERATURE LOG

DISTRIBUTED TEMPEATURE SENSOR


RealReal-time monitoring of temperature
Continuous data without well intervention. Sensor: fiber optic technology real-time transmission of downhole data water / gas breakthrough, steam management zonal isolation, well integrity injection monitoring, artificial lift performance minimizing the need for production logs minimizing production losses

Faster, better decisions

Reduced operating costs

Specifications Depth: Sensing length: Sample spacing: Temp/Press: Resolution: 0.05 degC

up to 30 km 12 km 1m 150oC / 10 kpsi

Not suitable for all wells (Resolution)

PRESSURE GAUGES
STRAIN

QUARTZ

SENSORS STRAIN GAUGE


PAINE SAPPHIRE

ELECTRONICS ACQUISITION FREQUENCY


FAST GAUGES SLOW GAUGES

QUARTZ GAUGE
CONVENTIONAL COMPENSATED

RESOLUTION NOISE

ACCURACY, RESOLUTION, REPEATABILITY SENSITIVITY, TRANSIENT RESPONSE (STABILIZATION)

Pressure (psia)

PRESSURE GAUGE
Specification
ACCURACY
Difference between a measured value and the true value obtained from a reference standard. Minimum pressure change that is detected by the gauge. Maximum difference between measurements of the same pressure. Ratio of the induced variation in the transducer output to the change in applied pressure.

RESOLUTION

REPEATABILITY SENSITIVITY

TRANSIENT RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS TRANSIENT RESPONSES TO PRESSURE VARIATIONS

PRESSURE GAUGES

Specification Accuracy Repeatability Resolution Temperature rating Pressure rating

CQG Quartz Gauge Sapphire Gauge 2.0 psi + 0.01% of reading 5 psi + 0.01% of reading 1.0 psi 0.01 psi at 1Hz 0.05 psi at 1Hz 302F (150C) 302F (150C) 15 kpsi 10 kpsi

PSOI (differential) 0.015 psi

302F (150C) 20 psi

PRESSURE
APPLICATIONS

DOWNHOLE PRESSURE INFORMATION for PVT evaluations


Fluid compression shrinkage GOR Downhole to Surface / Surface to Downhole conversions

DERIVE FLUID DENSITY


RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS from pressure transient analysis
permeability(k) permeability thickness (kh), formation skin factor (s) reservoir extent and boundaries productivity index absolute open flow potential (AOFP, see glossary).

SPINNER FLOWMETER
Magnet

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION IMPELLER ROTATES AS FLUID MOVES ROTATIONAL SPEED IS MEASURED ELECTRICALLY (RPS) FLUID FLOW DERIVED FROM CALIBRATION OF RPS

Coils

Spinner blades

APPLICATONS QUANTITATIVE FLUID MOVEMENT WITHIN THE WELL ON A ZONEBY-ZONE BASIS.

SPINNER FLOWMETER
SPECIFICATIONS
Flowmeters Continuous Fullbore

Tool diameter in tubing (in) Spinner diameter (mm)

1 11/16, 2 1/8, 2 7/8 30, 42, 61

1 11/16 57, 89, 127, 178

Minimum flow rate (B/D)(1)

400

200

Temperature (C) (

150

150

Pressure (psi)

15000

20000

(1) (7-in. casing) Minimum flow rates correspond to single-phase flow. Minimum flow rates for multiphase flow vary according to the fluid properties of the mixture.

SPINNER CALIBRATION
InIn-Situ Flowmeter Calibration Plot
E RPS D C D E

m y
B A

Up

Vt

Down Cable Speed

A
0 + Cable Speed 0 RPS +

y=mx+c x=(1/m)y+d V=(1/m)RPS+Vt Vm = ( RPS / Slope ) + Vt CS Vm = ( RPS . Pitch ) + Vt CS

