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Stitches & Seams Analysis (Ch.14, p. 428~475)
ADM4307 Apparel Manufacturing By S. H. Shin, Ph.D.
Define stitch classifications, characteristics, and formation. Identify seam classification, types, and uses. Relate the properties of stitches and seams to production costs, performance, and quality. Examine functions, characteristics, and selection of sewing threads and needles. Examine the relationship between needles, thread, and fabric. Analysis seam appearance and performance.
Stitches and Seams
Standards that defined stitches and seams:
The United States Federal Stitch and Seam Specification (Federal Standard 751a) in 1965. ASTM D 6193, Standard Related to Stitches and Seams
Stitch classification is based on:
Structure of the stitch Method of interlacing stitch properties.
A Stitch: is the configuration of the interlacing of sewing thread in a specific repeated unit. A Seam: is a line where two or more fabrics are joined. A Stitching: consists of a series of stitches embodied in a material for decorative purpose or finishing an edge.
Relate to aesthetics and performance
Stitch length, width, and depth.
Thread tension Stitch consistency.
Stitch properties: Stitch size
Stitch properties: Stitch size
Stitch width (gauge)
Stitches per inch (spi) High spi
Distance between the outermost lines of stitches. Refers to the horizontal span covered in the formation of one stitch. Referred to as gauge, (inch)
Short stitches: High quality Potential problems (seam pucker or weaken fabric). Higher spi, the more time and thread, high cost. Long stitches: Lower quality Problems: Less durable, snagging, abrasion, grinthrough Fast, less thread, less cost. men’s shirts 22 spi vs. 8 spi
Example: overedge, zigzag, and cover stitches (1/4 inch)
Width dimensions require multiple needles or lateral movement of thread carriers:
Example: needle bars, loopers, or spreaders.
but time-consuming and costly for an operator.Lockstitch Class 300. The 301 is not for elastic or knit fabrics. stitch and seam type. Used for top stitching The tightest and most secure stitch For setting zippers and pockets. Lockstitch machine is good for versatility. reversible. Stitch classes Class 300. attach lace on lingerie.Lockstitch Stitch classes (ASTM D 6193) based on the type of thread formation by a sewing machine Use Lockstitch machines: 2 threads to form a stitch. There must be a compatibility of fabric. uneven stitches. Class 300. Used to make bar tacks Buttonholes. Example: a lock stitch machine (300 class) Six classes of stitch types 100 Single thread chain stitch 200 hand stitch 300 lockstitch (formed with needle thread and bobbin) 400 Multi thread chain stitch 500 Overedge and safety stitch 600 Cover stitch or flat seam stitch (Needle thread + Lower thread) ) A rotary hook catches the needle thread loop as it passes around the bobbin and interlocks the 2 threads. Seam pucker. 432. unbalanced stitch formation weekend thread. Figure 14-2 Examples: The least amount of thread. Decorative stitching.Lockstitch The 301 lockstitch (=Plain stitch or Straight stitch) Zigzag lockstitches (304) See p. needle. or bias seams. Too much tension. The degree of compression on the fabric created by the threads as a stitch is formed. and potentially damaged fabric. Excessive looping or loose and uneven stitches. 2 . Th d t Thread tension i affects ff t stitch tit h formation f ti in i 2 ways: Thread tension Example: Blind stitches (Curved needle with lateral movement) The balance of force on the threads that form the stitch. Used to sew athletic wear Appliqués. and faggooting. and machine setting. a tight thread causes: Too little tension causes: Must have some tension in order for the stitch to form properly. Flattest stitch. thread.Stitch properties: Stitch size Stitch consistency: Thread tension Stitch consistency Depth: Distance between the upper and lower surface of the stitch The uniformity with which each stitch is formed in a row of stitches.
