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EXCEL FORMULAE

HELP For Analysis Tool Pack

OMs

OMs PS 2008

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

www.sanketham.tk

**www.sanketham.tk April 10, 2013 Today: Wednesday,
**

Age Calculation ABS AND AutoSum shortcut key AVERAGE BIN2DEC Brackets in Formula CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK

COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR.TYPE EVEN

EXACT FACT Filename Formula FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO Instant Charts INT ISBLANK ISERR .

ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP(Array) LOOKUP(vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE .

MINUTE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR Ordering Stock Percentages PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE .

QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND Show All Formula SIGN SLN SMALL Split Forename Surname STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE .

SUM SUM as Running Total SUM using names SUM with OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME TIME Calculation TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC UPPER VALUE .

VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC OMs .

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1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.EndData.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered. Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered. but can be formatted as a percent. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H YEARFRAC Page 34 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0.000 =YEARFRAC(B34.C34+1.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =YEARFRAC(B32. but not including.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to.000 =YEARFRAC(B33.000 £6. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.000 £3.C32+1. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.C33+1.000 £12. . 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year. the End date.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J YEAR Page 35 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date. . Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number.

The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.E4) =WORKDAY(D5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days. Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25.Date.Number.Days.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WORKDAY Page 36 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.Cells.E25. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.

Cells. To show the result as the name of the day.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 . Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd. The Booking Date is entered.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34). Excel will use 1. The Actual Day is calculated. use Format. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function. Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost 7-Jan-98 Wednesday £ 30.1) =WEEKDAY(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WEEKDAY Page 37 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6.3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6. If no number is specified.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number.

The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. Bob Eric Alan Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 .RangeToLookIn. it then scans across to pick a cell entry.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VLOOKUP Page 38 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 The column numbers are not needed.G12. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. TRUE for yes.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Unfortunately. It then calculates the position of the month in the list. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. FALSE for no. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C6:H8. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. they are part of the illustration. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require.ColumnToPickFrom. When the item is found.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.

The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. If the Quantity Ordered does . Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.MATCH(B81. If a match is not found. the function will produce an error. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. =VLOOKUP(C126.200 =VLOOKUP(C81. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car.D49:F49. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.G74:I74.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 eric mar G H I J VLOOKUP Page 39 of 223 K Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.0)+1.C50:F54. When the make is found. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.0)+1. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.F75:I79.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount.2.C114:D116. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.MATCH(F57. Wood and Glass. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.

C114:D116.F114:I116. and the discount from the 100 row is used.0)+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .MATCH(C126.MATCH(C126.275 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126. the next lowest value is used.TRUE) Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% J VLOOKUP Page 40 of 223 K Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) . Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. =VLOOKUP(D126.0)+1.G113:I113.2.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I not match a value at the side of the Discount Table.G113:I113.F114:I116.

Range2.5 1.0)) find the machine name.5 0.8 0.5 1.H32:H34. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.4 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0125 The smallest variance is : 0.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). . Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.H32:H34.1875 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.4 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. Syntax =VARP(Range1.H32:H34.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.7 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.6 1.6 1.1875 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VARP Page 41 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 1.5 0.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.0019 1.0050 1. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).5 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.

8 0.0)) find the machine name. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.5 1.5 1.0025 1.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.H34:H36. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36.7 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VAR Page 42 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0067 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .4 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1. . At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.6 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 1.Range2.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.5 0.5 0.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 1.H34:H36. Syntax =VAR(Range1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.6 1.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.

two or three digits long. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. There was a 2% increase in sales.SEARCH("??:??". Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. =LEFT() or =RIGHT(). =SUBSTITUTE. as alphabetic characters will be included. =FIND(). Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length.5 A 100% increase was achieved. it can be either one.C16).5)) =VALUE(MID(C16.02 0. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. There was a 100% increase in sales. 0. The winning time was 10:30 seconds. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. 1 Only a 2% increase in sales. 2% Approx 50% increase in sales. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.SEARCH("??:??". The winning time was 0:30 seconds. 0.5 1 .C17).5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign." "). Explanation of formula shown above. If the % sign is included in the text. The result will be shown as a value. The same will be true for other recognised formats.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14." ". There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. 100% * See explanation below. =MID().SEARCH("??:??".02 There was a 50% increase in sales.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17. 0.SUBSTITUTE(C11.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. There was a 50% increase in sales. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored. based upon the original text.SEARCH("???%".SEARCH("£".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H VALUE Page 43 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4.C4). =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . other than it is preceded by a space. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().5)) =VALUE(MID(C15.0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 "))." ".C15). The winning time was 1:30 seconds. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.SEARCH("??:??". 0.C14). The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." "." D E F G H ")).2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 C =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52.4)) VALUE Page 44 of 224 I ").SUBSTITUTE(C52." ".SEARCH("???%"." .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H UPPER Page 45 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D4) 1 1.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number. it does not actually round the number.4 =TRUNC(C5.47589 -1.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.47589 1.47589 -1. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.4 =TRUNC(C7.47 =TRUNC(C6.D7) 2 -1.D5) 2 1.D6) 1 -1.48 13643.47589 1.47 =TRUNC(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 13643.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRUNC Page 46 of 223 K 1 2 Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.

The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TRIM Page 47 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year.000 2 -£4.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.KnownXs.968 15 -£1.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. months 1 to 12.500 12 -£2. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.B41:B52.B5:B10.B5:B10.500 4 £3.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 48 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1. based upon the past years performance. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula . 13 to 24. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit. Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. such as Months. The historical data for the past year was entered.000 Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4. the =TREND() function was used.940 8 £5.RequiredXs.600 4 -£4.B5:B10. The months to predict were entered.997 {=TREND(C8:C13. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.000 11 -£2. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction.709 16 -£1.000 3 £2.500 7 -£4.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values.226 14 -£1. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.000 2 £2.386 12 £7. To prove to the bank that.774 11 £7.500 5 £3.800 6 £4. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.800 6 -£4. such as Sales Figures.800 9 -£3. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year.B5:B10.000 8 -£3.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.163 10 £6.800 3 -£4.451 17 -£1. such as Months.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.750 5 -£4.B8:B13.B5:B10.300 10 -£2.551 9 £6.

E41:E52). Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. . but do not press Enter.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as F41 to F52.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 49 of 224 K How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.B41:B52. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.

and places in it in a new range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. Next type the formula. and the data originally in rows is in columns. the entire array has to be highlighted. The function needs to be entered as an array formula. . the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. If changes need to be made to the formula. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRANSPOSE Page 50 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range.

Year 2000 ########## Days Until -4848 =C36-TODAY() . Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TODAY Page 51 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Today Is 10-Apr-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5943 5722 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5944 5723 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 52 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. . which convert all values to text. such as from mainframe computers. It is useful when data is imported from other applications.

Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.60485 =TIME(C4.E5) =TIME(C6.D6.D4.D5. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.E4) =TIME(C5. Syntax =TIME(Hour.Minute.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TIME Page 53 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0. .

00 10 £10 10.3 £10."£0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 54 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text."0") =TEXT(C7.00 £10."£0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required."0."0.25 10.0") =TEXT(C9.00") =TEXT(C5. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.3 =TEXT(C4. .25 Converted To Text 10.00") =TEXT(C6."£0") =TEXT(C8.

. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. The function is not specifically needed by Excel.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J T Page 55 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. the result is a blank. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is text.

000 ===> £1. £1500. year 2 is 33% of 6. year 1 is 17% 6.000 6 £3. £9000/6=£1500.429 £2.857 £2.F5. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.166667 1.F4. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits.F4.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.333333 0.F4.2) =SYD(F3. 3. Year 3 is 50% of 6.500 ===> =SYD(E39.F5. £3000.5) =SYD(F3.2.143 £571 =SYD(F3. 17% being £1500.500 £3. 4.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted. 5. these values are the depreciation . The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.5 0.4) =SYD(F3.E41.F5. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10. 1+2+3=6.E40. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500.2.F4.000 £1. Invert the year digits. 2. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.500 ===> £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6) £12. using the sum of the years digits.286 £1.F5.F4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SYD Page 56 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20.3) =SYD(F3.3 becomes 3.1) =SYD(F3. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages.F5. 1.000 £1.F5.F4.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life.714 £1.2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation.000 £8.000 £4.000 3 £4.1. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years. year 1 is $4500.1 by £1500 to get £4500. £9. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits. £10000-£1000=£9000. 33% being £3000. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6. Multiply 3.

SalvageValue.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.3 0. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.000 £1. Example 2 The same example using 4 years. 100% .PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10.2 0.000 £1.4 0.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.700 £1.929 £1.000 4 £3.607 £1.600 £2.000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.Life.250 £1.1 100% G H I SYD Page 57 of 223 J Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F values for each of the three years in the life of the item.000 7 £2.800 £900 £9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

H35:H39) £2.00 25% £13. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.350 =E44-E43 . The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMPRODUCT Page 58 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6.00 £2. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.D35:D39) £9. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.25 £60. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.00 20% £2.00 25% £33.00 £16.E35:E39.33 80% £2.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. Range.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.40 £3. takinging into account the markup percentage. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1.

It then identifies the entries for Brakes.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought. =SUMIF(E4:E12. Total of item typed in following cell.RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12. .E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12.E18.CriteriaToBeMatched.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined. Total of items costing £100 or above. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.">=100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12."Brakes"."Brakes". What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. Total cost of all Tyres bought.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMIF Page 59 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12."Tyres".E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.

Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45.0. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.1):OFFSET(E45.0. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column.0. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate. 1. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 .0. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. the second by 2 columns.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 3.0.1):OFFSET(E51. the first offset is offset by 1 column. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled.0. 2.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 60 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.0.

but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.0.0.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.0.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 61 of 223 K L Example The following table shows five months of data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79. Type in the End month. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.0. The formula displayed below are only dummies. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function. the second by 3 columns. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.0. the first offset is offset by 1 column.2) : OFFSET(D79.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled. .0. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.0.0.2000 Peter Noneley A 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D E F G H I =SUM(OFFSET(E57. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.0.1):OFFSET(E57. Type in the Start month.

$D$7:D11. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.$D$7:D7. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUM_as_Running_Total Page 62 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.$D$7:D8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.$D$7:D12.$D$7:D9.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.0)) =SUM(IF(D11.$D$7:D10. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. .

ranges are from other functions.D14.Range2.. It can be used either horizontally or vertically. 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) Wrong! Correct . This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. through to Range30). Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The formula is actually doing more work than needed.. The numbers can be in single cells. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM Page 63 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. Syntax =SUM(Range1. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers.Range3.E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 B C D E =C48+C49+C50 F G Correct H I J SUM Page 64 of 224 K .

D10. Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.D4) =SUBSTITUTE(B5. It can either replace all occurrences of the text. or a specific instance.TextToInsert.D11.C5.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.C7.C10. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional. The function is case sensitive.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SUBSTITUTE Page 65 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCDEF CD hello ABCDABCD CD hello Northern Region Region Area Sand and Cement and & Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Updated Text ABhelloEF ABhelloABhello Northern Area S& & Cement Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 =SUBSTITUTE(B4.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.C39.C6.C4.C11.D6) =SUBSTITUTE(B7.D7) Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Region Area Updated Text Northern Area Northern Area .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.D5) =SUBSTITUTE(B6.TextToRemove.

2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 B Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(C50).PROPER(D50)) H SUBSTITUTE Page 66 of 224 I .

433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.0433 1.5 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.6 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.4 1. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.H32:H34.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.H32:H34.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEVP Page 67 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 10 9 10 0.4 1.7 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0707 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.5 1. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.5 1.5 1. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. .Range2. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.H32:H34.0)) find the machine name.5 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .8 0. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.6 1.5 0.

MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.6 1.0816 1.5 0.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.8 0. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0)) find the machine name. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 1. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.Range2.2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.H34:H36.5 0.5 1. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.4 1.5 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEV Page 68 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.6 1.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0. . Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.H34:H36.7 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0500 1.5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.H34:H36.4 1.

3) =SMALL(C4:C8.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 £3.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.500 £12.000 £6.000 £7. Highest Lowest £12.000 £3.000 £5.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.800 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £10.000 Feb £6.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £2.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SMALL Page 69 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £2. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.500 Mar £4. Feb and Mar.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £3.000 £4.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) . Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 £2.

be for that time. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.F4.000 which is £12. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.F10.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item.000 6 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000.500 =SLN(F3.000 . Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost. . The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time.000 £8.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SLN Page 70 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12. months or years.£8.000 £2. Because you owned the car for 6 years.000 / 6 which is £2.000 4 £2.SellingPrice. then kept it for 6 years. However. the SLN is calculated as £12. The result is a uniform depreciation value.000.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period.000. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the SLN which is calculated will. days.000. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method).000 =SLN(F9.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SIGN Page 71 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is positive the result is 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. . If the value is negative the result is -1. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.

The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.50 0.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36).51 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SECOND Page 72 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number 10/Apr/13 23:23:51 12:00:00 PM 0. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. The Cost of the call is then calculated.25 1 50 £1.5) .70 2 5 £1. Cost Per Second : £0. The Duration of the call is entered.51 Second 51 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

47589 1.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound. .48 13643.D4) 1 1.D5) 2 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDUP Page 73 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.47589 1.47589 13643.5 =ROUNDUP(C5.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.48 13643.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.

D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 13643.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.47589 1.D5) 2 1.D4) 1 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.48 13643.47589 13643. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDDOWN Page 74 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.47589 1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D5) 2 1.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.47589 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.47589 13643.D4) 1 1.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47589 1.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROUND Page 75 of 223 J 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.47589 13643. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound. .48 =ROUND(C6.47589 13643.5 =ROUND(C5.

Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. 1 is more Concise. 4 is Simplified. This is used if no format is specified.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. . 0 is Classic. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed.3) =ROMAN(C14. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.1) =ROMAN(C12.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROMAN Page 76 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10.0) =ROMAN(C11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2 is even more Concise. 3 is even more Concise still.2) =ROMAN(C13.4) =ROMAN(C15.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.D7) =RIGHT(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RIGHT Page 77 of 223 J 1 2 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =RIGHT(C5.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".D5) =RIGHT(C6. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28.C30)) .LEN(C28)-FIND(" ". The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.D6) =RIGHT(C7.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30.

