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Nutritional factors for microbial growth Environmental factors for microbial growth Microbial metabolism
nucleic acid and peptidoglycan . protein. require nutrients for metabolic purposes and for cell division. and grow. bacteria are made up of : polysaccharide. lipid. • Chemically.Nutritional factors for microbial growth • Bacteria. like all living organisms.
# Nitrogen source Ammonium (NH4+) is used as the sole N source by most microorganisms. .Heterotrophs (organotrophs): use organic carbon (eg.Autotrophs (lithotrophs): use CO2 as the C source Photosynthetic autotrophs: use light energy Chemolithotrophs: use inorganics .Metabolic Requirements # Carbon source . Ammonium could be produced from N2 by nitrogen fixation. glucose) for growth. or from reduction of nitrate (NO3-)and nitrite (NO2).
Most microorganisms can use sulfate (SO42-) as the S source. also is required for signal transduction. coenzymes. nucleic acids. . capsular polysaccharides. . phospholipids. teichoic acid.Phosphate (PO43-) is usually used as the P source.A component of ATP. # Phosphorus source .Metabolic Requirements # Sulfur source A component of several coenzymes and amino acids.
Cu2+ and Zn2+) can be provided in tap water or as contaminants of other medium ingredients. . .Required for enzyme function. . Mo2+.g. # Growth factors: organic compounds (e. Na+ and Cl-.For most microorganisms. Ca2+. sugars. nucleotides) a cell must contain in order to grow but which it is unable to synthesize.# Mineral source . Fe2+. . Enterobactin).Uptake of Fe is facilitated by production of siderophores (Iron-chelating compound. Mg2+.Many other minerals (eg. it is necessary to provide sources of K+. Mn2+. amino acids... eg. Co2+.
• Vitamins. • Carbohydrates are used as an energy source and as an initial substrate for biosynthesis of many substances. . • Amino acids are crucial for growth of some bacteria.Organic coumpound • Organic nutrients are essential in different amounts. depending on the bacterial species. purines and pyrimidines in trace amounts are needed for growth and as catalisator.
Essential Elements .
60 oC) • pH Neutrophile (pH 6 . Nearly all osmophilic microorganisms are from the yeast genus.8) Acidophile (pH 1-5) Alkaliphile (pH 9-11) • Oxygen availability Obligate aerobe Obligate anaerobe Facultative anaerobe Microaerophile (5-10% O2 (Capnophilics: bacteria that do not produce enough CO2 and.Environmental factors for microbial growth • Temperature Psychrophile (15 oC . require additional CO2 for growth.37 oC) Thermophile (50 oC . such as high sugar concentrations Osmophiles are similar to halophillic (salt-loving) organisms because a critical aspect of both types of environment is their low water activity. .20 oC) Mesophile (30 oC .) • Water availability Osmophile: microorganisms adapted to environments with high osmotic pressures. therefore.
Oxygen and Hiydrogen for microbial growth • Oxygen & hydrogen are obtained from water. • Water is essential for bacterial growth • correct oxygen tension is necessary for balanced growth .
Obligate aerobe Microaerophile Facultative anaerobe Obligate anaerobe .
Toxicity of O2 for Anaerobes 1. 3. .is removed by “superoxide dismutase”. O2. In aerobes and aerotolerant anaerobes. Strict anaerobes lack both catalase and superoxide dismutase. 4. while H2O2 is removed by “catalase”. 2.by ferrous ion. O2 reduced to O2. O2 reduced to H2O2 by enzymes.
Anaerobic cultivation methods Excluding oxygen Reducing agents. Natioglikolat Anaerobic jar Anaerobic glove chamber .
. • Chemicals that accept electrons become reduced.Redox Reactions • All chemical reactions consist of transferring electrons from a donor to an acceptor • Chemicals that donate electrons become oxidized.
bacteria need to intercept the electrons during redox reactions • Eh is important for clinical in infection wound whether aerob and anaerob population at the same site .Redox Reactions • Energy is released during these electron transfers. • In order to capture that energy.
