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“Identifying Opportunities and Powering Sustainable Growth in Singapore”
Chiu Chai Hao
Singapore Armed Forces, Basic Military Training Centre, School 4
Leveraging on her socio-political stability. Diversifying portfolio and exploring alternative energy sources are strategies towards achieving energy security. Singapore can become a centre for testbedding of clean technology and urban management. sound economic fundamentals and strong rule of law. a possibly neglected option. This is especially so with the urban populations projected to increase significantly in the near future. Similarly. Eventually. innovative transport solutions such as experimenting with the bicycle-hire scheme will aim to alleviate the strains on public transport infrastructure. education and involvement of the community since young helps to nurture a critical mass of talent pool and ensure the engagement of the locals in policy-making process.Abstract Faced with challenges from growing resource constraints and threats from global climate change. Singapore is well-poised to obtain a global leadership in clean technology and urban management solutions. . while top-down approaches dominate the nature of policies in this essay due to the importance of government in this sector. besides government investments. there are nonetheless opportunities for Singapore to tap into. increasing the demand for this industry. this essay advocates greater exploration into geothermal energy. At the same time. given our proximity to major markets and available infrastructure.
NASA) 1 Human activities that produce greenhouse gases (GHGs).57 parts per million (ppm). o Correspondingly. provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. Historically. and has been on the rise since precise measurement of atmospheric CO 2 levels in 1958. climate change has transformed from a conjecture to an inconvenient truth. (Source: NOAA.3 Figure 1: This graph. 2 With more than 90% confidence (Source: IPCC. such as burning of fossil fuels for electricity and in vehicles as well as deforestation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that anthropogenic sources1 of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions is the likely2 source of enhanced greenhouse effect – best captured by the rising global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and average temperatures.000 years. AR4) 3 Global CO2 concentrations are higher than they have been in the past 650. CO2 concentrations in the last 650. global average temperatures have also risen by about 0.000 years ranged from 180 to 300ppm.Identifying Opportunities and Powering Sustainable Growth in Singapore Climate Change and Energy Challenge: Threats to Singapore In a single decade. The 2011 average annual concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (from Mauna Loa Observatory) is 391.74 C in the last century (Sources: NASA. based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements. AR4) . NOAA and IPCC.
where most of it less than 15m above sea level. Four independent sets of data from various institutes re-affirm the enhanced greenhouse effect – which sees the Earth become warmer. Being highly dependent on imported energy is yet another concern for Singapore. given the price-inelastic nature of demand and 4 2 Due to both the small land are (778 km ) and low relief. loss of biodiversity and risks of food shortages are few of the multi-faceted impacts of climate change. saltwater intrusion due to rising sea levels. ecological effects notwithstanding.Figure 2: Global Surface Temperatures on the Rise. 5 Economic growth and increased economic activities results in the increasing demand for energy. NOAA National Climatic Data Centre. This global crisis will reduce our quality of living and bring about huge economical impacts. in particular China. low-lying. 4 Higher temperatures. led by the emerging economies. (Sources: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. With rising world energy demand in recent years 5 . . Met Office Hadley Centre/Climatic Research Unit and the Japanese Meteorological Agency) A small. island-city. Singapore is vulnerable to the effects of global climate change.
the word "crisis" is composed of two characters – one represents danger. this essay propose strategies that the writer deems to be more relevant to Singapore. While a sustainable growth path offer a plethora of opportunities. the rising energy costs pose a serious challenge to Singapore‟s economic competitiveness and growth. With the trend likely to remain for the near future. sustainable and innovative” to overcome the challenges and seize the opportunities in a sustainable growth path. in the retail sector. In manufacturing and services. (Source: Economic Strategies Committee) .7 6 With cost-push inflation increasing industrial and living costs. fossil fuel prices have increased sharply.John Fitzgerald Kennedy As the Economic Strategies Committee outlined. Gains from a Sustainable Growth Path Benefits from a sustainable growth path are far-reaching.supply. the reduced cost-competitiveness could result in lower chances of MNCs relocating to Singapore. productivity is a mere third of the levels in the US. Indeed. At the same time. While diversifying portfolio achieves energy security that underpins price stability. Singapore‟s productivity levels lie at 55-65% of the US and Japan. by increasing costs of living. an inflationary spiral can be triggered.” . have the potential to widen income disparity. These cost savings helps to achieve critical resource productivity gains that Singapore is in need of.6 Opportunities in Sustainable Development and Recommended Policies “When written in Chinese. 7 Productivity-led growth has been oft-heard in local economic discourse. Higher food and energy costs. and the other represents opportunity. there is significant room for improvement in productivity. increasing energy efficiency helps to reduce firms‟ operating costs and households‟ living costs. Singapore needs to “become a smart energy economy that is resilient.
