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# Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Joint No. Load Case No. 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = b.

## Live Load, LL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = kn 27.15 kn kn kn kn kn 1 1 1,2

kn 117.92 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 11.6056 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 1.56676 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1.2 m length, L = 1.30563 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 1.2 m 1.4 m 1.68 sq.m

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = qu = 1.4(Fy dead load) + 1.7(Fy live load) Actual area 125.74 kpa

5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 200 16 250 167 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 194.307 kn Vn = 1.46557 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa sqrt of F'c/3

Vc = 1.51658 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 433 mm

where: Ultimate beam shear, Vu = qu(W)(a) Vu = 65.3344 kn Vn = Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa 0.384 mpa sqrt of F'c/6

Vc = 0.75829 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1.2 m 1.4 m 250 mm 9.89 kn 154.96 kn 1.550 sq.m Actual Area > Required Area, SAFE!

8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.6 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 27.1598 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 27.15981429 W (m) 1.2 pmin = d (mm) fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) 167 275 20.7 R q p 0.0435612 0.0447 0.0034

1.4 fy pmin = 0.00509 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = p= As = N= Use pWd 0.00509 1020.04 sq.mm 5.07323 7 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 1m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 88.0179 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 88.01791667 L (m) 1.4 pmin = d (mm) fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) 151 275 20.7 R q p 0.148005 0.1638 0.0123

1.4 fy pmin = 0.00509 use p Steel area, As = p= As = N= Use pLd 0.00509 1076.24 sq.mm 5.35275 6 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b = L/W As1/As = 2/(b+1) As1 (center strip) = 993.45 sq.mm N1 = 4.941 For center strip, use 5 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

As1 + As2 = As As2 (outer strip) = 82.7875 sq.mm N2 = 0.41175 For outer strip, use 1 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

1.2 m

## Design of Isolated Footing 1. Support Reactions

Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz =

0.487 kn 15.754 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kn/m2

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension 8% of Fy Assume weight of footing, wt = wt = 1.26032 kn Area required, a = Fy + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 0.170143 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1.7 m length, L = 0.100084 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 1.2 m 1.7 m 2.04 sq.m

## SPAN COVER TRADING & CONTRACTING

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = 1.4(Fy ) Actual area qu = 10.81157 kn/m2

Allowable ultimate soil pressure, qa = SBC (1.4*Fy ) Fy dead load + Fy live load qa = 140 Kn/m2 qa>qu, SAFE! 5. Check Punching Shear Width of Base Plate, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 300 12 500 419 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 16.46644 kn Vn = 0.026602 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, Vc =sqrt of F'c/3 where: F'c = 20.7 mpa

Vc = 1.516575 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 281 mm

## SPAN COVER TRADING & CONTRACTING

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1.2 m 1.7 m 500 mm 24.01 kn 39.77 kn 0.398 sq.m Actual Area > Required Area, SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.7 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 3.1786012 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 3.178601176 W (m) 1.2 pmin = d (mm) 419 fy (mpa) 275 F'c (mpa) 20.7 R 0.00081 q 0.0008 p 6.1E-05

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = pWd p = 0.00509 As = 2559.252 sq.mm N = 22.6287 Use 13 pcs ---

## 12 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 0.9 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 7.443765 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q)

## SPAN COVER TRADING & CONTRACTING

Mu (kn-m) 7.443765

## L (m) 1.7 pmin =

d (mm) 407

fy (mpa) 275

F'c (mpa) R 20.7 0.001419 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280

q 0.0014

p 0.000107

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = pLd p = 0.00509 As = 3521.771 sq.mm N = 31.13922 Use 13 pcs ---

## 12 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Joint No. Load Case No. 3 3 1,2

## 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = 116.98 Fz = Mx = My = Mz =

kn kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 12.0272 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 1.623672 sq.m 1.2 m 1.35306 m 1.2 m 1.35 m 1.62 sq.m

## Net upward soil pressure, qu =

Allowable ultimate soil pressure, qa = SBC (1.4*Fy dead load + 1.7*Fy live load) Fy dead load + Fy live load qa = 146.6569 kpa qa>qu, SAFE! 5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 200 16 300 217 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 196.8175 kn Vn = 1.031964 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, sqrt ofVc F'c/3 = where: F'c =

20.7 mpa

Vc = 1.516575 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 358 mm

20.7 mpa

## Vc = 0.758288 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE!

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1.2 m 1.35 m 300 mm 11.44 kn 161.78 kn 1.618 sq.m Actual Area > Required Area, SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.575 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 26.99908 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 26.999082 W (m) 1.2 pmin = d (mm) 217 fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.025647 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280 q 0.0260 p 0.001961