3 . Examples: Decorative stitching on western wear Pleated skirts. the inside components of waist bands for men’s dress slacks.Lockstitch Class 100-Chain stitch Lockstitch blind stitches The class 100 chain stitches. 306. 314 Example uses: For linings. The 400 class use upper needle thread and a looper to carry the lower thread. single needle thread. Examples: For closing bags of sugar/ Bar tacks Shirring Buttons Buttonholes See <Sample> A types of blind stitches formed by curved needle. 431.Class 300. and spreader to form the loops. No lower thread ! Single thread chain stitch is an intra-looping formation. Figure 14-2 See <Sample> The 103 chain stitch (=Blind stitch machine) Pulling u g a loose oose thread may easily unravel. Examples: For the hem. See 431 Fi Figure 14-2 Stitch class 400 (Multithread chain stitch) required 1 or more needle threads that form loops as they pass through the fabric and inter inter-loop loop with the looper thread on the underside. with the assistance of spreader. Loop formation allows good elongation and stretch and makes unraveling easy. are formed when 1 or more needle threads p pass through g the fabric and form a loop on the underside of the fabric. Class 100-Chain stitch Class 400.Multithread chain stitch The 104 chain stitch (=Machine saddle stitching) S p. Tailored jacket lapels Belt loops of dress slacks. The 400 class is more durable and used extensively on apparel. Class 100-Chain stitch Class 100-Chain stitch The 101 chain stitch See p. 313. Compare to the 100 class. 431.
Class 400. High thread users and stretch. Parallel rows of stitches for lapped side seams of woven shirts and jeans. hold 2 layer fabrics at actual seam line. a looper or spreader to carry the thread from the needle to the edge of the material on the bottom. overlock. Class 500-Overedge stitch Class 500-Overedge stitch The 500 overedge stitch (=Overedge. and attach bindings on men’s brief’s. necklines of T-shirts. Example uses: 2 needle threads that produce two parallel rows of stitching on the face of the fabric. Even numbered stitch types (502. serge. 433. Example uses: Examples: The 406 is used to form hems on knit garments.Class 400. A pair of knives and 3 stitch f forming i devices. and a looper or spreader to carry thread up and over the edge of the material on the top.Multithread chain stitch The 401 Two-thread chain stitch = Double-locked chain stitch The 402 cording stitch See p.Multithread chain stitch The 404 Zigzag chain stitch: The 406 and 407 Cover stitches: See <Sample> More elastic than 401 Two-thread chain stitch. The 407 is similar except 3 needle threads and has more stretch.Multithread chain stitch Class 400. Example uses: Edge finishes and hems rather than for seams. d i a needle dl to t carry the thread through the fabric. Figure 14-2 See <Sample> Appearance is the same as the 101. Examples: Used for stitching permanent creases Good for setting elastic in waist bands or decorative stitching on belts. but the 401 has a loop formation on the underside and More durable. (e.Multithread chain stitch Class 400. (continuously run after the fabric) Odd numbered (501. 4 . Chain off the stitching. Decorative stitching Attaching curtain to the inside of the waist band. 503) “Break open” stitches. 504) Much tighter needle thread. The chain stitch elongates when extended. for undergarments).g. or merrow) Overedge machines trim the edge of fabric and form stitches over the cut edge. overcast.
the most common. See <sample> 1 needle. 2 looper threads Seams for knit garments. The 503 The 512 and 514 Mock safety stitches For seaming knits and woven. 1 looper thread for blind hemming g and serging. Class 500-Overedge stitch Class 500-Overedge stitch The 515. and interlocking on the upper side. 519 Safety stitches The 521: Combination of an overage stitch and a 401 chain stitch.Cover stitch Stitch class 600 Cover stitch (= Flat-lock or flat seam stitches) The 602. inter looping on the inter-looping underside. elastic stitches to cover raw edges and prevent raveling. jackets. The 505 The 514: Stronger and more elastic and chains off better than 512. and serging the seams of dress slacks. and jeans Class 600. hems on T-shirts. 605. and 607 2 or more needle loops. Example uses: knits and lingerie The 607 for infant’s panties 5 . blouses. Machines are fast and efficient. 4 threads The 504 (2 needle threads. 504 and 505 for Serging. Strong. Box edge stitch For Serging. Example uses: Excellent elasticity and strength for seaming hosiery hosiery. 1 needle.Class 500-Overedge stitch Class 500-Overedge stitch The 503.Cover stitch Class 600. 2 looper threads). Shirts. 516.
