12/17/08

Contrastive Analysis
Why Some Elements of English are so Difficult and how to Help English Learners Overcome Them

Elizabeth Jiménez, CEO GEMAS Consulting and Advocacy

Introduction
  This session focuses on the differences between social and academic language and how educators can evaluate instructional materials to identify those that best support English learners   English language proficiency tests identify English learners beyond simple vocabulary and grammar   Tests examine how English learners function in the new language: social and academic language   Educators will discuss how the language of instant messaging may impact the future of spelling and grammar rules in English

Terminology to Know
  Academic language   Transferable/nontransferable skills   Contrastive analysis   Vernacular   Dialect

1

come I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Why man alive! I’d learned to talk it when I was five! Yet to write it the more I tried. but not YOU On HICCOGH. MOS. perhaps. THROUGH. To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of HEARD a dreadful WORD. P911 FYI JK OMG ZZZ 2 .g. And DO and GO and THWART and CARTCome. And then there’s DOSE and ROSE and LOSEJust look them up and GOOSE and CHOOSE. electricity /s/. electrician /sh/) Source: Wong-Fillmore and Snow 2002 Which of These Do You Know? ACTIVITY LOL BRB AIR. And HERE is not a match for THERE. I hadn’t learned it at 55. PRW. Not BOTH in BOTHER.) A MOTH is not a moth in MOTHER. Nor DEAR and FEAR for BEAR and PEAR. And CORK and WORK and CARD and SWORD. not BEAD – For goodness sake don’t call it “DEED”! Watch out for MEAT and GREAT and THREAT! (They rhyme with SUITE and STRAIGHT and DEBT. electric / k/. It looks like BEARD and sounds like BIRD And DEAD: It’s said like BED.12/17/08 “This is English” I take it you already know Of TOUGH and BOUGH and COUGH and DOUGH? Others may stumble. Dr. even when the rules of pronunciation mean that phonemes within these morphological units vary (e. Krogh Why is English Spelling so Difficult? Unlike many other languages. English has no royal language academy to oversee or arbitrate the reform of spelling to eliminate inconsistencies and reflect language change. Richard N. English generally retains the spelling of morphological units. nor BROTH in BROTHER. SLOUGH and THOUGH? Well done! And now you wish.

know. /n/ > n -eau. -ow. no Beau. /sh/ -c- /k/ Examples electricity electrician electric 3 . -oa Examples Examples Mom No. dough. boat Many-to-one /s/. -ough.12/17/08 Which of These Do You Know? ANSWER KEY LOL – laugh out loud BRB – be right back AIR – adult in room MOS – mother over shoulder PRW – parents are watching P911 – parent emergency FYI – for your information JK – just kidding OMG – oh my God ZZZ – tired or bored Phonemes and Graphemes English Phoneme to Grapheme Correspondence One-to-one One-to-many /m/ > m /o/ > o. -oe. hoe.

fine)   IM abbreviations What is a language? ACTIVITY Write down your own definition of language. Components of Language Language in Communicative Context Language as a Meaning System Language as a Structured Rule-Governed System Used with Permission of Dr. cool.12/17/08 Language is Constantly Changing   Human communication is dynamic and is constantly changing to reflect the environment   New words are invented (microwave/to microwave) or borrowed (el internet)   Norms of polite speech change   Teens have always created language and given new meanings to common words (bad. straight. Noma LeMoine 4 .

p. or “a language is a dialect with an army and navy". The Difference Between a Language and a Dialect   Which language is better…. 1945. often it is promoted for use in the media.? The answer depends on who you ask. grammatical characteristics and phonemes between English and this language. 13).   Language prestige   Social institutions and a written literature   Other Comparing and Contrasting Two Languages ACTIVITY   Pause the video and think about a language other than English that you know a bit about. "A shprakh iz a dialekt mit an armey un flot" ("ַ‫אַ שפראַך איז א‬ ‫"דיאַלעקט מיט אַן אַרמײ און פֿלאָט‬. Most governments establish a standard variety of their language (or Languages) to be taught in schools and used in official documents. 5 .12/17/08 The Difference Between a Language and a Dialect "A language is a dialect with an army and navy"   The Yiddish linguist Max Weinreich published the expression.   Predict the percentage of shared vocabulary. in Yivo-bleter 25.   Jot down what you think are some commonalities and some differences between them.1. Courts and so on.

