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arXiv:0904.

4184v3 [gr-qc] 4 Nov 2010

Catalogue of Spacetimes

e2
e1
x1 = 2

x1 = 1

x2 = 2

11
00
00
11
x11
00
00
11

x2

x2 = 1

x1 = 0

x2 = 0
M

Authors: Thomas Mller


Visualisierungsinstitut der Universitt Stuttgart (VISUS)
Allmandring 19, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Thomas.Mueller@vis.uni-stuttgart.de
Frank Grave
formerly, Universitt Stuttgart, Institut fr Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1)
Pfaffenwaldring 57 // IV, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
Frank.Grave@vis.uni-stuttgart.de
URL:

http://www.vis.uni-stuttgart.de/~muelleta/CoS

Date:

04. Nov 2010

Co-authors
Andreas Lemmer, formerly, Institut fr Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universitt Stuttgart
Alcubierre Warp
Sebastian Boblest, Institut fr Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universitt Stuttgart
deSitter, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker
Felix Beslmeisl, Institut fr Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universitt Stuttgart
Petrov-Type D
Heiko Munz, Institut fr Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universitt Stuttgart
Bessel and plane wave

Contents
1

Introduction and Notation


1.1 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Basic objects of a metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Natural local tetrad and initial conditions for geodesics . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 Orthonormality condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 Tetrad transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.3 Ricci rotation-, connection-, and structure coefficients . . . . . .
1.4.4 Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensor with respect to a local tetrad
1.4.5 Null or timelike directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.6 Local tetrad for diagonal metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.7 Local tetrad for stationary axisymmetric spacetimes . . . . . . .
1.5 Newman-Penrose tetrad and spin-coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Coordinate relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.1 Spherical and Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.2 Cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Embedding diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Equations of motion and transport equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.1 Geodesic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.2 Fermi-Walker transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.3 Parallel transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.4 Euler-Lagrange formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.5 Hamilton formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10.1 Maple/GRTensorII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10.2 Mathematica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10.3 Maxima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1
1
1
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
13

Spacetimes
2.1 Minkowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Spherical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4 Conform-compactified coordinates . . . . . . . .
2.1.5 Rotating coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.6 Rindler coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Schwarzschild spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Schwarzschild coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Schwarzschild in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates
2.2.3 Isotropic coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Eddington-Finkelstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Kruskal-Szekeres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6 Tortoise coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14
14
14
14
15
15
16
17
18
18
20
20
22
23
24

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ii

CONTENTS

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18

2.19
2.20
2.21

2.22
2.23
2.24

2.2.7 Painlev-Gullstrand . . . . . . . .
2.2.8 Israel coordinates . . . . . . . . . .
Alcubierre Warp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Barriola-Vilenkin monopol . . . . . . . . .
Bertotti-Kasner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bessel gravitational wave . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . .
2.6.2 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . .
Cosmic string in Schwarzschild spacetime
Ernst spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Friedman-Robertson-Walker . . . . . . . .
2.9.1 Form 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9.2 Form 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9.3 Form 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gdel Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.1 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . .
2.10.2 Scaled cylindrical coordinates . . .
Halilsoy standing wave . . . . . . . . . .
Janis-Newman-Winicour . . . . . . . . . .
Kasner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kerr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.1 Boyer-Lindquist coordinates . . .
Kottler spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Morris-Thorne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse . . . . . . .
2.17.1 Outer metric . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.17.2 Inner metric . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petrov-Type D Levi-Civita spacetimes .
2.18.1 Case AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.2 Case AII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.3 Case AIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.4 Case BI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.5 Case BII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.6 Case BIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18.7 Case C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plane gravitational wave . . . . . . . . . .
Reissner-Nordstrm . . . . . . . . . . . .
de Sitter spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.21.1 Standard coordinates . . . . . . . .
2.21.2 Conformally Einstein coordinates
2.21.3 Conformally flat coordinates . . .
2.21.4 Static coordinates . . . . . . . . . .
2.21.5 Lematre-Robertson form . . . . .
2.21.6 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . .
Straight spinning string . . . . . . . . . .
Sultana-Dyer spacetime . . . . . . . . . .
TaubNUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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25
27
28
29
31
33
33
33
34
36
38
38
39
40
44
44
45
47
48
50
51
51
54
56
58
58
59
61
61
61
62
62
63
63
63
66
67
69
69
69
70
70
72
73
74
76
78
79

Chapter 1

Introduction and Notation


The Catalogue of Spacetimes is a collection of four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes in the context of
the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The aim of the catalogue is to give a quick reference for students
who need some basic facts of the most well-known spacetimes in GR. For a detailed discussion of a
metric, the reader is referred to the standard literature or the original articles. Important resources for
exact solutions are the book by Stephani et al[SKM+ 03] and the book by Griffiths and Podolsk[GP09].
Most of the metrics in this catalogue are implemented in the Motion4D-library[MG09] and can be visualized using the GeodesicViewer[MG10]. Except for the Minkowski and Schwarzschild spacetimes, the
metrics are sorted by their names.

1.1 Notation
The notation we use in this catalogue is as follows:
Indices: Coordinate indices are represented either by Greek letters or by coordinate names. Tetrad
indices are indicated by Latin letters or coordinate names in brackets.
Einstein sum convention: When an index appears twice in a single term, once as lower index and once
as upper index, we build the sum over all indices:

(1.1.1)

=0

Vectors: A coordinate vector in x direction is represented as x . For arbitrary vectors, we use


boldface symbols. Hence, a vector a in coordinate representation reads a = a .
Derivatives: Partial derivatives are indicated by a comma, / x , , whereas covariant
derivatives are indicated by a semicolon, = ; .
Symmetrization and Antisymmetrization brackets:
a( b ) =


1
a b + a b ,
2

a[ b ] =


1
a b a b
2

(1.1.2)

1.2 General remarks


The Einstein field equation in the most general form reads[MTW73]
G = T g ,

8 G
,
c4

(1.2.1)

with the symmetric and divergence-free Einstein tensor G = R 21 Rg , the Ricci tensor R , the
Ricci scalar R, the metric tensor g , the energy-momentum tensor T , the cosmological constant ,
Newtons gravitational constant G, and the speed of light c. Because the Einstein tensor is divergencefree, the conservation equation T ; = 0 is automatically fulfilled.
1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

A solution to the field equation is given by the line element


ds2 = g dx dx

(1.2.2)

with the symmetric, covariant metric tensor g . The contravariant metric tensor g is related to the
covariant tensor via g g = with the Kronecker- . Even though g is only a component of the
metric tensor g = g dx dx , we will also call g the metric tensor.

Note that, in this catalogue, we mostly use the convention that the signature of the metric is +2. In
general, we will also keep the physical constants c and G within the metrics.

1.3 Basic objects of a metric


The basic objects of a metric are the Christoffel symbols, the Riemann and Ricci tensors as well as the
Ricci and Kretschmann scalars which are defined as follows:
Christoffel symbols of the first kind:1
=


1
g , + g , g ,
2

(1.3.1)

with the relation

g , = +

(1.3.2)

Christoffel symbols of the second kind:



1

= g g , + g , g ,
2

(1.3.3)

which are related to the Christoffel symbols of the first kind via

= g

(1.3.4)

Riemann tensor:

R = , , +

(1.3.5)

R = g R = , , +

(1.3.6)

or

with symmetries
R = R ,

R = R ,

R = R

(1.3.7)

and
R + R + R = 0

(1.3.8)

Ricci tensor:
R = g R = R

(1.3.9)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:


R = g R = R ,
1 The

K = R R = R R

= CoS
notation of the Christoffel symbols of the first kind differs from the one used by Rindler[Rin01], Rindler

(1.3.10)

1.4. NATURAL LOCAL TETRAD AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR GEODESICS

Weyl tensor:
C = R

 1
1
g [ R ] g [ R ] + R g [ g ]
2
3

(1.3.11)

If we change the signature of a metric, these basic objects transform as follows:

7 ,

R 7 R ,

R 7 R ,

R 7 R,

C 7 C ,
K 7 K .

(1.3.12a)
(1.3.12b)

Covariant derivative
g = g ; = 0.

(1.3.13)

Covariant derivative of the vector field :

= ; = +

(1.3.14)

Covariant derivative of a r-s-tensor field:


c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs = c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs + adc1 T d...ar b1 ...bs + . . . + adcr T a1 ...ar1 d b1 ...bs
db1 c T a1 ...ar d...bs . . . dbs c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs1 d

(1.3.15)

Killing equation:

; + ; = 0.

(1.3.16)

1.4 Natural local tetrad and initial conditions for geodesics


We will call a local tetrad natural if it is adapted to the symmetries or the coordinates of the spacetime.

The four base vectors e(i) = e(i) are given with respect to coordinate directions / x = , compare
Nakahara[Nak90] or Chandrasekhar[Cha06] for an introduction to the tetrad formalism. The inverse or
(i)
dual tetrad is given by (i) = dx with
(i)

(i)

e( j) = ( j)

and

e(i) = .
(i)

(1.4.1)

Note that we us Latin indices in brackets for tetrads and Greek indices for coordinates.

1.4.1 Orthonormality condition


To be applicable as a local reference frame (Minkowski frame), a local tetrad e(i) has to fulfill the orthonormality condition



!

e(i) , e( j) g = g e(i) , e( j) = g e(i) e( j) = (i)( j) ,

(1.4.2)

ds2 = (i)( j) (i) ( j) = (i)( j) dx dx .

(1.4.3)

where (i)( j) = diag(1, 1, 1, 1) depending on the signature sign(g) = 2 of the metric. Thus, the
line element of a metric can be written as
(i) ( j)

To obtain a local tetrad e(i) , we could first determine the dual tetrad (i) via Eq. (1.4.3). If we combine all
four dual tetrad vectors into one matrix , we only have to determine its inverse 1 to find the tetrad
vectors,

0
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
e(0) e0(1) e0(2) e0(3)
0
1
2
3
1
1
1
e1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
1
2
3
(0) e(1) e(2) e(3)

1
(1.4.4)

=
= 0(2)
.

2
2
2
2
(2)
(2)
(2)
e(0) e(1) e(2) e(3)
0
1
2
3
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
e3(0) e3(1) e3(2) e3(3)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

There are also several useful relations:

(a)(b) = e(a)
e(b) ,

e(a) = g e(a) ,
(b)

(a)

= (a)(b) e(a) ,

g = e(a) ,

(a)

e(b) = (a)(b) ,

(1.4.5a)

(a)(b) = g .

(1.4.5b)

(a) (b)

1.4.2 Tetrad transformations


Instead of the above found local tetrad that was directly constructed from the spacetime metric, we can
also use any other local tetrad
e (i) = Aki e(k) ,

(1.4.6)

where A is an element of the Lorentz group O(1, 3). Hence AT A = and (det A)2 = 1. p
Lorentz-transformation in the direction na = (sin cos , sin sin , cos )T = na with = 1/ 1 2,
00 = ,

0a = na ,

a0 = na ,

ab = ( 1)na nb + ba .

(1.4.7)

1.4.3 Ricci rotation-, connection-, and structure coefficients


The Ricci rotation coefficients (i)( j)(k) with respect to the local tetrad e(i) are defined by



(i)( j)(k) := g e(i) e(k) e( j) = g e(i) e(k) e( j) = g e(i) e(k) e( j) + e( j) .

(1.4.8)

They are antisymmetric in the first two indices, (i)( j)(k) = ( j)(i)(k) , which follows from the definition,
Eq. (1.4.8), and the relation



(1.4.9)
0 = (i)( j) = g e(i) e( j) ,
where g = 0, compare [Cha06]. Otherwise, we have

(i)( j)(k) = e(k) e( j) = e( j) e(k) .


(i)

(i)

(1.4.10)

The contraction of the first and the last index is given by

( j) = (k)( j)(k) = (k)(i) (i)( j)(k) = (0)( j)(0) + (1)( j)(1) + (2)( j)(2) + (3)( j)(3) = e( j) .

(1.4.11)

(m)

The connection coefficients ( j)(n) with respect to the local tetrad e(i) are defined by


(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)


( j)(n) := e( j) e(n) = e( j) e(n) = e( j) e(n) + e(n) ,

(1.4.12)

compare Nakahara[Nak90]. They are related to the Ricci rotation coefficients via
(m)

(i)( j)(k) = (i)(m) (k)( j) .

(1.4.13)

Furthermore, the local tetrad has a non-vanishing Lie-bracket [X,Y ] = X Y Y X . Thus,




(k)
e(i) , e( j) = c(i)( j) e(k)

or
(k)



(k)
c(i)( j) = (k) e(i) , e( j) .

(1.4.14)

The structure coefficients c(i)( j) are related to the connection coefficients or the Ricci rotation coefficients
via

(k)
(k)
(k)
c(i)( j) = (i)( j) ( j)(i) = (k)(m) (m)( j)(i) (m)(i)( j) = (k)( j)(i) (k)(i)( j) .
(1.4.15)

1.4. NATURAL LOCAL TETRAD AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR GEODESICS

1.4.4 Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensor with respect to a local tetrad


The transformations between the coordinate representations of the Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensors
and their representation with respect to a local tetrad e(i) are given by

R(a)(b)(c)(d) = R e(a) e(b) e(c) e(d) ,

(1.4.16a)

R(a)(b) = R e(a) e(b) ,

(1.4.16b)

C(a)(b)(c)(d) = C e(a) e(b) e(c) e(d)

= R(a)(b)(c)(d)

 R
1
(a)[ (c) R(d) ](b) (b)[ (c) R(d) ](a) + (a)[ (c) (d) ](b) .
2
3

(1.4.16c)

1.4.5 Null or timelike directions


A null or timelike direction = (i) e(i) with respect to a local tetrad e(i) can be written as

= (0) e(0) + sin cos e(1) + sin sin e(2) + cos e(3) = (0) e(0) + n.

(1.4.17)

In the case of a null direction we have = 1 and (0) = 1. A timelike direction can be identified with
an initial four-velocity u = c (e0 + n), where


sign(g) = 2.
(1.4.18)
u2 = hu, uig = c2 2 e(0) + n, e(0) + n = c2 2 1 + 2 = c2 ,
Thus, = c and 0 = c . The sign of (0) determines the time direction.
e(3)

e(2)
Figure 1.1: Null or timelike direction
with respect to the local tetrad e(i) .

e(1)

The transformations between a local direction (i) and its coordinate representation read

= (i) e(i)

and

(i) = .
(i)

(1.4.19)

1.4.6 Local tetrad for diagonal metrics


If a spacetime is represented by a diagonal metric
ds2 = g00 (dx0 )2 + g11(dx1 )2 + g22(dx2 )2 + g33(dx3 )2 ,

(1.4.20)

the natural local tetrad reads


1
e(0) = 0 ,
g00

1
e(1) = 1 ,
g11

1
e(2) = 2 ,
g22

1
e(3) = 3 ,
g33

(1.4.21)

given that the metric coefficients are well behaved. Analogously, the dual tetrad reads

(0) =

g00 dx0 ,

(1) =

g11 dx1 ,

(2) =

g22 dx2 ,

(3) =

g33 dx3 .

(1.4.22)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

1.4.7 Local tetrad for stationary axisymmetric spacetimes


The line element of a stationary axisymmetric spacetime is given by
ds2 = gtt dt 2 + 2gt dt d + g d 2 + grr dr2 + g d 2 ,

(1.4.23)

where the metric components are functions of r and only.


The local tetradfor an observer on a stationary circular orbit, (r = const, = const), with four velocity
u = c t + can be defined as, compare Bini[BJ00],

1
1
e(0) = t + ,
e(2) =
e(1) = r ,
,
grr
g


e(3) = (gt + g )t (gtt + gt ) ,

(1.4.24a)

(1.4.24b)

where

1
= q

gtt + 2 gt + 2 g

and

1
.
= q
2
gt gtt g

(1.4.25)

The angular velocity is limited due to gtt + 2 gt + 2 g < 0


r
r
gtt
gtt
2
min =
and
max = + 2
g
g

(1.4.26)

with = gt /g .
For = 0, the observer is static with respect to spatial infinity. The locally non-rotating frame (LNRF)
has angular velocity = , see also MTW[MTW73], exercise 33.3.
Static limit: min = 0 gtt = 0.
The transformation between the local direction (i) and the coordinate direction reads




(1)
(2)
0 = (0) (3) w1 ,
1 = ,
2 =
,
3 = (0) (3)w2 , (1.4.27)
grr
g
with

w1 = gt + g

and

w2 = gtt + gt .

(1.4.28)

The back transformation reads

(0) =

1 0 w2 + 3w1
,
w1 + w2

(1) =

grr 1 ,

(2) =

g 2 ,

(3) =

1 0 3
.
w1 + w2

(1.4.29)

 

Note, to obtain a right-handed local tetrad, det e(i) > 0, the upper sign has to be used.

1.5 Newman-Penrose tetrad and spin-coefficients


where l and n are real and m
The Newman-Penrose tetrad consists of four null vectors e(i) = {l, n, m, m},
are complex conjugates; see Penrose and Rindler[PR84] or Chandrasekhar[Cha06] for a thorough
and m
discussion. The Newman-Penrose (NP) tetrad has to fulfill the orthonormality relation

0 1 0
0
D
E
1 0 0
0

e(i) , e( j) = (i)( j)
with
(i)( j) =
(1.5.1)
0 0 0 1 .
0 0 1 0

A straightforward relation between the NP tetrad and the natural local tetrad, as discussed in Sec. 1.4,
is given by

1
l = e(0) + e(1) ,
2


1
n = e(0) e(1) ,
2


1
m = e(2) + ie(3) ,
2

(1.5.2)

1.6. COORDINATE RELATIONS

where the upper/lower sign has to be used for metrics with positive/negative signature. The Ricci
rotation-coefficients of a NP tetrad are now called spin coefficients and are designated by specific symbols:

= (2)(1)(1) ,

= (2)(0)(3),

= (2)(0)(2) ,

= (1)(3)(2),

= (1)(3)(3) ,

= (2)(0)(1),

= (1)(3)(1) ,

= (1)(3)(0),

1
2
1
=
2
1
=
2
1
=
2


(1)(0)(0) + (2)(3)(0) ,

(1.5.3a)


(1)(0)(1) + (2)(3)(1) ,

(1.5.3b)


(1)(0)(2) + (2)(3)(2) .

(1.5.3d)


(1)(0)(3) + (2)(3)(3) ,

(1.5.3c)

1.6 Coordinate relations


1.6.1 Spherical and Cartesian coordinates
The well-known relation between the spherical coordinates (r, , ) and the Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z),
compare Fig. 1.2, are
x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin ,

z = r cos ,

(1.6.1)

and
r=

p
= arctan 2( x2 + y2 , z),

p
x2 + y2 + z2 ,

= arctan 2(y, x),

(1.6.2)

where arctan 2() ensures that [0, 2 ) and (0, ).


z

y
Figure 1.2: Relation between spherical
and Cartesian coordinates.