and sewing side seams of quality dress shirts. Is the total distance covered by a continuous series of stitches. The distance from the folded edge of the top ply to the first line of stitches. shoulder seam) Seam length is a factor in determining stitch types. or cover stitch (NOT ( O an a overedge o e edge st stitch). etc. A header reduces the strain on the cut edge of fabrics and makes the seam stronger. sleeve on T-shirts. The seam heading of a top stitched seam. and costs. Seaming and binding BSb: BSc: Sewing together two butted pieces of fabric. Neckline or front edges bound with bias-woven material. Sweatshirts and underwear underwear. 442. Seam depth: Is the thickness or flatness of a seam.Seam dimensions Seam classes (ASTM D 6193) Seams (3 dimensions): Seam length. 443. attaching elastic to waistline Ends of waistbands on jeans Seaming. and depth Affect garment quality. Table 14-3). and long underwear. overedge stitch. short.necklines. chain stitch. (e. tc ) Examples: To finish edges or garments . Joining 2 or more pieces fabric with seam allowance edges even. Stitches: Lockstitch. width. Seam length: ASTM D 6193 standard practice for stitches and seams 4 seam classes and 2 stitching classes (See p. ot others es for durability. sleeveless tank tops with binding. side seams or inseams of jeans. Side seams of dress shirts and jeans Attaching patch pockets and overlay yokes. Seams of support garments Sweatshirts and underwear Sweatshirts and underwear FSb: FSc: BSd: FSd: BSe: FSe: Seaming and binding 6 . Examples: Side seams SSb: SSc: SSd: SSa (Side Seams of skirts) SSe: 2 or more pieces of fabric joined by overlapping at the needle. (Example: EFd: Edge finish. Each long line: a piece of fabric. Attaching yokes LSb: LSc: LSd: LSe: Bound seam (BS) class Flat seam (FS) class Bound seam (BS) BSa: Flat seam (FS): FSa: One piece of fabric or binding. performance. The short lines: penetration of the needle and lines of stitches. not overlapping Stitches: wide 600 class (Cover (Co e stitches) st tc es) Examples: sweatshirts. chain stitch. Raglan seams of sweatshirts. . setting pockets. Collars or cuffs. Line drawings represent cross sections of a seam. Stitches: lockstitch or chain stitch (NOT an overedge stitch) Examples: attaching front bands to shirts. serging) Superimposed seam (SS) Lapped seam (LS) class Superimposed seam (SS) class SSa: Lapped seam (LS) LSa: Side seams Finishing belt ends. Edges bound with ribbon or braid T-shirt necklines or sleeve edges with knot trim trim. serging) SSa (Side Seams of skirts) EFd (Edge finish. Vinyl and leathers Attaching curtain to waistband of men’s dress slacks slacks. Table 14-1) (See p. which are major factors in appearance and comfort of a garment. Curve lines: a connecting thread between two lines of stitching. Some are used to reduce the t e amount a ou t of o bu bulk. but not widely used. lingerie. Stitches: Sewn with a lock stitch. or appearance. or safety stitch. Seam width: Line drawings of seam types Width of a seam allowance Measured from the cut edge of fabric to the main line of stitches.g. seamed and topstitched. Wider seam allowances may increase cost.
