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Nietzsche and Early Romanticism Author(s): Judith Norman Source: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 63, No. 3 (Jul.

, 2002), pp. 501-519 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 24/03/2013 19:49
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Nietzsche was in many ways a quintessentiallyromanticfigure, a lonely genius with a tragic love-life, wanderingendlessly (throughItaly,no less) before going dramatically mad, taken by his gods into the protectionof madness one of Nietzsche's childhood fa(to quote Heidegger's epithet on H61derlin, vorites).' But this is to be a romanticin an uncapitalizedmanner,and has nothing to do with the literarymovementof Romanticism,a movementfromwhich, as is well-known,Nietzsche distancedhimself loudly andvigorously.Nietzsche famously follows Goethe in his verdictthatRomanticismis a formof sickness and classicism a form of strength,and commentators,for the most part,have That is, they do not blithely identify Nietzsche accepted this self-description.2 with thatnineteenth-century includeVictor artistic movement,whose proponents Hugo, Eugene Delacroix, and RichardWagner.3 But Romanticismis a pluralphenomenon. WhenGoethemadehis famously he meant dismissive remark, he was clearlynot talkingaboutHugo andWagner; have been less reticent Romanticismin an earlierincarnation.Commentators aboutfinding all sortsof affinitiesbetween Nietzsche and some of these earlier movements. In particularNietzsche is frequentlyand positively comparedto Jena Romanticism (also known as early Romanticism), a movement whose principal figures included August and Friedrich Schlegel, Novalis, Tieck, Schleiermacher,and Schelling, and the writings they published in the 1790s, principallyin thejournal,Athenaeum.It is this romanticmovementthatwill be the focus of my paper. Jena romantics,while Grecophile, had nothing to do with Rousseaueanprimitivism(they were well aware that their image of the
Martin Heidegger, Schelling 's Treatise on the Essence of Human Freedom, tr. Joan '1 Stambaugh(Athens, Ohio, 1985), 2. 2 JohannWolfgang von Goethe, Conversationswith Eckermann,tr. John Oxenford (San in Nietzsche Francisco,1984),248 (2 April 1829);Friedrich Nietzsche,Die Fr6hliche Wissenschaft Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe,ed. G. Colli and Mazzino Montinari(Berlin, 1968), part 5, # 370; The Gay Science (GS), tr. WalterKaufmann(New York, 1974). Three Metamorphoses"in Nietzsche as 3 See Robert Gooding-Williams,"Zarathustra's Postmodernist:Essays Pro and Contra ed. Clayton Koelb (Albany, 1990), and Heinrich von Staden, "Nietzsche and Marx on Greek Art," Daedalus (Winter, 1976); also Julian Young, Nietzsche'sPhilosophy of Art (New York, 1992), 140-47.

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Abrams. The English translationsof Schlegel's "CriticalFragments"CF. P.ed.he barelymentionsthe Jenaromanticsby name andprobablynever readFriedrichSchlegel. This content downloaded from 63. E. "Athenaeum AF and "Ideas" I. 86. Bent. not specifically as a memberof Jena Romanticism. 316-18. on his own initiative.All of which sounds decidedly Nietzschean. Representationand its Discontents (Berkeley.135 on Sun. 140." Daedalus (1976).164. Nietzsche. S. M. 1973). Dionysian andtheApollinianin Greektragedy.4What was centralto their movement was profoundskepticism about the viability of traditionalattitudestowardstruth.that philosophy is or ought to become more artistic. 7Heinrich von Staden.7anothercalls Nietzsche the last romanticist. 19.All TooHuman. 142 (but not after that)and FriedrichSchlegel is never mentioned. 253. Nietzsche on Tragedy ject of Philosophy (Minneapolis. Nietzsche contra Nietzsche. "an entire tradition of academic philosophy (which. fragmentedwriting. II. Nietzsche hadjoined) revolved aroundprecisely this opposition."'At least in 4Friedrich Schlegel. thereis certainlyspace for commentatorsto arguefor a close if tacit intellectualconnectionbetweenNietzsche and Jena romanticism. cf. 5-6."Indeed. H. 10 as does Adrian del Caro in Nietzsche contra Nietzsche: Creativityand the Anti-Romantic(Baton Rouge. 6Nietzsche carefullyconsidersAugust Schlegel's ideas on the functionof the tragicchorus in The Birth of Tragedy-but in his capacity as a classical philologist. 1989).a sense that the philosopherought to be or become more of an artist (though not a genius)-and.. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in FriedrichSchlegel.NaturalSupernaturalism: and Revolutionin RomanticLiterature(New Tradition York.ErnstBehler suggests thatNietzsche never read FriedrichSchlegel in "Nietzsche'sAuffassung der Ironie"in NietzscheStudien.6 As such.Nietzsche's Philosophy' ofArt. 8 Del Caro. 1958-). and they did not valorize emotion above reason. "Apocryphal M. and Azade Seyhan.and yet anotherclaims that "[Nietzsche's] story makes sense only when read in the largercontext of his Romanticpredecessors'history. ? 7. 1993).KritischeFriedrich (Darmstadt. RomanticizingNietzsche While Nietzsche himself never makes the connection. Silk and J.Kritische SchlegelAusgabe "Nietzsche and Marx on Greek Art."8 It is undeniablethatNietzsche came out of a philological traditioninaugurated by the Schlegels (and developed by Schelling) which juxtaposed the Accordingto Lacoue-Labarthe. 1992). 56. from The Sub9PhillippeLacoue-Labarthe. the figure most closely associatedwith this romanticmovement.502 JudithNorman Greeksreflectedcontemporary fantasiesmore thanhistoricalreality). 1971).an intellectuallyrigoroustheory of art that gave particular weight to playfulness." tr.4 (1975). Stern. the notion of literary irony. TimothyD. Fragments" Peter Firchow (Minneapolis. 5 See Young.201. Behler. he never explicitly distances himself from the authorsof Jena romanticismin the way he does from laterromanticfigures.Novalis is quoted in Human. correlatively. one commentatorspeaks of a fundamentalaffinity.they had no cult of the genius.indeed. Lucindeand theFragments.