The total differentials of the spherical coordinates read


dr =

x dx + y dy + z dz
,
r

d =

xz dx + yz dy (x2 + y2 )dz
p
,
r 2 x2 + y2

d =

y dx + x dy
,
x2 + y2

(1.6.3)

whereas the coordinate derivatives read

r =

x
y
z
x + y + z
r
r
r

x
y
z
x +
y +
z = r cos cos x + r cos sin y r sin z ,

(1.6.4b)

x
y
z
x +
y +
z = r sin sin x + r sin cos y ,

(1.6.4c)

= sin cos x + sin sin y + cos z ,

(1.6.4a)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

and

x =

sin
cos cos
r

r +
+
= sin cos r +

,
x
x
x
r
r sin

(1.6.5a)

y =

cos
cos sin
r +
+
= sin sin r +
+
,
y
y
y
r
r sin

(1.6.5b)

z =

sin
r

r +
+
= cos r
.
z
z
z
r

(1.6.5c)

1.6.2 Cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates


The relation between cylindrical coordinates (r, , z) and Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) is given by
p
x = r cos , y = r sin ,
and
r = x2 + y2 , = arctan 2(y, x),
(1.6.6)
where arctan 2() again ensures that the angle [0, 2 ).
z

y
Figure 1.3: Relation between cylindrical
and Cartesian coordinates.

r
x

The total differentials of the spherical coordinates are given by


dr =

x dx + y dy
,
r

d =

y dx + x dy
,
r2

(1.6.7)

and
dx = cos dr r sin d ,

dy = sin dr + r cos d .

(1.6.8)

The coordinate derivatives are

r =

x
y
x + y = cos x + sin y ,
r
r

(1.6.9a)

x
y
x +
y = r sin x + r cos y m

(1.6.9b)

x =

sin
r +
= cos r
y ,
x
x
r

(1.6.10a)

y =

cos
r

r +
= sin r +
y .
y
y
r

(1.6.10b)

and

1.7 Embedding diagram


A two-dimensional hypersurface with line segment
d 2 = grr (r)dr2 + g (r)d 2

(1.7.1)

1.8. EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND TRANSPORT EQUATIONS


can be embedded in a three-dimensional Euclidean space with cylindrical coordinates,
"
 2 #
dz
2
d = 1 +
d 2 + 2d 2 .
d
With (r)2 = g (r) and dr = (dr/d )d , we obtain for the embedding function z = z(r),
s


d g 2
dz
= grr
.
dr
dr

(1.7.2)

(1.7.3)

If g (r) = r2 , then d g /dr = 1.

1.8 Equations of motion and transport equations


1.8.1 Geodesic equation
The geodesic equation reads

d 2 x
D2 x
dx dx
=
+
=0
2
2
d
d
d d

(1.8.1)

with the affine parameter . For timelike geodesics, however, we replace the affine parameter by the
proper time .
The geodesic equation (1.8.1) is a system of ordinary differential equations of second order. Hence, to
solve these differential equations, we need an initial position x ( = 0) as well as an initial direction
(dx /d )( = 0). This initial direction has to fulfill the constraint equation
g

dx dx
= c2 ,
d d

(1.8.2)

where = 0 for lightlike and = 1, (sign(g) = 2), for timelike geodesics.


The initial direction can also be determined by means of a local reference frame, compare sec. 1.4.5, that
automatically fulfills the constraint equation (1.8.2). If we use the natural local tetrad as local reference
frame, we have

dx

(1.8.3)
= = (i) e(i) .
d =0

1.8.2 Fermi-Walker transport

The Fermi-Walker transport, see e.g. Stephani[SS90], of a vector X = X along the worldline x ( )
with four-velocity u = u ( ) is given by Fu X = 0 with
Fu X :=

dX
1

+ u X + 2 (u a a u ) g X .
d
c

(1.8.4)

The four-acceleration follows from the four-velocity via


a =

Du
D2 x
du

=
=
+ u u .
d 2
d
d

(1.8.5)

1.8.3 Parallel transport


If the four-acceleration vanishes, the Fermi-Walker transport simplifies to the parallel transport Pu X = 0
with
Pu X :=

DX
dX

=
+ u X .
d
d

(1.8.6)

10

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

1.8.4 Euler-Lagrange formalism


A detailed discussion of the Euler-Lagrange formalism can be found, e.g., in Rindler[Rin01]. The Lagrangian L is defined as
L := g x x ,

L = c2 ,

(1.8.7)

where x are the coordinates of the metric, and the dot means differentiation with respect to the affine
parameter . For timelike geodesics, = 1 depending on the signature of the metric, sign(g) = 2. For
lightlike geodesics, = 0.
The Euler-Lagrange equations read
d L L

= 0.
d x x

(1.8.8)

If L is independent of x , then x is a cyclic variable and


p = g x = const.
Note that [L ]U =

length2
time2

(1.8.9)

for timelike and [L ]U = 1 for lightlike geodesics, see Sec. 1.9.

1.8.5 Hamilton formalism


The super-Hamiltonian H is defined as
! 1
H = c2 ,
2

1
H := g p p ,
2

(1.8.10)

where p = g x are the canonical momenta, see e.g. MTW[MTW73], para. 21.1. As in classical mechanics, we have

H
dx
=
d
p

and

d p
H
= .
d
x

(1.8.11)

1.9 Units
A first test in analyzing whether an equation is correct is to check the units. Newtons gravitational
constant G, for example, has the following units
[G]U =

length3
,
mass time2

(1.9.1)

where []U indicates that we evaluate the units of the enclosed expression. Further examples are
[ds]U = length,

[u]U =

length
,
time

Schwarzschild
[Rtrtr
]U =

1
,
time2

h
i
RSchwarzschild
= length2 .

U

(1.9.2)

1.10 Tools
1.10.1 Maple/GRTensorII
The Christoffel symbols, the Riemann- and Ricci-tensors as well as the Ricci and Kretschmann scalars in
this catalogue were determined by means of the software Maple together with the GRTensorII package
by Musgrave, Pollney, and Lake.2
A typical worksheet to enter a new metric may look like this:
2 The commercial software Maple can be found here: http://www.maplesoft.com.
http://grtensor.phy.queensu.ca.

The GRTensorII-package is free:

1.10. TOOLS

11

> grtw();
> makeg(Schwarzschild);
Makeg 2.0: GRTensor metric/basis entry utility
To quit makeg, type exit at any prompt.
Do you wish to enter a 1) metric [g(dn,dn)],
2) line element [ds],
3) non-holonomic basis [e(1)...e(n)], or
4) NP tetrad [l,n,m,mbar]?
> 2:
Enter coordinates as a LIST (eg. [t,r,theta,phi]):
> [t,r,theta,phi]:
Enter the line element using d[coord] to indicate differentials.
(for example, r^2*(d[theta]^2 + sin(theta)^2*d[phi]^2)
[Type exit to quit makeg]
ds^2 =
If there are any complex valued coordinates, constants or functions
for this spacetime, please enter them as a SET ( eg. { z, psi } ).
Complex quantities [default={}]:
> {}:
You may choose to 0)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
> 0:

Use the metric WITHOUT saving it,


Save the metric as it is,
Correct an element of the metric,
Re-enter the metric,
Add/change constraint equations,
Add a text description, or
Abandon this metric and return to Maple.

The worksheets for some of the metrics in this catalogue can be found on the authors homepage. To
determine the objects that are defined with respect to a local tetrad, the metric must be given as nonholonomic basis.
The various basic objects can be determined via

Christoffel symbols

partial derivatives ,
Riemann tensor R
Ricci tensor R
Ricci scalar R
Kretschmann scalar K

grcalc(Chr2);
grcalc(Riemman);
grcalc(Ricci);
grcalc(Ricciscalar);
grcalc(RiemSq);

grcalc(Chr(dn,dn,up));
grcalc(Chr(dn,dn,up,pdn));
grcalc(R(dn,dn,dn,dn));
grcalc(R(dn,dn));

1.10.2 Mathematica
The calculation of the Christoffel symbols, the Riemann- or Ricci-tensor within Mathematica could read
like this:
Clearing the values of symbols:
In[1]:= Clear[coord, metric, inversemetric, affine,
t, r, Theta, Phi]
Setting the dimension:
In[2]:= n := 4
Defining a list of coordinates:
In[3]:= coord := {t, r, Theta, Phi}
Defining the metric:
In[4]:= metric := {{-(1 - rs/r) c^2, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1/(1 - rs/r), 0, 0},
{0, 0, r^2, 0},
{0, 0, 0, r ^2 Sin[Theta]^2}}
In[5]:= metric // MatrixForm

12

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

Calculating the inverse metric:


In[6]:= inversemetric := Simplify[Inverse[metric]]
In[7]:=

inversemetric // MatrixForm

Calculating the Christoffel symbols of the second kind:


In[8]:= affine := affine = Simplify[
Table[(1/2) Sum[inversemetric[[Mu, Rho]] (
D[metric[[Rho, Nu]], coord[[Lambda]]] +
D[metric[[Rho, Lambda]], coord[[Nu]]] D[metric[[Nu, Lambda]], coord[[Rho]]]),
{Rho, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}, {Lambda, 1, n}, {Mu, 1, n}]]
Displaying the Christoffel symbols of the second kind:
In[9]:= listaffine :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[affine[[Nu, Lambda, Mu]], 0],
{Style[ Subsuperscript[\[CapitalGamma],
Row[{coord[[Nu]], coord[[Lambda]]}], coord[[Mu]]], 18],
"=",
Style[affine[[Nu, Lambda, Mu]], 14]}],
{Lambda, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, Lambda}, {Mu, 1, n}]
In[10]:=

TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listaffine],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {1, 2}]

Defining the Riemann tensor:


In[11]:= riemann := riemann =
Table[D[affine[[Nu, Sigma, Mu]], coord[[Rho]]] D[affine[[Nu, Rho, Mu]], coord[[Sigma]]] +
Sum[affine[[Rho, Lambda, Mu]]
affine[[Nu, Sigma, Lambda]] affine[[Sigma, Lambda, Mu]]
affine[[Nu, Rho, Lambda]],
{Lambda, 1, n}],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]
Defining the Riemann tensor with lower indices:
In[12]:= riemannDn := riemannDn =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[metric[[Mu, Kappa]] riemann[[Kappa, Nu, Rho, Sigma]],
{Kappa, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]
In[13]:= listRiemann :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[riemannDn[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]], 0],
{Style[Subscript[R, Row[{coord[[Mu]], coord[[Nu]], coord[[Rho]],
coord[[Sigma]]}]], 16], "=",
riemannDn[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]]}],
{Nu, 1, n}, {Mu, 1, Nu}, {Sigma, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, Sigma}]
In[14]:= TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listRiemann],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {2, 2}]
Defining the Ricci tensor:
In[15]:= ricci := ricci =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[riemann[[Rho, Mu, Rho, Nu]], {Rho, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}]
In[16]:= listRicci :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[ricci[[Mu, Nu]], 0],
{Style[Subscript[R, Row[{coord[[Mu]], coord[[Nu]]}]], 16],
"=",
Style[ricci[[Mu, Nu]], 16]}], {Nu, 1, 4}, {Mu, 1, Nu}]
In[17]:= TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listRicci],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {1, 2}]
Defining the Ricci scalar:
In[18]:= ricciscalar := ricciscalar =
Simplify[Sum[

1.10. TOOLS

13

Sum[inversemetric[[Mu, Nu]] ricci[[Nu, Mu]],


{Mu, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}]]
Defining the Kretschmann scalar:
In[19]:= riemannUp := riemannUp =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[inversemetric[[Nu, Kappa]]
riemann[[Mu, Kappa, Rho, Sigma]], {Kappa, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]
In[20]:= kretschmann := kretschmann =
Simplify[Sum[ Sum[Sum[Sum[
riemannUp[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]]
riemannUp[[Rho, Sigma, Mu, Nu]],
{Mu, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}], {Rho, 1, n}], {Sigma, 1, n}]]

Some example notebooks can be found on the authors homepage.

1.10.3 Maxima
Instead of using commercial software like Maple or Mathematica, Maxima also offers a tensor package
that helps to calculate the Christoffel symbols etc. The above example for the Schwarzschild metric can
be written as a maxima worksheet as follows:
/* load ctensor package */
load(ctensor);
/* define coordinates to use */
ct_coords:[t,r,theta,phi];
/* start with the identity metric */
lg:ident(4);
lg[1,1]:c^2*(1-rs/r);
lg[2,2]:-1/(1-rs/r);
lg[3,3]:-r^2;
lg[4,4]:-r^2*sin(theta)^2;
cmetric();
/* calculate the christoffel symbols of the second kind */
christof(mcs);
/* calculate the riemann tensor */
lriemann(mcs);
/* calculate the ricci tensor */
ricci(mcs);
/* calculate the ricci scalar */
scurvature();
/* calculate the Kretschmann scalar */
uriemann(mcs);
rinvariant();
ratsimp(%);

As you may have noticed, the Schwarzschild metric must be given with negative signature.

Chapter 2

Spacetimes
2.1 Minkowski
2.1.1 Cartesian coordinates
The Minkowski metric in Cartesian coordinates {t, x, y, z

R} reads

ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2 .

(2.1.1)

All Christoffel symbols as well as the Riemann- and Ricci-tensor vanish identically. The natural local
tetrad is trivial,
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(x) = x ,

e(y) = y ,

e(z) = z ,

(2.1.2)

with dual

(t) = c dt,

(x) = dx,

(y) = dy,

(z) = dz.

2.1.2 Cylindrical coordinates


The Minkowski metric in cylindrical coordinates {t

(2.1.3)

R, r R+ , [0, 2 ), z R},

ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dr2 + r2 d 2 + dz2 ,

(2.1.4)

has the natural local tetrad


1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(r) = r ,

1
e( ) = ,
r

e(z) = z .

(2.1.5)

Christoffel symbols:
1

r = .
r

= r,

(2.1.6)

Partial derivatives

r ,r =

1
,
r2

r ,r = 1.

(2.1.7)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(r)( ) =

1
r

and

1
(r) = .
r

(2.1.8)

14

2.1. MINKOWSKI

15

2.1.3 Spherical coordinates

R, r R+, (0, ), [0, 2 )}, the Minkowski metric reads

In spherical coordinates {t


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dr2 + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .

(2.1.9)

Christoffel symbols:
r = r,

r = r sin2 ,

1
r = ,
r

= sin cos ,

r = ,
r

= cot .

(2.1.10a)
(2.1.10b)

Partial derivatives
1
,
r2
1
= 2 ,
sin
= sin(2 ).

1
,
r2

r ,r =

r ,r =

r
2

,r = sin ,

,
r

r ,r = 1,

(2.1.11a)

, = cos(2 ),

(2.1.11b)
(2.1.11c)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

1
e( ) = ,
r

e(r) = r ,

e( ) =

1
.
r sin

(2.1.12)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


1
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) = ,
r

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.1.13)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


2
(r) = ,
r

( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.1.14)

2.1.4 Conform-compactified coordinates


The Minkowski metric in conform-compactified coordinates { [ , ], (0, ), (0, ), [0, 2 )}
reads[HE99]

ds2 = d 2 + d 2 + sin2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .

(2.1.15)

This form follows from the spherical Minkowski metric (2.1.9) by means of the coordinate transformation
ct + r = tan

+
,
2

ct r = tan


,
2

(2.1.16)

resulting in the metric


d s2 =

d 2 + d 2

4 cos2 +
2

cos2
2

sin2

4 cos2 +
2


d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

cos2
2

(2.1.17)

2 .
and by the conformal transformation ds2 = 2 d s2 with 2 = 4 cos2 +
2 cos
2
Christoffel symbols:

= cot ,

= cot ,

= cot ,

= sin cos sin2 ,

= sin cos ,

= sin cos .

(2.1.18a)
(2.1.18b)

16

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Partial derivatives
1
1

,
, = 2 ,
, = cos(2 ),
2
sin
sin
1

= 2 ,
, = cos(2 ) sin2 , , = cos(2 ),
sin
1
= sin(2 ) sin(2 ).
2

, =

(2.1.19a)
(2.1.19b)
(2.1.19c)

Riemann-Tensor:
R = sin2 ,

R = sin2 sin2 ,

R = sin4 sin2 .

(2.1.20)

Ricci-Tensor:
R = 2 sin2 ,

R = 2,

R = 2 sin2 sin2 .

(2.1.21)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:


R = 6,

(2.1.22)

K = 12.

The Weyl tensor vanishs identically.


Local tetrad:
e( ) = ,

e( ) = ,

e( ) =

1
,
sin

e( ) =

1
.
sin sin

(2.1.23)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) = cot ,

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
sin

(2.1.24)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

( ) = 2 cot ,

( ) =

cot
.
sin

(2.1.25)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


(2.1.26)

R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = 1.
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

(2.1.27)

R( )( ) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) = 2.

2.1.5 Rotating coordinates


7 d + dt brings the Minkowski metric (2.1.4) into the rotating form[Rin01]
The transformation d
with coordinates {t , r + , [0, 2 ), z },



2 r2
r2
[c dt (r)d ]2 + dr2 +
d 2 + dz2
ds2 = 1 2
c
1 2r2 /c2

(2.1.28)

with (r) = (r2 /c)/(1 2r2 /c2 ).


Metric-Tensor:
gtt = c2 + 2 r2 ,

gt = r2 ,

grr = gzz = 1,

g = r2 .

(2.1.29)

2.1. MINKOWSKI

17

Christoffel symbols:

ttr = 2 r,

tr =

,
r

r = ,
r

tr = r,

= r.

(2.1.30)

,r = 1.

(2.1.31)

Partial derivatives
r
tt,r
= 2 ,

tr,r =

,
r2

tr ,r = ,

r ,r =

1
,
r2

The local tetrad of the comoving observer is


1

e(t) = t ,
c
c

1
e( ) = ,
r

e(r) = r ,

e(z) = z ,

(2.1.32)

whereas the static observer has the local tetrad


1
t ,
e(t) = p
c 1 2r2 /c2

e(r) = r ,

r
e( ) = p
t +
2
c 1 2r2 /c2

e(z) = z ,

p
1 2r2 /c2
.
r

(2.1.33a)
(2.1.33b)

2.1.6 Rindler coordinates


The worldline of an observer in the Minkowski spacetime who moves with constant proper acceleration
along the x direction reads
x=

t
c2
cosh
,

ct =

t
c2
sinh
,

(2.1.34)

where t is the observers proper time. The observer starts at x = 1 with zero velocity.
However, such an observer could also be described with Rindler coordinates. With the coordinate transformation
(ct, x) 7 ( , ) :

ct =

1
sinh ,

x=

1
cosh ,

(2.1.35)

where = /c2 , the Rindler metric reads


ds2 =

1 2 1
d + 4 d 2 + dy2 + dz2 .
2

(2.1.36)

Christoffel symbols:

= ,

= ,

= .

(2.1.37)

Partial derivatives

, = 1,

, =

1
,
2

, =

2
.
2

(2.1.38)

The Riemann and Ricci tensors as well as the Ricci and Kretschmann scalar vanish identically.
Local tetrad:
e( ) = ,

e( ) = 2 ,

e(y) = y ,

e(z) = z .

(2.1.39)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )( )( ) = ,

and

( ) = .

(2.1.40)

18

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.2 Schwarzschild spacetime


2.2.1 Schwarzschild coordinates
In Schwarzschild coordinates {t

R, r R+ , (0, ), [0, 2 )}, the Schwarzschild metric reads



1
rs  2 2
dr2 + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,
c dt +
ds2 = 1
r
1 rs/r

(2.2.1)

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newtons constant, c is the speed of light, and M is
the mass of the black hole. The critical point r = 0 is a real curvature singularity while the event horizon,
r = rs , is only a coordinate singularity, see e.g. the Kretschmann scalar.
Christoffel symbols:
c2 rs (r rs )
,
2r3
1
= ,
r
= cot ,

rs
,
2r(r rs )
1
= ,
r
= (r rs ) sin2 ,

ttr =

ttr =

r
r

rrr =

rs
,
2r(r rs )

(2.2.2a)

r = (r rs ),

(2.2.2b)

= sin cos .

