ALEXANDRU MADGEARU.

A STICK WITH DOVE HEAD FOUND AT HALMYRIS

Abstract: In depozitul Institutului de Cercetdri Eco-Muzeale din Tulcea se pdstreazd o bagheti fragmentari de bronz, descoperitf, in cursul sdpaturilorarheologicede la Halmyris (nr. inv. 39.645). Ea are lungimeatotali de 110 mm gi un profil pAtratcu laturade 3 mm. El esteomamentatcu incizii care imitf, penajul. Se disting ochii 9i ciocul. Obiectesimilare s-au descoperit in mai multe situri din Bulgaria, Serbi4 Ungaria, Romdnia, Spaniapi Germania.Cele intregi au la capitul opus o verigd. Deqi nu gtim nimic despre contextul stratigrafic din care provine acest obiect de la Halmyris, considerim necesardstudierea lui, din cauza raritiltrii acestor baghete. Pdnd in prezent, in Dobrogea s-a mai descoperit,din cdte cunoaftem, doar un singur exemplar in afara celui de la Halmyris, gi anume la Ulmetum. Baghetasemnalatd la Troesmisde cdtreOctavianBozu in studiul la care ne vom referi mai jos, conform informa{iilor datede Florin Topoleanu,estede fapt cea de la Halmyris. Keywords:stick, religious,christianity

In the depository of the Institute for Eco-MusealResearches from Tulcea is preserved a fragmentarybronzestick, found during the archaeological excavations at Halmyris (nr.39.645). The object has a total length of 110 mm and a quadrate sectionof 3 x 3 mm. The profile becomesrhombic toward the upper part (7 mm diameter).The end of this upper part is decoratedwith a dove placed on a base high of 8 mm. The lengthof the stickwithoutthe dove is 87 mm. The dove is 18 mm length and 13 mm high, and it is decorated with incisions that represent the plumage.The eyesand the beak are also figured (Fig. 1 and 2). Similar objectswere found in severalplacesfrom Bulgaria, Serbia,Hungary, Romania,Spain,Franceand Gennany.The entirepieceshave a link at the opposite end. Although we do not know the stratigraphiccontext of this object from Halmyris, we considerthat it deserves a study, because such piecesare quite rare. In Dobrudja was found only one more stick, at Ulmetum. The piece mentionedat Troesmis by Octavian Bozu in the paper quoted below, according to an oral information provided by Florin Topoleanu, is in fact the same with that from Halmyris. The first study dedicated to thesestickswas written by HermannVetters,who discussed the sevenpiecesfound at Sadovecduring Ivan Velkov's excavationsin