33. Phillipe LacoueLabarthe..Nietzsche looks beyond the categories of time..Jean-LucNancy. and so the projectof representingsome sort of extra-linguisticreality is doomed to failure. naively unselfconsciousart.Both are supposedly motivatedby a post-Kantian philososkepticismas to the validityof traditional thatthe believe that and traditional of notions is. Maurice Blanchot. phy philosophical search for truthis no longer a viable projectand look to literarymethods that indicate. artistryor creativityspecifically appropriate One critic describes this projectas follows: Like Schlegel. and Heinrichvon Staden. Irony and fragmentedwriting in particularare apt artisticvehicles for suggestingthattruthis an illusion and our attemptto grasp somethinglike objective reality doomed to failure.. both Nietzsche and the romantics are pioneers of new forms of for a post-philosophicalage. 1981).135 on Sun.. 95.How profound and enduringthis influence might have been is an interestingquestion. 380.164.op. and c.A version of this claim centerson problemsposed by language.201.f.'1 The basic point of contact that commentatorsindicatebetween Nietzsche and Jenaromanticismis surprisinglyeasy to summarize. and Andrew Bowie. GermanRomanticLiterary Theory(Cambridge. n.It will encompassthe projectof philosophy andso representsa sort of synthesis between traditionalart and traditionalphilosophy.butnot one I will exploreat present. but ratherfocus on any impactthey may have had as philosophically minded literarycritics during the 1790s.A body of scholarshiphas been building which claims that the critical theories of Jena romanticismimportantlyanticipatedmany of the greatideas fromNietzsche's maturephilosophy. space. 211. Nietzsche:Philoso130. I will not discuss the influence of the Jenaromanticsin theirscholarlycapacity as classical philologists. cit. and I would like to see if this is true.Nietzsche andthe romantics supposedly agree that we cannot use language to indicate anything beyond language. Similarly. This content downloaded from 63. without baldly claiming. 27. for whom "the absolute" [das H6chste] can only be expressed allegorically because it is inutterable. the illusory natureof reality.. (New York. 1993). WalterKaufmann.I will not look at TheBirth of Tragedybut ratherfocus on claims made concerningthe romantictendenciesof Nietzsche's laterwork. and causality into the impenetrablezone of essences only intuitableas an aestheticphenomenon. ErnstBehler. Thus. they truth. Richard Rorty. n.. Psychologist.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 503 his earlier works Nietzsche's view of the Greeks was influenced by (if not theories of figures aspredicatedon) the scholarlyresearchand interpretative sociated with Jena romanticism. "0I will be referringto the scholarshipof Ernst Behler..To be sure. pher. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Adrian del Caro. Antichrist(New York. 1974). this new sort of arttakes up the mantle of philosophy and thus will be differentfrom an older. Azade Seyhan..

the romantics conceivedof andtriedto raisephilosophy to the level of art. 8.N. Nietzsche andthe romantics in commonthe fact thatthey would pointto Plato. Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy write. TheLiteraryAbsolute. 1999). and Jean-LucNancy. Adriandel Carosays." "Apocryphal " Adrian Del Caro. 1988). romantic rather creative envisionsa formof philosophywhich becomesconsciousartistry. 14Lacoue-Labarthe. unlike philosophy . 12 Jos de Mul. n. or at least artistic.but it is surely the theme of the philosopher-artist Nietzsche thatis most fundamentally in his work."l2 Similarly.201.afterSchelling we find the most pregnantexpressionof this [Romantic]aestheticizationof worldview in the philosophy of 148. creditsNietzsche andthe romanticsbothwith raisingliterary form as a philosophicalproblem.504 JudithNorman Nietzsche views artas a self-conscious illusion which excites an optic desire to look beyond appearanceto the abyss where comprehension faces total resistance and eventually comes to terms with the tragic vision of existence.. and cf."'5 Blanchot. "One sees all that Nietzsche could have taken from romanticism.writing: "[L]iterature. Representation.""Likethe romantics. "Theunderstanding thatjoins Nietzsche with his Romanticforebearsis the realizationthatthere is no minotaurof dictatorialtruthat the centerof the is redeemedby its self-reflexive and ironic sensibility. 25.140. than descriptive.too.. whereas reason and logic are trappedin what Nietzsche calls The persistent "metaphysicaldelusion" [metaphysischerWahnsinn]. Nietzsche contra Nietzsche.. 5. Seyhan." Philosophy becomes art. RomanticDesire in (Post)Modern This content downloaded from 63. "Poesie.and orientedto aestheticratherthanepistemological criteria. and wrote in poetic or fictionalform. Philip Barnard 13 Phillipe Lacoue-Labarthe and CherylLester (Albany." Seyhan. Representation. 138.Y.the greatliteraryphilosopher -in spite of himself-as a great precursorin this endeavor.. Hence one commentatorwrites: "[W]ithoutdoubt.Y.will from now on bear in itself this question of discontinuity or difference as a question of form-a " 75. Here we find ourselves directly in the neighborhoodof Nietzsche's non-traditional philosophizing.N. beginning to become manifest to itself throughthe their seminal work on the literarytheories of Jena romanticism. Since art is always alertedto the non-conclusive natureof reality. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Accordingto Lacoue-Labarthe.both their theoreticaland properlyartisticproductsreflect have this ambition. art and with Nietzsche invests which aligns his thought irony mobility unmistakablywith that of the early Romantics. Nietzsche frequently describes himself as an artist.. Nietzsche. would liberatemodem man from his labyrinthof cognitive experimentation by using creativityas its primaryguiding force. Art & Philosophy(Albany..14Writing about FriedrichSchlegel.Similarly.135 on Sun.

