6 views

Uploaded by Chuông Gió

save

- 10_mathematics_impq_sa_2__2_Arithmetic_Progression_2.pdf
- Thermo-Pile Documentation Theory V1
- IMOMATH - Generating Functions
- Cobalancing Numbers and Cobalancers
- SJTU-CS-Curriculum.pdf
- Curriculum
- matematik
- Arithmetic Progression
- Quantifiers
- BITS PILANI Test 15– Answer Key & Explanatory Answers
- Mathematics Test 37
- Academic CV of Farhad
- maths 14
- Tutorial
- MS_MA07_V31-N2
- Quant-I
- Calendar
- Number System
- 400 Puzzles
- add math progressions
- Logarithmic Differentiation
- Combinatorial Theory Aigner PDF
- 400 Puzzles
- New Text Document
- mani aps 1 MBA
- Ah
- pascalII.pdf
- Combinatorics Introduction
- Errata List for Algorithm Manual Skiena
- HW20Evans
- euclide1
- PT HPT BPT Mathlinks
- hinhphu_euclide_lethuong
- Phuong Trinh Vo Ti
- Bat Dang Thuc Ve Dinh Ly Gia Tri Trung Binh Va Ungdung
- Tai LieuBDHSG
- Ung Dung Tinh Dang Cao Vao Giai Toan
- 6330081-042006
- Ung Dung Cua Dinh Ly Ptoleme Mo Rong
- Phuong Trinh Bac Ba Va Mot So Tinh Chat (1)
- Trai He Toan 2011
- Laisac.lucas
- 5 Cyclic Solns
- các bdt về định lý giá trị trung bình và ứng dụng
- Một số dạng phương trình nghiệm nguyên
- Sum of Squares - Pham Kim Hung
- My Inequality Project (1)
- De Thi China TST 2013
- Ceva Menelaus
- c491inhliphan-dutrunghoa
- GC Blue Combin Num Theory 2 (1)
- baitapso3lvt
- Formulary
- 84271452-Notes-MA2219
- 2006_5_entirelymixing
- Phân thức hữu tỷ và một số hệ phương trình
- Một vài vấn đề về phương trình Diophante
- A New Point on Euler Line1
- comb-geom

You are on page 1of 4

**Sequences (from Zuming97/98)
**

Po-Shen Loh June 27, 2003

1

Warm-Ups

1. Line up sequentially in height-order, and say “Cauchy.”

n 2. (Abel Summation) Suppose that we have (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 . Also, suppose that we deﬁne Sk = Then: n n−1 k i=1

ai .

ak bk = Sn bn +

k=1 k=1

Sk (bk − bk+1 ).

2

Problems

1. Calculate the sum

n k=1

k/(2k ).

**Solution: Split it into:
**

n

1

k = 2k

n

n

k=1 i=k

1 . 2i

Now use geometric series summation to get 2 − 1/(2n−1 ) − n/(2n ). √ 80 2. Prove that 16 < k=1 1/ k < 17.

√ √ Solution: Divide the sum by 2, and then substitute the denominator with ( k + k + 1), with appropriate adjustment for the two directions.

n 3. Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence. Let (bk )1 be a real sequence (not necessarily positive). Suppose that i=j ai bj = 0. Prove that i=j bi bj ≤ 0.

Solution: Let a = ak and b = to b2 ≤ b2 k . By Cauchy-Schwarz: (ab)2 = (

bk . The given tells us that ab =

ak bk . The result is equivalent

ak bk )2 ≤ (

a2 k )(

2 b2 k) ≤ a

b2 k,

since (a) is positive. But then we get precisely that b2 ≤

b2 k.