SPINNER MIXTURE APPARENT VELOCITY

turbulent

laminar

GRADIOMANOMETER FLUID DENSITY TOOL


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

P + so f = g h cos

FACTORS AFFECTING GRADIO TOOL MOTION KINETIC JETTING FRICTION

GRADIOMANOMETER
SPECIFICATIONS
Differential pressure transducers Manufacturer Temperature range Overpressure without decalibration Accuracy Burst pressure Shocks and vibrations (3) DST and TCP resistance (1)Including P&T hysteresis, fitting error and repeatability (1) PSOI Schlumberger 175C 20 psi 0.015 psi (1) 40 psi Class 6 (500 g/2 ms) Yes

GRADIOMANOMETER
PGMC SPECIFICATIONS

Range Accuracy Resolution

0 to 2 g/cc 0.04 g/cc (below 20 deviation) 0.002 g/cc

GRADIOMANOMETER
APPLICATIONS

DETERMINE FLUID HOLD UP


FROM AVERAGE DENSITY DETECT ENTRY POINTS

LIMITATIONS DEVIATED WELLS FLUID LAYERING LOW CONTRAST BETWEEN FLUID

ELECTRICAL PROBES
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Probe sensitive to fluid conductivity Output is binary Water holdup Hw = White time / Total Time Hydrocarbon Holdup Hh = 1 Hw Bubble count BBC = bubbles /second

ELECTRICAL PROBES
PFCS SPECIFICATIONS

Accuracy

5 % water (2% when Yw>90)

Bubble Count

10% for bubble size > 1mm

Maximum fluid velocity 2 m/s (telemetry), 1m/s (memory) Minimum water salinity 1,000 ppm @ 100degC 2,000 ppm @ 25 degC . Charts

ELECTRICAL PROBES
APPLICATIONS

LOCATING FIRST OIL/WATER ENTRIES, WITH HIGH RESOLUTION WATER HOLDUP MEASUREMENT FLOW RATE COMPUTATION

FLOVIEW LOG

Stratified flow in horizontal well

First oil entry

OPTICAL PROBES
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Incident light (Ii)

(Ir) Ir) Reflected light

Ir/Ii ?
Probe sensitive to fluid refractive index Output is binary Gas holdup Hg = Black time / Total Time Liquid Holdup HLiquid = 1 Hg Bubble count BBC = bubbles /second

OPTICAL PROBES
GHOST SPECIFICATIONS

Accuracy

7% standard probe 5% probes without protectors 1 % If Yg > 98 % or < 2 % 1% for Bubble size > 0.002 in or 0.1mm

Bubble Count

Maximum fluid velocity 8 m/s (covers most of velocity ranges)

OPTICAL PROBES
APPLICATIONS

LOCATE FIRST GAS/LIQUID ENTRIES, WITH HIGH RESOLUTION GAS HOLDUP MEASUREMENT FLOW RATE COMPUTATION

FLOVIEW GHOST LOG

GR
CORRELATION
Depth matching between separate trips in the well. Providing the depth control needed for cased hole operation

IDENTIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE ZONES (SCALES) IN PRODUCING WELL

CCL
CORRELATION IN CASED HOLE

Operates in ferromagnetic pipes

PIPE

CCL

MULTIPHASE FLOW

FLOWRATE-VELOCITIES-HOLDUP-CUT
Yw Yo
Holdup Flowrates Yw + Yo = 1 Qw = Yw * Vw * Area Qo = Yo * Vo * Area Qtot = Qw + Qo Vs = Vo - Vw Vsupoil= Vsupoil= Qo / Area Vsupwater = Qw / Area Vmix = Qtot / Area Vmix = Vsup BS&W = Qw / Qtot

Slippage Velocity Superficial Velocity

Vw

Vo
Mixture Velocity

Water Cut

OPTIONS FOR ENHANCEMENT


WATER SHUT OFF SQUEEZE JOBS TUBING / CASING PATCHES HYDRAULIC FRACTURING MATRIX ACIDIZING SAND CONTROL PERFORATING - REPERFORATION MULTIPLE COMPLETIONS ARTIFICIAL LIFT

THROUGH TUBING CEMENT PLUGS

TOTEA EXAMPLE PRODUCTION LOG

WELL PERFORMANCE

THANKS

MANOMETER
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Force summing device Paine gauge Sapphire gauge Hewlett-Packard gauge QuartzdyneTM gauge Compensated quartz gauge

GAUGES