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Prateek Sharma Student IV Year Department of Computer Science JaganNath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology Sitapura Jaipur Email-id: email@example.com
Abstract— It is a one time security encryption scheme which is much more flexible and safe. This one time pad encryption scheme is mathematically unbreakable so the attacker will focus on breaking the key rather than cipher text. Random key stream can be used to provide lifetime supply of keys. Other techniques such as permutation in conjunction with substitution, encryption function etc can be used to provide random keys. The basic idea is that there is as much cipher text as there is normal text and key once used is not usable again thus improving efficiency. The goal is to show how one time pad encryption can be done using complement and other supporting techniques. Keywords— Permutation, Substitution, Ciphering, Complement.
That may produce difficult guessing to the attacker. There are three basic requirements for a perfectly secure cipher text: 1. Key must be absolute random. 2. Length of the key must coincide with text length. 3. Same copy of key must reside with both the sender and receiver. 4. Each key can be used only once. So even if any one of these is violated the cipher is not perfectly secure. II.A LOOK IN PAST The invention of the one-time pad is generally credited to Gilbert S. Vernam of Bell Telephone Laboratories and Joseph O. Mauborgne of the U.S. Army Signal Corps . Vernam invented a device that would exclusive-OR keystream bits from a paper tape with the Baudot code generated by letters typed on a keyboard; he and Mauborgne realized that if the keystream tape characters were (a) perfectly random, and (b) never reused, “the messages are rendered entirely secret, and are impossible to analyze without the key” . (To be sure, others have made similar assertions about their ciphers; Vernam and Mauborgne’s claim has the advantages of being both correct and mathematically provable.) In fact, they were anticipated by about 35 years. In 1882, a California banker named Frank Miller published Telegraphic Code to Insure Privacy and Secrecy in the Transmission of Telegrams. In it, he describes the first one-time pad system, as a superencipherment mechanism for his telegraph code . If used properly, it would have had the same property of absolute security. NSA’s David Boak’s quote says it all: "the ‘approved’ systems have simply been shown to adequately resist whatever kinds of crypto-mathematical attacks we, with our finite resources and brains, have been able to think up. We are by no means certain that the [opponent] equivalent can do no better".  III. CORE IDEA The method of generating cipher text through the use of complement forms the core of The One Time Pad. When One Time Pad ciphering is used, the random key stream does not come from an algorithm or mathematical formula. Instead, it is obtained from a true random noise source. And because the key stream is truly random, it cannot be reproduced. This random key stream is then used for encryption, whereby each character of the plain text is mixed with one character of the
I. INTRODUCTION Today the world scenario is of trading through computers. Computers provide services in various sensitive applications such as online banking transactions, online shopping, and even the transfer of some confidential information over the network. But as more and more critical tasks are delegated to the computers the issue of computer security becomes a major cause of concern. Security refers to the act of guarding against interference by entities external to the system. The information security is an alliance between confidentiality, integrity, authentication and availability.  Confidentiality ensures the unauthorized users do not intercept copy or replicate the information. The integrity is necessary so that the accurate information can flow over the network. The information security is also required during the retrial of the data. The users should be authenticated to retrieve data and the information is not secure without authentication, so how to implement this security over the network? How to convert the sensitive information into ciphered or encrypted form? One of the answers is through complement or in other words One Time Pad. This ciphering technique is a provably secure cryptosystem and was developed in 1917 by Gilbert Vernam thus known as Vernam Cipher. In theoretical sense one time pad if used correctly are unbreakable but due to unwanted limitations their practicality is underdone. The basic idea behind a one-time pad is that there’s as much key material as there is text. The encryption operation can be simple modular addition. In computer based uses, it is often XOR. After XOR take the complement of the binary addition generated bit.