(2.2.2c)

Partial derivatives
(2r 3rs )c2 rs
,
2r4
1
r ,r = 2 ,
r
1

, = 2 ,
sin
r

, = (r rs ) sin(2 ).
r
tt,r
=

(2r rs )rs
,
2r2 (r rs )2
1

r ,r = 2 ,
r

r ,r = 1,

(2.2.3b)

r ,r = sin2 ,

, = cos(2 ),

(2.2.3c)

ttr,r =

rrr,r =

(2r rs )rs
,
2r2 (r rs )2

(2.2.3a)

(2.2.3d)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 rs
,
r3
1 rs
,
=
2 r rs

Rtrtr =
Rr r

1 c2 (r rs ) rs
,
2
r2
1 rs sin2
,
=
2 r rs

Rt t =
Rr r

Rt t =

1 c2 (r rs ) rs sin2
,
2
r2

R = rrs sin2 .

(2.2.4a)
(2.2.4b)

As aspected, the Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically because the Schwarzschild
spacetime is a vacuum solution of the field equations. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the Riemann
tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads
K = 12

rs2
.
r6

(2.2.5)

Here, it becomes clear that at r = rs there is no real singularity.


Local tetrad:
r
1
1
rs
e(r) = 1 r ,
e( ) = ,
e(t) = p
t ,
r
r
c 1 rs /r

1
.
r sin

(2.2.6)

( ) = r sin d .

(2.2.7)

cot
.
r

(2.2.8)

e( ) =

Dual tetrad:

r
rs
(t) = c 1 dt,
r
Ricci rotation coefficients:

dr
(r) = p
,
1 rs/r

r
p s
(r)(t)(t) =
,
2
2r 1 rs/r

( ) = r d ,

1
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =
r

r
rs
1 ,
r

( )( )( ) =

2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

19

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4r 3rs
p
,
1 rs/r

2r2

( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.2.9)

Structure coefficients:
(t)
c(t)(r)

rs
p
,
=
2
2r 1 rs/r

( )
c(r)( )

( )
c(r)( )

1
=
r

r
rs
1 ,
r

( )

c( )( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.2.10)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r3

(2.2.11a)

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

rs
.
2r3

The covariant derivatives of the Riemann tensor read


3rs p
R(t)(r)(t)(r);(r) = R( )( )( )( );(r) = 5 r(r rs ),
r
R(t)(r)(r)( );( ) = R(t)(r)(t)( );( ) = R(t)( )(t)( );(r) = R(t)( )(t)( );(r) =
3rs p
= R(r)( )( )( );( ) = 5 r(r rs ),
2r
3rs p
R(r)( )(r)( );(r) = R(r)( )( )( );( ) = R(r)( )(r)( );(r) = 5 r(r rs ).
2r

(2.2.11b)

(2.2.12a)

(2.2.12b)
(2.2.12c)

Newman-Penrose tetrad:

1
l = e(t) + e(r) ,
2


1
n = e(t) e(r) ,
2


1
m = e( ) + ie( ) .
2

Non-vanishing spin coefficients:


r
1
rs
rs
= =
1 , = = p
,
r
2r
4 2r2 1 rs/r

cot
= = .
2 2r

Embedding:
The embedding function reads

z = 2 rs r rs .

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields


rs  h2
1
1 k2
1 2
2
1

,
V
=

r + Veff =

c
eff
2
2 c2
2
r
r2

(2.2.13)

(2.2.14)

(2.2.15)

(2.2.16)

with the constants of motion k = (1 rs /r)c2t, h = r2 , and as in Eq. (1.8.2). For timelike geodesics, the
effective potential has the extremal points
p
h2 h h2 3c2rs2
r =
,
(2.2.17)
c2 rs

where r+ is a maximum and r is a minimum. The innermost timelike circular geodesic follows from
h2 = 3c2 rs2 and reads ritcg = 3rs . Null geodesics, however, have only a maximum at rpo = 32 rs . The
corresponding circular orbit is called photon orbit.
Further reading:
Schwarzschild[Sch16, Sch03], MTW[MTW73], Rindler[Rin01], Wald[Wal84], Chandrasekhar[Cha06],
Mller[Ml08b, Ml09].

20

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.2.2 Schwarzschild in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates


The Schwarzschild spacetime in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates (t, x, y, z) reads
ds2


 2 
 2

rs  2 2
x2
y2
2
2
2 dx
2 dy
= 1
c dt +
+ x +
+y +z
+z
1
r2
1 rs /r
r2
 rs/r2
 r
2
dz
2r
z
s
+ 2
(xy dxdy + xz dxdz + yz dydz),
+ x2 + y2 +
1 rs/r r2
r (r rs )

(2.2.18)

where r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 . For a natural local tetrad that is adapted to the x-axis, we make the following
ansatz:
1
e(0) = p
t ,
c 1 rs /r

e(1) = Ax ,

1
A= ,
gxx

gxy
q
,
gxx g2xy /gxx + gyy

B=

gxy gyz gxz gyy

,
NW

D=

e(2) = Bx + Cy ,

gxz gxy gxx gyz

,
NW

E=

e(3) = Dx + E y + F z .

1
C= q
,
g2xy /gxx + gyy

N
F= ,
W

(2.2.19)

(2.2.20a)

(2.2.20b)

with
N = gxx gyy g2xy ,

(2.2.21a)

gxx gyy gzz g2xz gyy + 2gxzgxy gyz g2xy gzz gxx g2yz .

W=

(2.2.21b)

2.2.3 Isotropic coordinates


Spherical isotropic coordinates
The Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) in spherical isotropic coordinates (t, , , ) reads
1 s /
ds =
1 + s /
2

2




s 4  2
c dt + 1 +
d + 2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

(2.2.22)

where


s 2
r = 1+

or


p
1
2r rs 2 r(r rs )
4

(2.2.23)

is the coordinate transformation between the Schwarzschild radial coordinate r and the isotropic radial
coordinate , see e.g. MTW[MTW73] page 840. The event horizon is given by s = rs /4. The photon
orbit and the innermost timelike circular geodesic read




po = 2 + 3 s
itcg = 5 + 2 6 s .
and
(2.2.24)
Christoffel symbols:

2s
2( s) 4 s c2
,
, tt = 2
( + s )7
s2
s
s

=
,
=
,
( + s )
( + s )

tt =

= cot ,

2s
,
( + s)
s
,
=
+ s

( s ) sin2

,
= sin cos .
+ s

(2.2.25a)
(2.2.25b)
(2.2.25c)

2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

21

Riemann-Tensor:
Rt t = 4
Rt t = 2

( s )2 s c2
,
( + s)4

( s)2 c2 s sin2
,
( + s)4

R = 2

( s )2 s c2
,
( + s )4

(2.2.26a)

( + s )2 s
,
3

(2.2.26b)

4( + s )2 s sin2
.

(2.2.26c)

Rt t = 2

R = 2

( + s )2 s sin2
,
3

R =

The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:
K = 192

rs2

6 (1 + s/ )12

= 12

rs2
.
r( )6

(2.2.27)

Local tetrad:
e(t) =
e( ) =

1 + s/ t
,
1 s / c
1

[1 + s/ ]2

e(r) =

e( ) =

1
[1 + s/ ]2
1

[1 + s/ ]2 sin2

(2.2.28a)

(2.2.28b)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


2s 2
,
( + s)3 ( s)
cot
( )( )( ) =
.
( + s)2

( )(t)(t) =

( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =

( s )
,
( + s)3

(2.2.29a)
(2.2.29b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

( ) =

2 ( 2 s + s2)
,
( + s)3 ( s)

( ) =

cot
.
( + s)2

(2.2.30)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)( )(t)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r( )3

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

(2.2.31a)
rs
.
2r( )3

(2.2.31b)

Further reading:
Buchdahl[Buc85].
Cartesian isotropic coordinates
The Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) in Cartesian isotropic coordinates (t, x, y, z) reads,
1 s /
ds =
1 + s /
2

2




s 4  2
c dt + 1 +
dx + dy2 + dz2 ,

(2.2.32)

where 2 = x2 + y2 + z2 and, as before,




s 2
r = 1+
.

(2.2.33)

22

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:
ttx =

2c2 3 s ( s) x

( + s)
2s x
ttx = 3
,
[1 s2/ 2 ]

tty =

2c2 3 s ( s) y

( + s )

y
2
s
tty = 3
,
[1 s2/ 2 ]
x
2s
,
xxx = yxy = zxz = xyy = xzz = 3
1 + s /
y
2s
,
yxx = xxy = yyy = zyz = yzz = 3
1 + s /
2s
z
zxx = xxz = zyy = yyz = zzz = 3
.
1 + s /
7

ttz =

ttz =

2c2 3 s ( s) z
( + s )7

2s z
,
3 [1 s2/ 2 ]

(2.2.34a)
(2.2.34b)
(2.2.34c)
(2.2.34d)
(2.2.34e)

2.2.4 Eddington-Finkelstein
The transformation of the Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) from the usual Schwarzschild time coordinate t
to the advanced null coordinate v with
(2.2.35)

cv = ct + r + rs ln(r rs )
leads to the ingoing Eddington-Finkelstein[Edd24, Fin58] metric with coordinates (v, r, , ),


rs  2 2
c dv + 2c dv dr + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
ds2 = 1
r

(2.2.36)

Metric-Tensor:

rs 
,
gvv = c2 1
r

gvr = c,

g = r 2 ,

g = r2 sin2 .

(2.2.37)

Christoffel symbols:
c2 rs (r rs )
crs
1
crs
,
rvv =
,
rvr = 2 ,
r = ,
2
2r
2r3
2r
r
1
r

v
r
= ,
= (r rs ),
= ,
= cot ,
r
c
2
r sin

r
=
= (r rs ) sin2 ,
= sin cos .
,
c

vvv =

r
v

(2.2.38a)
(2.2.38b)
(2.2.38c)

Partial derivatives
crs
,
r3
1
v ,r = ,
c
2
sin

,
,r =
c

(2.2.39b)

r ,r = 1,

(2r 3rs )c2 rs


,
2r4
1

r ,r = 2 ,
r
1

, = 2 ,
sin

v , =

r ,r = sin2 ,

, = cos(2 ),

(2.2.39d)

crs
,
r3
1
r ,r = 2 ,
r
vvv,r =

r sin(2 )
,
c
= (r rs ) sin(2 ).

rvv,r =

rvr,r =

(2.2.39a)

(2.2.39c)

(2.2.39e)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 rs
,
r3
c2 rs (r rs ) sin2
,
=
2r2

Rvrvr =
Rv v

c2 rs (r rs )
,
2r2
crs sin2
,
=
2r

Rv v =
Rv r

Rv r =

crs
,
2r

R = rrs sin2 .

(2.2.40a)
(2.2.40b)

2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

23

While the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically, the Kretschmann scalar is K = 12rs2 /r6 .
Static local tetrad:
1
v ,
e(v) = p
c 1 rs/r

1
v +
e(r) = p
c 1 rs/r

Dual tetrad:

(v)

r
dr
rs
= c 1 dv p
,
r
1 rs /r

dr
,
(r) = p
1 rs /r

Ricci rotation coefficients:

rs
p
(r)(v)(v) =
,
2
2r 1 rs/r

r
rs
1 r ,
r

1
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =
r

1
e( ) = ,
r

( ) = r d ,

r
rs
1 ,
r

e( ) =

1
.
r sin

(2.2.41)

( ) = r sin d .

(2.2.42)

cot
.
r

(2.2.43)

( )( )( ) =

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4r 3rs
p
,
1 rs/r

( ) =

2r2

cot
.
r

(2.2.44)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(v)(r)(v)(r) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r3

(2.2.45a)

R(v)( )(v)( ) = R(v)( )(v)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

rs
.
2r3

(2.2.45b)

2.2.5 Kruskal-Szekeres
The Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal-Szekeres[Kru60, Wal84] coordinates (T, X, , ) reads

ds2 =


4rs3 r/rs
e
dT 2 + dX 2 + r2 d2 ,
r

(2.2.46)

where r R+ \ {0} is given by means of the LambertW-function W ,





r
1 er/rs = X 2 T 2
rs

or

  2


X T2
+1 .
r = rs W
e

(2.2.47)

The Schwarzschild coordinate time t in terms of the Kruskal coordinates T and X reads
T
t = 2rs arctanh ,
X
X
t = 2rs arctanh ,
T
t = ,

r > rs ,

(2.2.48a)

r < rs ,

(2.2.48b)

r = rs .

(2.2.48c)

The transformations between Kruskal- and Schwarzschild coordinates read


r
r
r r/(2rs )
r
ct
ct
sinh
, T = 1 er/(2rs ) cosh
,
0 < r < r2 ,
X = 1 e
rs
2rs
rs
2rs
r
r
r
r
ct
ct
1 er/(2rs ) cosh
, T=
1 er/(2rs ) sinh
,
r rs .
X=
rs
2rs
rs
2rs

(2.2.49a)
(2.2.49b)

24

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:
Trs (r + rs ) r/rs
e
,
r2
Xrs (r + rs ) r/rs
e
,
=
r2

TT T = XT X = TXX =
XT T = TT X = XXX
T =

2r2 T
s2 er/rs ,
r

(2.2.50a)
(2.2.50b)
X =

r
T,
2rs
r
= T sin2 ,
2rs
= cot ,

2rs2 X r/rs
e
,
r2

(2.2.50c)

r
X,
2rs
r
X sin2 ,
=
2rs
= sin cos .

T =

X =

(2.2.50d)

(2.2.50e)

(2.2.50f)

Riemann-Tensor:
rs7 2r/rs
e
,
r5

2rs4 r/rs
e
,
r2
2r4
= 2s er/rs ,
r

RT T =

(2.2.51a)

RT T =

RX X

(2.2.51b)

RX X

R = rrs sin2 .

RT XT X = 16

2rs4 r/rs 2
e
sin ,
r2
2r4
= 2s er/rs sin2 ,
r

(2.2.51c)

The Ricci-Tensor as well as the Ricci-scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:
K =

12rs2
.
r6

(2.2.52)

Local tetrad:
e(T ) =

r
er/(2rs ) T ,
2rs rs

e(X) =

r
er/(2rs ) X ,
2rs rs

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

r sin

(2.2.53)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(T )(X)(T )(X) = R(X)( )(X)( ) = R(X)( )(X)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =
R(T )( )(T )( ) = R(T )( )(T )( ) =

rs
.
2r3

rs
,
r3

(2.2.54a)
(2.2.54b)

2.2.6 Tortoise coordinates


The Schwarzschild metric represented by tortoise coordinates (t, , , ) reads





rs
rs
ds2 = 1
c2 dt 2 + 1
d 2 + r( )2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,
r( )
r( )

(2.2.55)

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newtons constant, c is the speed of light, and M
is the mass of the black hole. The tortoise radial coordinate and the Schwarzschild radial coordinate r
are related by

= r + rs ln

r
1
rs

or






r = rs 1 + W exp
1
.
rs

(2.2.56)

2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

25

Christoffel symbols:

c2 rs
,
2r( )2
1
1
=
,
r( ) rs

tt =

= cot ,

rs
,
2r( )2
1
1
=
,
r( ) rs

tt =

rs
,
2r( )2

(2.2.57a)

= r( ) sin2 ,

= r( ),

(2.2.57b)

= sin cos .

(2.2.57c)

Riemann-Tensor:


rs 2
,
1
r( )


c2 sin2
rs
rs
=
1
,
2
r( ) r( )


rs
rs
sin2
1
,
=
2
r( ) r( )

Rt t =
Rt t
R

c2 rs
r( )3

c2
2



rs
rs
1
,
r( ) r( )


1
rs
rs
=
1
2
r( ) r( )

Rt t =

(2.2.58a)
(2.2.58b)

R = r( )rs sin2 .

(2.2.58c)

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically because the Schwarzschild spacetime is a
vacuum solution of the field equations. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the Riemann tensor. The
Kretschmann scalar reads
K = 12

rs2
.
r( )6

(2.2.59)

Local tetrad:
1
,
e( ) = p
1 rs /r( )

1
t ,
e(t) = p
c 1 rs /r( )

Dual tetrad:

(t)

r
rs
= c 1
dt,
r( )

( )

r
rs
= 1
d ,
r( )

e( ) =

1
,
r( )

( ) = r( ) d ,

e( ) =

1
.
r( ) sin

( ) = r( ) sin d .

(2.2.60)

(2.2.61)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)( )(t)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r( )3

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

(2.2.62a)
rs
.
2r( )3

(2.2.62b)

Further reading:
MTW[MTW73]

2.2.7 Painlev-Gullstrand
The Schwarzschild metric expressed in Painlev-Gullstrand coordinates[MP01] reads
r
2


rs
c dT + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,
ds2 = c2 dT 2 + dr +
r
where the new time coordinate T follows from the Schwarzschild time t in the following way:
p
!
r
r 1 r/rs 1
+ ln p
.
cT = ct + 2rs
rs 2 r/rs + 1

(2.2.63)

(2.2.64)

26

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Metric-Tensor:
gT T = c

rs 
1
,
r

gTr = c

Christoffel symbols:
r
crs rs
T
T T = 2
,
2r
r
r
crs rs
rTr = 2
,
2r
r

rs
,
r

g = r 2 ,

grr = 1,

c2 rs (r rs )
,
2r3
r
r
rs
,
Trr =
2
2cr
rs

rT T =

1
r = ,
r

r = ,
r

r = (r rs ),

= cot ,

r = (r rs ) sin2 ,

= sin cos .

g = r2 sin2 .

rs
,
2r2
rs
rrr = 2 ,
2r
r
r rs
T
=
,
c r
r
r rs 2
T
sin ,

=
c r
TTr =

(2.2.65)

(2.2.66a)
(2.2.66b)
(2.2.66c)
(2.2.66d)
(2.2.66e)

Riemann-Tensor:
RTrTr

c2 rs
= 3 ,
r

RT T =

RT T

c2 rs (r rs ) sin2
,
2r2

Rr r =

rs sin2
,
2r

RT r

r
c2 rs (r rs )
crs rs
,
RT r =
,
=
2r2
2r
r
r
crs rs 2
rs
=
sin , Rr r = ,
2r
r
2r

R = rrs sin2 .

(2.2.67a)
(2.2.67b)
(2.2.67c)

The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:
K = 12rs2 /r6 .

(2.2.68)

For the Painlev-Gullstrand coordinates, we can define two natural local tetrads.
Static local tetrad:
r

rs
rs
1
1
1
T , e (r) =
T + 1 r , e ( ) = , e ( ) =
e (T ) = p
,
c r rs
r
r
r sin
c 1 rs /r

(2.2.69)

Dual tetrad:

r
dr
rs
(T )
,
= c 1 dT p
r
r/rs 1

Freely falling local tetrad:


r
rs
1
r ,
e(T ) = T
c
r

dr
(r)
,
= p
1 rs/r

e(r) = r ,

1
e( ) = ,
r

( )
= r d ,

( )
= r sin d .

(2.2.70)

1
.
r sin

(2.2.71)

( ) = r sin d .

