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VII.

Sequences (from Zuming97/98)
Po-Shen Loh June 27, 2003

1

Warm-Ups
1. Line up sequentially in height-order, and say “Cauchy.”
n 2. (Abel Summation) Suppose that we have (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 . Also, suppose that we define Sk = Then: n n−1 k i=1

ai .

ak bk = Sn bn +
k=1 k=1

Sk (bk − bk+1 ).

2

Problems
1. Calculate the sum
n k=1

k/(2k ).

Solution: Split it into:
n

1

k = 2k

n

n

k=1 i=k

1 . 2i

Now use geometric series summation to get 2 − 1/(2n−1 ) − n/(2n ). √ 80 2. Prove that 16 < k=1 1/ k < 17.

√ √ Solution: Divide the sum by 2, and then substitute the denominator with ( k + k + 1), with appropriate adjustment for the two directions.

n 3. Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence. Let (bk )1 be a real sequence (not necessarily positive). Suppose that i=j ai bj = 0. Prove that i=j bi bj ≤ 0.

Solution: Let a = ak and b = to b2 ≤ b2 k . By Cauchy-Schwarz: (ab)2 = (

bk . The given tells us that ab =

ak bk . The result is equivalent

ak bk )2 ≤ (

a2 k )(

2 b2 k) ≤ a

b2 k,

since (a) is positive. But then we get precisely that b2 ≤

b2 k.

n 4. Let (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 be two real sequences, and suppose that (bk ) is nonnegative and decreasing. For k k ∈ {1, 2, . . . , n}, define Sk = i=1 ai . Let M = max{S1 , . . . , Sn } and m = min{S1 , . . . , Sn }. Prove that n

mb1 ≤
i=1

ai bi ≤ M b1

1

Hence the terms of the Un sum are simply (Sn − 1). We will get that Tn = (n + 1)Sn − (n + 1). n 8. write out the sum in table-form with it on horizontals. √ Solution: Use result from three problems ago. a2 k ) and we get that 6.n 5. √ n n for all n ≥ 1. . Solution: Weighted AM-GM: bi ai a i ai ≥ ai bi ai ai Now divide through in the given conditions and take the (bn /an )a n term by taking the (b1 b2 · · · bn )/(a1 a2 · · · an ) ≥ 1. Prove that i=1 ai ≤ i=1 bi . Prove that for 9. Let (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 be two real sequences with (a) nonnegative and decreasing. we can continue in this way without making any of the powers negative. d = 3978. bk ak ≤ b2 k bk ak )2 ≤ ( Divide through both sides (it is positive since it is bigger than and the result follows by transitivity. Given two real sequences (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 with (a) a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · · · ≥ an ≥ 0 (b) b1 ≥ a1 and b1 b2 ≥ a1 a2 and . d < 1000000 for which T1998 = aS1989 − b and U1988 = cS1989 − d. (USAMO94) Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence satisfying j =1 aj ≥ all n ≥ 1: n a2 j > j =1 1 4 1+ 1 1 + ··· + 2 n . Solution: For the first one. (USAMO89) For each positive integer n. k Solution: Rearrangement 7. (IMO78) Let (ak )n 1 be a sequence of distinct positive integers. and add columns. Plug this back in and use the previous. we get answers of a = b = 1989. Solution: Use Abel sum. b. and add in ak = 1/(2 k ). Prove that for any positive integer n: n k=1 ak ≥ k2 n k=1 1 . Also suppose that k k n n 2 2 i=1 ai ≤ i=1 bi for all k . use the aj for the bk . But by Cauchy-Schwarz: b2 k ). c. get ( a2 i ≤ Sbn an + a2 k )( Sbk (ak − ak+1 ) = b2 k) ≤ ( ak bk )( bk ak . Prove that n i=1 bi ≥ n i=1 ai and determine the condition of equality. 2 . . Since (a) is decreasing. and b1 b2 · · · bn ≥ a1 a2 · · · an . 2 3 n+1 Sn Tn Un = 1+ Find integers 0 < a. c = 1990. let: 1 1 1 + + ··· + 2 3 n = S1 + S2 + · · · + Sn T1 T2 Tn = + + ··· + .

But use algorithm to turn any sequence into flat-85: if ak < ak+1 . For intermediate k : 4 ≤ k k ( k + 1)2 i=1 ai k √ Solution: Cauchy-Schwarz with (k ). we get the equality of full sums. This will increase the sum of ai by 1. then we get 1700. xn = 1. . 11. Given that a19 = 85.n 10. and (k/ ak ). . is an unbounded sequence of integers. but decrease the sum of bi by 1. . . (ak ). Solution: Abel sum. Solution: Now do this: n n k k i=1 i2 ai k k 1 1 ai ≤ 1 n 4k 2 k (k + 1)2 2k + 1 k 2 (k + 1)2 k 1 k i2 ai i2 ai < 2 1 n 1 = 2 k=1 i=1 n n i ai i2 ai 2 1 1 − k2 (k + 1)2 1 1 − k2 (k + 1)2 = 2 i=1 k=i 3 . Let bn = m if am is the first member of the sequence to equal or exceed n. taking ∆k ≡ 0. then can replace ak by ak + 1. prove that n n ai xi ≤ i=1 i=1 bi xi for any x1 ≤ x2 ≤ · · · ≤ xn is equivalent to n n k k ai = i=1 i=1 bi and i=1 ai ≥ i=1 bi . 12. for k = 1. what is the maximum possible value of a1 + a2 + · · · + a19 + b1 + b2 + · · · + b85 ? Solution: If all ak are 85. 2. (Uses Calculus) Find a compact expression for n k=1 kxk . For the converse. it simply plugs into the Abel sum. . we get the rest of it. For xn = 0. a1 + a2 + · · · + ak a i=1 i n k=1 Hint: use the following lemma: 1. n − 1. Prove that: 1 k <2 . (USAMO85) 0 < a1 ≤ a2 ≤ a3 ≤ . . Given two real sequences (ak )n 1 and (bk )1 . ∆k = δk . 3 Really Hard Zuming Problem n Let (ak )n 1 be a positive sequence.

n = 2 i=1 n i2 ai 1 ai 1 1 − i2 (n + 1)2 < 2 i=1 4 .