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7QC Tools

QS-9000
QS-9000 is the name for the Quality System Requirements used to increase customer confidence in the quality of its suppliers. The idea of QS-9000 is quite similar to ISO-9000, International Quality System Standard, but QS-9000 applies particularly to the automotive industry for Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, and truck manufacturers. QS-9000 is made up of three sections: an ISO-9000 based requirement, a sector-specific requirement, and a customer-specific requirement. These requirements guarantee a supplier procures a good quality product. Furthermore, by developing QS-9000, we will be able to improve our product, customer satisfaction, and supplier relations as well.
S t a n d a r d sf o rI S O 9 0 0 1a n dQ S 9 0 0 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I S O Q S Q u a l i t yS y s t e mR e q u i r e m e n t s 9 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 M a n a g e m e n tR e s p o n s i b i l i t y X X Q u a l i t yS y s t e m X X C o n t r a c tR e v i e w X X D e s i g nC o n t r o l X X D o c u m e n ta n dD a t aC o n t r o l X X P u r c h a s i n g X X C o n t r o lo fC u s t o m e r S u p p l i e dP r o d u c t X X P r o d u c tI d e n t i f i c a t i o na n dT r a c t a b i l i t y X X P r o c e s sC o n t r o l X X I n s p e c t i o na n dT e s t i n g X X C o n t r o lo fI n s p e c t i o n ,M e a s u r i n g ,a n dT e s tE q u i p m e n t X X I n s p e c t i o na n dT e s tS t a t u s X X C o n t r o lo fN o n C o n f o r m i n gP r o d u c t X X C o r r e c t i v ea n dP r e v e n t i v eA c t i o n X X H a n d l i n g ,S t o r a g e ,P a c k a g i n g ,P r e s e r v a t i o na n dD e l i v e r y X X C o n t r o lo fQ u a l i t yA u d i t s X X T r a i n i n g X X S e r v i c i n g X X S t a t i s t i c a lT e c h n i q u e s X X P r o d u c t i o nP a r t sA p p r o v a lP r o c e s s X C o n t i n u o u sI m p r o v e m e n t X M a n u f a c t u r i n gC a p a b i l i t y X C u s t o m e r S p e c i f i cR e q u i r e m e n t X _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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Quality
Quality means a totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. In some references, Quality is referred to as "fitness for use ", "fitness for purpose ", "customer satisfaction", or "conformance to the requirements ." To achieve satisfactory quality we must concern all stages of the product or service cycle. In the first stage
net1.ist.psu.edu/chu/course/tqm/t5.htm 1/7

There are two major aspects of quality: quality of design and quality of conformance.htm 2/7 . 2. and the motivation of the workforce to achieve quality.Standard Operating Procedures Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are the instructions that cover operational parts.ist. In the second stage it is due to product design and conformance. The following elements are essential parts of source inspection. The product's nature and its quality. The availability of special measuring equipment at the buyer's plant to perform the required inspection. Back to Original Page SOP . Product complexity. safety.edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. source inspection can be devised into two categories as follows. Back to Original Page Quality at Source (Source Inspection) Source inspection is a technique used to prevent product defects by controlling the conditions that influence quality at their source. The scope of SOP is extensive and varies. 1. In the last stage quality is due to product support throughout its lifetime. Quality of design involves the variations of a product or services in grades or levels of quality. the type of quality-assurance system used. Quality of conformance concerns how well the product conforms to the specifications and tolerances required by the design. Quality of conformance is influenced by the choices of manufacturing processes. there are two formats for an SOP to follow: A format that publishes all comprising documents which details of the function and the responsibilities of subordinate units.3/31/13 7QC Tools quality is due to a definition of needs. net1. Vertical source inspection inspects the process flow to identify and control external conditions that affect quality. The quality history of suppliers. tolerance in manufacturing. an SOP is based on Armywide publications and then modified to use local operating conditions and command policies as a guideline. It is important to have either external or internal company inspectors to assure adequate product control.psu. It provides the major instructions for all division elements of operational features. The ability to measure the product quality from buyer data. This includes the types of materials used in construction. It is the performance of the supplier's facilities to increase customer confidence with the supplier's product quality. Furthermore. Horizontal source inspection inspects an operation to identify and control interval conditions that affect quality. etc. Initially. and reliability of the final product. A sources inspection is performed to insure that the decision making is correct and unbiased. based on the performance. In general. reliability. Any possible effects that occur during purchasing. training and supervision of the workforce.