Institutul de Cercetiri Militare Bucuregti,e-mail: amadgearu@yahoo.com

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13 4. insteadof the crosses This heresywas initiatedby the bishopBonosusof Naissus at the end of the 4thcentury (he sustained that Mary did not remain always virgin and it seemsthat he also denied the divine nature of JesusChrist). because two suchsticks(Fig. zgl.He pointedto severalanalogies in Spain.'anareawhere many such sticks were found. p. Biernacki. 1096. 1997.and next in his bool on the heresies spreadin the Danubian p. NS.eading9f the Christianity in the rural areas post-Roman of Dacia (4th-7th centuries)..3 21 17. Ovidiu Bozu. who discoveredfour sticks in the collectionsof the Timigoara Museum. 13 5. The symbol of the bird was consideredby Vetters an element of S$1ho-Sarmatian origin. 194g. Jahrhundert. Podunavski deo oblasti Akvisa tt VI i poietkom I:lI veka (La partie danttbienne de la rdgion d'Aquis au vle sidcreet au &lbut du vIIe siicri). Idem.. 1093' 1094. A' Madgearu. 1997. Eine^Gote-nfestung bei Sadowetz Q.. p.50-51.p. Late Roman and Early Bt:antine Cities on the Lower Danube from the 4th to the 6th century..rov.reichischen Archiiologischen Institutes in Wien'. 19. l5-17 November t995). Die christliche Kirche und das Christenrunt in den zentralilll.2 Some of thern have pairs of doves. reachingthe conclusionthat the sticks with dove were transportedby the Goths from Danube to these regions. The 6th century La\rer Danubian Bridgeheads:Location and Mision.'+a. und 6. ri"* J ----'o in moulds. The Spr. 222 . 9. vol. they could not be considered insigniaof the believersof this heresy.at Romula. p.fig.rischen Provinzen im 4. 'D Jankovii. paris. M. Mirkovii.p. 1999. Jankovi6supposed that these.*. Popilian.. 3 I 9 (nota 229).as well as in Hispania.r" put on the neck o.. "EphemerisNapocensis'.). . Gallia and Burgundy. Zngravu.3 " A religious significance was also proposed by Dortle Jankovii. 423-424. Geneza crestinismulttipopular al romdnilor. *. 20. I bidem. g0_gl.'l::. o.. 1937. Erezii si schismela Dundrea Mijlocie Si de Jos in mileniul I.. Bishop Niceta of Remesiana fought againstthis heresy5. . fne nerJsy found followers not only in Dacia Mediterranea. but also in other Balkan provinces. Etudes d'histoiredes relijions. Beograd. I acceptedwithout criticism this interpretations in some previous studres'.)D'fln"rrotional Conference Po:nan. but now I reject it. 154. in A. was founda mould for sticks(Fig..In spain. 2gg. 1976.Germanyand Switzerland..Germania.des Ost. 'A Baudrillart(ed..at cacabelos. g.2003 (2005).. parvlak (ed.. a funeral symbol.p.ti"k.Iaqi. H' vetters.It is clear that the dove sticks appeaiedmuch time beforethe Bonosiacheresy.oa*J u.. ein Kilt:eichen.the bird of the soul. rdem. N. l9g r. p. who has ascribed the sticks to the believers of the Bonosiac heresy.following the interpretation of a lot of t. "Jahreshefte. p. Erezii.. 1935.Even if they would havea significance relatedto the Christianity.'. t-+. n6-nl. p. first in relation with a piecefound at Craiova. and that they represent.ay! der Stange.56. poznan.. The idea of Jankovi6 was assumedby Nelu zugravu.The sticls *"r" p.col. zzt..[ordbulgarienl. B. r08. ' N. BucureSti. l3l_150. g1. 3). Most of the sticks known by Vetters are dated in the 6rh century.ired'histoireet de giographie eccldsiastiques. 3 (/n Gh. in a building destroyed by the inroad of the Carpi of 2458 .. quartier artisanal d Romula. p.j3.4) were discovered in a closedcontext dated Lefore245. 314 { footnote I 40). 2004.243."Archaevs..).inces6.37.Dacia. recorded in large numberuntil the 6thcentury around Aquis in Dacia Ripensis. ' . proposed another significance.the 1930's'.Dictionna. Der vogel..'Zugravu.