"00") =REPT("|".000 £5.D5) =REPT(C6.D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 51 =REPT("|". The time functions of =HOUR(). Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPT Page 78 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Number Of Repeat Repeats A 3 AB 3 10 | 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."00") . Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1.000 £2.D4) =REPT(C5.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times. To update the clock press the function key F9.D6) =REPT(C7.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW())."00") =REPT("|".SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it.Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.000 £3. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()). but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.

D6.E7.D7.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.E6.D4.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed. You need to specify where the replacement should start.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPLACE Page 79 of 223 J 1 2 Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.D5. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.StartPosition.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.E5. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E4.

C4:C8) =RANK(C5.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.B34:B37) =RANK(B35. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.1) =RANK(C15. If the numbers 30.B34:B37) =RANK(B37. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11.C18:C22) =RANK(C19. Formatting No special formatting is needed.B34:B37) =RANK(B36.C11:C15.C4:C8) =RANK(C8. both 20's are ranked as 2. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18. (This is optional.1) =RANK(C14.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.1) =RANK(C12.C18:C22) =RANK(C20. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. 20. they will be assigned the same rank.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank.C11:C15.C11:C15.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANK Page 80 of 223 J 1 2 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. 30 is ranked as 1.ListOfNumbers.C11:C15. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates. .1) =RANK(C13. If there are duplicate values in the list.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially.C11:C15. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top. leaving it out has the same effect). 20 and 10 were ranked.

1) =RANK(C54.1) .C53:C58.1) =RANK(C58.2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I RANK Page 81 of 223 J Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.1) =RANK(C55.C53:C58. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C57.C53:C58.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C56.C53:C58.

The Winning Ticket! 20 42 44 4 23 18 5 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.E24:E30))<>7.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different. the same number could be generated twice or more. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANDBETWEEN Page 82 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 7 8 =RANDBETWEEN(C4."Duplicates! Spin again".HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

130588055 .306533639 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RAND Page 83 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1. or when F9 is pressed. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.685992317 0.239098058 0.695737772 0.641679106 0.715484 0.576817 0.595863411 0.9778021 0.649861 0.035004 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 Random 0. 0.066458229 0.561849893 0.940498 0.565238 0. 6.835705691 0.387534 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.289807 0.918199 0.864101 0. and =RAND() in column D.226554 0.994971 0.901772831 0.896692018 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.800047 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.719841 0.208073604 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10.59310317 0.000770293 0.509368 0.104704 0.092518631 0.495323727 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 8.021603 0.921669 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.557064684 0.864933998 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.797955683 0.20585 0. A list of cards has been entered in column C.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Random 0.818195727 0.

459530226 0.449683 0.782332509 0.213754 0.699869 0.251554 0.848100894 0.23494408 0.954052476 0.213036839 0.630777679 0.357244 0.518858 0.64737 0.234732 0.871279878 0.583030922 0.918234 0.827093597 0.304782075 0.109088176 H I RAND Page 84 of 223 J .119749 0.34992 0.910816348 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .024304 0.872771248 0.642587 0.869214 0.265578683 0.085616 0.502356997 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.794261 0.460228626 0.120729 0.174821 0.818247 0.917093 0.759509 0.283789742 0.745774 0.775092809 0.522165884 0.946074247 0.182219 0.753553 0.90180752 0.395429 E F 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.25264 0.206624 0.275658495 0.550163 0.876896 0.128376688 0.191098933 0.931432615 0.85584402 0.451039 0.646656 0.281374472 0.051784548 0.92987162 0.469384 0.242705 0.

D4) =QUOTIENT(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10.5 25 3. Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.E39) . only showing the whole number. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided. It ignores any remainder.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 85 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. The merchant can only sell full crates. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.75 12.

H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.H12) 1 285.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K QUARTILE Page 86 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.1.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.3 or 4. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No. .E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 2nd.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0.

. and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case. Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PROPER Page 87 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.

. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7..) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1.Number3.Range.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together..Number2..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PRODUCT Page 88 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4. which results in 6300.Number2.. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1.

2) .54 1963. Radius 5 25 Area 78. which result is 81.D5) =POWER(C6.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I POWER Page 89 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.D4) =POWER(C5. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.50 =PI()*POWER(C22.D6) =POWER(C7. It is the same as using the ^ operator. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised. such as 3^4.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example To calculate the area of a circle.

It does not need any input. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.50 =PI()*(C21^2) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PI Page 90 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 p 3. Radius 5 25 Area 78. it is a self contained function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .54 1963. Example To calculate the area of a circle. It is correct to 15 decimal places.

B.928. the following twelve permutations would be possible. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .765. C and D.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The internal order is significant.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H PERMUT Page 91 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items.D4) =PERMUT(C5. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.D6) =PERMUT(C7. Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet. Letter In Alphabet 26 Password Size 8 Permutations 62.990.D5) =PERMUT(C6. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC .600 =PERMUT(C4.

there is a fixed administrative cost. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.450 1.500 24.500 3.510 1.000 19.500 21.000 4. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.170 £ 1.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 10 £ 250 10 £ 250 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.500 18.500 6. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.335 1.750 .350 1.125 183 £ 4.000 22.000 28.550 1.500 1.625 1.350 £ 1. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9.000 13.300 1.000 7.250 1.400 1.170 4.300 61 £ 1.000 10.500 30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .795 1. Each time an order is made for new stock.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 £ 285 £ 300 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Annual Total 9. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.260 £ 1.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1.525 46 £ 1.710 £ 1.675 1.375 1.620 £ 1. (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.305 1.530 £ 1.575 92 £ 2.440 £ 1. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.500 9.000 16. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.080 £ 1.480 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I Ordering Stock Page 92 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.800 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.295 1.315 1.500 15.000 25.225 1.500 12.500 27.665 2.

Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.250 2. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.2000 Peter Noneley A 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 31.$H$25.000 40.890 1.875 1. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.$H$25.075 2. then the first Price Break discount is used. but below the second Price Break.340 2.500 42.925 2. which would require stock to be ordered every day.B29<$G$25).$H$25.275 2. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 33.000 43.980 2.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.000 37.B29<$G$25).$H$24. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.$H$24. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier.150 2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.B29<$G$25). Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount. 0)) .520 2. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.430 2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30. the second Price Break discount is used. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.800 1. This is the smallest ordering period.500 45.350 2.000 2.200 2.610 2.000 34.070 2.700 H 1.$H$24.IF(B29>=$G$25.IF(B29>=$G$25.IF(B29>=$G$25.500 39. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.425 I - Ordering Stock Page 93 of 223 J 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.500 36. zero discount is used.000 D 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1.160 2. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break.

It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts. If the two values match the word Best is shown. otherwise a dash is shown. giving the lowest annual overheads.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. =CEILING(365/A29. based upon how frequently the orders are made. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . there will have to be 365 orders. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. However."-") I Ordering Stock Page 94 of 223 J 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 . due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. such as 2. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). With an interval of 1. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads.3 This decimal will cause problems. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number."Best".OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa". Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No.E27="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".5. The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.E4="Delta"). Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".5.5. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa". Syntax =OR(Test1. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.E5="Delta").5.E7="Delta").E6="Delta").2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J OR Page 95 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 .5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa".