n 4. Let (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 be two real sequences, and suppose that (bk ) is nonnegative and decreasing. For k k ∈ {1, 2, . . . , n}, deﬁne Sk = i=1 ai . Let M = max{S1 , . . . , Sn } and m = min{S1 , . . . , Sn }. Prove that n

mb1 ≤

i=1

ai bi ≤ M b1

1

Hence the terms of the Un sum are simply (Sn − 1). We will get that Tn = (n + 1)Sn − (n + 1). n 8. write out the sum in table-form with it on horizontals. √ Solution: Use result from three problems ago. a2 k ) and we get that 6.n 5. √ n n for all n ≥ 1. . Solution: Weighted AM-GM: bi ai a i ai ≥ ai bi ai ai Now divide through in the given conditions and take the (bn /an )a n term by taking the (b1 b2 · · · bn )/(a1 a2 · · · an ) ≥ 1. Prove that i=1 ai ≤ i=1 bi . Prove that for 9. Let (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 be two real sequences with (a) nonnegative and decreasing. we can continue in this way without making any of the powers negative. d = 3978. bk ak ≤ b2 k bk ak )2 ≤ ( Divide through both sides (it is positive since it is bigger than and the result follows by transitivity. Given two real sequences (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 with (a) a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · · · ≥ an ≥ 0 (b) b1 ≥ a1 and b1 b2 ≥ a1 a2 and . d < 1000000 for which T1998 = aS1989 − b and U1988 = cS1989 − d. (USAMO94) Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence satisfying j =1 aj ≥ all n ≥ 1: n a2 j > j =1 1 4 1+ 1 1 + ··· + 2 n . Solution: For the ﬁrst one. (USAMO89) For each positive integer n. k Solution: Rearrangement 7. (IMO78) Let (ak )n 1 be a sequence of distinct positive integers. and add columns. Plug this back in and use the previous. we get answers of a = b = 1989. Solution: Use Abel sum. b. and add in ak = 1/(2 k ). Prove that for any positive integer n: n k=1 ak ≥ k2 n k=1 1 . Also suppose that k k n n 2 2 i=1 ai ≤ i=1 bi for all k . use the aj for the bk . But by Cauchy-Schwarz: b2 k ). c. get ( a2 i ≤ Sbn an + a2 k )( Sbk (ak − ak+1 ) = b2 k) ≤ ( ak bk )( bk ak . Prove that n i=1 bi ≥ n i=1 ai and determine the condition of equality. 2 . . Since (a) is decreasing. and b1 b2 · · · bn ≥ a1 a2 · · · an . 2 3 n+1 Sn Tn Un = 1+ Find integers 0 < a. c = 1990. let: 1 1 1 + + ··· + 2 3 n = S1 + S2 + · · · + Sn T1 T2 Tn = + + ··· + .

But use algorithm to turn any sequence into ﬂat-85: if ak < ak+1 . For intermediate k : 4 ≤ k k ( k + 1)2 i=1 ai k √ Solution: Cauchy-Schwarz with (k ). we get the equality of full sums. This will increase the sum of ai by 1. then we get 1700. xn = 1. . 11. Given that a19 = 85.n 10. and (k/ ak ). . is an unbounded sequence of integers. but decrease the sum of bi by 1. . . (ak ). Solution: Abel sum. Solution: Now do this: n n k k i=1 i2 ai k k 1 1 ai ≤ 1 n 4k 2 k (k + 1)2 2k + 1 k 2 (k + 1)2 k 1 k i2 ai i2 ai < 2 1 n 1 = 2 k=1 i=1 n n i ai i2 ai 2 1 1 − k2 (k + 1)2 1 1 − k2 (k + 1)2 = 2 i=1 k=i 3 . Let bn = m if am is the ﬁrst member of the sequence to equal or exceed n. taking ∆k ≡ 0. then can replace ak by ak + 1. prove that n n ai xi ≤ i=1 i=1 bi xi for any x1 ≤ x2 ≤ · · · ≤ xn is equivalent to n n k k ai = i=1 i=1 bi and i=1 ai ≥ i=1 bi . 12. for k = 1. what is the maximum possible value of a1 + a2 + · · · + a19 + b1 + b2 + · · · + b85 ? Solution: If all ak are 85. 2. (Uses Calculus) Find a compact expression for n k=1 kxk . For the converse. it simply plugs into the Abel sum. . we get the rest of it. For xn = 0. a1 + a2 + · · · + ak a i=1 i n k=1 Hint: use the following lemma: 1. n − 1. Prove that: 1 k <2 . (USAMO85) 0 < a1 ≤ a2 ≤ a3 ≤ . . Given two real sequences (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 . ∆k = δk . 3 Really Hard Zuming Problem n Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence.

n = 2 i=1 n i2 ai 1 ai 1 1 − i2 (n + 1)2 < 2 i=1 4 .