(2.2.72)

e( ) =

Dual tetrad:

(T ) = c dT,

(r) = c

rs
dT + dr,
r

( ) = r d ,

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(T )(r)(T )(r) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r3

R(T )( )(T )( ) = R(T )( )(T )( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

(2.2.73a)
rs
.
2r3

(2.2.73b)

2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

27

2.2.8 Israel coordinates


The Schwarzschild metric in Israel coordinates (x, y, , ) reads[SKM+03]
2

ds =

rs2





y2 dx
2
2
2
2
4dx dy +
,
+ (1 + xy) d + sin d
1 + xy

where the coordinates x and y follow from the Schwarzschild coordinates via

y
t = rs 1 + xy + ln
and
r = rs (1 + xy).
x

(2.2.74)

(2.2.75)

Christoffel symbols:
y(2 + xy)
,
(1 + xy)2
y
=
,
1 + xy
x
=
,
1 + xy

y3 (3 + xy)
,
(1 + xy)3
y
=
,
1 + xy
x
= (1 + xy),
2
x
= (1 + xy) sin2 ,
2

xxx =

yxx =

= cot ,

= sin cos .

y(2 + xy)
,
(1 + xy)2
x
=
,
1 + xy
y
= (1 xy),
2
y
= (1 xy) sin2 ,
2

yxy =

(2.2.76a)

(2.2.76b)

y
y

(2.2.76c)
(2.2.76d)
(2.2.76e)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rxyxy = 4
Rx x = 2

rs2
,
(1 + xy)3

Rx x = 2

rs2 y2 sin2
,
(1 + xy)2

Rx y =

y2 rs2
rs2
,
R
,
=

(1 + xy)2
1 + xy

rs2 sin2
,
1 + xy

R = (1 + xy)rs2 sin2 .

(2.2.77a)
(2.2.77b)

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the
Riemann tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads
K =

12
rs4 (1 + xy)6

(2.2.78)

Local tetrad:

1 + xy
y
e(0) =
x +
y ,
2rs y
rs 1 + xy
1
e(2) =
,
rs (1 + xy)

1 + xy
x ,
e(1) =
2rs y
1
.
e(3) =
rs (1 + xy) sin

(2.2.79a)
(2.2.79b)

Dual tetrad:

(0)

rs 1 + xy
=
dy,
y

(2) = rs (1 + xy) d ,

(1)

2rs y
rs 1 + xy
=
dy,
dx +
y
1 + xy

(3) = rs (1 + xy) sin d .

(2.2.80a)
(2.2.80b)

28

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.3 Alcubierre Warp


The Warp metric given by Miguel Alcubierre[Alc94] reads
ds2 = c2 dt 2 + (dx vs f (rs )dt)2 + dy2 + dz2

(2.3.1)

where
vs =
rs (t) =
f (rs ) =

dxs (t)
,
qdt

(2.3.2a)
(2.3.2b)

(x xs (t))2 + y2 + z2 ,

tanh( (rs + R)) tanh( (rs R))


.
2 tanh( R)

(2.3.2c)

The parameter R > 0 defines the radius of the warp bubble and the parameter > 0 its thickness.
Metric-Tensor:
gtt = c2 + v2s f (rs )2 ,

gtx = vs f (rs ),

(2.3.3)

gxx = gyy = gzz = 1.

Christoffel symbols:
f 2 fx v3s
,
ttz = f fz v2s ,
tty = f fy v2s ,
c2
f f x v2
f 2 f x v3
f 3 fx v4s c2 f fx v2s c2 ft vs
x
,
ttx = 2 s ,
tx
= 2 s,
ttx =
2
c
c
c
2
f
f
f
v
f
v
y vs
y s
z s
y
z
,
tx
=
,
tty =
,
tx =
2
2
2c2
f 2 fy v3s + c2 fy vs
f fz v2s
f 2 fz v3s + c2 fz vs
t
x
x
,

,
ty
=
tz
tz
2c2
2c2
2c2
2
f y vs
f fx v
f x vs
xxx = 2 s ,
txy = 2 ,
txx = 2 ,
c
c
2c
2
f
f
v
f
v
f fz v2s
y
z
s
s
t
x
,

=
,

=
,
xxy =
xz
xz
2c2
2c2
2c2
with derivatives
i
d f (rs ) vs (x xs(t)) h
ft =
sech2 ( (rs + R)) sech2 ( (rs R))
=
dt
2rs tanh( R)
i
(x xs(t)) h
d f (rs )
fx =
sech2 ( (rs + R)) sech2 ( (rs R))
=
dx
2rs tanh( R)
i
h
d f (rs )
y
fy =
sech2 ( (rs + R)) sech2 ( (rs R))
=
dy
2rs tanh( R)
i
h
d f (rs )
z
fz =
=
sech2 ( (rs + R)) sech2 ( (rs R))
dz
2rs tanh( R)
ttt =

(2.3.4a)
(2.3.4b)
(2.3.4c)
(2.3.4d)
(2.3.4e)
(2.3.4f)

(2.3.5a)
(2.3.5b)
(2.3.5c)
(2.3.5d)

Riemann- and Ricci-tensor as well as Ricci- and Kretschman-scalar are shown only in the Maple worksheet.
Comoving local tetrad:
e(0) =

1
(t + vs f x ) ,
c

e(1) = x ,

e(2) = y ,

e(3) = z .

(2.3.6)

Static local tetrad:


1

e(0) = p
t ,
c2 v2s f 2

p
c2 v2s f 2
t +
x ,
e(1) = p
c
c c2 v2s f 2
vs f

Further reading:
Pfenning[PF97], Clark[CHL99], Van Den Broeck[Bro99]

e(2) = y ,

e(3) = z .

(2.3.7)

2.4. BARRIOLA-VILENKIN MONOPOL

29

2.4 Barriola-Vilenkin monopol


The Barriola-Vilenkin metric describes the gravitational field of a global monopole[BV89]. In spherical
coordinates (t, r, , ), the metric reads

ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dr2 + k2 r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

(2.4.1)

where k is the scaling factor responsible for the deficit/surplus angle.


Christoffel symbols:
r = k2 r,

= k2 r sin2 ,

1
r = ,
r

= sin cos ,

r = ,
r

= cot .

(2.4.2a)

(2.4.2b)

Partial derivatives
1
,
r2
1
= 2 ,
sin
= k2 r sin(2 ).

1
,
r2

r ,r =

r ,r =

r ,r = k2 sin2 ,

,
r ,

r ,r = k2 ,

(2.4.3a)

, = cos(2 ),

(2.4.3b)
(2.4.3c)

Riemann-Tensor:
R = (1 k2)k2 r2 sin2 .

(2.4.4)

Ricci tensor, Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:


R = (1 k2 ) sin2 ,

R = (1 k2),

R=2

1 k2
,
k2 r 2

K =4

(1 k2)2
.
k4 r 4

(2.4.5)

Weyl-Tensor:
c2 (1 k2)
c2
c2
2
=
=
,
C
(1

k
),
C
(1 k2 ) sin2 ,

t
3k2 r2
6
6
1
1
k2 r 2
= (1 k2), Cr r = (1 k2 ) sin2 , C =
(1 k2) sin2 .
6
6
3

Ctrtr =
Cr r

(2.4.6a)
(2.4.6b)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(r) = r ,

e( ) =

1
,
kr

e( ) =

1
.
kr sin

(2.4.7)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = c dt,

(r) = dr,

( ) = kr d ,

( ) = kr sin d .

(2.4.8)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


1
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) = ,
r

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
kr

(2.4.9)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


2
(r) = ,
r

( ) =

cot
.
kr

(2.4.10)

30

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R( )( )( )( ) =

1 k2
.
k2 r 2

(2.4.11)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

1 k2
.
k2 r 2

(2.4.12)

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


C(t)(r)(t)(r) = C( )( )( )( ) =

1 k2
,
3k2 r2

C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) =


Embedding:
The embedding function, see Sec. 1.7, for k < 1 reads
p
z = 1 k2 r.

(2.4.13a)
1 k2
.
6k2 r2

(2.4.13b)

(2.4.14)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
1 h21
1 2
,
r + Veff =
2
2 c2

1
Veff =
2


h22
2
c ,
k2 r 2

(2.4.15)

with the constants of motion h1 = c2t and h2 = k2 r2 .


The point of closest approach rpca for a null geodesic that starts at r = ri with y = e(t) +cos e(r) +sin e( )
is given by r = ri sin . Hence, the rpca is independent of k. The same is also true for timelike geodesics.
Further reading:
Barriola and Vilenkin[BV89], Perlick[Per04].

2.5. BERTOTTI-KASNER

31

2.5 Bertotti-Kasner
The Bertotti-Kasner spacetime in spherical coordinates (t, r, , ) reads[Rin98]
ds2 = c2 dt 2 + e2

ct

dr2 +


1
d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

where the cosmological constant must be positive.


Christoffel symbols:

2ct

r
trr =
e
tr
= c ,
,
= cot ,
c

(2.5.1)

= sin cos .

(2.5.2)

Partial derivatives
trr,t = 2e2

ct

, =

1
,
sin2

, = cos(2 ).

(2.5.3)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr = c2 e2

ct

R =

sin2
.

(2.5.4)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt = c2 ,

Rrr = e2

ct

R = 1,

R = sin2 .

(2.5.5)

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalars read


R = 4,

K = 82 .

(2.5.6)

Weyl-Tensor:

2
Ctrtr = c2 e2 ct ,
3
1
Cr r = e2 ct ,
3

c2
,
3
1
= e2 ct sin2 ,
3

Ct t =
Cr r

1
Ct t = e2 ct ,
3
2 sin2
C =
.
3

(2.5.7a)
(2.5.7b)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(r) = e

r ,

e( ) = ,

dr,

1
( ) = d ,

ct

.
e( ) =
sin

(2.5.8)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = c dt,

(r) = e

ct

Ricci rotation coefficients:

(t)(r)(r) = ,
( )( )( ) = cot .
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(t) = ,
( ) = cot .

sin
( ) = d .

(2.5.9)

(2.5.10)

(2.5.11)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R( )( )( )( ) = .

(2.5.12)

32

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


(2.5.13)

R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) = .
Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
C(t)(r)(t)(r) = C( )( )( )( ) =

2
,
3

(2.5.14a)

C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) =

.
3

(2.5.14b)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
c2t2 = h21 e2

ct

+ h22

with the constants of motion h1 = re

(2.5.15)

2 ct

and h2 = /. Thus,



1
1 + q(t) 1 q(ti)
= q
ln
,
1 q(t) 1 + q(ti)
c h22

h2 e2 ct
+ 1,
q(t) = 1 2
h2

where ti is the initial time. We can also solve the orbital equation:
q

h21 e2 ct + h22

r(t) = w(t) w(ti ) + ri ,


w(t) =
,
h1

(2.5.16)

(2.5.17)

where ri is the initial radial position.

Further reading:
Rindler[Rin98]: Every spherically symmetric solution of the generalized vacuum field equations Ri j = gi j is
either equivalent to Kottlers generalization of Schwarzschild space or to the [...] Bertotti-Kasner space (for which
must be necessarily be positive).

2.6. BESSEL GRAVITATIONAL WAVE

33

2.6 Bessel gravitational wave


D. Kramer introduced in [Kra99] an exact gravitational wave solution of Einsteins vacuum field equations. According to [Ste03] we execute the substitution x t and y z.

2.6.1 Cylindrical coordinates


The metric of the Bessel wave in cylindrical coordinates reads



ds2 = e2U e2K d 2 dt 2 + 2d 2 + e2U dz2 .

(2.6.1)

The functions U and K are given by

U := CJ0 ( ) cos (t) ,


o
i
n h
1
K := C2 J0 ( )2 + J1 ( )2 2J0 ( ) J1 ( ) cos2 (t) ,
2

(2.6.2)
(2.6.3)

where Jn ( ) are the Bessel functions of the first kind.


Christoffel symbols:

U K
+
,
t
t
U K

+
,
tt = tt = =



U

1 ,
= e2K

ttt = t = t =

U
,
t
1 U

=
,

U
z z =
,

U
,
t
U
zz = e4U2K
,

U
tzz = e4U2K
.
t

t = e2K 2

z
=
t = tz

(2.6.4a)
(2.6.4b)
(2.6.4c)

Local tetrad:
e(t) = eUK t ,

e( ) = eUK ,

e( ) =

1 U
e ,

e(z) = eU z .

(2.6.5)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = eKU dt,

( ) = eKU d ,

( ) = eU d ,

(z) = eU dz.

(2.6.6)

2.6.2 Cartesian coordinates


In Cartesian coordinates with =

p
x2 + y2 the metric (2.6.1) reads




e2U
ds = e
dt + 2
e2K x2 + y2 dx2 + 2xy e2K 1 dxdy
x + y2

 2
2
2K 2
+ x + e y dy + e2U dz2 .
2

2(KU)

(2.6.7)

Local tetrad:
e(t) = eUK t ,
e(y) = eUK

e(x) = eU

x2 + y2
x ,
e2K x2 + y2


eUK e2K 1
e2K x2 + y2
y + xy p
x ,
x2 + y2
(x2 + y2 ) (e2K x2 + y2 )

(2.6.8)
e(z) = eU z

34

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.7 Cosmic string in Schwarzschild spacetime


A cosmic string in the Schwarzschild spacetime represented by Schwarzschild coordinates (t, r, , )
reads


rs  2 2
1
ds2 = 1
dr2 + r2 d 2 + 2 sin2 d 2 ,
c dt +
r
1 rs/r

(2.7.1)

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newtons constant, c is the speed of light, M is the
mass of the black hole, and is the string parameter, compare Aryal et al[AFV86].
Christoffel symbols:
c2 rs (r rs )
,
2r3
1
= ,
r
= cot ,

rs
,
2r(r rs )
1
= ,
r
= (r rs ) 2 sin2 ,

ttr =

ttr =

r
r

rrr =

rs
,
2r(r rs )

(2.7.2a)

r = (r rs ),

(2.7.2b)

= 2 sin cos .

(2.7.2c)

Partial derivatives
(2r rs )rs
(2r rs )rs
(2r 3rs )c2 rs
,
ttr,r = 2
, rrr,r = 2
,
2r4
2r (r rs )2
2r (r rs )2
1
1

r ,r = 2 ,
r ,r = 2 ,
r ,r = 1,
r
r
1

2
2
r
, = 2 ,

, = 2 cos(2 ),
,r = sin ,
sin
r , = (r rs ) 2 sin(2 ).
r
tt,r
=

(2.7.3a)
(2.7.3b)
(2.7.3c)
(2.7.3d)

Riemann-Tensor:
1 c2 (r rs ) rs
1 c2 (r rs ) rs 2 sin2
c2 rs
=
=
,
R
,
R
,
t

r3
2
r2
2
r2
1 rs
1 rs 2 sin2
, Rr r =
, R = rrs 2 sin2 .
=
2 r rs
2 r rs

Rtrtr =
Rr r

(2.7.4a)
(2.7.4b)

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the
Riemann tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads
K = 12

rs2
.
r6

(2.7.5)

Local tetrad:
r
rs
e(r) = 1 r ,
r

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

1
.
r sin

(2.7.6)

dr
(r) = p
,
1 rs/r

( ) = r d ,

( ) = r sin d .

(2.7.7)

1
e(t) = p
t ,
c 1 rs /r

Dual tetrad:

(t)

r
rs
= c 1 dt,
r

Ricci rotation coefficients:

r
p s
(r)(t)(t) =
,
2
2r 1 rs/r

1
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =
r

r
rs
1 ,
r

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.7.8)

2.7. COSMIC STRING IN SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME

35

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4r 3rs
p
,
1 rs/r

2r2

( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.7.9)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r3

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

(2.7.10a)
rs
.
2r3

(2.7.10b)

Embedding:
The embedding function for 2 < 1 reads
r
z = (r rs )

p
p
rs
r
r/(r rs ) 2 1 2
2
p
p
ln p
.
r rs
2 12
r/(r rs ) 2 + 1 2

(2.7.11)

If 2 = 1, we have the embedding function of the standard Schwarzschild metric, compare Eq.(2.2.15).
Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
1 k2
1 2
,
r + Veff =
2
2 c2

Veff =



rs  h2
1
2
1

c
2
r
r2 2

(2.7.12)

with the constants of motion k = (1 rs/r)c2t and h = r2 2 . The maxima of the effective potential Veff
lead to the same critical orbits rpo = 32 rs and ritcg = 3rs as in the standard Schwarzschild metric.

36

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.8 Ernst spacetime


The Ernst metric is a static, axially symmetric, electro-vacuum solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with
a black hole immersed in a magnetic field.[KV92]
In spherical coordinates (t, r, , ), the Ernst metric reads[Ern76] (G = c = 1)


 
r2 sin2 2
dr2
2M
dt 2 +
d ,
+ r2 d 2 +
ds2 = 2 1
r
1 2M/r
2

(2.8.1)

where = 1 + B2r2 sin2 . Here, M is the mass of the black hole and B the magnetic field strength.
Christoffel symbols:

2B2 r3 sin2 3MB2r2 sin2 + M (r 2M)
2 (r 2M) B2 sin cos

=
=
,

,
tt
r3
r
2B2 r2 sin cos
2B2 r3 sin2 3MB2r2 sin2 + M
,
tt =
,
ttr =
r (r 2M)

ttr

rrr =
rr =

r =
=
r =

2B2 r3 sin2 5MB2r2 sin2 M


,
r (r 2M)
2B2 r2 sin cos
,

1 B2r2 sin2
,
r
2B2 r2 sin cos
,

(r 2M) sin2
,
5
sin cos
.
5

rr =

2B2 r sin cos


,
(r 2M)

3B2 r2 sin2 + 1
,
r

3B2 r2 sin2 + 1 (r 2M)
=
,

cos
,
=

(2.8.2a)
(2.8.2b)
(2.8.2c)

r =

(2.8.2d)

(2.8.2e)

(2.8.2f)
(2.8.2g)
(2.8.2h)

with = 1 B2r2 sin2 .


Riemann-Tensor:
i
2h 4 4 4
5 4
2
2
2 2
2
B
r
sin

(3M

r)

M
+
2r
B
sin

cos

+
B
r
sin

(r

2M)
,
r3


= 2B2 sin cos (3B2 r2 sin2 (2M 3r) + r 2M ,

1
= 2 B4 r4 (r 2M)(4r 9M) sin4 + 2B2r3 (r 2M) cos2 + M(r 2M) ,
r

1 
= 4 2 (2B2 r3 3B2Mr2 sin2 + M)(r 2M) sin2 ,
r
(2B2 r3 3B2Mr2 sin2 + M)
=
,
r 2M

sin2  4 4
B r (4r 9M) sin4 + 2B2r2 (8M 4r ) sin2 + 2B2r3 cos2 + M ,
= 4
(r 2M)

2B2r3 sin3 cos 3B2 r2 sin2 5
=
,
4

r sin2  4 4
2B r (r 3M) sin4 + 4B2r3 cos2 (1 + ) + 2B2r2 sin2 (2M r) + 2M .
=
4

Rtrtr =

(2.8.3a)

Rtrt

(2.8.3b)

Rt t
Rt t
Rr r
Rr r
Rr
R

(2.8.3c)
(2.8.3d)
(2.8.3e)
(2.8.3f)
(2.8.3g)
(2.8.3h)

2.8. ERNST SPACETIME

37

Ricci-Tensor:
4B2[r cos2 (r 2M) sin2 ]
4B2 (r 2M)(r + 2M sin2 )
, Rrr =
,
2
2
r
(r 2M)2


4B2 r r cos2 + (r 2M) sin2
8B2 r sin cos
,
R =
,
=
2
2

4B2 r sin2 r + 2M sin2
=
.
6

Rtt =
Rr
R

(2.8.4a)
(2.8.4b)
(2.8.4c)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:


(2.8.5a)

R = 0,


16
K = 6 8 3B8 r8 4r2 18Mr + 21M 2 sin8
r


+ 2B4r4 31M 2 37Mr 24B2r4 cos2 + 42B2Mr3 cos2 + 10r2 + 6B4r6 cos4 sin6


+ 2B2r2 3Mr + 20B2r4 cos2 + 6M 2 46B2Mr3 cos2 12B4r6 cos4 sin4

6B6r6 6B2 Mr3 cos2 + 4r2 4B2r4 cos2 + 18M 2 17Mr

2
3
2
2
4 6
4
+ 20B r cos + 12B Mr cos + 3M .