4 2.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ODD Page 96 of 223 J 1 2 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.9 3 3.4 3.

9749 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H NOW Page 97 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The current Date and Time 4/10/2013 23:23 =NOW() 41374. The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. . If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.

"OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34)."Overdue". (A type of reverse logic). The date the book was Taken out is entered. then the result is FALSE. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."OK") . by adding the Loan value to the Taken date. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the test fails."Overdue". otherwise OK is shown. The period of the Loan is entered. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). the result is TRUE.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NOT Page 98 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation."Overdue". If the test is met."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). The date the book was returned is entered.

D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . such as Xmas and Bank holidays. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. To correct this add 1 to the result.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.EndDate. Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Note The calculation does not include the last day.C28.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 99 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.C30.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. It will exclude weekends and any holidays. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.C29.End.

The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.NA().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 . When the =NA() is used.NA().C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet. It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered. the Wage is still calculated. Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7).NA(). any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NA Page 100 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6). Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered.

035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.50% 0. Excel does not really need this function.5 3. . due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.5 =N(C5) 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.5 =N(C6) 3. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I N Page 101 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MROUND Page 102 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4. .D6) =MROUND(C7.MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =MROUND(C5.D5) =MROUND(C6.D7) =MROUND(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.

Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .Number. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G MONTH Page 103 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Cells. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 104 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. When there is more than one set of duplicates. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1.Range3.Range2. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this.. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.

2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 105 of 224 K Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.7 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

D5) =MOD(C6.D6) =MOD(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =MOD(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MOD Page 106 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4. Syntax =MOD(Number.D7) =MOD(C8.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number. .Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 2 Size Giant Standard Economy . The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MMULT Page 107 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values.C26:E28) was typed. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.500 21. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce. Dark and White. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.000 25.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. (but not yet entered). The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. Dark and White. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. The formula then showed the correct result.

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. I MMULT Page 108 of 223 J K The company has four factories. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. then change a single value in each. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. Range 2 contains the amount Butter. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. each of which has to order enough Butter.

Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3.75 2 0. To update the clock press the function key F9. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. The time functions of =HOUR().52 1. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.75 3:45 3:00 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 .02 0. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MINUTE Page 109 of 224 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Number 4/10/2013 23:23 9:15:00 PM 0."00") =REPT("|". Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW())."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.52 Minute 23 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number."00") =REPT("|". Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 51 =REPT("|". Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

1)/24 MINUTE Page 110 of 224 I J The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format. Number. Time command. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 B C D E To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : F 0:45 G H =MOD(F49. Cells.

Range2.500 £12. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £3.000 £7.000 Mar £4.000 £2.000 £2.500 Feb £6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MIN Page 111 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 £3. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.000 Overall MIN £2. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.000 £4.000 £10...000 £5.800 £3.Range3.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4. month and overall.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £6. Syntax =MIN(Range1.000 £2.000 £4.500 £3.

99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.5.5.C50)-1) .E6) =MID(C8.D6.FIND("/".3) =MID(C9.5. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.12. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.C50. and how many characters to pick.12.5.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.99) =MID(C14.5. only the available characters will be picked.2) NP =MID(C37.FIND("/".E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.3) =MID(C10.C50)+1)-FIND("/".2) WA =MID(C36.C50)+1.D5. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.12. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MID Page 112 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4.FIND("/".5.PositionToStartPicking.99) =MID(C13. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5) 2 ED =MID(C6. The function needs to know at what point it should start.3) =MID(C12.D4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / . plus 1 for the Start of the code. occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract. Find the second /.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H MID Page 113 of 224 I Find the first /.

Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2.. The median is not the average. .. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. If there is no exact median number in the group.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MEDIAN Page 114 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.Range3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

000 £4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Month Max £12. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MAX Page 115 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 Mar £4.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .000 Overall Max £12.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.000 £7..500 £3.000 £10.Range2.000 £10.500 £12.000 £10.000 £5.000 £12.000 Feb £6.000 £2.800 £3.. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region. Sales North South East West Jan £5. month and overall.000 £7.000 £6. Syntax =MAX(Range1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I

MATCH Page 116 of 224 J K

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value :

Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000

The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. It can be used with text and numbers. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or -1.

Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)

Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Using -1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. The Ascending list gives the exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A

Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. The Ascending list gives the exact match.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A G H I

MATCH Page 117 of 224 J K

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)

Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79,G74:G77,-1)

Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats. If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,-1),0)

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5

Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. The pupils scores were entered in another list. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction H I

MATCH Page 118 of 224 J K

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115

Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

LOWER Page 119 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123

Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123

=LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8)

What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

RangeToLookIn. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Vector) Page 120 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12.D4:G10. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.F4:F10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. and then picks an item from a second range of cells. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.C38:C43.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. otherwise errors will occur.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. either as #N/A or incorrect results. If the name Carol is used. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

as in the description above. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. Example 1 Example 2 .RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. When a match is found. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. When a match is found. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4:G10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J LOOKUP (Array) Page 121 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns.

so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 LOOKUP (Array) Page 122 of 223 K Jan David 100 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. Sometimes the results will be correct. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Table 2 shows the same data. Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. but not sorted.G80:J86) . Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D In this table there are more rows than columns.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . either as #N/A or incorrect results. otherwise errors will occur. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : E F G H I J In this table there are more columns than rows.

Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ".C24) This is the position of the space.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEN Page 123 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . in a piece of text. Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed.C24)) This is just the second name. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24) This is the length of the second name. =RIGHT(C24. including spaces and numbers. Carol Williams 8 .

C29)-1) .NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =LEFT(C5.D6) =LEFT(C7. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27.FIND(" ".D5) =LEFT(C6. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.FIND(" ".D7) =LEFT(C8. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEFT Page 124 of 223 J 1 2 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29.FIND(" ".D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.

through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. .D4) =LCM(C5. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple. Syntax =LCM(Number1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LCM Page 125 of 223 J 1 2 Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4.Number2.D5) =LCM(C6..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number3.

1) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £5. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 Mar £4. Feb and Mar.000 £10.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .4) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £7.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.000 £4.000 £2. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £6.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.800 £3.500 £12.000 £10.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £12.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 Feb £6. Highest Lowest £12.000 £7.500 £3.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 126 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.

000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8.FALSE). If the entry is text is shows TRUE.D27:E31.C27:E31. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.VLOOKUP(E33. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.3.000 £12.000 £15.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISTEXT Page 127 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.FALSE)) . and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.000 £8. ID No.000 £12. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.2. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .VLOOKUP(E33. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.

but when used on the worksheet. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. or FALSE for any other type of value. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISREF Page 128 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. . Its a bit of an odd one. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.

An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISODD Page 129 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.5 3.5 2. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 3. . Note that decimal fractions are ignored. Note that dates can be odd or even.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

FALSE)) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 130 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value. If the cell or calculation is not numeric. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.D29:E33.000 £8.3.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12.000 £12. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. or is blank.C29:E33.000 £12.VLOOKUP(E35. ID No. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35). Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.FALSE).2.000 £15. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.VLOOKUP(E35. the result FALSE is shown.