Bowie agrees that"Nietzsche'squestioninghas had a decisive influence on subsequentdiscussions of the end of metaphysics in contemporary literarytheory..."arguesthat the romanticsdid a betterjobthanNietzsche would laterdo. primarily.17-18.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 505 thatof theAthenaeum. while agreeingthat"itwas the workof Nietzsche .Rorty argues. 17 to Critical Theory:ThePhilosophyof GermanLiter8 AndrewBowie. See also del Caro. The three authorschosen as representativesof this discourse.201. 21 Ernst Behler. RichardRorty.. Nietzsche and the Jena romantics 16 Maurice Blanchot." This content downloaded from 63. 1993)."21 Effortsearlierin the centuryto arguefor the Nietzsche / Jenaromanticism connection were vigorously opposed by Walter Kaufmann.Contingency. andin particular romanticism.Nietzsche contra Nietzsche.164.From Romanticismto Critical Theory. questionanda taskGerman not only sensed but already clearly proposed-before consigning them to Nietzsche and. The Infinite Conversation.'7 There is some debate among those sympathetic to the Nietzsche / Jena connection as to whetherNietzsche develops or falls short of the insights of romanticism. From Romanticism ary Theory(New York. beyond Nietzsche.Derrida(this is evident in the quote from Blanchotabove as well).tr."'9 anothertheme often found in authorsmaking positive comparisonsbetween Nietzsche and the romantics: the idea that the legacy continues into "late modernity"-in other words.which has everythingto do with irony. Irony and the Discourse of Modernity(Seattle. and his propensityto question the viability of the CretanLiar's paradox) truthreduces to certainparadoxes(fundamentally. 199: Heidegger "standsin relationto Nietzsche as Nietzsche stood in relationto the romanticists. 359. 20Bowie..73. in a poetic manner-a manner. 41. 136.135 on Sun.20 for the three-way connection. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .'" On the other hand.AndrewBowie. writing that "A self-critical awareness of our linguistic embeddednesshas indeed been a characteristicmark of modernity since the romanticage and reacheda new intensitywith Nietzsche.Irony and Solidarity(Cambridge. 112.Despite certain superficial similarities."'16Even Rorty points to Nietzsche's implicit romanticismin describing how. and Derrida. 1990). which most obviously carriedon some of the romanticthemes. to the future. that the romanticsmore deftly avoided.1989)."but he feels that the credit really belongs to ErnstBehler has arguedat length Nietzsche's superiorromanticprecursors.thematizethe self-referentialimplicationsof their irony in their own text. Kaufmannwrites. Nietzsche is a pale reflection of romanticinsights. Representation. Nietzsche. 19 Seyhan. given the breakdownof traditional epistemologies.. the majorityof commentators arguefor a morepositive assessmentofNietzsche's romanticism. truth needs to be creatively willed. Susan Hanson (Minneapolis. Schlegel. 1997). for instance: "Theseeds of the Romanticdiscontentaboutphilosophical certainty between come to full fruitionin Nietzschewho embodiesthe textualinterlinkage statement last This expresses early GermanRomanticismandlate modernity.

n. The romantics(mainlythe Schlegels) were likewise enthusiasticabout Goethe and WilhelmMeister above all else.a lack of will. 6-13. after their ideas had altered considerably.satiricalpoem by Schelling in the Athenaeum. with new emblematicachievements. ralism.and. neither of these claims are quitetrue:althoughSchelling and the Schlegels became rather conventional Christians.and the context usually reveals the superficiality of such parallels. simply thought that there will be a new historicalage. but that he is right for the wrong reasons.ibid. when the movementcame to an end andmany of the principalfigures associatedwith romanticismbegan changing Goethe theirviews considerably. and J. 22 This content downloaded from 63. I think that Kaufmannis basically right in his contentionthatthere are no importantintellectualaffinities between the philosophicaland literarytheories of Nietzsche and those of the Jena romantics(although there might be with regardto their theories on classical Greece).Kaufmann to the classicismNietzsche rejectionof Goetheconfirmsthe romanticantipathy championed. the sickness that Goethe claimed to find in (some strains of) romanticism is described more specifically by Nietzsche as a form of impoverishment. They were indeed on friendly terms with Goethe. distancedhimself from romanticism. "Tradition 24 Blanchot."Diacritics (1972). wrote some harshindictmentsof the Schlegels romantic thatNietzsche apparently thinksthatthe correlative quoted.Psychologist.. 23Kaufmann. much of Kaufmann'sevidence for un-Nietzscheanremarksmade by Jenaromanticsare culled from sources datedwell past 1800. Goethe.andthe characteristic of longingis at oddswith theNietzscheanaffirmation of thepresent.201. 321-22. who had an amused and as brilliant decidedly avuncularattitudetowardsthis groupof whathe regarded young men. Hillis Miller's review of Abrams'sNatural Supernatuand Difference. Moreover. they wrote repeatedlythat it was the pinnacle and emblematicachievementof the age. strengthor force as opposed to a Dionysian Kaufmann. In the 1790s they were enormouslyirreverent: had to be called in (by August Schlegel) to persuadeFriedrichSchlegel not to publisha sharplyanti-religious. In fact. some of his claims seem frankly ad hominem: the romantics were Christiansand Goethe did not like them.this only happeneddecades after the heyday of the movement.381.352. Antichrist.506 JudithNorman "arebasically quite different.23 Kaufmann furthernotes that Schelling and FriedrichSchlegel became devout Christians. In general. TheInfinite Conversation. Kaufmannis disingenuous in claiming that they eventually decided that they wanted to supplantGoethe.135 on Sun.Philosopher. in the 1830s. he felt "gratefulto know he [was] honoredby them"in the words of Blanchot. For one thing.164. 29. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as well as the fact thatNietzsche's greathero.Alarcos (and stoppedthe audiencefromjeering)."22 As Kaufmannindicates. at least.24 Goethe premieredFriedrichSchlegel's tragedy. the romanticprogressive notion of historyis not particularly romanticnotion Nietzschean. The Schlegels.

This franklyendogamousrelationwith the which Novalis had studied world is derivedfrom Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre. 27 Novalis. recentliterary groundwork attempts of the authors I have been discussing (Behler. the otheris me. LF II.or become itself artistic."26 In one themselves but still they of his Logological Fragments.ed. MargaretMahony Stoljar (Albany. the I as absolute.since doubtsas to the continuedviability of the notion of truthlead to the idea that philosophy ought to be replacedby art. 128 and 137.201. 26 Schlegel. I believe such groundworkis needed. N. According to Fichte. he fails to provide enough of the necessary theoretical to do so. 105. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Novalis Schriften.) to find affinities between Nietzsche and Jena romanticism.164. This content downloaded from 63. MO. LacoueLabarthe.and as commentatorsindicate. RichardSamuel. closely and written about it in detail.Seyhan.It is tied to the theme of aestheticization. II) and "LastFragments" (LF) in Novalis: Philosophical Writings. 59.Moreover. 1997). 14.he lifted the veil of the goddess at Sais-But what did he see? he saw-wonder of wonders-himself. Blanchot. Novalis writes. n.1965-68).both Nietzsche andthe romanticsemploythe familiarstoryof the disciplesat Sais as an allegory for seeking truth:a story portrayingthe search for a truthbehind appearances as liftingthe veils of a goddess. III. Jena Romanticism A critiqueof conventionalphilosophicaltreatmentof the notion of truthis common to Nietzsche and the romantics.this is a strikingsimilarity. 29 28 Novalis. II.. "I am You. and Philosophical Writings. Hans-JoachimMahl and GerhadSchulz ofNovalis's "MiscellaneousObservations" MO.I will attemptto provide it. In the remainderof this paper."28 This is no defamiliarizing Rimbaudian"je est un autre"but rather its reassuring. etc.173. "Logological FragmentsII" ( writes "self equals nonself-the highest principle of all learning and art" followed by the even more bald statement. LF I. In lightof the moresophisticated.expressing"anover-saturated gel's writingsas a dithyrambic of life."27 This is not simply an injunction to "know thyself. (Stuttgart. "One person succeeded . veil like to want to be seen and discovered. I." Examiningseveral(logological) fragmentsfromthe same time suggests a more metaphysically precisereadinginvolvingan epistemologyof reflexivity. Friedrich Schlegel writes"mysteriesarefemale.135 on Sun. transcendental firstprinciple(a successornotion to Kant'stranscendental unity 25Novalis."25 Although Kaufmann is certain that attention to context will deromanticize some of Nietzsche's contentions (and "de-Nietzsche-cize" romanticism into the bargain).But the arch-romantic Novalis describes some of FriedrichSchleform intoxication.Englishtranslations I" "Logological Fragments (LF. and ed. protoHegelian opposite.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 507 overfulness. I).Y.