(2.8.5b)

Static local tetrad:


e(t) =

1
p
t ,
1 2m/r

e(r) =

p
1 2m/r
r ,

1
,
r

e( ) =

.
r sin

(2.8.6)

( ) = r d ,

( ) =

r sin
d .

(2.8.7)

e( ) =

Dual tetrad:

(t)

2m
dt,
r

dr,
(r) = p
1 2m/r

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
r2 +

h2 (1 rs/r) k2
1 rs /r
4 +
=0
2
r

(2.8.8)

with constants of motion k = 2 (1 rs/r)t and h = (r2 /2 ) .


Further reading:
Ernst[Ern76], Dhurandhar and Sharma[DS83], Karas and Vokrouhlicky[KV92], Stuchlk and Hledk[SH99].

38

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.9 Friedman-Robertson-Walker
The Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric describes a general homogeneous and isotropic universe. In a
general form it reads:
ds2 = c2 dt 2 + R2 d 2

(2.9.1)

with R = R(t) being an arbitrary function of time only and d 2 being a metric of a 3-space of constant
curvature for which three explicit forms will be described here.
In all formulas in this section a dot denotes differentiation with respect to t, e.g. R = dR(t)/dt.

2.9.1 Form 1
2

ds = c dt + R



d 2
2
2
2
2
+ d + sin d
1 k 2

(2.9.2)

Christoffel symbols:
t =
t =

R
,
R

R
,
R
k
,
=
1 k 2
R 2 R
=
,
c2
R 2 sin2 R
,
=
c2

t =
RR

c2 (1 k 2)

1
,

= cot ,

= sin cos .

R
,
R
1
= ,

t =

(2.9.3a)
(2.9.3b)

= (k 2 1) ,

(2.9.3c)

= (k 2 1) sin2 ,

(2.9.3d)
(2.9.3e)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rt t =

RR
,
k 2 1

Rt t = R 2 R,

Rt t = R 2 sin2 R,
R

(2.9.4a)

R2 2 R 2 + kc
,
c2 (k 2 1)

R2 4 sin2 R 2 + kc2

2

R =


R2 2 sin2 R 2 + kc2
,
=
c2 (k 2 1)

R =

c2

(2.9.4b)
.

(2.9.4c)

Ricci-Tensor:
R
Rtt = 3 ,
R
R
R + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
R = 2
,
c2

RR + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
,
c2 (1 k 2 )
RR + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
= 2 sin2
.
c2

R =

(2.9.5a)

(2.9.5b)

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:

R=6

RR + R 2 + kc2
,
R 2 c2

K = 12

R 2R2 + R 4 + 2R 2kc2 + k2 c4
.
R 4 c4

(2.9.6)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

p
1 k 2
e( ) =
,
R

e =

1
,
R

e =

1
.
R sin

(2.9.7)

2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER

39

Ricci rotation coefficients:


p
1 k 2
( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =
,
R

R
( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =
Rc
cot
( )( )( ) =
.
R

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


p
3R
2 1 k 2
cot
(t) =
(r) =
,
( ) =
.
,
Rc
R
R

(2.9.8)

(2.9.9)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R
Rc2
R 2 + kc2
.
R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =
R 2 c2

(2.9.10a)

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.9.10b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) =

3R
,
Rc2

R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

RR + 2R 2 + 2kc2
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.11)

2.9.2 Form 2
ds2 = c2 dt 2 +


 2
R2
dr + r2 (d 2 + sin2 d 2 )
k 2 2
(1 + 4 r )

(2.9.12)

Christoffel symbols:
r
tr
=

R
,
R

trr = 16

r =

t =
RR
c2 (4 + kr2 )2

= cot ,
r
=

rrr =

4 kr2
,
(4 + kr2 )r

R
,
R

2kr
,
4 + kr2
Rr2 R

R
,
R
4 kr2
=
,
(4 + kr2 )r

t =

(2.9.13a)

(2.9.13b)

, r =

r(kr2 4)
,
4 + kr2

t = 16

c2 (4 + kr2)2

t = 16

Rr2 sin2 R

,
= sin cos ,
c2 (4 + kr2)2

(2.9.13c)
(2.9.13d)

r sin2 (kr2 4)
.
4 + kr2

(2.9.13e)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr = 16
Rt t = 16
Rr r = 256

RR
,
(4 + kr2)2
Rr2 sin2 R
(4 + kr2)2

Rr2 R
,
(4 + kr2)2

R2r2 R 2 + kc2

Rt t = 16

(2.9.14a)

Rr r = 256

(2.9.14b)


R2r2 sin2 R 2 + kc2
, R = 256
c2 (4 + kr2 )4

,
c2 (4 + kr2 )4

R2r4 sin2 R 2 + kc2
c2 (4 + kr2 )4

(2.9.14c)

Ricci-Tensor:
R
Rtt = 3 ,
R
R = 16r2

RR + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
,
c2 (4 + kr2)2

RR + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
,
c2 (4 + kr2 )2
RR + 2(R 2 + kc2 )
= 16r2 sin2
.
c2 (4 + kr2)2

Rrr = 16
R

(2.9.15a)
(2.9.15b)

40

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:

R=6

RR + R 2 + kc2
,
R 2 c2

K = 12

R 2R2 + R 4 + 2R 2kc2 + k2 c4
.
R 4 c4

(2.9.16)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(r) =

1 + 4k r2
r ,
R

1 + 4k r2
,
Rr

e =

e =

1 + k/4r2
.
Rr sin

(2.9.17)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

(r)(t)(r) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =


( )( )( ) =

R
Rc

k 2
r 1

( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) = 4

Rr

( 4k r2 + 1) cot
.
Rr

(2.9.18a)
(2.9.18b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(t) =

3R
,
Rc

(r) = 2

1 4k r2
,
Rr

( ) =

( 4k r2 + 1) cot
.
Rr

(2.9.19)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R
Rc2
R 2 + kc2
R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.20a)

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.9.20b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) =

3R
,
Rc2

R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

RR + 2R 2 + 2kc2
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.21)

2.9.3 Form 3
The following forms of the metric are obtained from 2.9.2 by setting = sin , , sinh for k = 1, 0, 1
respectively.
Positive Curvature


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + R2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 + sin2 d 2

(2.9.22)

Christoffel symbols:

R
,
t
R
RR
= 2,

c
R sin2 R

,

=
c2
R sin2 sin2 R
=
,
c2

t =
t
t
t

R
,
R

t =

R
,
R

= cot ,

= cot ,

= sin cos ,

= cot( ),

= sin cos sin2 ,


= sin cos .

(2.9.23a)
(2.9.23b)
(2.9.23c)
(2.9.23d)

2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER

41

Riemann-Tensor:

Rt t = R sin2 R,

2
2
R sin R 2 + c2
2
2

= R sin sin R,
,
R =
c2


R2 sin2 sin2 R 2 + c2
R2 sin4 sin2 R 2 + c2
=
, R =
.
c2
c2

Rt t = RR,

(2.9.24a)

Rt t

(2.9.24b)

(2.9.24c)

Ricci-Tensor:
R
Rtt = 3 ,
R

RR + 2(R 2 + c2 )
,
c2
RR + 2(R 2 + c2 )
= sin2 sin2
.
c2

R =

RR + 2(R 2 + c2 )
,
R
c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read
R 2R2 + R 4 + 2R 2 c2 + c4
RR + R 2 + c2
,
K
=
12
.
R=6
R 2 c2
R 4 c4
R = sin2

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e( ) =

1
,
R

e =

1
,
R sin

e =

(2.9.25a)
(2.9.25b)

(2.9.26)

1
.
R sin sin

(2.9.27)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =


( )( )( ) =

cot
.
R sin

R
Rc

( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =

cot
,
R

(2.9.28a)
(2.9.28b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


3R
cot
cot
(t) =
(r) = 2
( ) =
.
,
,
Rc
R
R sin

(2.9.29)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R
,
Rc2
R 2 + c2
R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = 2 2 .
R c
R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.9.30a)
(2.9.30b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) =

3R
,
Rc2

R( )( ) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

RR + 2(R 2 + c2 )
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.31)

Vanishing Curvature


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + R2 d 2 + 2 d 2 + sin2 d 2

Christoffel symbols:
R

t = ,
R
R
R
t = 2 ,
c
R 2 R
,
t =
c2
R 2 sin2 R
,
t =
c2

R
,
R
1
= ,

t =

R
,
R
1
= ,

t =

(2.9.33a)
(2.9.33b)

= cot( ),

(2.9.33c)

= sin cos .

(2.9.33d)

= ,
= sin2 ,

(2.9.32)

42

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Riemann-Tensor:

Rt t = RR,

Rt t = R 2 sin2 R,
R =

R2 2 sin2 R 2
,
c2

Rt t = R 2 R,
2
2
R R 2
R =
,
c2
R2 4 sin2 R 2
R =
.
c2

(2.9.34a)
(2.9.34b)
(2.9.34c)

Ricci-Tensor:
R
RR + 2R 2
Rtt = 3 ,
,
R =
R
c2

2
RR + 2R 2
2
2 RR + 2 R
=
sin

,
R
.
R = 2

c2
c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read
R 2 R2 + R 4
RR + R 2
K = 12
.
R=6 2 2 ,
R c
R 4 c4
Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e( ) =

1
,
R

e =

1
,
R

e =

(2.9.35a)
(2.9.35b)

(2.9.36)

1
.
R sin

(2.9.37)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =


( )( )( ) =

R
Rc

( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =

1
,
R

cot( )
.
R

(2.9.38a)
(2.9.38b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


3R
2
cot
(t) =
(r) =
,
( ) =
.
,
Rc
R
R

(2.9.39)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R
,
Rc2
R 2
R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = 2 2 .
R c

(2.9.40a)

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.9.40b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) =

3R
,
Rc2

R( )( ) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

RR + 2R 2
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.41)

Negative Curvature


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + R2 d 2 + sinh2 d 2 + sin2 d 2

Christoffel symbols:
R

t = ,
t
R
RR

t = 2 ,
c
R sinh2 R

,

t =
c2
R sinh2 sin2 R

,
t =
c2

R
,
R

(2.9.42)

t =

R
,
R

= coth ,

= coth ,

= sinh cosh ,

= cot ,

= sinh cosh sin2 ,


= sin cos .

(2.9.43a)
(2.9.43b)
(2.9.43c)
(2.9.43d)

2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER

43

Riemann-Tensor:

Rt t = R sinh2 R,

2
2
R sinh R 2 c2
2
2

R =
= R sinh sin R,
,
c2


R2 sinh2 sin2 R 2 c2
R2 sinh 4 sin2 R 2 c2
, R =
.
=
c2
c2

Rt t = RR,

(2.9.44a)

Rt t

(2.9.44b)

(2.9.44c)

Ricci-Tensor:
R
Rtt = 3 ,
R
R = sinh2

RR + 2(R 2 c2 )
c2

RR + 2(R 2 c2 )
,
c2
RR + 2(R 2 c2 )
= sin2 sin2
.
c2

R =

(2.9.45a)

(2.9.45b)

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read


R=6

RR + R 2 c2
,
R 2 c2

K = 12

R 2R2 + R 4 2R 2 c2 + c4
.
R 4 c4

(2.9.46)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e( ) =

1
,
R

e =

1
,
R sinh

e =

1
.
R sinh sin

(2.9.47)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =


( )( )( ) =

cot
.
R sinh

R
Rc

( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =

coth
,
R

(2.9.48a)
(2.9.48b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(t) =

3R
,
Rc

(r) = 2

coth
,
R

( ) =

cot
.
R sinh

(2.9.49)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R
,
Rc2
R 2 c2
R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = 2 2 .
R c
R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.9.50a)
(2.9.50b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) =

3R
,
Rc2

Further reading:
Rindler[Rin01]

R( )( ) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =

RR + 2(R 2 c2 )
.
R 2 c2

(2.9.51)

44

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.10 Gdel Universe


Gdel introduced a homogeneous and rotating universe model in [Gd49]. We follow the notation of
[KWSD04]

2.10.1 Cylindrical coordinates


The Gdel metric in cylindrical coordinates is
ds2 = c2 dt 2 +


 r 2 
dr2
c
2
1

d 2 + dz2 2r2 dtd ,


+
r
2
1 + [r/(2a)]
2a
2a

(2.10.1)

where 2a is the Gdel radius.


Christoffel symbols:
r
1
,
2
2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
 r i2
cr h
=
,
1+
2a
2a
1
r3
,
=
3
4 2ca 1 + [r/(2a)]2




 r 2
1  r 2
= r 1+
1
.
2a
2 a

ttr =
tr
tr
r

c
1

tr =
,
2ar 1 + [r/(2a)]2
r
1
rrr = 2
,
4a 1 + [r/(2a)]2

r =

1
1
,
r 1 + [r/(2a)]2

(2.10.2a)
(2.10.2b)
(2.10.2c)
(2.10.2d)

Riemann-Tensor:

Rt t

c2
1
,
2
2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2

cr2
1
Rtrr =
,
3
2 2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
c2 r 2
r2 1 + 3[r/(2a)]2
1
= 2
=
,
R
.
r

2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
2a2 1 + [r/(2a)]2

Rtrtr =

(2.10.3a)
(2.10.3b)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt =

c2
,
a2

r2 c
Rt =
,
2a3

Ricci and Kretschmann scalar


3
1
K = 4.
R = 2,
a
a
cosmological constant:
=

R
2

R =

r4
.
2a4

(2.10.4)

(2.10.5)

(2.10.6)

Killing vectors:
An infinitesimal isometric transformation x = x + (x ) leaves the metric unchanged, that is g (x ) =
g (x ). A killing vector field is solution to the killing equation ; + ; = 0. There exist five killing
vector fields in Gdels spacetime:

r cos
1
0
2c
0

a 1 + [r/(2a)]2 sin
1
, = 0 ,
, = p


=
(2.10.7a)
a
2

2
0
1
a
c
1 + [r/(2a)]
b
r 1 + 2[r/(2a)] cos
0
0
0


r sin
0
2c


1
0
a 1 + [r/(2a)]2 cos

p
(2.10.7b)
= , =
a
0
e
1 + [r/(2a)]2 r 1 + 2[r/(2a)]2 sin
d
1
0

2.10. GDEL UNIVERSE

45

An arbitrary linear combination of killing vector fields is again a killing vector field.
Local tetrad:
For the local tetrad in Gdels spacetime an ansatz similar to the local tetrad of a rotating spacetime in
spherical coordinates (Sec. 1.4.7) can be used. After substituting z and swapping base vectors e(2)
and e(3) an orthonormalized and right-handed local tetrad is obtained.

e(0) = t + ,

e(1) =

where

q
1 + [r/(2a)]2r ,


r2 c
A = + r2 1 [r/(2a)]2 ,
2a
1
= q
,

c2 + r2 c 2/a 2r2 (1 [r/(2a)]2)


e(2) = At + B ,

e(3) = z ,

r2 c
B = c2 + ,
2a
1
= p
.
rc 1 + [r/(2a)]2

Transformation between local direction y(i) and coordinate direction y :


q
y0 = y(0) + y(2)A, y1 = y(1) 1 + [r/(2a)]2, y2 = y(0) + y(2)B,

(2.10.8a)

(2.10.9a)
(2.10.9b)

y3 = y(3) .

(2.10.10)

with the above abbreviations.

2.10.2 Scaled cylindrical coordinates


If we apply the simple transformation
t
,
rG

T=

R=

r
,
rG

= ,

Z=

z
,
rG

(2.10.11)

with rG = 2a, we find a formulation for the metric scaling with rG , which is
2

ds =

2
rG




dR2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
c dT +
+ R (1 R )D + dZ 2 2cR dT d .
1 + R2

(2.10.12)

Christoffel symbols:

2c
,
R(1 + R2)
R
RRR =
,
1 + R2
1

R =
,
R(1 + R2)

2R
,
1 + R2

= 2cR(1 + R2),
3
2R
,
=
c(1 + R2)

TT R =
RT
TR

T R =

R = R(1 + R2)(2R2 1).

(2.10.13a)
(2.10.13b)
(2.10.13c)
(2.10.13d)

Riemann-Tensor:
2r2 c2
RT RT R = G 2 ,
1+R

RT RR

2 2
RT T = 2c2 rG
R (1 + R2),

RR R

2 2
cR
2 2rG
,
=
1 + R2
2r2 R2 (1 + 3R2)
.
= G
1 + R2

(2.10.14a)
(2.10.14b)

Ricci-Tensor:
RT T = 4c2 ,

RT = 4 2cR2 ,

R = 8R4 .

(2.10.15)

46

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Ricci and Kretschmann scalar


R=

4
,
2
rG

K =

48
.
4
rG

(2.10.16)

cosmological constant:
=

R
2

(2.10.17)

Killing vectors:
The Killing vectors read

R cos
1
2c
0
1 (1 + R2) sin
, = 1
2
=
1
0
(1 + 2R2) cos
a
1 + R2 2R
b
0
0

R
sin
0
2c
1

1
0
(1
+
R2) cos

2
= , =
1

2
2
0
e
1+R
d
2R (1 + 2R ) sin
1
0

0
0

=
1 ,
c
0

(2.10.18a)

(2.10.18b)

Local tetrad:
After the transformation to scaled cylindrical coordinates, the local tetrad reads
e(0) =
where

T + ,
rG

e(1) =

1p
1 + R2 R ,
rG

h
i
A = R2 2c + (1 R2) ,

e(2) =

AT + B ,
rG

e(3) =

1
Z ,
rG

B = c2 + 2R2 c ,

1
,
= q

c2 + 2 2R2 c R2(1 R2) 2

(2.10.19a)

(2.10.20a)

.
Rc 1 + R2

(2.10.20b)

Transformation between local direction y(i) and coordinate direction y :


y0 =

(0) A (2)
y +
y ,
rG
rG

y1 =

1p
1 + R2y(1) ,
rG

y2 =

(0) B (2)
y +
y ,
rG
rG

y3 =

1 (3)
y , (2.10.21)
rG

and the back transformation is given by


y(0) =

rG By0 Ay2
,
BA

rG
y(1) =
y1 ,
1 + R2

y(2) =

rG y2 y0
,
B A

y(3) = rG y3 .

(2.10.22a)

2.11. HALILSOY STANDING WAVE

47

2.11 Halilsoy standing wave


The standing wave metric by Halilsoy[Hal88] reads

 1

ds2 = V e2K d 2 dt 2 + 2d 2 + (dz + A d )2 ,
V

(2.11.1)

where
V = cosh2 e2CJ0 ( ) cos(t) + sinh2 e2CJ0 ( ) cos(t) ,


C2  2
J0 ( )2 + J1 ( )2 2 J0( )J1 ( ) cos2 t ,
K=
2
A = 2C sinh(2 ) J1 ( ) sin(t).

(2.11.2a)
(2.11.2b)
(2.11.2c)

with spherical Bessel functions J1,2 and parameters and C.


Local tetrad:
eK
e(0) = t ,
V

eK
e(1) = ,
V

1
A
e(2) = z ,
V
V

e(3) =

V z .

