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UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SABAH PUSAT PENATARAN ILMU DAN BAHASA

Course Due Date Date Submitted Lecturer

: UF English for Academic Purpose : 12th December 2008 : 12th December 2008 :

I hereby confirm that the work contained in this assignment is solely my own, except for reliance on material that is identified and cited according to accepted academic practice.

No 1

Name Jaimin Layuk

Matrix no

Signature

TOPIC: KINDS OF INFORMATION IN THE INTRODUCTION SECTIONS OF JOURNAL ARTICLES IN EDUCATION

ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to write a project paper related to my field of study. This project paper want to investigate whether the format of writing the introduction section in research articles follow the format suggested by Weissberg & Buker (2006). The samples used in this project were related to my field of study. Three articles were collected for this project paper as recommended by the lecturer. The result of this research showed that only one (RA1) of the three articles have all the five elements required in the introduction section. However article 2 (RA2) and article 3 (RA3) have only three out five elements required. The missing elements in the introduction section might occur because the researchers used many different formats to write their research article and the introduction section in particular. They also prefer to use their own style or format for their research article. This study was limited to three samples only and has to conduct in very short time. Nevertheless, I found out that this project paper in fact helps me to improve my writing skills, especially in writing a high quality research paper. I recommend that a further research is necessary in the future and it should use more samples as well as enough time given to conduct the research.

INTRODUCTION This project paper focuses on skills that is required for reading academic texts at university level, skills for writing research reports and oral presentation. Through this project paper, I was required to select three recent journal articles in order to conduct the research. The titles of the three articles are Development of an immobilization and detection method of enterobacter sakazakii from powdered infant formula, Skim milk powder supplementation affects lactose

utilization, microbial survival and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones in soymilk by lactobacillus and Inactivation of penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields. The articles will be the

samples of this project paper. This project paper primarily about how to write a good introduction in a journal articles. The title of this project paper is Kinds of Information in Introduction Section of Journal Articles in Education. There were some researches that have been made for an introduction before. According to Robert Weissberg and Suzanne Buker (2006), the introduction can be divided into five stages, which were include setting, aspect of the problem, statement that indicate the need for more investigation, the purpose and objective of the writer study and the last stage is justification for carrying out the study. David Sherill (2003) said that the introduction is the part where we can explain why our paper is interesting. It should set up the

problem, including a thorough discussion of the literature. He added that the last part of the introduction should give a brief idea about what is discovered in the paper. According to Robert Dees (2003) in his book Writing the Modern Research Paper; fourth edition, the aspect in the introduction must includes the anecdote, introducing the topic significance, offering stages, quoting on authority, reviewing a controversy, summarizing the literature, providing background information and defining a key term. Finally, David A. McMurrey (1998) said that the introduction to the primary research report needs to do and get the readers ready to read the report. The introduction section should provide some background, but not more than a paragraph or two in one to two pages introduction. Some of the common elements of the introduction to primary research report, such as the background or the purpose, can be handled in the introduction. If they require a lot of discussion, however, they may need their own sections. There is a need for more research on the introduction section, because the quality of a journal articles can be differentiated by the way they present their research paper including the introduction section and not many books had been written about how to write a good research paper introduction in particular. I hope that I can get a lot of benefits from this project paper. I also hope that it will help me to acquire reading academic texts skill, to improve my language, my writing skills and in my future thesis writing. In addition, this project paper can increase my knowledge on my major study., but

the most important is, this project paper surely help me to write better introduction section of a research report in my field.

METHOD The main objective of this research paper is to determine the kinds of information that should be put in the introduction section of research articles in education. This paper project also conducted to find the quality of the journal articles. Three journal articles related to education were collected as samples for this project paper. All of the articles chosen have been taken from the journal Food Microbiology. The title of the first articles is Development of an immobilization and detection method of enterobacter sakazakii from powdered infant formula written by Yanhong Zhou, Qingping Wu, Xiaoke Xu, Xiaojuan Yang, Yingwang Ye and Jumei Zhang, taken from Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese academy of Science, Wuhan 430071, China. The title of the second articles is Skim milk powder supplementation affects lactose utilization, microbial to survival and biotransformation in soymilk of by

isoflavone

glycosides

isoflavone

aglycones

lactobacillus written by Thuy T. Pham and Nagendra P. Shah from School of Molecular Science, Victoria University, Werribee Campus, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. The third articles is

entitled Inactivation of penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields written by Gulsun Akdemir Evrendilek, Fatih M. Tok, E. Mine Soylu and Soner Soylu from Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Food

Engineering, Abbant Izzet Baysal University, Golkoy Campus, 14280 Bolu, Turkey and Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Musafa Kemal University, 31034 Antakya-Hatay, Turkey.