4." The objective of SPC is to get a process under control.Single Minute Exchange of Die SMED. In process control. 6. Regard bolts as enemies. A process that is in control will constantly perform within its own natural limits. Do not remove bolts completely to save time during removing bolts and setting up the process.psu. do what ever you can to get rid of them to save time by using some equipment that is better than bolts when changing the process. Often the term "Statistical Quality Control" is used interchangeably with "Statistical Process Control. Scatter Diagram. 2.3/31/13 7QC Tools A format that is published as a basic document which includes general instructions to all units. use the same size of nut and bolts for each die and jig. SPC involves these seven tools: Histogram. This kind of format has specific instructions for each individual unit. is an process that can help us to reduce downtime due to set-ups and changeovers. Ensure that everything needed for setup is already organized and on hand to save time finding something in the process setup. Do not allow any deviation from die and jig standards to save time by using the same standards. Defect Concentration Diagram. Cause and Effect Diagram. It is more detailed and easier to use. 3. For example.Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an collection of statistical techniques that are used to monitor critical parameters and reduce variations. Back to Original Page SMED . We used SPC to achieve process stability and improve the capability through reduction of variability. Back to Original Page SPC . and Control Chart These tools often called "The Seven QC tools . especially while changing a machine from one product to another. Check Sheet. often called "Quick Changeover".ist.htm 3/7 . Back to Original Page net1. Parato Chart. This is done by identifying and eliminating any specific causes of variation not associated with the process itself. Acceptance sampling is used to reduce variation in the process by using statistical sampling techniques to select the proper sampling size and to interpret whether our whole product should be accepted or rejected.edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. There are six major steps that we should be concerned with : 1." Most of the tools help us to identify a problem in the process. We use SMED as a guideline to eliminate our waste changeover time in our production process. Quick Changeover means we reduce time to set up a machine or process. It is good to move your arms but not your legs to avoid spending too much time during adjustment or set-ups. 5. Adjustment is waste to make the jig or figure simple to setup and avoid wasting time to adjust the positions. SPC can be broken into two components: process control and acceptance sampling.

so it is difficult or impossible to examine the whole group. Back to Original Page Scatter Diagram A scatter diagram is a graphical diagram to show the relationship between two data variables. most are effect variables.htm 4/7 . By a technique of this type. For each sample. rejecting. a specific value. net1. Double sampling is composed of selecting two specifically random samples of n1 and n2 from data. is more appropriate. these steps are followed: Collect data. There are three types of sampling processes: 1. sampling theory is a study of the relationship between the whole data and the samples. The vertical axis (Y axis) shows the measurement values of another variable. Build a data sheet to show the information from the data. This is the most essential step. Otherwise. All possible samples of size n can be drawn from a given population. most are cause variables. or talking another sample of n2 items. we can find a mathematical equation that relates to the variables. So a sampling distribution is useful to explain the data characteristics. the results of selecting a first sample (n1 ) are accepting the group. To create a scatter diagram. Examining all data will expend a lot of time. the mean and the standard deviation of the data will vary from sample to sample. From a scatter diagram. The decision making depends on the associated results. we can calculate a statistic. and then condemning each group depends up on the results. For example. 1. Additionally.ist. 2. for example. We will accept the group if the number of defects is less than or equal to d. 2. chose n items from each group for inspection. Single sampling is composed of selecting a specifically random sample of n items from each group of items presented. It is useful to understand whether there are differences between two samples. There are numerous data. Define the variable axis of the graph. Construct a mathematical equation. The horizontal axis (X axis) displays the variable's measurement values. Multiple sampling is a technique of sampling that is similar to the double sampling. Plot data on the graph. It is used to display the change of one variable when another changes.3/31/13 7QC Tools Sampling Sampling is the process of obtaining samples from a large group of data (or called population).edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. we will reject them.psu. 3. so doing only a small part of entire data. a sample. but there are more than two sampling items used in decision making.