One day we shall be what ourFatheris.universalpoetry. the romantics generally stressed the infinite and ultimately impossible (for reasons specific to Fichte's philosophy)task of synthesis or self-knowledge. in short. This content downloaded from 63. and projectedsynthesis (I not-I). The themes of Fichtean reflexivity and pollination are brought (albeit somewhatawkwardly)into contactin anotherone of Novalis's fragments:"We shall understandthe world when we understandourselves.135 on Sun..and vegetable growth. 31 Schlegel. germination."29 Novalis expresses the notion of dynamic growth throughhis frequentuse of the imagery of seeds. Even his assumed name "novalis"is derived from the Latin for one who opens up new land.divine seeds. It is the goal of an infinite strivingor becoming. We are God's children. This vegetablevocabularyallows Novalis to suggest thateven natureis implicatedin this fact.poetical longing for the absolute. 71.and it mustbe remembered thatNovalis also wrotethat"Spinozismis a supersaturation with the divine. AF. Despite the apparentsuccess of Novalis's novice at is its real essence: thatit should foreverbe becoming and never be perfected.201.however. he indicateseventually) cultivateoneself are all expressionsthatmean the same thing.. a the ease with which he refersit to theologicalvocabulary. = that of thesis (I)." which would indicate a tendency on his part to overButNovalis is correctto pointto the genuinelytheologicalaffinities theologize. and it will be gradually(andhere. Friedrich Schlegel writes: "Romantic poetry is progressive. The I is no longer absolute... The structure. 116. to be human.The romantickind of poetry is still in the state of becoming. AF. "Every good human being is always progressivelybecoming God.73. 29 Schlegel. 32Bowie.164. 262..508 JudithNorman of apperception) posits a not-I(world). so it then begins the infinite task of assimilatingthis not-I. 30 Schlegel. From Romanticismto Critical Theory. LF I.32 idealtranscendental subject implicitin Fichte'sI.. antithesis(not-I).indeed.""'Fichte's early philosophy (certainlybefore 1800) was not directly or conventionally translatableinto Christian theology.he was somewhatscandalouslyexpelled from his position at the University of Jenaon the accusationof atheism.Novalis makes it clearthatrecognitionis the key to knowledge. and he calls some of his fragments"pollen"(Bliitenstaub). In perhaps the most famous romantic tryingto know itself by recognizingitself in the not-I. because we and it are integralhalves. To become God.being limitedby the not-I. Thisact is responsiblefor the production of the empiricalego andthe empiricalworld. Schlegel does the same in a fragmentwhere he writes. as least. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the vocabularyof becoming and growth occurs frequently in romantic writings."30 Here.that. For this reason. What is perhapsmost strikingabout this fragment.

he referredthe problemaway fromknowledgeto the notionof "faith. 1988). an attempt to craftnew resourcesto do so. it should be said was attracted primarilyby the mystical aspects of religion.. the Idea that unites all the rest [is] the Idea of beauty. no. 34 See Gaza von Molnir.. is an aestheticact .Beiheft 9.using the resources of art.. G.34This can be understood as a meditation on the inabilityof the finite mindand its languageto expressthe absoluteandperhaps. Everything that is comprehensible andis therefore a higherspherein which it is comprehended presupposes not the highest thing. Novalis. The philosophyof the spiritis an aesthetic philosophy. The "Earliest of GermanIdealism"of 1796. takingthe wordin its higherPlatonicsense. tr. although Schelling was the only one to stick to it. Novalis: "FichteStudies": TheFoundationsofhis Aesthetics(The Hague. Daniel Breazeale(Ithaca. translation in Early Philosophical Writings. In his Fichte-Studienhe makes clear that this is how he believes Fichte's I should be approached." Novalis was dead by 1800... fragmentary System-Program or ambiguously. by Hegel.. and cannotbe graspedby means of concepts. [andso] the philosophermustpossess just as muchaestheticpoweras the poet. too. toyed with this idea.througha sort of negative theology.164. 1930)."35 ed. I am now convincedthatthe highest act of Reason . Novalis and. 26.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 509 in which we live and breathe. but he had anticipatedFichte's move. 35 "Das ilteste Systemprogramm" in Hegel-Studien. 33 J. This content downloaded from 63. Hans Schulz (Leipzig. 399. One enters my philosophy by means of what is absolutely incomprehensible. 1973). Fichte struggled for many years with the epistemological issues of how to characterizeour cognitive relationto the I. authored. precisely because it is comprehensible.. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the Jenaromantics generallydevotedthemselvesto the projectof doingjust this. We cannote in passingthatthe notionof anartisticexpressionof the absolute was not exclusive to romanticismduringthis time: the Germanidealists.. RiidigerBubner(Bonn. Perhapsmost tellingly theological is our relationto this I.. Fichtes Briefivechsel:Kritische Gesamtausgabe.whose projectof self-knowledge is carriedout throughour own progressiveendeavor..and ed. In 1795 he admittedthatthe I has no name. Schelling Hdlderlin-or perhaps all threeproclaims:"Lastof fact. 1970).135 on Sun... ed.33 In 1800.. never occurs in consciousness. and in particularthe notion of the via negativa. 263-65. 246.