mutually intelligible. they are speaking distinct languages. Comparing and Contrasting Two Languages ACTIVITY   Pause and think about a language other than English that you know a bit about. reading from left to right. multiple forms of articles (los. la.   Predict the percentage of shared vocabulary.12/17/08 Possible Answers   Linguists make the distinction between a language and a dialect by the percentage of communication that can be mutually understood. intonation is used to differentiate between statements and questions   You may have written down the following differences: Writing system. el) the use of tones (tonemes) to make a difference in meaning 6 .   Jot down what you think are some commonalities between them and some differences. las. word order. grammatical characteristics and phonemes between English and this language? Comparing and Contrasting Two Languages POSSIBLE ANSERS   Your answer may have included the following shared characteristics: Shared Greek and Latin roots shared alphabet.   Linguists tell us that if communication is at least 80% or more. then the speakers are speaking a dialect of the same language   If two speakers understand 80% or less of what is said. pronunciation.

12/17/08 Transferable/Non-Transferable Skills English Spanish Phoneme Initial Middle Final Inicial Medial Final /s/ /m/ /ch/ /sh/ /sk/ m/f articles Plural /s/ Change intonation to ask a ? + + + + + + + + + + + (-) Diagnosing English Learner Errors in Writing ACTIVITY •  Read over the student essay and circle every error. and I felt like joke in front of people. I was 7 grade. when I just came to United States from Vietnam. I broke the school rule because I didnʼt know English. share your findings with a coworker and decide on 3 language objectives you would work on with this student. •  Review the errors and select three that recur throughout the paper. Vinh – Writing Sample (transcribed exactly as written.” Everybody laugh at me when I spoke English. I felt very embarrassed. That school was my first school. That incident happened in ____________ Middle School. I answered “yes or no. 7 . •  When you are done. •  Highlight each type of error in a different color so that you can easily spot examples of the same type. In this incident. •  Advance the video and check your work against the answer key on the next slide. If somebody asked me something. with spelling and other errors) Break the School Rule About 2 years ago.

  Did you find more examples of missing or misused articles? Ordinal numbers? Missing –ed in regular past tense?   Were these the errors with the greatest number of examples?   What proficiency level would you assess for this student. when I had just come to the United States from Vietnam (fragment). That school was my first school. I would answer “yes or no. I was the 7th grade. and I felt like a joke in front of people. I felt very embarrassed. with spelling and other errors) ANSWER KEY Break the School Rule About 2 years ago. Patterns of Errors Definite articles Regular past tense -ed Ordinal numbers -th The United States laughed 7th Diagnosing English Learner Errors in Writing Continue independently to read the student writing sample and to identify all errors in the studentʼs paper. I broke the school rule because I didnʼt know English. That incident happened What incident happened? in ____________ Middle School. based on this writing? 8 .” Everybody laughed at me when I spoke English.12/17/08 Vinh – Writing Sample (transcribed exactly as written. In this incident. It is unclear if the rule broken was a rule that you had to know English or was some rule broken because of a misunderstanding caused by not knowing English? If somebody asked me something.

Her name was Sally. Every students [delete the ʻsʼ at the end of students] went down to the cafeteria. Paragraph #2 .Answer Key   My fourth period was P. I stoped and slowly turn around. She called me to stop[ed] and come closer. Every students went down to cafeteria. She called me to stoped and come closer. I ran so fast to cafeteria. My stomach was emty and it made a sound. After I got ready. I felt very hungry. Her name was Sally. The bell rang. I heard some voice was calling me.12/17/08 Vinh . because I dressed very slow. I felt very hungry. The bell rang. because I saw a small [card] name badge on her right pocket. After I got ready. class. and worryied. There was a securety officer behind me. based on this writing? INTERMEDIATE 9 . My stomach was emty and it made sound. I felt a little bit scared. I had lunch. because I dressed very slowly. I was the last one in the locker room. I crossed many streets and rooms. I ran so [delete ʻsoʼ and insert very] fast to the cafeteria. Diagnosing English Learner Errors in Writing Continue independently to read the student writing sample and to identify all errors in the studentʼs paper. because I ran so fast. I through[this seems like a spelling error and should be thought] she called me. I knew that. Except me. I cross many streets and room. Delete period and use a lower case ʻeʼ Except me. I knew I was late and would be the lass of the line.E.[The previous sentence is perplexing…perhaps he meant to say hallways? Or was he saying that he ran across the street from the school? We donʼt know.] I heard [some] a voice [was] calling me. I knew that. After this period. I was the last one in locker room. because I ran so fast. After this period. I through she called me. class. I had lunch. I knew I was late and would be the lass [last in] [deleteof the] line. and worry.Paragraph #2   My four period was P. There was a securety behind me. I stopped and slowly turned around. because I saw a small card on her right pocket.   Did you find more examples of missing or misused articles? YES Ordinal numbers? YES Missing –ed in regular past tense? YES   Were these the errors with the greatest number of examples? YES   What proficiency level would you assess for this student.E. I felt a little bit scare.