self inspection is a method to solve this problem. the worker may not notice all the errors. Providing new knowledge of quality processes to workers is an efficient method to improve the self inspection technique. to measure. the results from inspections are reported in terms of the total percentage of defects.ist. if the errors in decision and careless mistakes are eliminated. inspectors will check the final products. the worker may accept products that ought to be rejected. Generally. micrometers or gauges. which involves the use of devices. curves are tentatively devised for linear and non-linear curves. but they will not know the actual error source. With this method. Furthermore. With this. Back to Original Page Sensory Inspection Inspections involve distinguishing acceptable from unacceptable goods and comparing them with a standard. conducted by the human senses . different people have different senses and even the same person may make different judgments at different times.psu.htm 5/7 .3/31/13 7QC Tools From a scatter diagram. It is laborious to net1. They are different from physical inspection.edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. the period of work. and the skills acquired from experience. it is difficult to set criteria because it depends on the physical condition of human workers. such as inspections of paint saturation or judgments of plating adequacy. Naturally. Sensory inspection is a kind of inspection. However. Self inspection provides the most immediate feedback. They may find some mistakes or product errors. As mentioned. it could be improved by developing tools or using devices that could automatically detect defects or mistakes. For inspection of this kind. like calipers. we can call two relationships between variables to linear and non-linear relationships. Back to Original Page Self Inspection Self inspection is a technique of inspection in which workers check their own work. On the other hand. With this technique. self inspection would be the efficient technique.

In this step. identify the major problems. you brainstorm for ideas that are causing the problem and develop a solution that prevents the root cause from recurring. Step 6: Standardize Solution. Then. Step 5: Evaluate Effects. Step 7: Reflect on Process and the Next Problem. control fluctuations of product quality. comparative Pareto Charts and Graphs are frequently used to identify the results. or fundamental cause.psu. This step focuses facts about the problem and discovers what types of problems occur frequently. you consider what the team's accomplishment was in the first 6 steps and recommend a weakness to work on next. Statistical literacy is necessary to effectively use the seven QC tools. This approach is known as reactive improvement. the root cause. Step 4: Plan and Implement Solution. Back to Original Page 7QC Tools Seven QC tools are fundamental instruments to improve the quality of the product.ist. The 7 QC steps process is structured as follows: Step 1: Select a Theme. any specific problems in a process are identified.You evaluate the effects of implemented solution to make sure the solution worked and does not have unacceptable results from the comparison of data. the weakness in the process or the problem to be solved is clarified in a theme statement. Who.edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. When collecting data. Checksheets and Pareto Diagrams are the tools most often used. In this step. a Theme Selection Matrix.3/31/13 7QC Tools judge an object with a complex form or a not-well-defined shape. A Flowchart. and How Matrix) is used to develop a plan. or a Cause & Effect Diagram is used as a tool in this step. In this step. you implement an adjustment to the process. you must think of all possible causes. before and after the implementation of the solution. The 7 QC Steps is easy to understand and learn.htm 6/7 . net1. easy to use. These tools use statistical techniques and knowledge to accumulate data and analyze them. is found by constructing a Cause & Effect Diagram. When. In this step. They are used to analyze the production process. and easy to monitor. from using the seven QC tools. Moreover. A flowchart is most often used. Step 3: Analyze Causes.With sufficient data from step 2. Back to Original Page Seven Steps or Seven QC Steps The 7 QC Steps process is a structured problem solving approach for improving weak processes. Where. and provide solutions to avoid future defects. A standardized solution is confirms that the old process is replaced with an improved process and indicates that the solution is workable. Step 2: Collect and Analyze Data. The 4W's and 1H Matrix (What. Seven QC tools are utilized to organize the collected data in a way that is easy to understand and analyze.

whether or not our process is in control. Decision-making and actions are taken from the data. to illustrate the problems detected. Flow Chart shows the process step by step and can sometimes identify an unnecessary procedure. Back to Original Page net1.htm 7/7 .edu/chu/course/tqm/t5. Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram) is used to figure out any possible causes of a problem.3/31/13 7QC Tools 7QC tools always include : Check Sheet is used to easily collect data. Pareto Chart is used to define problems. and determine their frequency in the process.psu. Control Chart provides control limits which are generally three standard deviations above and below average. to set their priority. we can solve the problem accurately. After the major causes are known. Histogram shows a bar chart of accumulated data and provides the easiest way to evaluate the distribution of data. Scatter Diagram is a graphical tool that plots many data points and shows a pattern of correlation between two variables.ist.