etc etc.Stitching classes (EF) Stitching classes (OS) Edge Finishing (EF) EFa: Ornamental stitching (OS) OSa: Single piece of fabric. Raised stitching. Jeans pockets. Decorative sitting on jean pockets Decorative stitching with cording insert Raised stitching without cording insert for backs of gloves. Stitching encompasses a cut edge or provides a finish for a single ply of fabric with a foldededge. cording between 2 plies of material Pin tucks on font of blouse. Examples: For decorative purpose. (may be folded in a variety of ways). (may be folded in a variety of ways). serging Ornamental edge finish OSe: EFe: Specifications for stitches and seams Specifications for stitches and seams An example of a specification An example of a specification 401 LSc-2: 2 independent rows of stitches The type of seam The seam class (Example: Lapped Seam) Identifies the stitch class and type (Example: two thread chain stitch) Example: Stitch type: 406 Cover seaming stitch (see p. Single-fold hem EFb: Double fold hem Double-fold T-shirt hem Single piece of fabric. OSb: OSc: EFc: EFd: OSd: Edge finish. 433) Seam class: BS (Bound seam) Pocket 1 Mac1427f Yoke 2 (pocket piece and thread) Lab: Stitch and Seam Analysis Operation breakdown: Determines the sequence of Assembly (list of steps) Hem pocket 16 301 EFb Attach pocket to shirt front 16 301 LSd Stitch pencil pocket 16 301 LSb1 7 . embroidered logos logos.
Displacement pucker or jamming Occur when More stitch per inch (spi). and thicker sewing thread. comfort and abrasion resistance of apparel. Tight tension settings on upper or lower thread. Seam properties Seam elasticity (2 factors) Elongation Recovery (the return of the seam to its original length) Example: Swimsuit (seam elasticity for the fabric) Determined by resistance to pulling force and abrasion. Consistent stitch and seam formation Seam flatness Seam pucker: Just after sewing or after laundry. Solution: Finer thread and a smaller needle. 461) ) Drapeability of a seam. using fewer spi. the bottom fabric puckers. luster. and dye-ability. Z twist S twist thread tends to untwist during stitch formation. Strength: Flexibility: 8 . Tension pucker: Is caused by too much tension on the sewing thread. Synthetic fibers Example: comparison of cotton and polyester threads (See p. Affects the drapeability. mercerized cotton threads increase strength. Thread structure None Sew side seams 16 Lapped seams 401 LSc None Twist Form pressed Final assembly (Pants) •Side seam •Attach Zipper •Inseam •Crotch seams •Stitch Hem •Waist band Ply Color matching Finishes e.000 meters of un-dyed sewing thread. Moisture pucker: Seam performance Next class… Seam performance (properties) related to fabric characteristics.g. pocket. selection of stitch and seam types. Match buttons and thread to fabric Commercial match Uniform stitches and no seam puckers on topstitching collar. thread type and size and density of stitches (spi). cuffs. thread size (T16 to T 24). Filament thread S twist vs. Thread size and needle size Seam appearance Seam appearance Relationships between thread and needle size (See p. front 301 LScf None Attach collar band to shirt neck 16 301 LSar. The finer threads require smaller needle eyes and finer needles. 458) Spun yarns vs. Feed pucker: p Is caused by the resistance or drag of the presser foot on the top ply. cross-stitch pattern None T i th Trim threads d Characteristics of threads Fiber content Final assembly (shirts) Cotton thread vs. Examples: For the fabric 2 to 4 oz. may occur with final steaming or pressing. If the fabric on the bottom is fed more rapidly than the top ply. 301 LScn None Attach sleeves to shirt body 16 Single needle tailoring 401 LSaw 6 Stitch hem spi: 16 Stitch/Seam type: 301 EFb None Stitch buttonholes spi: dense but not overlapping Stitch/Seam type: 301 Lock stitch None Attach button spi: 8 stitch per hole set Stitch/Seam type: 301 Lock stitch. higher count fabrics. finer fabrics. 16 spi. No differential shrinkage Salable appeal to young men Thread size Based on the gram weight of 1.Mac1427f 8 Attach yoke to shirt back and fronts 16 Back 301 LSbp. Ticket number (T) or Tex system.