Bucureqti. al7). but the significance of the dove became different after the free spreading of the Christianity. studied by the Swiss archaeologistGerd G. the Holy Spirit descended dove was also a symbol of the divine peace(the dove that brought the olive bough of the sticks to Noah). Bozu agreedthat the dove sticks they were usedby Christianwomentt..but we cannotexcludethat they were hair pins. III/2. 63. Znrich. Obiecte cre$tine inedite de uz casnic.). Pernik.The significance. In Dobrudja. Bozu for the use of the sticks seemsto be convincing. C. Ausgrabungen und Bauuntersuchung. bone sticks with the figure of Venus were found at Dinogetia and Callatisto. Ergebnisse der deutschbulgarisch-\sterreichischeAusgrabungen(1934-1937). I. The interpretationproposedby O. Pt. S .col. An with pierced crosses which were analogyare the Sucidavatype bucklesdecorated not religious tokens. Arheologie-Istorie".29n. p . 1084. f i g . Uenze. na n .p. 129-137. L Poseliiieniivotn achd lmak r alr r aot Vc hil. (1941).2203.p. H.because monographof the fortifications from Sadovec. Stefan. Die spritantiken Befestigungen von Sadovec (Bulgarien). 1914. its Since in the Roman symbolism. Rdmische Strasseund Grciber. pr . ra F. like did the pectoralcrosses n (ed. Die Fingerkunkel aus Grab 156. " Analele Banatului.1992. l. Bozu. the same symbol of the dove was preserved because it was associatedwith another to Christ at His baptismby SaintJohn.1980. In both cases. Seliiteto ot rimskata i rannovizantijsknta epokha.but this did the belongingto Christianity.I. Necropolaromano-bizantird.The dove sticks were not tokens of an Orthodox or Heretic believe. 1998. Paris.Syna Uenze and Joachim Werner were too convincedthat thesesticksare a kind of Christianamuletsr2.op. e . "Dacia". Mtinchen. Liubenova.vol.Dinogetia. They were initially variantsof the bone sticks.). with Venus".. doVlv . in K. 208-209.On the other hand.were Venus was replaces with her attribute. Uenze.one specific for women and other for men. In some cases they are decoratedwith crosses. 198'7. The bone sticks were decoratedat the opposite end with a representation of Venuse.p. the dove was associated normal. 7-8.412. 2.After Christianization. n.Mtinchen. He argued that the sticks were in fact distaffs.199. vol.or they have small crossesattachedwith chains''. 419. Furcile de tors pentru deget datate tn secolele IV-VI e. O.). Taf.This is only one casewhen Greek. e.sirnilar pieces made of bone found in several early Roman cemeteriesand settlementsfrom other provinces. 1937-1940 p. S o f i a . G. 'o Gh. cit. Biedermann. Kcinik. not transformedthe objects in tokens that expressed that had no otherfunction.n. G. 1993. eangova (ed. ts V.3. 1 9 2 . but they bear a Christian symbol. Risultatidella prima campagnadi scavi. tt S.raWe considerthat this is the explanationof the appearance with dove.1 9 8 1 . 22 @. Dictionnaire d'archdologie chrdtienne et de liturgie. Knaurs Lexikon der Symbole. The link was used to insert the finger. Rudolf Sennhauser VerenamrinsterZurzach. Roth-Rubi. tt O.Callatis. p. SN. Women continued to use these sticks. p. '' H. the dove. Leclercq (ed. In the had a Christian significance.Roman and other heathensymbols and customswere Christianized. H. 159. in J. 414. Cabrol. Preda. K<jnik. The dove was is presence on an object usedby women beforeChristianity a substitute for the representationof the goddess. 223 . 1 3 3 . vol. . fig. a Christiansymbol was applied on an object usedfor a specificpurpose.