The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. rather than text which looks like a number. rather than text.D40*E40. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. 300."Retype the Price") .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 131 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation.

The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ISNA Page 132 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. . The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but will be used for data entry in the future.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the cell does not contain a logical value. If the cell does contain a logical value. . The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. the result TRUE is shown. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result FALSE is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 133 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.

6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 134 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.5 3.6 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that dates can be even or odd. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. .5 2. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.

It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula."Error in data entry". Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISERROR Page 135 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D40-D39) . Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function."Try again!".E40/E41) . Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISERR Page 136 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. or if the error is the #NA message. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. which Excel does not do. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 137 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25-Dec-98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.E36. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE.0) Totals 550 1050 . Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors.0.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36).

25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 =INT((D49-C49)/365.3 10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INT Page 138 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Number 1.25 7.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. This has the effect of increasing the child age. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.5 2.8678987 7. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .75 -1.570157426 8.25) . A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.

2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 E 7 F G H I INT Page 139 of 223 J Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 The reason for using 365. The number of days is then divided by 365. .25 is to take account of the leap years.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E INFO Page 140 of 223 F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested. Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. (PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 156 $A:$A$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. .01 Automatic 14.

The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : #REF! =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. Type the name of the sheet. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J INDIRECT Page 141 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. SOUTH and EAST. such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. Type the name of the sheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 #REF! =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above.

or non-continuos blocks. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.2.G11.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1.RowCoordinate.2 or 3 for statistics : . Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Type 1. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. It can be used with a single block of data.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INDEX Page 142 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Holiday booking price list. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.

2.0).AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.500 £6.500 £12.0).500 £5. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 £10.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £9.500 £9.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E The result is : F Paris G H =INDEX(D45:F48.500 £11.500 Type 1.000 £8. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 £7.500 Type 1.500 £10.500 £7.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £11.500 £8.500 £8.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £9. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.F50.000 £7.000 £10.000 £6.500 Qtr3 £3.000 £5.1.IF(F102=C95.000 Qtr4 £4.D90:G90.C91:C93.000 £11.MATCH(F101.000 Qtr3 £3.ColumnColumnCordinate.2))) .000 £5. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.000 £8. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.000 Qtr2 £2.500 Qtr2 £2.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.500 £7.000 £12.500 wood qtr2 west 6500 Qtr4 £4.500 £5.500 £11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 Qtr2 £2.500 £9.000 £12.MATCH(F100.IF(F102=C90.000 Qtr3 £3.500 £12.F77. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example. 2.000 £10.RowCoordinate.F78) Qtr4 £4. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.F51) I INDEX Page 143 of 223 J Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.000 Qtr4 £4. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 £6.500 £6.500 Qtr3 £3.F76.

The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown. such as A1=A2.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. If the Sales do not reach Target."Achieved". If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. text or calculations. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved". the Commission is only 5% of Sales."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. Formatting No special formatting is required. Syntax =IF(Condition."Achieved"."Achieved". .C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44."Achieved"."Achieved". The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function.C45*10%. one of two actions will be carried out."Achieved". Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.ActionIfTrue. Depending upon the result.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C44*10%. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated.C43*10%."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. Each has their own target which they must reach.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I IF Page 144 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines.

000 £ 2.000 I IF Page 145 of 223 J Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1.0) .700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes". Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D61*10%. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.000 £ 500 £ 3.800 £ £ 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.D61>=1000).

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I HOUR Page 146 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Number 21:15 0. Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.

It then calculates the position of the name in the list.Mar is correct.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D3:F10. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.RowToPickFrom.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. FALSE for no. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Bob Eric Alan Carol David . Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. they are part of the illustration.Mar. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : =HLOOKUP(F10.F11. Unfortunately.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J HLOOKUP Page 147 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed.Feb. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. even though to us the order of Jan. When the item is found. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. TRUE for yes.Jan. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.RangeToLookIn. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.

F73:F77.MATCH(F55. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.0)+1.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. =HLOOKUP(C127.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F feb alan G H I J HLOOKUP Page 148 of 223 K Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. If a match is not found. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.D47:F54. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. Wood and Glass.G72:I77. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. and the discount from .FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.0)+1. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.C48:C52. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.E111:G112. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.MATCH(C79. the next lowest value is used.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.2. When the make is found. the function will produce an error. The name of the Item is typed in column C.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

E115:G118.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.0)+1.MATCH(C127.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H the 100 column is used.E115:G118.D116:D118.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 I J HLOOKUP Page 149 of 223 K Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.D116:D118. =HLOOKUP(D127.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.2.TRUE) .MATCH(C127.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E111:G112.0)+1.

813.755. Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .887 -549.813.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G HEX2DEC Page 150 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GESTEP Page 151 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.E28) =GESTEP(D29. the result of 1 will be shown.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9. and the results are totalled.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.000 £2.000 Target £4.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E30) =GESTEP(D31.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.000 £8.E27) =GESTEP(D28.000 £5.000 £4.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target.000 £1.E29) =GESTEP(D30.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.000 £2.000 £7.000 £2. If the number is greater than or equal.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7. otherwise 0 is shown.

.E9) =GCD(C10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified. The result is always a whole number.D11..D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2.D4) =GCD(C5.Number3. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GCD Page 152 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4.D5) =GCD(C6.5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9.. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used. Syntax =GCD(Number1.D9.Number2.E10) =GCD(C11. Decimal fractions are ignored.D10.

15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 Sales above £6. P or D.000 £7. £4.500 £3.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.000 Sales above £4.000 Feb £6.47 22.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £6.000 and below.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 .C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values.000 £999. Unfortunately. E.800 £3. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.83 15.66 17. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 153 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 North South East West Jan £5. A.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.000 £4.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.80 8. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 £5. Weight Kg 20.500 £12.36 16.E9:E11)} Sales £4.28 20.74 10.000 £2.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The function is entered in the cells as an array. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. V.000 up to £6.000 Mar £4. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.67 18.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? . that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.000 £10. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.000 £6. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 154 of 223 J The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions. the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character. As this code is a numeric value.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . (Jan to Jun). If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6.000 30 £8. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E39:E41.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FORECAST Page 155 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7.997 Sales £1.000 £2. such as Sales figures.000 =FORECAST(E11. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.000 20 £8. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team.000 £2.500 £3. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values. such as Month number.800 £4. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5.D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : .667 =FORECAST(E43. (or past). The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. The size of the New Sales team is entered. for which you need the forecast.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.500 40 £10. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.F4:F9.500 £3. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future.RangeY.

50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.890 £18. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.500 £56.000 £560 £18.1) =FLOOR(C6.5 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1000) . Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.1) =FLOOR(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H FLOOR Page 156 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Number 1. which is then used as the basis for Commission.3 2.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.50) =FLOOR(C8.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.1) =FLOOR(C7. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.50) =FLOOR(C9.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.000 £230 £56.