- 10_mathematics_impq_sa_2__2_Arithmetic_Progression_2.pdfUploaded byAkshay Sharma
- Thermo-Pile Documentation Theory V1Uploaded bydjhardcore
- IMOMATH - Generating FunctionsUploaded byDijkschneier
- Cobalancing Numbers and CobalancersUploaded bybkrawat2008
- SJTU-CS-Curriculum.pdfUploaded bySalah Boussetta
- CurriculumUploaded byApril Joy Gelilang Pulga
- matematikUploaded byVinisha Nisha
- Arithmetic ProgressionUploaded byJanardan Sunil
- QuantifiersUploaded byredgoriya
- BITS PILANI Test 15– Answer Key & Explanatory AnswersUploaded bynavy456
- Mathematics Test 37Uploaded byPulkit Goel
- Academic CV of FarhadUploaded byfarhadsworld
- maths 14Uploaded byapi-230427224
- TutorialUploaded byUber
- MS_MA07_V31-N2Uploaded byDeniz
- Quant-IUploaded bySalman Khan
- CalendarUploaded bysant_shiv
- Number SystemUploaded byBHASKAR SANKAR
- 400 PuzzlesUploaded byPraneeth Konda
- add math progressionsUploaded bykamil muhammad
- Logarithmic DifferentiationUploaded byJethro Minano
- Combinatorial Theory Aigner PDFUploaded byLee
- 400 PuzzlesUploaded byNavya Cool
- New Text DocumentUploaded byShubham Birange
- mani aps 1 MBAUploaded byporseena
- AhUploaded bySana Rafiq
- pascalII.pdfUploaded byKAPIL SHARMA
- Combinatorics IntroductionUploaded byJaime1998
- Errata List for Algorithm Manual SkienaUploaded bycoolvar90
- HW20EvansUploaded bylesparres11

- euclide1Uploaded byChuông Gió
- PT HPT BPT MathlinksUploaded byChuông Gió
- hinhphu_euclide_lethuongUploaded byChuông Gió
- Phuong Trinh Vo TiUploaded byChuông Gió
- Bat Dang Thuc Ve Dinh Ly Gia Tri Trung Binh Va UngdungUploaded byChuông Gió
- Tai LieuBDHSGUploaded byChuông Gió
- Ung Dung Tinh Dang Cao Vao Giai ToanUploaded byChuông Gió
- 6330081-042006Uploaded byChuông Gió
- Ung Dung Cua Dinh Ly Ptoleme Mo RongUploaded byChuông Gió
- Phuong Trinh Bac Ba Va Mot So Tinh Chat (1)Uploaded byChuông Gió
- Trai He Toan 2011Uploaded byChuông Gió
- Laisac.lucasUploaded byChuông Gió
- 5 Cyclic SolnsUploaded byChuông Gió
- các bdt về định lý giá trị trung bình và ứng dụngUploaded byChuông Gió
- Một số dạng phương trình nghiệm nguyênUploaded byChuông Gió
- Sum of Squares - Pham Kim HungUploaded byChuông Gió
- My Inequality Project (1)Uploaded byChuông Gió
- De Thi China TST 2013Uploaded byChuông Gió
- Ceva MenelausUploaded byChuông Gió
- c491inhliphan-dutrunghoaUploaded byChuông Gió
- GC Blue Combin Num Theory 2 (1)Uploaded byChuông Gió
- baitapso3lvtUploaded byChuông Gió
- FormularyUploaded byChuông Gió
- 84271452-Notes-MA2219Uploaded byChuông Gió
- 2006_5_entirelymixingUploaded byChuông Gió
- Phân thức hữu tỷ và một số hệ phương trìnhUploaded byChuông Gió
- Một vài vấn đề về phương trình DiophanteUploaded byChuông Gió
- A New Point on Euler Line1Uploaded byChuông Gió
- comb-geomUploaded byChuông Gió