(2.11.3)

dual tetrad:

(0) =

K
V e dt,

(2) = V eK d ,

(2) = V d ,

1
(3) = (dz + A d ).
V

(2.11.4)

48

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.12 Janis-Newman-Winicour
The Janis-Newman-Winicour[JNW68] spacetime in spherical coordinates (t, r, , ) is represented by the
line element

ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dr2 + r2 +1 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

(2.12.1)

where = 1 rs/( r). The Schwarzschild radius rs = 2GM/c2 is defined by Newtons constant G, the
speed of light c, and the mass parameter M. For = 1, we obtain the Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1).
Christoffel symbols:
rs c2 2 1
,

2r2
2 r rs ( + 1)
=
,
2 r 2

ttr =
r

r = r sin2 ,

rs
,
2 r 2
2 r rs ( + 1)
=
,
2 r 2

ttr =

rs
,
2 r 2
2 r rs ( + 1)
=
,
2

rrr =
r

= sin cos .

= cot ,

(2.12.2a)
(2.12.2b)
(2.12.2c)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr =

rs c2 [2 r rs ( + 1)] 2
,
2 r 4

rs c2 [2 r rs ( + 1)] 1 sin2
, Rr r
4 r 2
 2
 2
rs 2 r rs ( + 1) sin
,
R
=
4 2 r2 1

Rt t =
Rr r

rs c2 [2 r rs ( + 1)] 1
,
4 r 2

 2
rs 2 r rs ( + 1)
,
=
4 2 r2 1

 2
rs 4 r rs ( + 1)2 sin2
=
.
4 2

Rt t =

(2.12.3a)
(2.12.3b)
(2.12.3c)

Weyl-Tensor:
Ctrtr =
Ct t =

rs c2 2
,
6 2 r 4

Ct t =

rs c2 1 sin2
,
12 2 r2

Cr r =

rs sin2
,
12 2 r2 1

rs c2 1
,
12 2 r2

Cr r =
C =

(2.12.4a)

rs
,
12 2 r2 1

(2.12.4b)

rs sin2
,
6 2

(2.12.4c)

where = 6 2 r rs ( + 1)(2 + 1).


Ricci-Tensor:
Rrr =

rs2 (1 2 )
.
2 2 r 4 2

(2.12.5)

The Ricci scalar reads


R=

rs2 (1 2) 2
,
2 2 r 4

(2.12.6)

whereas the Kretschmann scalar is given by


K =


rs2 2 4  2 2
7 rs (2 + 2) + 48 4r2 + 8 rs(2 2 + 1)(rs 2 r) + 3rs2 .
4 4 r 8

(2.12.7)

Local tetrad:
e(t) =

1
t ,
c /2

e(r) = /2 r ,

e( ) =

( 1)/2
,
r

e( ) =

( 1)/2
.
r sin

(2.12.8)

2.12. JANIS-NEWMAN-WINICOUR

49

Dual tetrad:

(t) = c /2 dt,

(r) =

dr
,
/2

( ) =

( 1)/2

d ,

( ) =

r sin
d .
( 1)/2

(2.12.9)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


rs ( 2)/2

,
2r2
cot ( 1)/2
( )( )( ) =

.
r

(r)(t)(t) =

( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =

2 r rs ( + 1) ( 2)/2

,
2 r 2

(2.12.10a)
(2.12.10b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4 r rs (2 + ) ( 1)/2

,
2 r 2

( ) =

cot ( 1)/2

.
r

(2.12.11)

Structure coefficients:
rs ( 2)/2
2 r rs ( + 1) ( 2)/2
( )
( )

,
c(r)( ) = c(r)( ) =
,
2r2
2 r 2
cot ( 1)/2
( )

.
c( )( ) =
r
(t)

c(t)(r) =

(2.12.12a)
(2.12.12b)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields the effective
potential
1
Veff =
2

h2 1
c2
r2

(2.12.13)

with the constants of motion h = r2 +1 and k = c2t. For null geodesics ( = 0) and > 21 , there is
an extremum at
r = rs

1 + 2
.
2

Embedding:
The embedding function z = z(r) for r [rs ( + 1)2 /(4 2 ), ) follows from
s
dz
rs [4r 2 rs (1 + )2]
=
.
dr
4r2 2 +1

(2.12.14)

(2.12.15)

However, the analytic solution







2
1 + 1 1 1 rs rs (1 + )2
1 +1
4

z(r) = 2 rs r F1 ;

,
F
, ; , ,
,
;
1;
2 1
2 2
2 2 r
4r 2
+1
2 2
( + 1)2
depends on the Appell-F1- and the Hypergeometric-2 F1 -function.

(2.12.16)

50

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.13 Kasner
The Kasner spacetime in Cartesian coordinates (t, x, y, z) is represented by the line element[MTW73,
Kas21] (c = 1)
ds2 = dt 2 + t 2p1 dx2 + t 2p2 dy2 + t 2p3 tz2 ,

(2.13.1)

where p1 , p2 , p3 have to fulfill the two conditions


p1 + p2 + p3 = 1

and

p21 + p22 + p23 = 1.

(2.13.2)

These two conditions can also be represented by the Khalatnikov-Lifshitz parameter u with
p1 =

u
,
1 + u + u2

p2 =

1+u
,
1 + u + u2

p3 =

u(1 + u)
.
1 + u + u2

Christoffel symbols:
p2
p3
p1
y
z
x
ty
= ,
tz
= ,
tx
= ,
t
t
t
2p1
2p2
2p3
p
t
p
t
p
1
2
3t
txx =
,
tyy =
,
tzz =
.
t
t
t
Partial derivatives
p2
p1
x
tty,t = 2 ,
tx,t
= 2 ,
t
t
txx,t = p1 (2p1 1)t 2p12 ,
tyy,t = p2 (2p2 1)t 2p22 ,

(2.13.3)

(2.13.4a)
(2.13.4b)
p3
,
t2
= p3 (2p3 1)t 2p32 .

z
tz,t
=

(2.13.5a)

tzz,t

(2.13.5b)

Riemann-Tensor:
p1 (1 p1)t 2p1
p2 (1 p2)t 2p2
p3 (1 p3)t 2p3
,
R
=
,
R
=
,
tyty
tztz
t2
t2
t2
p1 p3t 2p1 t 2p3
p2 p3t 2p2 t 2p3
p1 p2t 2p1 t 2p2
,
R
=
,
.R
=
.
Rxyxy =
xzxz
yzyz
t2
t2
t2
The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. The Kretschmann scalar reads

4
K = 4 p21 2p31 + p41 + p22 2p32 + p42 + p21 p23 + p23 2p33 + p43 + p21 p22 + p22 p23
t
16u2(1 + u)2
.
= 4
t (1 + u + u2)3
Rtxtx =

(2.13.6a)
(2.13.6b)

(2.13.7a)
(2.13.7b)

Local tetrad:
e(t) = t ,

e(x) = t p1 x ,

e(y) = t p2 y ,

e(z) = t p3 z .

(2.13.8)

(x) = t p1 dx,

(y) = t p2 dy,

(z) = t p3 dz.

(2.13.9)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = dt,

Ricci rotation coefficients:


p1
p2
p3
(t)(r)(r) = ,
(t)( )( ) = ,
(t)( )( ) = .
t
t
t
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
1
(t) = .
t

(2.13.10)

(2.13.11)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


p1 (1 p1)
,
t2
p1 p2
R(x)(y)(x)(y) = 2 ,
t
R(t)(x)(y)(x) =

p2 (1 p2)
,
t2
p1 p3
R(x)(z)(x)(z) = 2 ,
t
R(t)(y)(t)(y) =

p3 (1 p3)
,
t2
p2 p3
R(y)(z)(y)(z) = 2 .
t
R(t)(z)(t)(z) =

(2.13.12a)
(2.13.12b)

2.14. KERR

51

2.14 Kerr
The Kerr spacetime, found by Roy Kerr in 1963[Ker63], describes a rotating black hole.

2.14.1 Boyer-Lindquist coordinates


The Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates

ds2


rs r  2 2 2rs ar sin2

= 1
c dt
c dt d + dr2 + d 2



rs a2 r sin2
sin2 d 2 ,
+ r 2 + a2 +

(2.14.1)

with = r2 + a2 cos2 , = r2 rs r + a2 , and rs = 2GM/c2 , is taken from Bardeen[BPT72]. M is the mass


and a is the angular momentum per unit mass of the black hole. The contravariant form of the metric
reads

s2 =

2 1 2 a2 sin2 2
A 2 2rs ar
,

+
+ +

t
c2
c
r
sin2

where A = r2 + a2

2

(2.14.2)


a2 sin2 = r2 + a2 + rs a2 r sin2 .

The event horizon r+ is defined by the outer root of ,


rs
r+ = +
2

rs2
a2 ,
4

(2.14.3)

whereas the outer boundary r0 of the ergosphere follows from the outer root of rs r,
r

rs2
a2 cos2 ,
4

(2.14.4)

ergosphere

rs
r0 = +
2

r+

r0

Figure 2.1: Ergosphere and horizon (dashed circle) for a = 0.99 r2s .

52

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:
c2 rs (r2 a2 cos2 )
,
23
rs (r2 + a2)(r2 a2 cos2 )
,
ttr =
22
2
rs a r sin cos
tt =
,
2
crs a sin2 (r2 a2 cos2 )
,
tr =
23
2ra2 sin2 rs (r2 a2 cos2 )
rrr =
,
2
a2 sin cos
,
rr =

r
r = ,



cot

= 2 2 + rs a2 r sin2 ,

ttr =

tr

r
r

c2 rs a2 r sin cos
,
3
crs a(r2 a2 cos2 )

tr =
,
22
crs ar cot

t =
,
2
crs ar(r2 + a2 ) sin cos
t =
,
3
a2 sin cos
rr =
,

r
r = ,

a2 sin cos

=
,

rs a3 r sin3 cos
,
t =
c2
tt =



rs a sin2 a2 cos2 (a2 r2 ) r2 (a2 + 3r2)
=
,
2c2


2r2 + rs a4 sin2 cos2 r2 ( + r2 + a2 )
=
,
22

sin2 
=
2r2 + rs a2 sin2 (r2 a2 cos2 ) ,
3
2


sin cos 
=
A + r2 + a2 rs a2 r sin2 ,
3

(2.14.5a)
(2.14.5b)
(2.14.5c)
(2.14.5d)
(2.14.5e)
(2.14.5f)
(2.14.5g)
(2.14.5h)

(2.14.5i)
(2.14.5j)
(2.14.5k)
(2.14.5l)

General local tetrad:

r ,



gt + g
gtt + gt


t
,
e(3) =
c
sin
sin

e(0) = t + ,
1
e(2) = ,

e(1) =

(2.14.6a)
(2.14.6b)

where 2 = gtt + 2 gt + 2 g ,




rs a2 r sin2 2 2
rs r  2rs ar sin2
2
2
+
sin
r +a +
= 1

c2

Non-rotating local tetrad ( = ):


r
r


A 1

e(0) =
t + , e(1) =
r ,
c

1
e(2) = ,

(2.14.7)

1
,
A sin

(2.14.8)

A
sin (d d ) .

(2.14.9)

e(3) =

where = gt /g = rs ar/A.

Dual tetrad:

(2)

c dt,
A

(1)

dr,

(2)

= d ,

(3)

2.14. KERR

53

The relation between the constants of motion E, L, Q, and (defined in Bardeen[BPT72]) and the initial
direction , compare Sec. (1.4.5), with respect to the LNRF reads (c = 1)
r
r
rs ra
A

(0)
(1)
E
pr ,
(2.14.10a)
L,
=
=

A
s
r


1
L2
L
(2)
=
Q cos2 a2 ( 2 E 2 ) + 2
(3) =
.
(2.14.10b)
,
A sin
sin

Static local tetrad ( = 0):


1
e(0) = p
t ,
c 1 rs r/

e(1) =

r ,

1
e(2) = ,

p
1 rsr/
rs ar sin
t
e(3) = p
.
sin
c 1 rsr/

Photon orbits:
The direct(-) and retrograd(+) photon orbits have radius



2
2a
rpo = rs 1 + cos
.
arccos
3
rs
Marginally stable timelike circular orbits
are defined via

p
rs 
3 + Z2 (3 Z1)(2 + Z1 + 2Z2 ) ,
rms =
2

(2.14.11a)
(2.14.11b)

(2.14.12)

(2.14.13)

where

1/3 "


 #

2a 1/3
2a 1/3
4a2
1+
+ 1
,
Z1 = 1 + 1 2
rs
rs
rs
s
12a2
+ Z12 .
Z2 =
rs2

(2.14.14a)
(2.14.14b)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
1 2
r + Veff = 0
2

(2.14.15)

with the effective potential


1
Veff = 3
2r




ahk
k2  3
c2
2
2
h (r rs ) + 2
rs 2 r + a (r + rs ) 2
c
c
r

(2.14.16)

and the constants of motion


rs  2
crs a
,
k = 1
c t +
r
r



rs a2
crs a
h = r 2 + a2 +

t.
r
r

Further reading:
Boyer and Lindquist[BL67], Wilkins[Wil72], Brill[BC66].

(2.14.17)

54

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.15 Kottler spacetime


The Kottler spacetime is represented in spherical coordinates (t, r, , ) by the line element[Per04]


rs r2 2 2
1
ds = 1
c dt +
dr2 + r2 d2 ,
r
3
1 rs /r r2 /3
2

(2.15.1)

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newtons constant, c is the speed of light, M is
the mass of the black hole, and is the cosmological constant. If > 0 the metric is also known as
Schwarzschild-deSitter metric, whereas if < 0 it is called Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter.
For the following, we define the two abbreviations

= 1

rs r2

r
3

and

rs 2 2

r .
r
3

(2.15.2)

The critical points of the Kottler metric follow from the roots of the cubic equation = 0. These can be
found by means of the parameters p = 1/ and q = 3rs /(2). If < 0, we have only one real root



3rs
2
1
.
(2.15.3)
r1 =
sinh arsinh
3
2

If > 0, we have to distinguish whether D q2 + p3 = 9rs2 /(42 ) 3 is positive or negative. If D > 0,


there is no real positive root. For D < 0, the two real positive roots read



2
3rs
1

(2.15.4)
r = cos
arccos
3 3
2

Christoffel symbols:
c2
,
2r
1
= ,
r
= cot ,

ttr =
r

,
2r
1
= ,
r
= r sin2 ,

ttr =

r
r

rrr =

,
2r

r = r,

= sin cos .

(2.15.5a)
(2.15.5b)
(2.15.5c)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr
Rt t
Rr r


c2 3rs + r3
=
,
3r3
1
= c2 sin2 ,
2

=
sin2 ,
2

1
Rt t = c2 ,
2

Rr r = ,
2


r3
R = r rs +
sin2 .
3

(2.15.6a)
(2.15.6b)
(2.15.6c)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt = c2 ,

Rrr =

R = r2 sin2 .

R = r2 ,

(2.15.7)

The Ricci scalar and the Kretschmann scalar read


R = 4,

K = 12

rs2 82
+
.
r6
3

(2.15.8)

Weyl-Tensor:
c2 rs
,
r3
rs
=
,
2r

Ctrtr =
Cr r

c2 rs
,
2r
rs sin2
=
,
2r

Ct t =
Cr r

Ct t =

c2 rs sin2
,
2r

C = rrs sin2 .

(2.15.9a)
(2.15.9b)

2.15. KOTTLER SPACETIME

55

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

r ,

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

1
.
r sin

(2.15.10)

dr
(r) = ,

( ) = r d ,

( ) = r sin d .

(2.15.11)

e(r) =

Dual tetrad:

(t) = c dt,

Ricci rotation coefficients:

(r)(t)(t) =

rs 32 r3
,
2r2

( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =

,
r

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.15.12)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4r 3rs 2r3

,
2r2

( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.15.13)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R( )( )( )( ) =

r3 + 3rs
,
3r3

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

(2.15.14a)
3rs 2r3
.
6r3

(2.15.14b)

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


C(t)(r)(t)(r) = C( )( )( )( ) =

rs
,
r3

C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) =

(2.15.15a)
rs
.
2r3

Embedding:
The embedding function follows from the numerical integration of
s
dz
rs /r + r2 /3
=
.
dr
1 rs/r r2 /3

(2.15.15b)

(2.15.16)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism[Rin01] yields the effective potential
Veff =



 2
rs r2
h
1
2

c
1

2
r
3
r2

(2.15.17)

with the constants of motion k = (1 rs/r r2 /3)c2t, h = r2 , and as in Eq. (1.8.2).


As in the Schwarzschild metric, the effective potential has only one extremum for null geodesics, the so
called photon orbit at r = 32 rs . For timelike geodesics, however, we have
dVeff
h2 (6r + 9rs ) + c2r2 (3rs 2r3 ) !
= 0.
=
dr
3r4
This polynomial of fifth order might have up to five extrema.
Further reading:
Kottler[Kot18], Weyl[Wey19], Hackmann[HL08], Cruz[COV05].

(2.15.18)

56

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.16 Morris-Thorne
The most simple wormhole geometry is represented by the metric of Morris and Thorne[MT88],

ds2 = c2 dt 2 + dl 2 + (b20 + l 2 ) d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

(2.16.1)

where b0 is the throat radius and l is the proper radial coordinate; and {t
Christoffel symbols:
l =

l
b20 + l 2

l =

= cot ,

b20 + l 2
2

l = l sin ,

R, l R, (0, ), [0, 2 )}.

l = l,

(2.16.2a)

= sin cos .

(2.16.2b)

Partial derivatives
l 2 b20
,
(b20 + l 2 )2
1
= 2 ,
sin
= cos(2 ).

l ,l =

l ,l =

l 2 b20
,
(b20 + l 2 )2

l ,l = sin2 ,

l ,l = 1,

(2.16.3a)

, = l sin(2 ),

(2.16.3b)
(2.16.3c)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rl l =

b20
,
2
b0 + l 2

Rl l =

b20 sin2
,
b20 + l 2

R = b20 sin2 .

(2.16.4)

Ricci tensor, Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:


Rll = 2

b20
b20 + l 2

Weyl-Tensor:
Ctltl =
Cl l =

2 ,

R = 2

2 c2 b20
 ,
3 b2 + l 2 2
0

b20
b20 + l 2

Ct t =

1 b20
,
3 b20 + l 2

2 ,

K =

1 c2 b20
,
3 b20 + l 2

Cl l =

1 b20 sin2
,
3 b20 + l 2

12b40
b20 + l 2

Ct t =

4 .

1 c2 b20 sin2
,
3 b20 + l 2

2
C = b20 sin2 .
3

(2.16.5)

(2.16.6a)
(2.16.6b)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

1
,
e( ) = q
2
b0 + l 2

e(l) = l ,

Dual tetrad

(t) = c dt,

( ) =

(l) = dl,

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =

l
b20 + l 2

q
b20 + l 2 d ,

1
e( ) = q
.
2
b0 + l 2 sin

( ) =

cot
.
( )( )( ) = q
b20 + l 2

q
b20 + l 2 sin d .

(2.16.7)

(2.16.8)

(2.16.9)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

2l
b20 + l 2

cot
( ) = q
.
b20 + l 2

(2.16.10)

2.16. MORRIS-THORNE

57

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(l)( )(l)( ) = R(l)( )(l)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

b20
b20 + l 2

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(l)(l) =

2b20
b20 + l 2

(2.16.11)

2 .

(2.16.12)

2 .

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


C(t)(l)(t)(l) = C( )( )( )( ) =

2b20
3 b20 + l 2

2 ,

C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(l)( )(l)( ) = C(l)( )(l)( ) =


Embedding:
The embedding function reads

s
 2
r
r
1
z(r) = b0 ln +
b0
b0

(2.16.13a)
b20
3 b20 + l 2

2 .