• There are different strategies for conserving this energy .Metabolism • The goal of metabolism is to conserve the energy released during redox reactions by making high energy compounds such as ATP.
fermentation 3. respiration 2. photosynthetic Fermentation – Transfer of electrons to organic substrate • Respiration – Transfer of electrons to inorganic acceptor – Phoptosynthesis : energy from light is altered to chemical energy in the form of ATP .Metabolism • Metabolism to yield energy : 1.
Protein Proses Metabolisme: Anabolisme Katabolisme Energi Proses sintesis sel dan enzim. ekskresi senyawa. Lemak.PETA KONSEP Karbohidrat. Reaksi Reduksi.Oksidasi . penyerapan unsur hara. pergerakan sel Reaksi enzimatik. memelihara steady state sel.
ATP dan ADP .DEFINISI METABOLISME Semua proses kimiawi yang dilakukan oleh organisme atau semua reaksi yang melibatkan transformasi energi kimia di dalam mahluk hidup – Definisi Metabolisme. Katabolisme dan Anabolisme – Metabolisme sebagai proses produksi energi untuk kehidupan sel – Senyawa pembawa energi.
Anabolisme: Pembentukan senyawa yang memerlukan energi (Reaksi endergonik): FOTOSINTESIS: MEMBENTUK C6G12O5 DARI CO2 DAN H2O Katabolisme: Penguraian senyawa yang menghasilkan energi (Reaksi eksergonik): RESPIRASI MENGURAIKAN KARBOHIDRAT MENJADI ASAM PIRUVAT DAN ENERGI .
Chapter 5 .
membran sel.MENGAPA MIKROBA MEMERLUKAN ENERGI ? • Synthesa bagian sel (dinding sel. atau komponen sel lainnya Mempertahankan kondisi sel (optimal) dan memperbaiki bagian sel yang rusak Pertumbuhan dan Perbanyakan Penyerapan hara dan ekskresi senyawa yang tidak diperlukan atau waste products • • • • • Pergerakan (Motilitas) . Asam Nukleat. Polysakarida. dan substansi sel lainnya) Synthesis Enzim. Phospholipids.
ENERGI KIMIA Komponen kimia berenergi tinggi: Adenosin Diphosphate (ADP) dan Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) yang dibentuk dari Adenosine Monophosphate ADP adalah AMP ~ P dan ATP adalah AMP ~ P~ P REAKSI BIOKIMIA DIKATALIS OLEH ENZIM: Berperan penting dalam setiap reaksi metabolisme .
the temperature and the pH of the environment .g. coli. the faster the multiplication rate • Other factors that affect the doubling time include the amount of nutrients.Bacteria Growth • • • • • • Bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission in which a parent cell divides to form a progeny of two cells This results in a logarithmic growth rate One bacterium will produce 16 bacteria after four generations. 24 hours for M. The doubling or mean generation time of bacteria may vary (e. 20 minutes for E. tbc) • The shorter the doubling time.
Microbial growth is defined as an increase in the number of cells in a population. Doubling (generation) time E. coli: 20 min M. tuberculosis: 12-24 h Bacterial growth curve .Bacterial growth Principles of bacterial growth Bacteria multiply by binary fission.
The growth cycle of a bacterium • Four main phases 1. Decline or death phase: this is marked by a decline in the number of live bacteria. 2. • 4. Stationary phase: is reached when nutrient depletion or toxic products cause growth to slow until the number of new cells produced balances the number of cells that die. exponential) phase: rapid cell division occurs. 3. . Lag phase: may last for a few minutes or for many hours as bacteria do not divide immediately but undergo a period of adaptation with vigorous metabolic activity. Log (logarithmic. determined by the environmental conditions. The bacteria have now achieved their maximal cell density or yield.
Bacteria stop growing due to decrease of nutrients and O2 supply.A balance between slow loss of cells through death and the formation of new cells through growth and division. . Bacteria synthesize macromolecules required for multiplication. The doubling time is measured during this period. The bacteria are most susceptible to antibiotics during this time. The length of lag phase depends on the conditions in the original culture and the medium into which they are transferred. and accumulation of toxic metabolites.
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