25 10.2) 10.000.0. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.0) 10 10.3 =FIXED(C10. Note that any further formatting with the Format.23 1. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.000's.2) 1000 1.25 10.000 =FIXED(C13.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.00 =FIXED(C7. Number command will not have any effect. and commas can be inserted at the 1.0) 10.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 =FIXED(C8) 10.1) 10. Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J FIXED Page 157 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.DecimalPlaces.25 10 =FIXED(C9.25 =FIXED(C11.25 10.1) 10 10.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.0 =FIXED(C6. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5. Cells.0) 1000.

An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor.TextToLookInside.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FIND Page 158 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4.C7) =FIND(D8. StartPosition : This is optional.C4) =FIND(D5. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. the first occurrence is used. Formatting No special formatting is needed. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.C8. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. . If the letter is not found in the text.6) =FIND(D9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result will be shown as a number.C5) =FIND(D6. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter.C6) =FIND(D7. the result #VALUE is shown.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.

which results in 120.etc.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.176.628. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FACT Page 159 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 3 3.432.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting. No special formatting is needed.640.800 2. .5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3.008.902. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored..

Example Here is a simple password checking formula. either red blue or green. You need to guess the correct password. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though.D4) =EXACT(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K EXACT Page 160 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. The password is the name of a colour.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The case of the password is important. The case of the characters is taken into account.D5) =EXACT(C6. . the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess. Syntax =EXACT(Text1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number. Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EVEN Page 161 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Value 1 1. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.

TYPE Page 162 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ################ Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred. . Syntax =ERROR.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.

D5) =EOMONTH(C6.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date. .Number.Date command. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Cells.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EOMONTH Page 163 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

D29) =EDATE(C30.Number.D31) =EDATE(C32.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff. The contract Duration is entered as months.D27) =EDATE(C28.2)-5.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future.D32) =EDATE(C33.Cells.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.D30) =EDATE(C31.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.D5) =EDATE(C6. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.0) . If the week day number is 6 or 7.Date command.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.2)>5. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract. The company needed to know the end date of the employment. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.D48).D28) =EDATE(C29. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D48). (Sat or Sun).D4) =EDATE(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EDATE Page 164 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48. The Start date is entered.

00 £0.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.15 25 0 £0. The second set of information is the actual record. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.00 £2.20 30 2 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . of the values to be totalled. or records. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Horizon £248.80 10 5 £40. or 100 as the wattage.50 4 3 £54. The first set of information is the name.00 3 2 £30.20 25 2 £10.00 £5. or cell.50 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £2.25 10 4 £50. or names.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 10 3 £15. such as the category Brand or Wattage.20 40 3 £24.00 £0.80 25 6 £120. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 15 2 £60.I3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DSUM Page 165 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 =DSUM(B3:I19.80 20 5 £180.25 10 5 £12.FieldName. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns. Product Brand . The FieldName is the name.00 £1. which are to be selected. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.50 15 0 £0.00 £1.

E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19.50 F sunbeam G H I J DSUM Page 166 of 223 K Total stock value is : =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E67:F68) ."Value Of Stock".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . £54.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.I3. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56."Value Of Stock".

DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.1) =DOLLAR(C11.25 10. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.25 Converted To Text $10.00 $10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DOLLAR Page 167 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.1) =DOLLAR(C7. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.25 $10 $10.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.25 10.25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.0 $10.0) =DOLLAR(C6.00 $10 $10.3 $10. The result will be shown as a text entry. .0) =DOLLAR(C10.

Product Brand .00 £0.50 4 3 £54. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. The FieldName is the name.00 £2.20 40 3 £24. or names. including the field names at the top of the columns.10 20 5 £10.20 30 2 £12.80 20 5 £180. Horizon £10.00 £0.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.00 =DMIN(B3:I19. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.80 25 6 £120.50 15 1 £37.00 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 168 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. of the values to pick the Min from. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 15 2 £60. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.I3.00 £0. or cell.25 10 5 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. or 100 as the wattage. The first set of information is the name.20 25 2 £10.FieldName. The second set of information is the actual record.50 £0.00 £5. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.50 10 3 £15. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 3 2 £30.00 £1.00 £0.00 £2. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0. or records. which are to be selected.75 £0.25 10 4 £50.80 10 5 £40.

"Value Of Stock".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. £3."Value Of Stock".E67:G68) .75 =DMIN(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £3.I3. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".75 F sunbeam G H I J DMIN Page 169 of 223 K The lowest value is : =DMIN(B3:I19.E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19.

The first set of information is the name.00 15 2 £60.00 £1.80 25 6 £120.25 10 5 £12.00 £2.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. The second set of information is the actual record. including the field names at the top of the columns. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. .CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 £0.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 3 2 £30. or 100 as the wattage.00 £5. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The FieldName is the name or cell.00 £0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DMAX Page 170 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.I3. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.00 £0. Horizon £60. of the values to pick the Max from.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.15 25 0 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0. or records.50 4 3 £54.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.50 10 3 £15.20 30 2 £12.00 £1.80 20 5 £180.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19.FieldName. such as Horizon as a brand name. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.I3.50 15 0 £0. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30.20 25 2 £10. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column. which are to be selected.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or names.

Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.00 F G H I J K DMAX Page 171 of 223 L =DMAX(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E67:F68) .00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.

00 £1.25 10 5 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 172 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.80 25 6 £120.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.50 4 3 £54.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.75 £0. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £5. or names.80 20 5 £180. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange.H3.50 £0.20 30 2 £12. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.FieldName.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.00 £2.00 £0.00 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 3 2 £30.50 £0. or 100 as the wattage. The first set of information is the name. The FieldName is the name. of the values to Get.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result.00 £1. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown. such as the category Brand or Wattage. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . including the field names at the top of the columns.80 10 5 £40. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.50 15 1 £37. or cell.20 40 3 £24.

") .C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.H3.C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.H3.C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19."Duplicates products found. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19."No such product. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.C85:F86) No such product."One product found.2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 173 of 223 K How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.").CHOOSE(ERROR.TYPE(F88)/3. =IF(ISERR(F88).".H3.

D9) =DELTA(C10.5 18 0.5 17. text values produce a result of #VALUE.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .D5) =DELTA(C6.D4) =DELTA(C5. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.D31) =DELTA(C32. Number1 10 50 30 17.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30. It only works with numbers. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.D8) =DELTA(C9.D6) =DELTA(C7.D30) =DELTA(C31.5 17.D7) =DELTA(C8.D35) =DELTA(C36. The formatting of the number is not significant.D32) =DELTA(C33. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed. otherwise the result is 0. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D34) =DELTA(C35.175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DELTA Page 174 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number1 10 50 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D33) =DELTA(C34.

PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.755.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.755.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.888 549.813.813.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.755.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.887.755.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DEC2HEX Page 175 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549. Formatting No special formatting is needed. .755.888 to 549.887 -549.755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813. although this is ignored for negatives.813.888 -549.813.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.813.

Formatting No special formatting is needed.D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D18) =DEC2BIN(C19.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros. although this is ignored for negatives. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DEC2BIN Page 176 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.