(2.16.13b)

(2.16.14)

with r2 = b20 + l 2 .

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields
1 k2
1 2
,
l + Veff =
2
2 c2

1
Veff =
2


h2
2
c ,
b20 + l 2

(2.16.15)

with the constants of motion k = c2t and h = (b20 + l 2 ) . The shape of the effective potential Veff is independend of the geodesic type. The maximum of the effective potential is located at l = 0.
A geodesic that starts at l = li with direction y = e(t) + cos e(l) + sin e( ) approaches the wormhole
throat asymptotically for = crit with
b0
crit = arcsin q
.
b20 + li2

This critical angle is independent of the type of the geodesic.


Further reading:
Ellis[Ell73], Visser[Vis95], Mller[Ml04, Ml08a]

(2.16.16)

58

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.17 Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse


2.17.1 Outer metric
The metric of the outer spacetime, R > Rb , in comoving coordinates ( , R, , ) with (c = 1) is given by
4/3


R
3
2
3/2
d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
ds = d +
2/3 dR + R 2 rs
3
3/2
R 2 rs
2

(2.17.1)

Christoffel symbols:

rs
1
,
2 R3/2 32 rs

rs

= 3/2 3 ,
R 2 rs

3 rs
RRR =
 ,
4 R3/2 23 rs R

R = 3/2 3 ,
R 2 rs

R3/2 23 rs

R =
,
R
1/3


3/2
= rs R
sin2 ,
rs
2

R3/2 32 rs sin2
R

=
.
R
RR =

rs
,
R3/2 23 rs

R rs

RR =
5/3 ,
2 R3/2 23 rs

R = 3/2 3 ,
R 2 rs
1/3


3
,
= rs R3/2
rs
2
=

(2.17.2a)
(2.17.2b)
(2.17.2c)
(2.17.2d)

= cot ,

(2.17.2e)

= sin cos ,

(2.17.2f)
(2.17.2g)

Riemann-Tensor:
R R R =
R =

1
2

RR R =

Rrs
8/3 ,
3/2
R 32 rs
rs sin2
2/3 ,
R3/2 32 rs

1
Rrs sin2
,
2 R3/2 3 r 4/3
s
2

R =

1
rs
,
2 R3/2 3 rs 2/3
2

Rrs
1
,
2 R3/2 3 r 4/3
s
2

2/3
3
= R3/2
rs
rs sin2 .
2

(2.17.3a)

RR R =

(2.17.3b)

(2.17.3c)

The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:
K = 12

Local tetrad:

rs2

e( ) = ,
e( ) =

(2.17.4)

4 .
R3/2 32 rs

R3/2

2/3 ,
3
2 rs

1/3
R3/2 32 rs

e(R) =
R ,
R
1
.
e( ) =
2/3

3
R3/2 2 rs
sin

(2.17.5a)
(2.17.5b)

2.17. OPPENHEIMER-SNYDER COLLAPSE

59

Ricci rotation coefficients:

rs
2 rs
( )(R)(R) = 3/2
, ( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) = 3/2
,
2R 3 rs
2R 3 rs
2/3

3
3/2
.
(R)( )( ) = (R)( )( ) = R
rs
2
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

2/3

3 rs
3
3/2
( ) = 3/2
rs
,
, (R) = 2 R
2
2R 3 rs

(2.17.6a)
(2.17.6b)

( ) = cot R

3/2

3
rs

2/3

. (2.17.7)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R( )(R)( )(R) = R( )( )( )( ) =

4rs

(2.17.8a)

2 ,
2R3/2 3 rs

R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = R(R)( )(R)( ) = R(R)( )(R)( ) =

2rs
2 .
3/2
2R 3 rs

(2.17.8b)

The Ricci tensor with respect to the local tetrad vanishes identically.

2.17.2 Inner metric


The metric of the inside, R Rb , reads



3 3/2 4/3  2
dR + R2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
ds2 = d 2 + 1
rs Rb
2

(2.17.9)

For the following components, we define


AOin := 1

3 3/2
rs Rb .
2

(2.17.10)

Christoffel symbols:
3/2
3/2
rs Rb
rs Rb
,
=
,
AOin
AOin
1
1/3
3/2
RR = AOin rs Rb , R = ,
R

R = R,
= cot ,
RR =

(2.17.11a)

1
,
R
1/3
3/2
= AOin rs Rb R2 ,
1/3
3/2
= AOin rs Rb R2 sin2 .

R =

(2.17.11b)

(2.17.11c)

= sin cos ,

R = R sin2 ,

3/2
rs Rb
,
AOin

(2.17.11d)

Riemann-Tensor:
R R R =
RR R =

1 rs
,
2 R3 A2/3
rs

b Oin
R2 sin2

R3b

R =
2/3

AOin ,

RR R =

1 rs R2
,
2 R3 A2/3
b Oin
rs R2 2/3
A ,
R3b Oin

R =
R =

1 rs R2 sin2
,
2 R3 A2/3
rs

b Oin
R4 sin2

R3b

2/3

AOin .

(2.17.12a)
(2.17.12b)

Ricci-Tensor:
R =

3 rs
,
2 R3b A2Oin

RRR =

3 rs
,
2 R3 A2/3
b Oin

R =

3 rs R2
,
2 R3 A2/3
b Oin

R =

3 rs R2 sin2
.
2 R3 A2/3
b Oin

(2.17.13)

60

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalars read:


R=

3rs
,
R3b A2Oin

K = 15

rs2
.
6
Rb A4Oin

(2.17.14)

Local tetrad:
e( ) = ,

e(R) =

,
2/3 R
AOin

e( ) =

,
2/3
RAOin

e( ) =

.
2/3
AOin R sin

(2.17.15)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

( )(R)(R) = ( )( )( ) = ( )( )( ) =
(R)( )( ) = (R)( )( ) =
( )( )( ) =

cot
2/3

1
2/3

3/2
rs Rb
,
AOin

(2.17.16a)
(2.17.16b)

RAOin

(2.17.16c)

RAOin

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


3/2
3 rs Rb
( ) =
,
AOin

(R) =

2
2/3
RAOin

( ) =

cot
2/3

(2.17.17)

RAOin

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R( )(R)( )(R) = R( )( )( )( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs R3
b
,
2A2Oin

R(R)( )(R)( ) = R(R)( )(R)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) =

rs R3
b
.
A2Oin

(2.17.18a)
(2.17.18b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R( )( ) = R(R)(R) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =
Further reading:
Oppenheimer and Snyder[OS39].

3rs R3
b
.
2A2Oin

(2.17.19)

2.18. PETROV-TYPE D LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES

61

2.18 Petrov-Type D Levi-Civita spacetimes


The Petrov type D static vacuum spacetimes AI-C are taken from Stephani et al.[SKM+03], Sec. 18.6,
with the coordinate and parameter ranges given in "Exact solutions of the gravitational field equations"
by Ehlers and Kundt [EK62].

2.18.1 Case AI
In spherical coordinates, (t, r, , ), the metric is given by the line element

ds2 = r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 +

r
rb 2
dr2
dt .
rb
r

(2.18.1)

This is the well known Schwarzschild solution if b = rs , cf. Eq. (2.2.1). Coordinates and parameters are
restricted to
t

R,

Local tetrad:
r
r
t ,
e(t) =
rb

Dual tetrad:
r

(t)

rb
dt,
r

0 < < ,

e(r) =

(r)

[0, 2 ),

rb
r ,
r

1
e( ) = ,
r

r
dr,
rb

(0 < b < r) (b < 0 < r).

e( ) =

( ) = r d ,

1
.
r sin

( ) = r sin d .

(2.18.2)

(2.18.3)

Effective potential:
With the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism it is possible to obtain an effective potential fulfilling 12 r2 + 21 Veff (r) =
1 2
2 C0 with
Veff (r) = K

rb
rb

r3
r

(2.18.4)

and the constants of motion



2
2
2 rb

C0 = t
,
r
K = 2 r4 + 2r4 sin2 .

(2.18.5a)
(2.18.5b)

2.18.2 Case AII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

ds2 = z2 dr2 + sinh2 r d 2 +

z
bz 2
dz2
dt .
bz
z

(2.18.6)

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t
Local tetrad:
r
z
e(t) =
t ,
bz
Dual tetrad:
r

(t)

bz
dt,
z

R,

1
e(r) = r ,
z

(r)

= z dr,

0 < r,

[0, 2 ),

1
,
e( ) =
z sinh r

( )

= z sinh r d ,

0 < z < b.

e(z) =

(z)

bz
z .
z

z
dz.
bz

(2.18.7)

(2.18.8)

62

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.18.3 Case AIII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

1
ds2 = z2 dr2 + r2 d 2 + zdz2 dt 2 .
z

(2.18.9)

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t

R,

[0, 2 ),

0 < r,

0 < z.

Local tetrad:
e(t) =

1
e(r) = r ,
z

zt ,

e( ) =

1
,
zr

1
e(z) = z .
z

(2.18.10)

Dual tetrad:
1
(t) = dt,
z

( ) = zr d ,

(r) = z dr,

(z) =

z dz.

(2.18.11)

2.18.4 Case BI
In spherical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

ds2 = r2 d 2 sin2 dt 2 +

r
rb 2
dr2 +
d .
rb
r

(2.18.12)

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t

R,

0 < < ,

[0, 2 ),

(0 < b < r) (b < 0 < r).

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

Local tetrad:
e(t) =

1
t ,
r sin

e(r) =

rb
r ,
r

r
.
rb

(2.18.13)

(2.18.14)

Dual tetrad:

(t)

= r sin dt,

(r)

r
dr,
rb

( )

= r d ,

( )

rb
d .
r

Effective potential:
With the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, an effective potential for the radial coordinate can be calculated
fulfilling 12 r2 + 12 Veff (r) = 21 C02 with
Veff (r) = K

rb
rb

r3
r

and the constants of motion




rb 2
,
C02 = 2
r
K = 2 r4 t2 r4 sin2 .

(2.18.15)

(2.18.16a)
(2.18.16b)

Note that the metric is not spherically symmetric. Particles or light rays fall into one of the poles if they
are not moving in the = 2 plane.

2.18. PETROV-TYPE D LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES

63

2.18.5 Case BII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

ds2 = z2 dr2 sinh2 r dt 2 +

z
bz 2
dz2 +
d .
bz
z

(2.18.17)

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t

R,

[0, 2 ),

0 < z < b,

0 < r.

Local tetrad:
e(t) =

1
t ,
z sinh r

1
e(r) = r ,
z

e( ) =

(r) = z dr,

( ) =

z
,
bz

e(z) =

bz
z .
z

(2.18.18)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = z sinh r dt,

bz
d ,
z

(z) =

z
dz.
bz

(2.18.19)

2.18.6 Case BIII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

1
ds2 = z2 dr2 r2 dt 2 + zdz2 + d 2 .
z

(2.18.20)

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t

R,

[0, 2 ),

0 < z,

0 < r.

Local tetrad:
e(t) =

1
t ,
zr

z ,

1
e(r) = r ,
z

e( ) =

(r) = z dr,

1
( ) = d ,
z

1
e(z) = z .
z

(2.18.21)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = zr dt,

(z) =

z dz.

(2.18.22)

2.18.7 Case C
The metric is given by the line element
ds2 =

1
(x + y)2

1
1
dx2 + f (x)d 2
dy2 + f (y)dt 2
f (x)
f (y)

(2.18.23)

with f (u) := (u3 + au + b). Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


0 < x + y,

f (y) > 0,

0 > f (x).

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = (x + y) p
t ,
3
y ay + b
p
e(y) = (x + y) y3 ay + b y ,

p
e(x) = (x + y) x3 + ax + b x ,

1
,
e( ) = (x + y)
3
x + ax + b

(2.18.24a)
(2.18.24b)

64

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Dual tetrad:
1 p 3
y ay + bdt,
x+y
1
1
p
(y) =
dy,
x + y y3 ay + b

(t) =

1
1

dx,
3
x + y x + ax + b
1 p 3
( ) =
x + ax + bd ,
x+y

(x) =

(2.18.25a)
(2.18.25b)

A coordinate change can eliminate the linear term in the polynom f generating a quadratic term instead.
This brings the line element to the form
ds2 =

1
A(x + y)2

1
1
dx2 + f (x)d p2
dy2 + f (y)dq2
f (x)
f (y)

(2.18.26)

with f (u) := (2mAu3 u2 + 1) given in [PP01].


Furthermore, coordinates can be adapted to the boost-rotation symmetry with the line element in [PP01]
from in [Bon83]

ds2 =

i
1 h 2
2
2

e dr2 r2 e d 2
r
(z
dt

t
dz)

e
(z
dz

t
dt)
e
z2 t 2

with
e =

(2.18.27)

R3 + R + Z3 r2
,
2
4 (R1 + R + Z1 r2 )




2 2 R(R + R1 + Z1 ) Z1 r2 R1 R3 + (R + Z1)(R + Z3 ) (Z1 + Z3 )r2
e =
,
Ri R3 [R(R + R3 + Z3 ) Z3 r2 ]


1 2 2
z t + r2 ,
2
q
Ri = (R + Zi )2 2Zi r2 ,
R=

Zi = zi z2 ,

2 =

m2
1
,
6
4 A (z2 z1 )2 (z3 z1)2
q=

1
,
4 2

and z3 < z1 < z2 the roots of 2A4 z3 A2z2 + m2 .


Local tetrad:

Case z2 t 2 > 0:


1
e(t) =
qze /2 t + te /2 z , ,
z2 t 2


1
qte /2 t + ze /2 z , ,
e(z) =
z2 t 2

e(r) = e /2 r ,

(2.18.28a)

e( ) = re /2 .

(2.18.28b)

e(r) = e /2 r ,

(2.18.29a)

e( ) = re /2 .

(2.18.29b)

Case z2 t 2 < 0:


1
qte /2 t + ze /2 z , ,
e(t) =
t 2 z2


1
e(z) =
qze /2 t + te /2 z , ,
t 2 z2

2.18. PETROV-TYPE D LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES

65

Dual tetrad:
Case z2 t 2 > 0:
r

(t) =

(z) =

e 1
(z dt + t dz) ,
z2 t 2 q
e

z2 t 2

Case z2 t 2 > 0:
s

(t) =

(z)

t 2 z2
e

t 2 z2

(r) = e dr,
1
d .
re

(t dt + z dz) ,

( ) =

(t dt + z dz) ,

(r) = e dr,

1
(z dt + t dz) ,
q

( ) =

1
d .
re

(2.18.30a)
(2.18.30b)

(2.18.31a)
(2.18.31b)

66

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.19 Plane gravitational wave


W. Rindler described in [Rin01] an exact plane gravitational wave which is bounded between two
planes. The metric of the so called sandwich wave with u := t x reads
ds2 = dt 2 + dx2 + p2 (u) dy2 + q2 (u) dz2 .
The functions p (u) and q (u) are given by

p0 = const. u < a
and
p (u) := 1 u
0<u

m(u)
L (u)e
else

(2.19.1)

q0 = const.
q (u) := 1 u

L (u) em(u)

u < a
0<u ,
else

(2.19.2)

where a is the longitudinal extension of the wave. The functions L (u) and m (u) are
s
Z
u3
u4
u2 + au
L (u) = 1 u + 2 + 3 ,
m (u) = 2 3
du.
a
2a
2a3 u 2au3 u4 2a3

(2.19.3)

Christoffel symbols:
y
ty
= yxy =

1 p
,
p u

tzz = xzz = q

q
,
u

z
tz
= zxz =

1 q
,
q u

tyy = xyy = p

p
.
u

(2.19.4)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtyty = Rxyxy = Rtyxy = p

2p
,
u2

Rtztz = Rxzxz = Rtzxz = q

2q
.
u2

(2.19.5)

Local tetrad:
e(t) = t ,

e(x) = x ,

e(y) =

1
y ,
p

1
e(z) = z .
q

(2.19.6)

Dual tetrad:

(t) = dt,

(x) = dx,

(y) = pdy,

(z) = qdz.

(2.19.7)

2.20. REISSNER-NORDSTRM

67

2.20 Reissner-Nordstrm
The Reissner-Nordstrm black hole in spherical coordinates {t
fined by the metric[MTW73]

where

R, r R+, (0, ), [0, 2 )} is de-


2
2
2
2
2
ds2 = ARN c2 dt 2 + A1
RN dr + r d + sin d ,

ARN = 1

(2.20.1)

rs Q2
+ 2
r
r

(2.20.2)

with rs = 2GM/c2 , the charge Q, and = G/(0 c4 ) 9.33 1034. As in the Schwarzschild case, there is a
true curvature singularity at r = 0. However, for Q2 < rs2 /(4 ) there are also two critical points at
rs rs
r=
2
2

4 Q2
.
rs2

(2.20.3)

Christoffel symbols:
ARN c2 (rs r 2 Q2 )
,
2r3
1
= ,
r
= cot ,

ttr =
r

rs r 2 Q2
,
2r3 ARN
1
= ,
r
= rARN sin2 ,

ttr =

r
r

rrr =

rs r 2 Q2
,
2r3 ARN

r = rARN ,

= sin cos .

(2.20.4a)
(2.20.4b)
(2.20.4c)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 (rs r 3 Q2)
,
r4
ARN c2 (rs r 2 Q2 ) sin2
,
=
2r2
(rs r 2 Q2) sin2
,
=
2r2 ARN

Rtrtr =
Rt t
Rr r

ARN c2 (rsr 2 Q2)


,
2r2
rs r 2 Q2
,
=
2r2 ARN

Rt t =

(2.20.5a)

Rr r

(2.20.5b)

R = (rs r Q2 ) sin2 .

(2.20.5c)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt =

c2 Q2 ARN
,
r4

Rrr =

Q2
,
r4 ARN

R =

Q2
,
r2

R =

Q2 sin2
.
r2

(2.20.6)

While the Ricci scalar vanishes identically, the Kretschmann scalar reads
K =4

3rs2 r2 12rs r Q2 + 14 2Q4


.
r8

(2.20.7)

Weyl-Tensor:
c2 (rs r 2 Q2 )
,
r4
ARN c2 (rs r 2 Q2 ) sin2
=
,
2r2
(rs r 2 Q2 ) sin2
,
=
2r2 ARN

Ctrtr =
Ct t
Cr r

ARN c2 (rsr 2 Q2)


,
2r2
rs r 2 Q2
=
,
2r2 ARN

Ct t =

(2.20.8a)

Cr r

(2.20.8b)

C = (rs r 2 Q2) sin2 .

(2.20.8c)

68

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Local tetrad:
1
t ,
e(t) =
c ARN

p
ARN r ,

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

1
.
r sin

(2.20.9)

dr
(r) =
,
ARN

( ) = r d ,

( ) = r sin d .