The journal articles were selected because they fulfil the Introduction, Method, Result, Discussion (IMRD) format. All the articles were taken from University Malaysia Sabah Library but the three articles are not enough to ensure a reliable result for this paper project. I found that some of the technical words used in the articles were difficult to understand and confusing to me. Even sometime it was a hard to find words in the dictionary. I also found that the time given to carry out this project paper is very limited. There are some basic procedures to follow in order to carry out this project paper. Firstly, all the articles chosen must approved by the lecturer. Second, this project paper only focused on the introduction section of the articles. The other sections such as Method, Result and Discussion were disregarded and there are five elements need to identify from the introduction sections. The five elements are setting, aspect already studied, need for more research, purpose and value or justification. The keyword showing the five elements in the articles were underlined for

references. Two tables were created to show the result of the research. Table 1 show the kinds of elements that can be found in the introduction section from each of the three research paper. Signs of + and - were used to indicate the presence and absence of an information elements respectively. The positive (+) symbol show that the element was found or present whereas the negative (-) symbol show that the element was absent. Meanwhile, table 2 show the examples of information elements in the three introduction section of the research articles related to education. The best examples of information elements from the three research articles were put into table 2 and highlighted.

RESULT Table 1 below show the distribution of information elements in the three introduction section related to education. The five elements of the introduction sections were stated to determine the quality of the articles. The table was completed based on the existence of the information elements in the introduction sections from each of the articles. Table 1
Information Element/Stage Research Article 1 (RA1) Setting + Research Article 2 (RA2) Research Article 3 (RA3) -

Aspects/s Already Studied Need/s for More Research Purpose Value/justification Total Number of information Elements

+ + + + 4

+ + + 3

+ + + 3

Note: The symbols/signs + and - indicate the presence and absence of an information element respectively.

Table 1 shows the distribution of information elements found in the introductions sections of the three research articles. The data

shows that RA2 and RA3 have the least number of elements. Meanwhile RA1 has all of the five elements as suggested by Robert Weissberg and Suzanne Buker (2006). The table also shows that both RA2 and RA3 were without setting element. Meanwhile, the elements of

value/justification and purpose were missing in RA2 and RA3 respectively. RA1 can be considered as a research article of high quality because all of the five elements of information in the introduction section exist. Meanwhile, RA2 an RA3 cannot be considered as a quality research article because there are only three elements of information in the introduction section. The missing elements are setting, purpose and value/justification. Basically, I found that researchers in education do not really follow the format suggested by Weissberg & Buker (2006).

The authors of the articles may have their own reason not to follow the format. For example, the authors may disregarded the elements in the introduction section because they focused on other parts of the research that they think are more important such as the result or method in their research paper. In other case, I found it really

interesting because I didnt found the purpose element in RA3 and the introduction part also too short. Purpose is very important element because it is enable readers to understand the main objective of the particular research paper. Therefore, I believed that every author have their own reason and unique way to write a research articles.

Table 2 shows the example words for the five elements from the three articles. The words were found in certain sentences in any of the three the articles. Table 2: Examples of elements in the Three Introductions Section/s Related to Education

Information Element/Stage Setting

Example The problem of E. Sakazakii in infant formula has drawn attentions of people all over the world. (RA1:648)

Aspects/s Already Studied

Result of these studies revealed that PEF processing alone or in combination with mild heat treatment was a successful option for the pasteurization of food

products processed. (RA3:662) Need/s for More Research However, to date, there is no report about the fermentation with SMP of by SM the

supplementation

predominant probiotic Lactobacillus group. (RA2:654) Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of immobilization using

zirconium hydroxide for the concentration of E. sakazakii in pure culture. (RA1:648)

Value/justification

Thus,

we

report

the

potential

adaptability of the method to more PIF samples. (RA1:648)

For setting element, the best words that to describe it is the word drawn attentions of people all over the world . This sentences show the setting of the research article for RA1. The authors used the sentences to describe the setting element in their research article. To describe aspect/s already studied, the words Result of these studies revealed is the words used to explain that the aspect already studied by previous researchers. The words were found in the RA3. Need/s for more research element was best described by the words However, to date, there is no report. It was clear that the authors of the article indicated that the particular subject need for more research. The words were found in the RA2. Then, the sentence of The aim of this study

was clearly showed the purpose of the research article. This sentence found in the RA1. The sentence indicates what the author wanted to do in his research. The last element is value or justification. This element is shown by the sentences; Thus, we report the potential

adaptability of the method to more PIF samples. Such sentences were used to justify the authors point toward the research article. The sentences found in the RA1.

DISCUSSION This study found that the introduction sections of the three journal articles are actually different from one to another. I found that, there are missing elements in the introduction stage except for RA1. The result once again shows that some of the authors did not follow the format suggested by Weissberg & Buker (2006). The absence of any of the five elements in the introduction section mean that the researcher was not followed the format. Setting and value/justification were among other element that absence in two of the three articles. This happened because the researchers used many different formats to write their research article and the introduction section in particular. However, I must admit that the result of this research was not up to the standard required in education research because of the limitations on this project paper. I was only allowed to pick three journal articles. Evidently, three

articles are not enough to get accurate and reliable result for and researchers. The time to prepared and finish this project paper is very limited and that can make this research paper low in quality because we certainly need enough time to produce a high quality research paper. Furthermore, I found, it was difficult to understand the journal articles because of the limited in English language proficiency. The words used in the articles are also extremely complicated and difficult to understand. However, I feel that this project paper actually gave me a lot new knowledge and skills especially in my field of study and in writing research paper in particular. It also helped me to understand the various style of writing research paper. Finally, I suggest that further research in the future use larger samples in order to get accurate result.