(apudS. Volum ingrijit de I.Lazarov.'o t6 L. fortifid -20 p.R. 52. Romania.-Serbia. The date of the with crossand crescent.p. M. 19 9 7 .rT buckle decorated depositis given by a Sucidava 3 . Atunusou. 'r1 A tt ts2).zl centuries.Craiova.Katalog. Ch. JablanicaDistrict. 152).Campania2000. t' Ibide^. Cyril en Scythie Mineure.p. found in the settlement from. in Von der Scythiazur Dobrudia. 1 54 -15 5 2 005.3.An entire stick long of 168 mm. L.used as raw material for a workshop. 417."Drobeta". VV5. B6ciu. 59. jud.An entire stick long of 182 mm. Sdrbu. in Cronica cercetdrilor 2001. From another stick are tower. Bulgaria.Asparukhouo. M. . 1983. found in the garbage pit 2 I 2000 together with a bronzecoin from the 4thor from the 6thcentury. 5 l l l . 12. hrsg. 96 (p. Dreven broru. F. V. 6.nova. re V. rJenze.Celei (sucidava).75.. de Silistra(communication pillinger .in the following list were found in the Middle and The doves sticks presented Lower Danubian regions. 1 50 -15 1. Srejovii (ed. Chotioliev.399. Kondi6.Bila Voda. I . in laforteresse de la localisation Idem. wien. ll) . serbia. arheologice. 98 (p. Liub. Five pieces from a lot of metallic objects hidden in the 6thcentury in the ruins of a villa rustica dated on the 3. found in a fortress dated betweenthe 4tnand. 50. to G. cit. V. Zaie1aiDistrict. bronze de lavilla de la basseantiquitd situtleprds de la ntine "Bela I'oda".zo 6 . 1995.Caridin Grad (JustinianaPrima). Liciu.Dolj counfy. 8 . l5l-l 52).l8 4 . p.Varna Region.ftg.p.point F6ntdna Obedeanu dated in the 5'h and 6th in the filling earthof dwelling2. Nica. bas-byzantine St. A fragment long of 72 mm. Pl. op. 13. 1 2 7 .nr. Dalgopol. Cdndea. Gamzigrad.p. 97.).Bozveliysko.the 6'n century. Popilian. 37. Romania. varna Region. R. 5 . Brdila' 2004' p. Unrdjeno naselje u vi:antijskom lliriku (Cariiin Grad.Silistra Region.Ddbravino. Bronzovi predmeti ot kdsnoantiinata vila pri rudnik "Bela I'oda". A fragment long of 86 mm and a dove from anotherstick.nu Region. l 2 8 .Gam'igrad.Lazarov. Bulgaria.d-4'hcenturies.Suceava.p. corabia. Olt [Sucidava]. Cariiin Grad. Pernik Region. 2tGh. p. L. Gherghe. 2001. Katalog (Ancient bronze. -Bulgaria. An Imperial Palace of the Late Classical Times. 7 . p. Sofia. p .Harre ithe r(M is c ellaneaBulgar ic a.p.. 95 (p. rdgion prdliminaire). frg. Amon. Neagu. op. D.Beograd. ASezarea prefeudald de la Craiova (Fdntdna Obedeanu). iound in a building nearthe basilicafrom the lower townre. Bulgaria. 50. Fragmentlong of 108 mm'16 Vu. with objects from the 4tn-5tn preserved two fragmentswith total lengthof 170 mm. nr.Thiee pieces from the 4th century palace. sometimes in contexts that are showing that they were produced and used up to the 6'ncentury. olt county.4l2' footnotel7). nr. Pernik). 1 3 8 ) . 15.Bulgaria' A fragmentlong of 4l mm"". 186-188 Beograd. nr. Popovii. 1 2 ( p ." 9 . Martyrium et Agiasmon dans le castel basbyzantinprds du village de Golech.Gole5. Corabia.nr.An entire stick without known dimensions. nr. Pernik (Objets de "Arheologija''. 2 . Site dans l'Illyricum byzantin). XVI/4.Ausstellungskatalog. f r g .1977. cit. 50. in a fountain near a centuries. V. Pl. 138. De nouyeau sur Prinos lui Petre Diaconu ta 80 de ani. " 23 D.