80 20 5 £180.20 25 2 £10. The first set of information is the name.00 £0. or names. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.50 4 3 £54. Formatting No special formatting is needed.FieldName.00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.00 £5. of the values to Count. or records. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column. such as the category Brand or Wattage.20 40 3 £24.10 20 5 £10. but blank cells are ignored.00 £2.25 10 4 £50.50 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.75 £0.00 £1.80 10 5 £40. or 100 as the wattage.E3.15 25 1 £3. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.50 15 1 £37.00 £0.00 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNTA Page 177 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. The second set of information is the actual record.50 10 3 £15. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. .00 £0.20 30 2 £12. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. It counts values and text items.50 £0. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand. which are to be selected.00 3 2 £30. or cell. The FieldName is the name.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D3.E68:F70) . Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E50:F51) G H I J DCOUNTA Page 178 of 223 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address.E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand."Product". 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 1 F Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19."Life Hours"."Product".

00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .80 10 5 £40. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. the text items and blank cells are ignored. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. It can only count values. The first set of information is the name.20 30 2 £12.50 10 3 £15.20 25 2 £10.00 £5. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.25 10 5 £12.80 25 6 £120.50 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. The FieldName is the name. or records.10 20 5 £10.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £2.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.00 £1.00 15 2 £60.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNT Page 179 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.FieldName. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. of the values to Count. or cell. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Formatting No special formatting is needed.25 10 4 £50. .CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. or names.80 20 5 £180. such as Horizon as a brand name.20 40 3 £24. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £2.75 £0.50 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.50 15 1 £37.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.00 £0. which are to be selected. Examples The count of a particular product. with a specific number of boxes in stock. or 100 as the wattage.00 £1.D3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 F Boxes In Stock 5 G H I J

DCOUNT Page 180 of 223 K

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)

This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)

The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)

The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G

DB Page 181 of 223 H I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

£5,000 5 £200 Deprecation £2,375.00 £1,246.88 £654.61 £343.67 £180.43

=DB(E3,E5,E4,D8) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)

£4,800.58 * See example 4 below.

What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation. Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. Purchase Price : Salvage value : £5,000 £1,000

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 B C D Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 4 5 E 5 Deprecation £1,375.00 £996.88 £722.73 £523.98 £379.89 =DB(E47,E48,E49,D56) £3,998.48 % Deprc 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% F G

DB Page 182 of 223 H I

Total Depreciation :

Example 2 This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5,000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.79 £8.24 £7.72 £7.23 £6.78 =DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)

Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5,000 5 £1,000 6 Deprecation £687.50 £1,185.94 £859.80 £623.36 £451.93 =DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77) £3,808.54 % Deprc 13.75% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

Total Depreciation :

Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

DB Page 183 of 223 I

B C D E F G H This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Salvage value : £1,000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1,375.0000 £996.8750 £722.7344 £523.9824 £379.8873 £3,998.48 Real Depreciation £1,376.1017 £997.3705 £722.8739 £523.9243 £379.7297 £4,000.00 £1.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500%

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

Error difference :

Formatting The result will be shown as a number.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DAYS360 Page 184 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below.EndDate.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems. To correct this add 1 to the result.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.TRUE) =DAYS360(C7. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.End.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note The calculation does not include the last day.D4.D6.TRUE) =DAYS360(C6.TRUE)+1 . =DAYS360(C4. =DAYS360(Start. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.D7.D5.

Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) .Cells.Number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G DAY Page 185 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Full Date 25-Dec-98 10-Apr-13 10-Apr-13 The Day 25 Tue 10 10 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd. Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.

00 £0.50 4 3 £54. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange.00 £2.00 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage. Product Brand . The first set of information is the name. or records.80 20 5 £180. The FieldName is the name.F3.00 £0.20 25 2 £10. including the field names at the top of the columns.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.00 £2.20 40 3 £24.00 £0. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.15 25 0 £0. or names. The second set of information is the actual record. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.10 20 5 £10.50 15 0 £0.00 15 2 £60.00 £1. or cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £5. such as Horizon as a brand name. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.25 10 5 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DAVERAGE Page 186 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 £0.00 £0. of the values to be averaged.00 £0.50 10 3 £15.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. which are to be selected.FieldName.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.80 10 5 £40. Formatting No special formatting is needed.20 30 2 £12.25 10 4 £50.00 £1. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.00 3 2 £30. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.

F3. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0."Unit Cost"."Unit Cost".E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address."Unit Cost".16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E67:F68) .17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £1. £1.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.16 F Horizon G H I J DAVERAGE Page 187 of 223 K The average of Horizon Bulb is : =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.

BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 . Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. such as exports from mainframe computers. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4855 10-july/99 -5023 13-sep-98 -5323 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format. probably after being imported from an external program.Date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 188 of 223 G H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.Number.

"yd") =DATEDIF(C8."m") =DATEDIF(C6."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates."y") 3 =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8."ym") 9 =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). "m" Months between the two dates.D7. "d" Days between the two dates.D4.D6. as if the dates were in the same year. "md" Days between the two dates."d") =DATEDIF(C5. "ym" Months between the dates."md") You can put this all together in one calculation."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates."md")&" Days" ."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). "&DATEDIF(C8. "yd" Days between the dates.TODAY(). It can show the result in weeks. as if the dates were in the same month and year. 3 Months and 9 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8.D9.SecondDate."y")&" Years. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate.D8. "y" Years between the two dates.D5. months or years. Age is 53 Years. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. which creates a text version."y") =DATEDIF(C7. These are the available intervals.TODAY().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . as if the dates were in the same year.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 189 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4.TODAY(). Formatting No special formatting is needed.

By using the Format.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.D6.Number.C5) January 2. 2000 =DATE(E6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DATE Page 190 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.Cells. .C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.month.D5.D4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DATE(year.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.Date command the format can be changed.

CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. How many Tyres have been bought."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12. How many items cost £100 or above. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. ">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. Type the name of the item to count. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. "Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes. . To match a specific number type the number.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 191 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12.

Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I COUNTBLANK Page 192 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. The response to the question could be Y or N. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table."N") Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : .

.Range2. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. It will ignore blanks. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNTA Page 193 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. 2 or 3. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. A failure was entered as Fail. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) .Range3. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.69574 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. Each exam passed was graded as 1.

Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Metal £1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNT Page 194 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.000 Wood £5.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 ..000 Glass £2. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month. It will ignore blanks.. text and errors.000 £1.Range3. Syntax =COUNT(Range1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range2.096772 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J

CORREL Page 195 of 223 K

1 2 3

Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400

Table 2 Advertising Costs £2,000 £1,000 £5,000 £1,000 £8,000 £1,000

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50

Sales £20,000 £30,000 £20,000 £40,000 £40,000 £20,000

Correlation 0.864 =CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10)

Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)

What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. The larger the result, the greater the correlation. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. Syntax =CORREL(Range1,Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONVERT Page 196 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.5 0.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4) 0.3048 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5) 0.9144 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6) 365.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8) =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9) =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10) =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.35301 =CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.81 3 2.5146 2 1.5748 =CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")

Weight

Height Length Width

Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.) Pressure Pascal

g kg sg lbm u ozm

m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica

yr day hr

Pa

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C mn sec D E Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F atm mmHg G H

CONVERT Page 197 of 223 I

C F K

N dyn lbf

tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l

J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU

HP W

Magnetism Tesla Gauss

T ga

These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+15 P 1.00E+12 T 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+06 M 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+02 h 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-06 1.00E-09 1.00E-12 1.00E-15 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONCATENATE Page 198 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol

Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4) Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5) Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6) Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7) Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8) Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)

What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. Formatting No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =C25&D25 Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26 Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27 Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28 Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29 Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30

D4) =COMBIN(C5. The internal order of the combination does not matter.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F COMBIN Page 199 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. The decorator is given five colours to work with.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.D5) =COMBIN(C6.D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office. so AB is the same as BA. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black . but can only use three in any scheme.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow D Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black E Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black F Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black COMBIN Page 200 of 223 G Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . 69 . There are 255 characters in the ANSI set.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 201 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character.70 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € • ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ • Ţ • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ • ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. or the first character in a piece of text. Example See the example for FREQUENCY.