(2.20.10)

cot
.
r

(2.20.11)

e(r) =

Dual tetrad:
p
(t) = c ARN dt,

Ricci rotation coefficients:

(r)(t)(t) =

rrs 2 Q2

,
2r3 ARN

( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =

ARN
,
r

( )( )( ) =

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(r) =

4r2 3rrs + 2 Q2

,
2r3 ARN

( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.20.12)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(r)(t)(r) =

rs r 3 Q2
,
r4

R( )( )( )( ) =

rs r Q2
,
r4

R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) =

(2.20.13a)
rs r 2 Q2
.
2r4

(2.20.13b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

Q2
.
r4

(2.20.14)

rs r 2 Q2
,
r4

(2.20.15a)

R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) =
Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
C(t)(r)(t)(r) = C( )( )( )( ) =

C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(t)( )(t)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) = C(r)( )(r)( ) =

rs r 2 Q2
.
2r4

Embedding:
The embedding function follows from the numerical integration of
s
dz
1
1.
=
dr
1 rs/r + Q2 /r2

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields


 2
rs Q2
1
h
1 k2
1 2
2
1 + 2
,
Veff =
c
r + Veff =
2
2 c2
2
r
r
r2

(2.20.15b)

(2.20.16)

(2.20.17)

with constants of motion k = ARN c2t and h = r2 . For null geodesics, = 0, there are two extremal points
s
!
32 Q2
3
,
(2.20.18)
r = rs 1 1
4
9rs2
where r+ is a maximum and r a minimum.
Further reading:
Eiroa[ERT02]

2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME

69

2.21 de Sitter spacetime


The de Sitter spacetime with > 0 is a solution of the Einstein field equations with constant curvature. A
detailed discussion can be found for example in Hawking and Ellis[HE99]. Here, we use the coordinate
transformations given by Bick[BK01].

2.21.1 Standard coordinates


The de Sitter metric in standard coordinates {
ds2 = d 2 + 2 cosh2
where 2 = 3/.
Christoffel symbols:

R, [ , ], (0, ), [0, 2 )} reads


 2
d + sin2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

1
tanh ,

= sinh cosh ,

= sin2 sinh cosh ,



= sin2 sin2 sinh cosh ,

1
tanh ,

(2.21.1)

1
tanh ,

= cot ,

= cot ,

= sin cos ,

= cot ,

(2.21.2a)
(2.21.2b)

(2.21.2c)

= sin2 sin cos ,


= sin cos .

(2.21.2d)

Riemann-Tensor:

= cosh2 sin2 sin2 ,


2 2
2
= 1 + sinh2
sin sin2 ,

R = cosh2
R
R

Ricci-Tensor:
R =

3
,
2

R = 3 cosh2

R = cosh2 sin2 ,


2 2
sin ,
R = 2 1 + sinh2



2 4
R = 2 1 + sinh2
sin sin2 .

R = 3 cosh2

sin2 ,

R = 3 cosh2

sin2 sin2 .

(2.21.3a)
(2.21.3b)
(2.21.3c)

(2.21.4)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:


R=

12
,
2

K =

24
.
4

(2.21.5)

Local tetrad:
e( ) = ,

e( ) =

1
,
cosh

Dual tetrad:

( ) = d ,

( ) = cosh

d,

e( ) =

1
,
cosh sin

( ) = cosh

sin d ,

e( ) =

1
.
cosh sin sin

( ) = cosh

sin sin d .

(2.21.6)

(2.21.7)

2.21.2 Conformally Einstein coordinates


In conformally Einstein coordinates { [0, ], [ , ], [0, ], [0, 2 )}, the de Sitter metric
reads
ds2 =


2 
d 2 + d 2 + sin2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
2
sin

(2.21.8)

70

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

It follows from the standard form (2.21.1) by the transformation




= 2 arctan e / .

(2.21.9)

2.21.3 Conformally flat coordinates

Conformally flat coordinates {T , r , (0, ), [0, 2 )} follow from conformally Einstein coordinates by means of the transformations
T=

sin
,
cos + cos

r=

sin
,
cos + cos

= arctan

or

2T
,
2 T 2 + r2

= arctan

2r
. (2.21.10)
2 + T 2 r2

For the transformation (T, R) ( , ), we have to take care of the coordinate domains. In that case, if
2 T 2 + r2 < 0, we have to map + . On the other hand, if 2 + T 2 r2 < 0, we have to consider
the sign of r. If r > 0, then + , otherwise .
The resulting metric reads
ds2 =


2 
dT 2 + dr2 + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
2
T

(2.21.11)

Note that we identify points (r < 0, , ) with (r > 0, , ).


Christoffel symbols:
1

TT T = rTr = T = T = Trr = , r = r =
T
r2 sin2

T
r
= cot ,
=
= r sin2 ,
,
T

1
,
r

T =

r2
,
T

r = r,

= sin cos .

(2.21.12a)
(2.21.12b)

Riemann-Tensor:

2
,
T4
2 r2
= 4 ,
T

RTrTr =
Rr r

2 r2
,
T4
2 r2 sin2
=
,
T4

RT T =
Rr r

2 r2 sin2
,
T4
2 r4 sin2
=
.
T4

RT T =

(2.21.13a)

(2.21.13b)

Ricci-Tensor:
RT T =

3
,
T2

3
,
T2

Rrr =

R =

3r2
,
T2

R =

3r2 sin2
.
T2

(2.21.14)

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalar read:


R=

12
,
2

K =

24
.
4

(2.21.15)

Local tetrad:
e(T ) =

T
T ,

e(r) =

T
r ,

e( ) =

T
,
r

2.21.4 Static coordinates


The de Sitter metric in static spherical coordinates {t

e( ) =

T
.
r sin

(2.21.16)

R, r R+ , (0, ), [0, 2 )} reads



1



dr2 + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 .
ds2 = 1 r2 c2 dt 2 + 1 r2
3
3

(2.21.17)

2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME

71

It follows from the conformally Einstein form (2.21.8) by the transformations


t=

cos cos
,
ln
2 cos + cos

r=

sin
.
sin

(2.21.18)

Christoffel symbols:
(r2 3) 2
c r,
9
1
= ,
r

ttr =
r

r
,
r2 3
1
= ,
r
r2 3
r sin2 ( ),
=
3

ttr =

= cot( ),

r
,
3 r2
(r2 3)r
=
,
3

rrr =
r

(2.21.19a)
(2.21.19b)

= sin( ) cos( ).

(2.21.19c)

Riemann-Tensor:

Rtrtr = c2 ,
3
r2
,
Rr r =
r2 + 3

3 r2 2 2
c r ,
9
r2 sin( )2
=
,
r2 + 3

Rt t =
Rr r

3 r2 2 2
c r sin( )2 ,
9
r4 sin2 ( )
=
.
3

Rt t =
R

(2.21.20a)
(2.21.20b)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt =

r2 3 2
c ,
3

Rrr =

3
,
3 r2

R = r2 ,

R = r2 sin2 ( ).

(2.21.21)

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:


R = 4,
Local tetrad:
r
e(t) =

8
K = 2 .
3

3
t
,
3 r2 c

(2.21.22)

e(r) =

r2
r ,
3

1
e( ) = ,
r

e( ) =

1
.
r sin( )

(2.21.23)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


r
,
(t)(r)(t) =
9 3r2

9 3r2
,
( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =
3r

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

cot
9 3r2(r2 2)
,
.
(r) =
( ) =
(r2 3)r
r

( )( )( ) =

cot
.
r

(2.21.24)

(2.21.25)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


1
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = . (2.21.26)
3
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) = .

(2.21.27)

72

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.21.5 Lematre-Robertson form


The de Sitter universe in the Lematre-Robertson form reads


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + e2Ht dr2 + r2 d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,

(2.21.28)

q
2
with Hubbles Parameter H = c3 = c , which is assumed here to be time-independent.
This a special case of the first and second form of the Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric defined in Eqs.
(2.9.2) and (2.9.12) with R(t) = eHt and k = 0.
Christoffel symbols:

t = H,

t = H,

(2.21.29a)

1
r = ,
r

r = ,
r

(2.21.29b)

t =

r = r,

= cot( ),

(2.21.29c)

r
= r sin( )2 ,

= sin( ) cos( ).

(2.21.29d)

r
tr
= H,

trr =

e2Ht H
c2

e2Ht r2 H
,
c2
e2Ht r2 sin2 ( )H
=
,
c2

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr = e2Ht H 2 ,

Rt t = e2Ht r2 H 2 ,

Rt t = e2Ht r2 sin2 ( )H 2 ,
Rr r =

e4Ht r2 sin2 ( )H 2
,
c2

(2.21.30b)

,
c2
e4Ht r4 sin2 ( )H 2
.
=
c2

Rr r =
R

(2.21.30a)

e4Ht r2 H 2

(2.21.30c)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt = 3H 2 ,

Rrr = 3

e2Ht H 2
,
c2

R = 3

e2Ht r2 H 2
,
c2

R = 3

e2Ht r2 sin2 ( )H 2
.
c2

(2.21.31)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:


R=

12H 2
,
c2

K =

24H 4
.
c4

(2.21.32)

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

e(r) = eHt r ,

e( ) =

eHt
,
r

e( ) =

eHt
.
r sin

(2.21.33)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

(r)(t)(r) = ( )(t)( ) = ( )(t)( ) =


( )(r)( ) = ( )(r)( ) =

1
,
eHt r

H
c

( )( )( ) =

(2.21.34a)
cot( )
.
eHt r

(2.21.34b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(t) = 3

H
,
c

(r) =

2
eHt r

, ( ) =

cot( )
.
eHt r

(2.21.35)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


H2
c2
H2
R(r)( )(r)( ) = R(r)( )(r)( ) = R( )( )( )( ) = 2 .
c
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R(t)( )(t)( ) = R(t)( )(t)( ) =

(2.21.36a)
(2.21.36b)

2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME

73

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R( )( ) = R( )( ) = 3

H2
.
c2

(2.21.37)

2.21.6 Cartesian coordinates


The de Sitter universe in Lematre-Robertson form can also be expressed in Cartesian coordinates:


ds2 = c2 dt 2 + e2Ht dx2 + dy2 + dz2 .

(2.21.38)

Christoffel symbols:
x
tx
= H,

txx =

e2Ht H
c2

y
ty
= H,

tyy =

e2Ht H
c2

z
tz
= H,

tzz =

e2Ht H
c2

(2.21.39a)
(2.21.39b)

(2.21.39c)
Partial derivatives
txx,t = tyy,t = tzz,t =

2H 2 e2Ht
.
c2

(2.21.40)

Riemann-Tensor:
Rtxtx = Rtxtx = Rtztz = e2Ht H 2 ,

Rxyxy = Rxzxz = Ryzyz =

e4Ht H 2
.
c2

(2.21.41)

Ricci-Tensor:
Rtt = 3H 2 ,

Rxx = Ryy = Rzz = 3

e2Ht H 2
.
c2

(2.21.42)

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalar read:


R = 12

H2
,
c2

Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = t ,
c

K = 24

H4
.
c4

e(x) = eHt x ,

(2.21.43)

e(y) = eHt y ,

e(z) = eHt z .

(2.21.44)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


H
.
c
The only non-vanishing contraction of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

(x)(t)(x) = (y)(t)(y) = (z)(t)(z) =

(t) = 3

H
.
c

(2.21.45)

(2.21.46)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


H2
,
c2
H2
R(x)(y)(x)(y) = R(x)(z)(x)(z) = R(y)(z)(y)(z) = 2 .
c
R(t)(x)(t)(x) = R(t)(y)(t)(y) = R(t)(z)(t)(z) =

(2.21.47a)
(2.21.47b)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(t) = R(x)(x) = R(y)(y) = R(z)(z) = 3
Further reading:
Tolman[Tol34, sec. 142], Bick[BK01]

H2
.
c2

(2.21.48)

74

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.22 Straight spinning string


The metric of a straight spinning string in cylindrical coordinates (t, , , z) reads
ds2 = (c dt a d )2 + d 2 + k2 2 d 2 + dz2 ,

(2.22.1)

where a and k > 0 are two parameters, see Perlick[Per04].


Metric-Tensor:
gtt = c2 ,

gt = ac,

g = gzz = 1,

g = k2 2 a2.

(2.22.2)

Christoffel symbols:
t =

a
,
c

1
,

= k2 .

(2.22.3)

1
,
2

(2.22.4)

Partial derivatives
t , =

,
c 2

, =

, = k2 .

The Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensors as well as the Ricci- and Kretschmann-scalar vanish identically.
Static local tetrad:

1
1 a
e(1) = ,
(2.22.5)
e(3) = z .
e(0) = t ,
e(2) =
t + ,
c
k c
Dual tetrad:

(0) = c dt a d ,

(1) = d ,

(2) = k d ,

(3) = dz.

(2.22.6)

Ricci rotation coefficients and their contractions read

(2)(1)(2) =

1
,

(0) = (2) = (3) = 0,

Comoving local tetrad:


p


k 2 2 a2 1
a
e(0) =
t 2 2
,
k
c
k a2
1
,
e(2) = p
k 2 2 a2

1
.

(2.22.7)

e(1) = ,

(2.22.8a)

e(3) = z .

(2.22.8b)

(1) =

Dual tetrad:

k
c dt,
(0) = p
2
k 2 a2

(1) = d ,

(2) = p

ac dt
k 2 2 a2

q
k 2 2 a2 d ,

(3) = dz.

(2.22.9)

Ricci rotation coefficients and their contractions read

(0)(1)(0) =

a2
,
(k2 2 a2 )

k2
,
k 2 2 a2
1
(1) = .

(2)(1)(2) =

(2)(1)(0) = (0)(2)(1) = (0)(1)(2) =

ak
,
k 2 2 a2

(2.22.10a)
(2.22.10b)
(2.22.10c)

2.22. STRAIGHT SPINNING STRING

75

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields

2 +

1
k2 2



h2
ah1 2
c2 = 21 ,
h2
c
c

with the constants of motion h1 = c(ct a ) and h2 = a(ct a ) + k2 2 .

(2.22.11)

The point of closest approach pca for a null geodesic that starts at = i with y = e(0) + cos e(1) +
sin e(2) with respect to the static tetrad is given by = i sin . Hence, the pca is independent of a and
k. The same is also true for timelike geodesics.

76

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.23 Sultana-Dyer spacetime


The Sultana-Dyer metric represents a black hole in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In spherical coordinates (t, r, , ), the metric reads[SD05] (G = c = 1)





2M
4M
2M
2
2
2
2
1
ds = t
dt
dr r d ,
dt dr 1 +
r
r
r
2

(2.23.1)

where M is the mass of the black hole and 2 = d 2 + sin2 d 2 is the spherical surface element. Note
that here, the signature of the metric is sign(g) = 2.
Christoffel symbols:

2 r3 + 4M 2 r + M 2t
M(r 2M)(4r + t)
M(r + 2M)(4r + t)
ttt =
, ttr =
, ttr =
,
(2.23.2a)
3
tr3
tr
tr3

2 r3 4M 2 r M 2t
2
2

r
, t = ,
t = ,
(2.23.2b)
tr
=
3
tr
t
t

2 r2 + 2Mr Mt
1
1

r = ,
t =
,
(2.23.2c)
r = ,
r
r
t
4Mr + tr 2Mt

r =

= sin cos ,
(2.23.2d)
,
= cot ,
t


2 r3 + 4Mr2 + 4M 2 r + M 2t + Mtr
M 4r2 + 8Mr + 2Mt + tr
r
,

,
rr
tr3
tr3
2 r2 + 2Mr Mt sin2
(4Mr + tr 2Mt)sin2
r
=
=
,

.
t
t

trr =
t

(2.23.2e)
(2.23.2f)

Riemann-Tensor:

2t 2 2Mr2 r3 + Mt 2 + 2Mtr
,
r3

t 2 2r4 + 16M 2 r2 + 4Mtr2 4M 2 r2t + Mt 2 r 2M 2t 2
=
,
r2
2Mt 2 (4r + t)(r2 + 2Mr Mt)
,
=
r2

t 2 sin2 2r4 + 16M 2 r2 + 4Mtr2 4M 2r2 t + Mt 2 r 2M 2t 2
,
=
r2
2Mt 2 sin2 (4r + t)(r2 + 2Mr Mt)
=
,
r2

t 2 4r4 + 16Mr4 4M 2tr + 16M 2 r2 2M 2t 2 Mt 2 r
=
,
r2

t 2 sin2 4r4 + 16Mr4 4M 2tr + 16M 2 r2 2M 2t 2 Mt 2 r
,
=
r2

= 2t 2r sin2 2r3 + 4Mr2 4Mtr + mt 2 .

Rtrtr =
Rr t
Rt r
Rr t
Rt r
Rr r
Rr r
R

(2.23.3a)
(2.23.3b)
(2.23.3c)
(2.23.3d)
(2.23.3e)
(2.23.3f)
(2.23.3g)
(2.23.3h)

Ricci-Tensor:


2 3r2 + 12M 2 + 2Mt
4M (3r + t + 6M)
,
Rtr =
,
Rtt =
2
2
t r
t 2 r2


2 3r2 + 12Mr + 2Mt + 12M 2
6 r2 + 2Mr 2Mt
, R =
,
Rrr =
t 2 r2 
t2
6 r2 + 2Mr 2Mt sin2
.
R =
t2

(2.23.4a)
(2.23.4b)
(2.23.4c)

2.23. SULTANA-DYER SPACETIME

77

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:



12 r2 + 2Mr 2Mt
R=
,
t 6 r2

48 M 2t 4 + 20M 2 r4 + 20Mr5 + 8M 2r2 t 2 4Mr4t 16M 2r3t + 5r6
K =
.
t 1 2r6
Comoving local tetrad:
p
1 + 2M/r
2M/r
t p
r ,
e(0) =
2
t2
t 1 + 2M/r

e(1) =

t2

Static local tetrad:

1
e(0) = p
t ,
2
t 1 2M/r

2M/r
t +
e(1) = p
2
t 1 2M/r

Further reading:
Sultana and Dyer[SD05].

1
p
r ,
1 + 2M/r
p
1 2M/r
r ,
t2

(2.23.5a)
(2.23.5b)

e(2) =

1
,
t 2r

e(3) =

1
. (2.23.6)
t 2 r sin

e(2) =

1
,
t 2r

e(3) =

1
. (2.23.7)
t 2 r sin

78

CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.24 TaubNUT
The TaubNUT metric in Boyer-Lindquist like spherical coordinates (t, r, , ) reads[BCJ02] (G = c = 1)
 2

dr

+ d 2 + sin2 d 2 ,
ds2 = (dt + 2 cos d )2 +

(2.24.1)

where = r2 + 2 and = r2 2Mr 2 . Here, M is the mass of the black hole and the magnetic monopol
strength.
Christoffel symbols:

,
ttr =
3

, tr =
t = 2
sin

r =
rrr = ,

ttr =

,
tt = 22 cos 2 ,

2 cos
sin
, t =
,
3
2
r
r
r

,
r = ,
r = ,

(2.24.2a)
(2.24.2b)
(2.24.2c)

2(r3 3Mr2 3r2 + M2 ) cos


,

 2


2
2
2
4
cos 6r 8 Mr 3 + r4 + 2
=
,
2 sin
i


h
= 3 cos2 9r4 + 42Mr2 44M + r5 + 2r3 2 r2 ,


4r2 2 4Mr2 4 + r4 cot
=
,
2

6r2 2 8Mr2 34 + r4 sin cos
=
,
2

tr =

(2.24.2d)

(2.24.2e)

where = 2r2 + Mr2 M2 .


Static local tetrad:
r
r

t , e(1) =
r ,
e(0) =

1
e(2) = ,

(2.24.2f)
(2.24.2g)
(2.24.2h)

2 cot
1
e(3) =
t +
.

sin

(2.24.3)

Dual tetrad:

(0)

(dt + 2 cos d ) ,

(1)

dr,

(2) =

d ,

(3) =

sin d .

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the = /2 hyperplane yields


1 h2
1 k2
1 2
,
V
=
r + Veff =

eff
2
2 c2
2

(2.24.4)

(2.24.5)

with the constants of motion k = (/)t and h = . For null geodesics, we obtain a photon orbit at
r = rpo with


p
1
M
rpo = M + 2 M 2 + 2 cos
arccos
(2.24.6)
3
M 2 + 2
Further reading:
Bini et al.[BCdMJ03].

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