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = pWd p = 0.00509 As = 1325.436 sq.mm N = 6.592162 Use 6 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 1m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 91.86833 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q)

Mu (kn-m) 91.868333

## L (m) 1.35 pmin =

d (mm) 201

fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.090412 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280

q 0.0958

p 0.007213

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 use p Steel area, As = pLd p= 0.007 As = 1899.45 sq.mm N = 9.447067 Use b= As1/As = As1 (center strip) = N1 = For center strip, use 10 pcs L/W 2/(b+1) 1787.718 sq.mm 8.891357 7 pcs -----

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

As1 + As2 = As As2 (outer strip) = 111.7324 sq.mm N2 = 0.55571 For outer strip, use 1 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

1.2 m

## reinforced concrete square column

Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Bar diameter = F'c = fy = Square col size = 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = b. Live Load, LL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz =

## 5 16 20.7 275 300

mm mpa mpa mm

kn 311.36 kn kn kn kn kn

kn 117.21 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 34.2856 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 4.62856 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1.1 m length, L = 4.20778 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 2.2 m 2.2 m 4.84 sq.m

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = 1.4(Fy dead load) + 1.7(Fy live load) Actual area qu = 131.232 kpa

5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 300 16 375 292 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 589.169 kn Vn = 1.00244 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa sqrt of F'c/3

Vc = 1.51658 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 658 mm

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu(W)(a) Vu = 189.971 kn Vn = Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa 0.696 mpa sqrt of F'c/6

## Vc = 0.75829 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE!

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 2.2 m 2.2 m 375 mm 42.73 kn 471.30 kn 4.713 sq.m Actual Area > Required Area, SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.95 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 130.28 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 130.2801824 W (m) 2.2 pmin = d (mm) fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) 292 275 20.7 R q p 0.0372801 0.0381 0.0029

1.4 fy pmin = 0.00509 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = p= As = N= Use pWd 0.00509 3269.82 sq.mm 16.2627 17 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars e.w.

spaced @

137.5 mm o.c.

Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Joint No. Load Case No. 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = b. Live Load, LL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = 6 8 1,2

kn 117.3 kn kn kn kn kn

kn 56.24 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 13.8832 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 1.874232 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1.3 m length, L = 1.441717 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 1.3 m 1.4 m 1.82 sq.m

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = 1.4(Fy dead load) + 1.7(Fy live load) Actual area qu = 142.7626 kpa

Allowable ultimate soil pressure, qa = SBC (1.4*Fy dead load + 1.7*Fy live load) Fy dead load + Fy live load qa = 149.7223 kpa qa>qu, SAFE! 5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 200 16 300 217 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 235.0031 kn Vn = 1.232181 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, sqrt Vc of = F'c/3 where: F'c =

20.7 mpa

Vc = 1.516575 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 383 mm

20.7 mpa

## Vc = 0.758288 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE!

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1.3 m 1.4 m 300 mm 12.86 kn 186.40 kn 1.864 sq.m Actual Area < Required Area, NOT SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.6 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 33.40646 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 33.40645714 W (m) 1.3 pmin = d (mm) 217 fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.029292 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280 q 0.0298 p 0.002244

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = pWd p = 0.00509 As = 1435.889 sq.mm N = 7.141509 Use 8 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 1.1 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 120.92 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q)

Mu (kn-m) 120.9199538

## L (m) 1.4 pmin =

d (mm) 201

fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.114753 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280

q 0.1238

p 0.009318

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 use p Steel area, As = pLd p= 0.009 As = 2532.6 sq.mm N = 12.59609 Use 13 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b = L/W As1/As = 2/(b+1) As1 (center strip) = 2438.8 sq.mm N1 = 12.12957 For center strip, use 13 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

As1 + As2 = As As2 (outer strip) = 93.8 sq.mm N2 = 0.466522 For outer strip, use 1 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

1.3 m

## reinforced concrete square column

Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Joint No. Load Case No. 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = b. Live Load, LL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = 6 8 1,2

kn 80.82 kn kn kn kn kn

kn 21.46 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 8.1824 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 1.104624 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1m length, L = 1.104624 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 1m 1.1 m 1.1 sq.m

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = 1.4(Fy dead load) + 1.7(Fy live load) Actual area qu = 136.0273 kpa

Allowable ultimate soil pressure, qa = SBC (1.4*Fy dead load + 1.7*Fy live load) Fy dead load + Fy live load qa = 146.2945 kpa qa>qu, SAFE! 5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 200 16 250 167 mm mm mm mm

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 131.3086 kn Vn = 0.990401 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, sqrt Vc of = F'c/3 where: F'c =