2000 23 Peter 48Noneley 0 73 I 24 49 1 74 J A 25 B 50 2 C75 K 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 D 100 ] ^ _ ` a b c d 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 v w x y z { | }E 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 F 175 ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 G 200 Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à H á 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú I CODE Page 202 of 224 J K 55 .18 43 + 68 D 19 44 . 69 E 20 45 . 71 G Excel Function 22 Dictionary 47 / 72 H © 1998 .70 F 21 46 .

Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CLEAN Page 203 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result will show as normal text. . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.

15%.18%) =CHOOSE(C8.CHOOSE(D30. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3.10%.C30:C34) .CHOOSE(D34. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Gold".CHOOSE(D32.18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user."Gold". The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."Bronze")."Gold"."Bronze"). Item2."Silver".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 204 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4.15%."unplaced") =RANK(C34."Alan". Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Gold"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6."Bob". due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.15%."Silver"."Alan"."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3. Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required."Silver". as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear."Gold". Item1.10%."Silver"."Bronze")."Silver".10%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Bob"."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3. The Time for each athlete is entered.CHOOSE(D33."Bronze").CHOOSE(D31."Bob"."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."Alan"."Bronze"). The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete.18%) =CHOOSE(C9.

70 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 69 . Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 205 of 224 V W X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting. these will be displayed as a small box.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character. Q R S T U CHAR Page 206 of 224 V W X .

xls]CELL =CELL("filename". Formatted for coloured negatives.00_).D3) 1 for yes.D3) =CELL("type".##0.##0 0.00 #.D3) =CELL("row". The alignment of the cell. Numeric Format General 0 #.D3) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. v for value. l for text.##0.D3) =CELL("format". The column number.D3) 1 for a locked. 0 =CELL("color".00% 0. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\[139234450. The type of entry in the cell. 1 =CELL("protect".xls. 0 for no.##0) $#.2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 .##0. The row number.ms_office.D3) =CELL("contents".50% $D$3 4 3 0. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.00) $#.($#.00) 0% 0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The cell address. (See the table shown below) 17.00 $#.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents.D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width". The width of the cell.##0_).0 F2 . Shown as b for blank. The filename containing the cell.($#. 0 for no.##0_). The number format fo the cell. 0 for unlocked. Nothing is shown for numeric entries. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 .00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. position and formatting.[Red]($#.##0. Shown as ' for left.D3) =CELL("col". 0 =CELL("parentheses".D3) =CELL("prefix".##0) $#.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ". Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".[Red]($#.00_). The type of cell protection. " for right.D3) 1 for yes. The actual contents of the cell. ^ for centre.##0.175 v =CELL("address".This is the cell and contents to test.

CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.FIND("[".FIND("]". The name of the current file is : 139234450.CELL("filename"))-1) .CELL("filename"))+1.xls.ms_office.xls =MID(CELL("filename").

xls]CELL .ms_office.xls.0.

7) =CEILING(D30.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.1) =CEILING(C5. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number.1) =CEILING(D56/E56.MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.1) . Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.5 1.30) =CEILING(C8. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 =CEILING(D54/E54. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis.1 1.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.Number 2.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity.1) =CEILING(D55/E55. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck.1) =CEILING(C7.1) =CEILING(C6. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28. Formatting No special formatting is needed.33 8.33 5.30) =CEILING(C9. This results of the division are not whole numbers. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.7) =CEILING(D29.

25 £28.Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.0.62000 5.99) Calculates the integer part of the price. Calculates the decimal part of the price.75000 1.81818 1.25 £28.99 .99 5.99 1. Raises the decimal to 0.60714 2.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.81818 2. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.60714 5. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83). The shopkeeper buys products by the box.62000 1. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.99 2.1). Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.0.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 #REF! 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters.

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the cell is blank or contains text.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28. the cell will be included in the average calculation. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1..3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). If the cell contains zero 0.Range3..667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range2.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage .667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.

or whether it is a multiple selection. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H AREAS Page 214 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. The function is designed to be used in macros. If it is a single block the result will be 1. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used.

Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38). The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38)) Averages 47 54 60 .D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100. Syntax =AND(Test1. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams.Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100.D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38). It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.

The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.1.3. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.TRUE. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1.Absolute. cols A to IV.2. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1. . When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.1.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.4.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.F3.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384.F3. The Absolute can be 1. neither col or row absolute.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.2. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .F5) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.3.F3.2.F3. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256. based on a row and column numbers given by the user.TRUE.4. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1.4.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE. the normal style for cell addresses.F3.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. only the row absolute.F3.F3.3 or 4.TRUE. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ADDRESS Page 216 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello!$B$3 Hello!B$3 Hello!$B3 Hello!B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4. column and row absolute. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1.F3. The SheetName does not actually have to exist. the alternative style of cell address. only the column absolute.2. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber.ColNumber.3.1.A1orR1C1.

Number 10 -10 1. Whether the wood was too long or short. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative.25 1. Table 1 shows the original calculations. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference .25 -1. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. no special formatting is needed.

Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. column or all cells and then press Alt and =. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column. you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. or Select a row. Jan 10 20 30 40 100 Feb 50 60 70 80 260 Mar 90 100 200 300 690 Total 150 180 330 420 1050 North South East West Total . then press Alt and =.

"y")&" Years."ym") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().TODAY().TODAY(). The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function.TODAY(). Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. but it is in 2000."y") =DATEDIF(C8.5 represents 6 months.You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 29-Apr-73 39 11 12 =DATEDIF(C8. 11 Months and 12 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. If the age is 20. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5.5. which creates a text version.25 ."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. "&DATEDIF(C8. 7 or 97. the .TODAY().27 =(TODAY()-C23)/365. Age is 39 Years.TODAY().

.Sometimes you will need to use brackets. resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 . The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply. (also known as 'braces').. in formula. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and .

CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name.xls]Home1 =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("[".CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G Filename formula Page 221 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.1.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".xls. This can be done by using the CELL() function.255) .xls. 139234450.xls =MID(CELL("filename"). Home1 =MID(CELL("filename").ms_office. To pick the Path. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\[139234450.FIND("[". shown below.ms_office.FIND("]". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\ =MID(CELL("filename").

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 222 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. Then press F11. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.

and the names change to Feb and Mar. Options. Accept Labels in Formula. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 223 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You can switch it on by using Tools. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. .

excel formulas

excel formulas

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