When we say sufficiently secure it means that the ciphering is done in such a way that it takes a long time to uncipher the information nearly some years and by the time it’s decrypted the data becomes useless.  VI. thus in theory these methods are traceable but are sufficiently secure. the subtract and subtracted number less than 26. DRAWBACKS Despite Shannon's proof of its security. Once the One Time Key stream has been used for encryption or decryption. Step 6: if complement is greater than 26. the recipient knowing the OTP also can recover the message by computing the reverse. and it would lose its unbreakable properties as information would start to be leaked. This results in a truly random cipher text that cannot be broken by any power in the world. and is disposed of correctly preventing any reuse in whole or part — hence "one time".e. • It requires perfectly random one-time pads. You have a message M. otherwise it wouldn't be a "One-Time" pad anymore. but practically very weak.” So the one time pads though being untraceable lack actual implementation due to some constraints such as – the random key generated must be known to both the sender and receiver which in itself is a security issue. • Secure generation and exchange of the one-time pad material. which must be at least as long as the message. Setp-3: Generate random key not less than 6 bit.  V. Step 8: The recipient perform process for decryption. METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Basically you have your random OTP.e. Step 9:If the value is greater than 26. n from table. XORing the cipher text C with the OTP: M = C xor OTP Suppose the string to be encrypted is GOD so process will be: G =7 [Decimal] and Binary 000111 O = 15 001111 D =4 000100 And Random Key = 010001.random key stream. consider the following sample table: Table 1 Sample Decimal Number Chart Alphabet Number Binary A 1 000001 B 2 000010 C 3 000011 D 4 000100 E 5 000101 F 6 000110 G 7 000111 H 8 001000 I 9 001001 J 10 001010 K 11 001011 L 12 001100 M 13 001101 Alphabet Number binary N 14 001110 O 15 001111 P 16 010000 Q 17 010001 R 18 010010 S 19 010011 T 20 010100 U 21 010101 V 22 010110 W 23 010111 X 24 011000 Y 25 011001 Z 26 011010 Fig 1: Encryption Process by Random key Generation (At Source) You send the cipher text to your recipient. and you compute the cipher text C by XORing the message with the OTP: C = M xor OTP Step 7: Convert decimal [which is less than 26] into alphabet from table and then add decimal equivalent of random key and Send as cipher text. This guarantees that the same key cannot be reapplied by mistake. write the decimal value of plain text character from table.  . q respectively so cipher text is “17nfq” Send this cipher text to recipient. Step 5: Take the 2’s complement of binary sum. CIPHERING BY 2’S COMPLEMENT Step-1: Consider the plain text [message]. which both you and your intended recipient have. Here we consider same random number key 000111 001111 000100 010001 010001 010001 011000 100000 010101 101000 100000 101011 40 32 43 Binary Addition 2’s Complement Fig 2: Decryption Process at Destination You must never re-use the OTP. then write the equivalent decimal and then related alphabet i. so similarly next alphabet f. Step 4: Perform binary addition. Step-2: Convert decimal value into equivalent Binary. “One-time pads are theoretically unbreakable. then subtract 26 from complement. By contrast. Step 10: end. VII.  The cipher text is then posted to the recipient of the message who reverses the process by using the same random key stream. Here sum is more than 26 so then subtract it [40–26]= 14 i. the one-time pad has serious drawbacks in practice: • Careful treatment to make sure that it continues to remain secret from any adversary. it is immediately destroyed. IV. AN EXAMPLE The above given method for OTP can be better explained with the following example. but practically strong. the Plain text will be recover at the destination. conventional ciphers are theoretically breakable. On the other hand most of the conventional practically used ciphering methods use a fully or partially deterministic mathematical algorithm for the generation of cipher text.
html Islab. and anyone can create small onetime pads.ac.cypherspace. 28:657-715. Frank Miller.google.com/WWW/DOCS/ONE-TIME-PAD.oregonstate.com/Papers/Crypto/OTP                .csjournals. Pete McCollum “Encryption via One-Time Pads”. Effective Secure Encryption Scheme [One Time Pad] using Complement Approach Sharad Patil & Ajay Kumar Available From: www.ranum. the manual one-time pad is ideal for secure communications.pdf www.cimt. Therefore. 1949. Shannon.NewYork.. Bell System tech.pdf. XLV:10915. 2005 Is One-time Pad History? DIRKRIJMENANTS http://users.E.edu/˜sm b/vernam. 3 issue 2 March/April 2009 Malaysia (Published).Public key algorithms and traditional symmetric algorithms are of course useful. International Journal of Computer and Security.CharlesM.org/wiki/Data_Encryption_Standard www. and small paper pads are easy to hide and destroy.plymouth.be/d. You don’t need to carry any compromising equipment or use unsafe computers.columbia.cs.com/books?id=jNf2GwAACAAJ. Ajay Kumar “Modified One Time Pad Data Security Scheme: Random Key Generation Approach”.rijmenants En. Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineer. Cipher printing telegraph systems for secret wire and radio telegraphic communications. Information Technology Journal 4(3): 204-221. Even the manual one-time pad has a future as a low-tech way to encrypt small text messages. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are thankful to the Jagan Nath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology. useful in many situations and surely has a future ahead. Telegraphic code to Insure Privacy and Secrecy in the Transmission ofTelegrams.February1926.org/rsa/otp.jamesedwardtracy. REFERENCES  Gilbert S. However according to us in some specific circumstances. absolute security is preferred above practical considerations.CONCLUSION One-time encryption is so basic and transparent that anyone can trust and use .VIII.Cornwell.pdf Sharad Patil.1882. Vernam. “Communication theory of secrecy systems”.wikipedia. Availablefrom:http://books. Dr. and they have earned their place in the commercial market of reasonably secure large-scale communications. J.edu/koc/ece575/notes/L3.pdf www.com/IJCSC/PDF1-1/50.com/security/computer_security/papers/otp-faq www. Rajasthan.telenet.availablefrom:http:/www.uk/resources/codes/codes_u12_text.pdf Trumpetpower. C. It’s easy to learn and to set up one-time pad communications. India for providing research facilities and their faculty for being the constant source of inspiration.