20.7 mpa

Vc = 1.516575 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 283 mm

20.7 mpa

## Vc = 0.758288 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE!

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1m 1.1 m 250 mm 6.47 kn 108.75 kn 1.088 sq.m Actual Area > Required Area, SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.45 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 13.77276 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 13.77276136 W (m) 1 pmin = d (mm) 167 fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.026508 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280 q 0.0269 p 0.002028

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = pWd p = 0.00509 As = 850.03 sq.mm N = 4.227692 Use 8 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 0.8 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 47.8816 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q)

Mu (kn-m) 47.8816

## L (m) 1.1 pmin =

d (mm) 151

fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) R 275 20.7 0.102473 pmax = 0.75pbal pbal = 0.0373 pmax = 0.0280

q 0.1096

p 0.008246

1.4 fy pmin = 0.005091 use p Steel area, As = pLd p= 0.008 As = 1328.8 sq.mm N = 6.608894 Use b= As1/As = As1 (center strip) = N1 = For center strip, use 7 pcs L/W 2/(b+1) 1265.524 sq.mm 6.294184 13 pcs -----

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

As1 + As2 = As As2 (outer strip) = 63.27619 sq.mm N2 = 0.314709 For outer strip, use 1 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

1m

## reinforced concrete square column

Design of Isolated Footing Footing No. Joint No. Load Case No. 1. Support Reactions a. Dead Load, DL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = b. Live Load, LL Fx = Fy = Fz = Mx = My = Mz = kn 26.39 kn kn kn kn kn 4 1,2

kn 101.41 kn kn kn kn kn

## 2. Soil Bearing Capacity, SBC SBC = 100 Kpa

3. Preliminary Footing Dimension Assume weight of footing, wt = 8% of Fy dead load + Fy live load wt = 10.224 kn Area required, a = F dead load + F live load + wt. of ftg. SBC a = 1.38024 sq.m

Assume footing width, W = 1.1 m length, L = 1.25476 m say W = L= Actual area, A = 1.1 m 1.2 m 1.32 sq.m

4. Net Ultimate Upward Soil Pressure, qu Net upward soil pressure, qu = 1.4(Fy dead load) + 1.7(Fy live load) Actual area qu = 141.543 kpa

Allowable ultimate soil pressure, qa = SBC (1.4*Fy dead load + 1.7*Fy live load) Fy dead load + Fy live load qa = 146.195 qa>qu, SAFE! 5. Check Punching Shear Width of square column, c = Bar diameter, Ab = Assume footing thickness, t = Effective depth, d = Actual punching shear stress, Vn = 200 16 250 167 mm mm mm mm kpa

Vu F bod

where: Ultimate punching shear, Vu = qu[A-(c+d)^2] Vu = 167.773 kn Vn = 1.26543 mpa Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa sqrt of F'c/3

Vc = 1.51658 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE! 6. Check Beam Shear Footing edge to d distance from face of support, a = Actual beam shear stress, Vn = Vu F Wd 333 mm

where: Ultimate beam shear, Vu = qu(W)(a) Vu = 51.8473 kn Vn = Allow. punching shear stress, Vc = where: F'c = 20.7 mpa 0.332 mpa sqrt of F'c/6

## Vc = 0.75829 mpa Vc>Vn, SAFE!

7. Check Footing Area Footing width, W = length, L = thickness, t = Actual wt.of footing = Total weight = Area required = 1.1 m 1.2 m 250 mm 7.77 kn 135.57 kn 1.356 sq.m Actual Area < Required Area, NOT SAFE! 8. Required Steel Area, As a. For long direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, X = 0.5 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(W)(X)(X/2) Mu = 19.4622 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q) Mu (kn-m) 19.4621875 W (m) 1.1 pmin = d (mm) fy (mpa) F'c (mpa) 167 275 20.7 R q p 0.0340528 0.0348 0.0026

1.4 fy pmin = 0.00509 pmin>p, use pmin Steel area, As = p= As = N= Use pWd 0.00509 935.033 sq.mm 4.65046 5 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b. For short direction Dist. of footing edge to face of support, Z = 0.9 m Bending moment, Mu = qu(L)(Z)(Z/2) Mu = 68.79 kn-m Mu = 0.9F'cWd^2q(1-0.59q)

Mu (kn-m) 68.78998636

## R q p 0.1349513 0.1478 0.0111

1.4 fy pmin = 0.00509 use p Steel area, As = pLd p= 0.01 As = 1812 sq.mm N = 9.01213 Use 10 pcs ---

## 16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

b = L/W As1/As = 2/(b+1) As1 (center strip) = 1733.22 sq.mm N1 = 8.6203 For center strip, use 5 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

As1 + As2 = As As2 (outer strip) = 78.7826 sq.mm N2 = 0.39183 For outer strip, use 1 pcs --16 mm. dia. reinforcing bars

1.1 m