lll-4.260. while from other two are preserved only the doves.p.An entire 17 . C. ASezdride epocd romand Si romand trirzie.Kladovo-Donje Butorke. Slaviano-bdlgarskoto seliite krai selo Popina Silistrenko. " V. f\9. Constanla " Gh.252. Carag-Severin in mm.com..132-133. One of them hasa crossattached 19 . 33 VAZarova.Prahovo. XVIIV6.Gornea. 225 .. Romania. Romania.. found in unknown conditionsin the Late Roman fortress.p. both decoratedwith a dove. 50/16. 14 . 28D.p. op. frg. p. 26Apud Gh. lulgaria.Silistra Region. Pl. 2e D. cit. 252. 3aD. ConstanJa gate.Pernik. found section I in the 4'n century long of 175 without dove. tt I.2s 11 .Bor District. Tulcea County.Pl. O. ll5. Romania. p.26 12 . 105. Romania. Serbia. Serbia.Pantelimonude Sus. p. 252.Pl. 1920. 243.op. cit.fragment l0 . Sofia. Jankovii. A fragment long of on one sidewith a rosette. Bozu.. 8. Romania. castellum.a.XVIIVl. Jankovii. Several sticks (at least one with a crosson the dove backside)found in a tower of the being decorated fortrlss. 154. 21 . Two probably found at Dierna most Museum of Timigoara.Popina. Covacef 5. found in a tower of the southwestern II and Valens3r. fig. op.Kjustendil Region.30 County.Tilcea.p. Bulgaria. Ivanou.3a fragmentsand threefragments (Romula).2007.frg. A.An entire stick long of 200 mm. two dove that preserved the link. found in a building destroyed . 15 .Pantelimonulde Sus (Ulmetum). 2.Orqova(?).Cduni{a de Sus.Gornea.Campania2006. op. 7.inCrontcacercetdrilor arheologicedin Romdnia. Sofia".An entire stick long of 193 mm2*.Mokranjske Stene. l9l-l92.M. Ljubenova. 4.. ll. op. Pernik Region. together stick long of 130 mm. Bdjenaru. Pantelimon.206.A fragmentlong of 100mm2e. 18 (:p. [UlmetumJ. 1956. p. Gudea. decorated 13 . 84. with 6thcentury objects.XVILV7.ii 20 . cit. Serbia. 3. Bulgaria. p.fig. Popilian.'' 120 mm. duringthe attackof the Carpi in 2453s . jud.. "Izvestija na Arheologiieskija Institut.. Five entire piecesand eight fragments.op. Two fragmentslong of 122 nm Olt County. " N.Four piecespreserved 16 .Murighiol (Halmyris).206. cit. " Gh. with coins from Constantius 18 . Bulgaria.County. Z.op. p. cit.27. to the link". Jankovii.A fragment long of I l0 mm.. found in a 4ft century gravetogetherwith a fibula with onion heads.Bor District.Kjustendil (Pautalia). 12.. Nica. trg. cit. Popilian. Ktustendilskijat Hisarldk i negovite starini. p. entire sticks are long of 178 and 190 mm. Carag-Severin (Orgova). 76.Reqca and 53 mm. Bor District. fig. in the County. cit. Un quartier.. 13112. Papuc.Yratza Region. 'o O. An entire stick long of 170 mm. 13.H6rlec (Augusta). p. Regi!4 1911 Bozu.27)..

fragmentslong Varna Roy-ah 12 two faie to face doves''o *-.-.i"t. strasse.of 169 mm and 192 Region." a - E*1 =_ :-: : :l ttt ]3"" : : : llr +l I Ftg..cit.cit. Di:.. nr' 93' 94' 6lr-s'122t10' 51r..Taf p' 19. SadovskoKale and Golemanovo An entire stick with unknown 24 .p. P.Rosner. of silver' from which only the dove 195 mm. .. lt Tt* ttick from HalmYris' t' L.:errze..38 t. O"" of them h-as sticks long of 210 mm and PlevenRegion.6!79!l (P. G. r' -l a:. found in the women cemetery.Szekszfrd. 226 . Lararov.. 1999' Budapest' '. i:.. Bulgaria'-Two. szet<szdrd-Bogyszl6i im Cruu"*ld o*orn*Jiriiii. Do.Sadovec. and 11 fiud'"ni'(onle made Gothic the fortifrcations ascribed to the $_aspreserv"d)..172).Bulgaria' Two entire al .. faf. Kale'37 foederati. Tolna County' Hungary' grave nr' 79 from an early Avarian dimensions.-6' ' 419' ip. 49. oP.-szt-szs. .

32117 Fig. ftg. Vetters. Spain).op.Fig . 3 : Moukd for sticks (Cacabelos.after H.. cit.2:@ mHalmY ris. . 227 .

. after Gh. 2-13.. 4: The sticks from Romula.fig. Popilian.. 13t12.ff t3 Fig. 13.p.. un quartier.

Atanasov.ftg.ry Dry Y ll l: L\ 4l vle tl .3-Orgova Sadovec I 13-4\. cit. Bozu. 5lll. Fig. op..i3 ll fig... (afterO.ll . 5: The sticksfrom 1.2' Martyrium. op.. 229 .Gole3(afterG..2). lJenze.Taf.12). cit.611. (afterS.

.Fie. 6: \Iap.