"Thewhole historyof modem poetryis a running commentaryon the following brief philosophicaltext: all art should become Here science and all science art.althoughwith Fichtean in an content)-but ratherof formallymodulatinga philosophicalpresentation thatthe romanticsthemselves aestheticallyvalid manner. "Wonderful into being in this way" writes Novalis. 37Schlegel. CF."39 The meaning of the notion of irony in romanticthoughtis a much debated issue.37Plato already represents a poetical philosophy. irony the text reflecting on itself. 115. AF.""38 pronouncementsof the romantics and their attemptsto combine philosophy and poetry in their own works. see also I.for instance.Schlegel definesironyas "logicalbeauty" and "transcendental buffoonery. 77. "as soon as we have learntto Fichtecize What this means can be gleaned from both the theoretical artistically. This content downloaded from 63. We can see how in the propercircumstancesirony can effect a unity of philosophy and art: it adds a philosophical element to a workof art(by providinga momentof self-consciousness)or an artisticelement to a work of philosophy (fictionalizing the text by calling into question the veracity of what is being stated). which are at the same time the ones that commentatorshave thoughtpresagedNietzsche the most strikingly.Both of these are prominentfeaturesof Plato's dialoguesprovided.poetryand philosophyshouldbe made one. 42.135 on Sun. artisticself-consciousness. 38Novalis. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 40 Schlegel. suggestive. 220. and the romantics enjoyed works of art could come speculating about what it might entail.201. The aestheticizationpretty much exclusively concerns aesthetic form-so it is not a matterof writing beautiful literature with philosophicalmorals(like Rousseau. but for the purposes of setting up a comparisonwith Nietzsche I will discusswhatis generallyagreedupon. It is to see the romanticsas precursors passages like this that inspirecommentators to Nietzsche's attempts to infuse an element of artistic creativity into the enterpriseof philosophy. 11. 322. LF I. but the projectof poeticizing Fichte had yet to be accomplished. 36 Schlegel."40 This last definition in particularis quite can be seen as a sort of playful.thatwe acceptFriedrichSchlegel's definitionof a dialogue as a "chainor garlandof fragments."36 we see a clear statementof the romanticwill to aestheticize philosophy. 108.164.510 Ironic Philosophies JudithNorman FriedrichSchlegel writes. AF.are irony and the fragment.The formalstructures thought the most significant.mainly because of his irony and dialogical form. But what is Schlegel really talking about? Which philosophers. 39 Schlegel.of course. CF.and how are they to be poeticized? The main examples he has in mind are Plato and Fichte (althoughthereare allusions to the musicality of Kant).

Kant'stranscendental philosophyshowedthe (merely)phenomenal natureof the empiricalworld.43Aquinas'svia negativa is an attemptto articulate the ineffable nature of God. although it can do no more than point.The main reason FriedrichSchlegel it Meisterwas that. Vorlesungen 62. subjective). and can raise that reflection again and again to a higher power. 84. 44 Hegel. andappealing to the theological character thatI discussed earlier. and yet it simultaneously reflects philosophically on the conditions of educationaldevelopment. 42. lii8t die innere Zerst6rung selbst sich daranentwickeln. By reflecting on the conditions for the possibility of is related of this argument to a sortof a Bildungsroman. So although we can know experience to be merely phenomenal (illusory. Fichte'sphilosophywas a reflectionon Kantat an even higher level.164.which FriedrichSchlegel defines in terms of rising into finitely." KritischeFriedrichSchlegel Ausgabe. als ob es gelte. 43See Lacoue-Labarthe iiber die Geschichte der Philosophie in Jubildumsausgabe. TheLiteraryAbsolute."Gespriich iiberdie Poesie.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 511 Schlegel's definition of irony in terms of transcendentalconditions is particularly telling.FriedrichSchlegel writesthatromantic poetry hovers "on the wings of poetic reflection.provisional. and Nancy. "Alle Dialektik lii3t das gelten.even Hegel remarkson the similarity: ironynegatesone conceptfor the sake of pointingto a moreadequatesuccessor.. II. can multiply it in an endless succession of mirrors.-allgemeine Ironieder Welt. Another useful way of understanding romanticirony is as a form of dialectics.201.42 We can now understand the basic philosophicalcontext of romanticirony. higherground.XVIII.Novalis uses the vocabulary of vegetable growth to express a more organicversion of this thought). 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . higher and higher levels of reflection. we cannot achieve some decisive.. is a key ingredientin this project.In his most famous statementon the natureof romanticism. not by attributingpositive qualities to him. ground The idea of rising to ever higher levels of reflection is a favorite theme among the romantics (remember. It is a way in which a text indicates its illusory. while gesturingtowardsan unreachable.41 At the same time. CF." This content downloaded from 63. 42 Schlegel." And irony.. accordingto the romantics. which is absolutebut unknowable. it is importantto bear in mind that the aspect of Fichte's philosophy that the romantics thought so compelling was the impossibility of achieving any ultimate ground or absolute perspective. And by reflectingcriticallyon the conditionsfor experiencethemselves. thoughtso highly of Goethe's Wilhelm presented a story of one man's educational development. was gelten soil. but ratherby systematicallydenying that any such attributioncould ever convey the transcendentnature of the divine.135 on character.As such.4 FriedrichSchlegel brings some of these themes togetherin his Dialogue on Poetry where he writes: 41Friedrich Schlegel. epistemologically satisfactory We arecaughtbetween a realitywe know as illusoryandan ultimate standpoint.