“Because Iʼm late” I [asked]said and I felt a little worryied. 10 . because I could not speak English. I didnʼt know why [are] they were here. I was scared and worryied. I was so scared. an The United States the cafeteria the locker It made a sound Regular past tense -ed Laughed Crossed Turned stopped Scared Worried Ordinal numbers -th 7th fourth Paragraph #3 Answer Key               “Come here” she said. I could not ask [she]her why. I wondered why she wanted [I] me to go with her. She told me to go [which]with her. There Were a lot of students in [this]the office. My hands started to shake. My face was red. Sally called me again. “Vinh” I said lound. I was so worried.Vinh is clearly trying to use an idiomatic expression here. Paragraph #4 Answer Key   “Sit down here and wait.” [S]she said. we are not sure if he is trying to say that voice like the voice of the devil or something like that. “What?” She asked again. a.loudly “Why [do] are you running so fast?” She asked. Another great attempt at more colorful. That voice like speak of devil. “What is your name?” “Vinh” I answered. like a meat. When I hear[t]d Sallyʼs voice. I followed Sally to the [Attention] it is unclear whether this is the attendence office or the detention office but this student is generalizing from what he knows] office.   I sitsat down with the other students. idiomatic language. We are unclear if he means as red as a beat? Or perhaps in his home language there is an idiom red as meat.12/17/08 Patterns of Errors Definite articles the. After a couple of seconds. She [was] stoped asking for minutes and she started to look around me.

12/17/08 Patterns of Errors Definite Articles the. Sally [was] stopped asking. They throughthought I was joking[making fun].   Everybody around [were] laughed at me. Nhi was my friend in this school. I understood why Sally called me. She made a phone call. I told Sally who I knew in this school. I could not wear that T shirt to school. A Couple of minutes later. Paragraph #6 . a. “You cannot wear this shirt to school. I didnʼt know who she was calling.   “You broke the school rule” she said.   “What?” I asked and I didnʼt understand what she said. [there one] a Vietnamese student came up.   “I cannot speak English.Answer Key I felt very embarrassed when I said that.   “Yes!!!” I answer with a solfsoft voice. an • the United States • the cafeteria • the locker • it made a sound • with the other students • in the office • after a couple of seconds Regular Past Tense -ed • laughed • crossed • turned • stopped • scared • worried • scared Ordinal numbers -th 7th fourth Paragraph # 5 Answer Key   “Do you know what is on your shirt?” She pointed to my T shirt and asked. That was Nhi. 11 .” I said. Nhi [was] tranlated everything Miss Sally said. On my T shirt there was [a] the name of a beer company “Miler”. because that was against [one of] the school rules. She gave me the list of Vietnamese students in this school.

I will always remember that day when I get dressed [clothes. The “editor” was another Vietnamesespeaking student.] and ready [to] for school. I studied. Languages are often established by a government language academy. so some of the L-1 related errors were not eliminated. I went home and read the school rules again. That day [gave to me] I got a good lesson. New words are invented or borrowed from other languages. and read a lot of English books.12/17/08 Paragraph #7 – Answer Key [After that day]That afternoon. Perhaps I felt stupid or silly. After that incident. I think I was like a jocker or a stupid boy [in that time].It is not completely clear what he is trying to say. I felt very embrassed when everybody in the office laugh[t]ed at me. Common words are given new meanings and in the English language spelling conventions are impacted as well. I am not[donʼt] afraird when someone asks me a question. Postscript We later discovered that this student had enlisted the help of a fellow student to edit his essay before turning it in. I wanted to be good in English. This time my sister translated everything to me. Dialects are often considered to have less status than languages   Diagnosing English Learner errors through writing offers a roadmap to targeted teaching 12 . Topic Review   Languages are constantly changing.   Languages and dialects are related. The peer editing strategy is a very good one for all writers but can be especially useful for English learners. I donʼt have to worry about English. Now I go to school and have a lot of friends.

New York: Pearson Longman   Wong fillmore. C.12/17/08 References   Richard-Amato. Christian.D. and Snow.A. 7-53. 2005 13 . pp...Adger. Snow. M. (2005) Academic Success for English Language Learners: Strategies for K-12 Mainstream Teachers.A.C.) What Teachers Need to Know About Language. L.E.(Eds. P.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.