TheLiteraryAbsolute. at the momentwhen we raise ourselves to it. "TheRhetoricof Temporality.47 And so. TheLiteraryAbsolute. as in the case in the passage from the dialogue.and Lothario is Novalis (see Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy.46 The passage indicates that beauty and art with its "holy games" (presumably irony-but allegory is also cited) are significantas means of indicatingin some way the whole. This content downloaded from 63. rememberthatFriedrichSchlegel defined a dialogue as a "chain or garlandof fragments"-like irony. 89). anythingthat individually stirs. thus obliquely indicating an (absent) totality and is therefore itself a form of negative theology. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ludovicois Schelling.engagesordelightsthe senses. 1983).touches.the whole game of life be taken up and presentedas really a game. the "highest"or.we make this demandeverywhere." The dialogue is a purely writtenby FriedrichSchlegel. Jacob Bdhme. "Gesprich iiber die Poesie. as well as to Plato (viewed in this context as a mystic-and whose discussion of beauty in the Symposiummust be one of the inspirationsbehind Ludovico's remark). fictional work 45 FriedrichSchlegel.for example-we demandirony.. "the world. way of intuitingthe whole. the fragmentis an aesthetic form that self-consciously proclaims its own partiality." Blindnessand Insight:Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism(Minneapolis. irony and allegory call into question the reality of what is presented empiricallyand refer it to some infinitely delayed point of closure..theunderstanding or the imaginationseems to us to be only a sign.Preciselybecause it is inexpressible.we demandthatthe events.Everypoem shouldbe genuinelyromantic. in short. both are literary figures which hover between the inauthenticity of the empirical and the impossibility of presenting some transcendentalfoundation. For one thing." As de Man argues in his famous discussion of allegory and irony. 46 Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy. Even in very populargenres-the theater.the highest can only be expressed allegorically.Minn. as Lothario says. 47 Paul de Man.Additionally.the heart.201. Schlegel's dialogue goes on to tie these themes explicitly to mysticism and the theosophy of the (negative) theologian. Lothario:All the sacredgames of artare only distantimitationsof the infinitegame of the world. as commentatorshave pointed out. andevery [poem] shouldbe didacticin thatbroadersense of the word thatdesignatesthe tendency towarda deep and infinite meaning. This seems to us to be the most essential point and doesn't everythingdependon it? We are only concernedwith the meaning of the whole. the people.withoutnecessarilyusing this name.135 on Sun.512 JudithNorman Antonio:.and even Spinoza.. Ludovico:In otherwords:all beautyis allegory.45 This passage neatly expresses a numberof the characteristicromanticideas. Antonio is FriedrichSchlegel. 47. 222.the work of artthateternallyproducesitself.164.

tr. to what extent is his projectin sympathy with theirs? There are importantprima facie reasons for thinking that the tendency of Nietzsche's thought is fundamentally hostile to that of Jena romanticism. Hollingdale (New York.the world is a "work of art that eternallyproduces itself" (ewig sich selbst bildendenKunstwerk) has an almost direct correlatein Nietzsche's Nachlass. Nietzsche.comes out of a differentline of descent from Kant. 49 Nietzsche. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .201.All the same this project lies at the heartof Jena romanticismand its signaturetechniqueof irony. and from the notions of transcendental in Kant'sfirstcritique. one that went through Schopenhauerratherthan Fichte. it would fail to do justice to the transcendent. 1968) # 796. The Willto Power. The Will to Power. J.he subjectedboththe notion of subjectivity and the project of epistemology to devastating critique. originary qualityof the I. In a note (fragment?) from 1885-85. Of course. On the otherhand. This content downloaded from 63. namely.Romanticismderivedits principlephilosophicalinspirationfrom Fichte's idealism. this philosophical project provided no more than a general and sometimes quite loose frameworkin which the romanticsdeveloped a rich and variegatedset of aesthetic theories and much was Nietzsche influenced by romantic thought? Or more generally (without implying direct influence).Nietzsche thought that positing a substantialdoer (behind the deed) would wrongly imply that thereis an ego at some metaphysicalremovefromthe materialworldof material forces-that is. the will as an immanent."48 convergenceraises the questionmore urgently. on the otherhand. "Theworld as a work of artthatgives birthto This remarkable itself. WalterKaufmannand R. Ratherthan subjectivity. Nietzsche writes.164.that is.Fichtethoughtthatsubstantiating that it is enmeshed in the empiricalrealm.energeticgroundand was little bothered(or at least unimpeded)by epistemological questions of access to this will.writing: "thebody and physiology [are] the startingpoint. subjectivityandthe productiveimagination art functioned within an essentially idealist epistemological project of representing or somehow indicating a transcendentalground.Schopenhauer focusing on the idealist problemof transcendental was much more interested in things-in-themselves. # 492. and what for my purposesis perhapsthe most strikingaspect of the passage fromthe Dialogue is thatLothario'sstatement. Nietzsche's conception of the self is naturalisticand desubjectivized."49 Althoughboth Nietzsche and Fichte critiquedthe notion thatthe ego is a doer ratherthan a deed. Accordingly.135 on Sun. it would fail to do justice to the immanentnatureof the body and the will. as I have shown.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism Nietzsche contraJena 513 The final. in his discussions of artNietzsche concentratesprimarily 48 Nietzsche. Nietzsche modified the Schopenhauerian lineagefurther away fromFichte. Finally. it was the I would imply for almostoppositereasons.

too serious. Nietzsche makes clear from the very startthat it is not the truthbut ratherthe will to truththatinterestshim.of tones.too gay.201. in the whole Olympus of appearance. #4. a passage that he liked well enough to importinto Nietzsche contra Wagner: . one will hardlyfind us again on the paths of those Egyptianyouths who endanger templesby night.And is not this precisely what we are again coming back to. GS. this bad taste. the skin. and he has more refined epistemological striptease interests.Greeks? Adorersof forms.he directs his analysis at the philosopher.5" These differences are broughtstrongly into focus when we compare the romantictreatment of the storyof the disciples at Sais with thatof Nietzsche in the Gay believe in forms. the has for lost its charm him.. We no longer believe thattruthremainstruthwhen the veils are withdrawn. uncover.. given his critique of the efficacy of consciousness. for him..which is to say the disciple himself. 51 This content downloaded from 63. The passage ends with Nietzsche's famous manifesto: What is required. this will to truth. is to stop courageouslyat the surface. tones.andput into a brightlightwhateveris keptconcealed for good reasons. 145. That is. we daredevilsof the spiritwho have climbedthe highest andmost dangerouspeak of presentthoughtand looked around from up there-we who have looked down from there? Are we not.. feminized figure of truth.135 on Sun. words. too deep. truthat any price. Preface.embracestatues. this youthful madness in the love of truth. would hardlybe of any significance for him).164.514 JudithNorman on the expressive or affective aspects of art. the disciple's motives require no explanation-who wouldn't want a peek? Nietzsche on the otherhand. In the famous preface to Beyond Good and Evil where Nietzsche discusses the attitudeof philosophersto the coy. precisely in this respect.andwantby all means to unveil.have lost their charm for us: for thatwe aretoo experienced... does not particularly care aboutthe goddess. Novalis identifies with the disciple approachingthe goddess and wanting to push back the veil. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . its effect on the body. too burned. to adore appearance.the fold. of words? And thereforecartists?51 Probablythe most importantdifferencebetween Nietzsche's treatmentof the story and that of the romanticsis not what they think lies behind the veil but ratherwhat they take to be the interestof the story. ratherthan its representational or allegorical capacity (which.Nietzsche'sPhilosophy ofArt.. In the passage quotedabove from the 50 See Young.

andNietzsche is no sortof theologian.135 on Sun. they still took it quite seriously even if like the romantics.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 515 Gay although perhapsnot this directly. we see in several elements of Nietzsche's mythologicalmusic-dramas. Wagner. 1967) #10.Truthfor Nietzsche is not itself the object of analysis. too.He called Schelling youthful in Beyond Good and Evil (11) and Novalis naive in Human.All TooHuman (142).201.164. Nietzsche is more maturebecause he has reachedthe stage where the will to truthovercomes itself.and how it finally overcomes itself and becomes a will to artisticappearance. This difference is crucial. while Nietzschewill use artisticdevises to emphasizea philosophythatembraces full immanence. It is interestingto note that. Nietzsche's Wagner critique and Nietzsche's alleged use of irony. Nietzsche believes thatthinkers(like the romantics)are immaturebecause they represent a naive phase of the will to truth.he is interestedin the precise natureof our increasinglyrefined attitude (or will) to the truth. as in the first paragraphquoted above.thatis. the ascendancy of art is the result of the irrelevance of truth-it has overcome itself-while for the romantics. critiqueof Wagneran implicit critiqueof the sort of artisticvision championed by the JenaRomantics.I will elaborate this point with two examples. by contrast.he is more interestedin diagnosing his own artistic will to appearances."52 Wagneruses both musical syntax and operaticsemantics 52 The Case of Wagner (CW). art develops as an expression of and compensation for the inaccessibility of truth-it has withdrawn.But Wagner tried to revivify mythology.Nietzsche. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . on the other hand. rather. why not art? This points to the crux of the difference: for Nietzsche. and so he finds it more interestingto pose the question: why not untruthinstead?Which is to say. and Nietzsche shied away from Wagner's indeed. thinks that Wagner provided an artistic rendering of idealistic he writes. he invented a style for himself charged with 'infinite meaning'-he became the heir ofHegel. The philosophicalburdenof romanticartwill be to somehow indicatetranscendence. because the resultingphilosophical art will be fundamentally different. Nietzsche's WagnerCritique Nietzsche is often compared to the romantics on a different but related issue: both were favorable to a renewed effort at myth-making. they thought that the truth was ultimately unachievable.I have been arguingthatthe philosophy of the German idealists was expressed artisticallyby the Jena romantics. even when it occasionally sounds the same. In other words romantic art functions within the terms of a sortof negativetheology. This content downloaded from 63. the notion of immaturity often arises on those occasions when Nietzsche mentions the figures of Jenaromanticism. WalterKaufmann (New York."merelyapplied[HegelandSchelling]to musicphilosophy.

54 For an excellent discussion of this see Brian Magee. the devise of the "infinite melody.53It is odd to see Nietzsche associating this musical device with Hegel ratherthan with Schopenhauer-Wagner used the devise of the infinite melody to greatest and most sustained effect in Tristan und Isolde. R.#10. Thereis an operaticallysemanticaspectto Wagner's"infinitemeaning"as well. like the infinite melody. overburdened by deep significance. they are not free to be a beautifulpresence but. he thinks that Wagnerhas an affinity with the transcendentaspects of Hegel's metaphysics.Nietzsche's objectionto the idealistnotion of infinitemeaning can be.. TheodorAdorno points to the crux of what Nietzsche found offensive here when he writes that"inWagnereverything. always point outside the work itself to some ultimatepoint of signification.which elevates the role of music above drama).however. Although many aspects of Nietzsche's Wagnercritiquecannot be applied to the romantics. This content downloaded from 63. in pointing to a meaning beyond itself.54 But Nietzsche's association is entirely appropriate. an affirmationof the immanenthere 53CW.56 It is notjust the subordinate to of music in the Gesamtkunstwerk thatNietzsche objects (his objectionapplies even to Tristan." can be saidjust as well about the works of the Jena is the symbolic characterthat each musical figure must assume. 1994).516 JudithNorman he uses to suggest this quasi-Hegeliannotion of infinitemeaning. Philosophy of Schopenhauer(New Modern Music. Nietzsche says and adds "nomusicianwould thinkthatway"which is to say no role musicianwould give music this inferiorrole. music loses its attractionas a beautiful surface.the fact that both the dialectic has an infinite destinationin the Absolute. music suggests something beyond itself." a musical line which fails to resolve but ratherstretchesendlessly on. Wagner's music does not serve to portrayan infinite drive so much as in infinite idea." Nietzsche objects to the omnipresenceof the symbol in Wagner." Schopenhauerstates.201. "Schopenhauer andWagner"in The York. heavy with inexpressiblemeaning.Wagner'smusic is never mere music. 57CW. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."57 Again. 1983).every sentence. the distinctionbetween andimmanenceis key. 56CW. every motif and the overall interconnections-all are chargedwith meaning" which is to say. For the Hegelian Wagner. 62. 55 "Fantasia sopra Carmen" in Quasi una fantasia: Essays on Livingstone (London. modulatingso as to avoid resolution.164. #10. every gesture.#6.Syntactically. For Schopenhauer music and the will are strictly immanent:"we mightjust as well call the world embodied music as embodied will.its playing hide-and-seekbehind a hundredsymbols . one of theprinciplereasonswhy Nietzsche transcendence to objected Wagnerwas that.rather. Nietzsche's descriptionof "the enigmatic characterof his [Wagner's] art.."harang[ing] the infinite" as Nietzsche says. tr. where it apparentlyserves to suggest a Schopenhauerianwill.135 on Sun.

201." Lucindeand the Fragments."A Musical Commentary. This content downloaded from 63. So Nietzsche compares this conception of art (unfavorably)to the Carmen Bizet himself calledthe opera"allclarityandvivacity. Postmodernism. 19." 62. "Fantasiasopra Carmen. 56-57. "On Incomprehensibility. for increasinglyfashionableto attribute instance..or indeed over any art. But is it ironic? Naturallyit dependson whatwe take irony to mean.even the violence of the form. Koelb. Adorno elucidates the fundamentallyNietzschean point: In Bizet the inhumanityand hardness. Carmen. has been used to obliteratethe last token of meaning.but ratherhas the blithe irresponsibilityof a burlesque refrain. Michael A.62 Carmen: Opera Guide (London. since Nietzsche is not trying to get art to indicatehigherandinexpressiblemeanings-he is not using the surfaceto point to some unspeakable depth.This is why Nietzsche is concernedto champion this type of art over the apparently more substantial andprofoundmusic dramasof Wagner. writes.59 Artistically (and not just on the level of the plot). 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 60 Schlegel. Carmen embraces full immanence. with Behler arguingthat it is In a nutshell.thatis not contentto be art but tries to point beyond itself to some ulteriormeaning. also Behler. ed." 11. 65.But canwe look pastthe technicalnotionof romantic irony and attributeany sort of irony to Nietzsche? Perhapsthe thought that there is no meaningbeyond the surfaceis itself ironic ("Whatgods will rescue us from all these ironies?"FriedrichSchlegel once asked). 253."5" operaCarmen.ed.. Nietzsche's idea that something might be superficialout of profundityis attractively paradoxical. 267. does not use its musical surfaceto indicate some unspokendepth. "Ironyand Affirmation"in Nietzsche's New Seas: Explorations in Philosophy.135 on Sun. 58 Quoted in Lesley Wright. there is no connection to the specific and famous notion of romantic irony. has none of the Olympiansignificance of Wagnerian destiny. 59Adorno.on the other hand. As I have argued. We artists."61Behler and Pippin make substantiallythe same claim." 62 Pippin. 1988). Babich." 1982). Strong (London.164. 61Babich. Gillespie and Tracy B. so as to forestall any illusion that anything in life could have any meaning over and above its obvious one.60 It is becoming this type of ironyto Nietzsche. Its profunditylies in the fact that it remainsa beautifulsurface. Aesthetics and Politics.ironyis the way Nietzsche ultimatelyderivedfromromanticism.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 517 and now. "The ironic trope is nothing less than what Nietzsche named the artistictruthof illusion in its subsistentunsaying of what it says. "Nietzsche'sAuffassungder Ironie. "Post-Nietzschean Nietzscheas Postmodernist.such as thatof the Jenaromantics.

Beyond Good and Evil." nor did he evince any discomfortwith the potentialparadoxesresulting from his challenge to the traditionalphilosophical notion of truthdespite the fact thathe hardlyshied from discussing eitherhis style or his variousdiscomforts. Most significantly. # 212. I will indicatebriefly why in general. Nietzsche wants philosophy to move on to something else.the dialectical quality of irony. Nietzsche diagnoses Socratic irony as a form of ressentiment. Nietzsche as 66 See for instance Clayton Koelb's "Reading as a Philosophical Strategy. are Behler. # 7. Koelb. Norman(Cambridge.. Although within the scope of this paperI will not have time to engage to any greatextent in the heated debate aboutrhetoricalstrategiesin Nietzsche. Despite Behler's contention that "Nietzsche seems to have avoided the term because of its connotationsof 'romanticsubjectivity. 63 This content downloaded from 63.historicallysituated. for instance. Lange. linguistic.almostobsessional concernwith thatvery problem. seems quite out of keeping with the general tenor of Nietzsche's thought. Nietzsche thinks that the philosophical concern for truthhas been overcome.518 JudithNorman allows his apparently to self-consciously signify their paradoxicaltruth-claims illusory (or.Nietzsche.with the absence of any Truth.the fact that. from overcoming the problemof truthin any meaningfulway.thinksthattruthis irrelevantratherthanmissing (in theological terms dead rather than hidden). Emerson.'"63 Nietzsche appearsto of the associate ironymostly with Socrates. perspectival. and one of the things he suggests it shouldmove on to is art. Nietzsche never called the playfulness of his style "irony. he thinksthat irony belongs to a decadent the man who wroteEcce thoughtthathas grownweary andcynical.Ind. Postmodernist.201. Homo hadno sympathyfor the excessive modestythatSocraticironywas made to serve. this shows an abiding. as Babich points out. and deny that there is anythingmore solid on which they can be founded. far Indeed."5 64See.J. trans.64 In contrastto his characterization JenaRomanticsas young and naive.then this hardlycounts as moving on.135 on Sun. 65 Nietzsche. unlike the romantics. who.But if we see artas simply a set of rhetoricalstrategies and unavoidableproblem for dwelling on the simultaneouslyinsurmountable of truth. but operating in a posttruthenvironment is not simply a matterof saying andunsayingeach statement. in Beyond Good and Evil (212). for instance. Peter Preuss (Indianapolis. Accordingly.And we do not find this sort of concern in Nietzsche.164.non-ultimate)status. On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Historyfor Life. 144-45.65 Certainly. it unsays what it says while saying it." ed. He was notoriouslyunder-appreciative roles would and positive play all his life but also of less Schopenhauer Wagner Oedipally invested figures: Spinoza. "Nietzsche'sAuffassung der Ironie. trans. 1988). indeed. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . irony is not a properway of understanding Nietzsche's texts. 2002).66 Nietzsche cannotbe relied upon to cite the various sources and influences of not only the enormous for his texts.

This is why he gives little mentionto Schlegel.If he did adopt phrases and ideas current in romanticism (itself not evidence of influence. Novalis.Nietzsche's relationto Germanromanticismcannot be put into the category of the repressedor occluded (or intellectuallydishonest. This content downloaded from 63.164.andrarelyengages with their ideas.135 on Sun.201. They do so in an interestingand intellectuallyprovocative fashion. TheJenaromantics were in intellectual proximity hardlybe considered to Germanidealism. since these ideas might have had some thirdsource). and their ideas are fundamentally anchoredin the project of exploring or giving expression to an a priori transcendental ground of all knowing andbeing. that they can the same. and one with considerablesignificance for contemporary thought. His history (and future)lie elsewhere. But. TrinityUniversity. as I have argued. Schelling or particularly.given theirenormousinfluence. 67 See Lacoue-Labarthe andNancy's TheLiteraryAbsolute.67 This is appropriate concern themselves with the residually Heideggeriansand deconstructionists idealist problemof ontological or transcendental difference.he alteredthem so considerably. The idea of an a prioritranscendental groundis foreign to him. as is (a fortiori)any epistemological concern of how to access it for thought.Nietzsche and Early Romanticism 519 mentionedwith disproportionate infrequency. But Nietzsche does not belong to this historical lineage.put them to work in such a different context. they can be (andhave often been) insertedinto a historicallineage since both thatculminatesin Heideggeror deconstruction. 24 Mar 2013 19:49:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as well as David FarrellKrells's works. if we believe Bowie). In this case at least the influence simply is not there. or interest (no matter how playful) in the fact of its absence or inaccessibility.