remain as the focus of alternative energy development programmes given Singapore‟s high insolation. Infrastructure such as long-distance.html. the government and government-linked corporations.com/BreakingNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_766378. can lower the entry barriers and make the market more attractive for firms and providers. by investing in the critical mass and providing for the high upfront costs. i. . diversifying her energy portfolio and increasing energy efficiency are the main thrusts that could insulate her from future price hikes. 9 This is modelled after the successful Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminal. meanwhile. as will be explored later. Also.Moreover. adopting a sustainable growth path.com/BreakingNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_766097. The LNG Terminal allows LNG to be imported and exported from and to the region. Singapore has limited options. Solar energy. http://www. wind and tidal energy non-economical. (Sources: http://www. Achieving Energy Security – Diversification and Increasing Energy Efficiency As an energy price-taker. making Singapore a „regional gas hub‟. 8 A country gaining competitive advantage refers to it becoming more competitive in the specific industry by exploiting economies of scale and agglomeration advantages.g. The lack of major river systems. which has drawn huge demand even before its completion in 2013. Government policies are important in ensuring the diversification of energy portfolio since the free market will tend towards the lowest cost solutions.9 Looking into renewable energy for diversification.straitstimes.html) The cable will also allow Singapore to explore nuclear energy (generated by neighbouring country) while allaying safety concerns. confers Singapore with a competitive advantage 8 that allows her to benefit from the growing industry by developing her niche in the area. high-voltage cables to import and export electricity from the region allow us to tap into the renewable energy sources of the region (e. hydroelectricity from the Mekong region). low wind speeds (below commercially-viable speeds) and limited land and sea space makes hydro.straitstimes.
aspx?pageid=113 13 With world-class high heat flow (of high temperatures 2km underground) and hot springs together with new. Source: http://esi. Simultaneously. it is still unlikely to replace conventional energy sources given the high. but the latter is relatively cleaner. there is still a need for proper disposal of radioactive waste – which constitute a high variable cost. Thus renewable energy (mainly solar) should constitute a small. While technology may have improved the safety of nuclear generators.nccs. advocating a structured. Steady development in the relevant infrastructure allows Singapore to seize the opportunity to stepup energy production once solar power is more economically feasible than conventional sources. comprehensive S$2 million feasibility study13. Support for R&D efforts. test-bedding programmes will continue to grow in view of the opportunities arising from them. geothermal energy (the authors allege) has the potential to provide electricity. Nonetheless. increasing energy efficiency as a demand-management policy allow more to be achieved with less. 11 However.pdf?Status=Master . the government should also commission a study on the feasibility of geothermal energy in Singapore. Similar concerns have already been raised ever since the government announced that it will look into the feasibility of nuclear energy.gov. See Appendix 3. Singapore aims to increase energy 10 11 Solar Power is expected to become cheaper than conventional sources by 2015. as will be covered later. While the National Climate Change Secretariat states that “prospects are low and uncertainties are high” 12 . cheaper technology. Fukushima. cooling. Geography and Environmental Engineering professors in National University of Singapore suggest the contrary.10 (See Appendix 1) Besides considering the feasibility of nuclear energy. Source: http://app. represented by the NCCS. 12 The government‟s stance on geothermal energy. but consistently increasing portion of total energy.edu. albeit falling costs of production. cheaper and less controversial.sg/docs/event/oliver-egs-hsa-concept-forsingapore-ppt-sg$-ppt-for-chevron. heating and desalination facilities that are strategic to Singapore. Three Mile Island and recently.Even though renewable energy achieves security and sustainability. Under the Sustainable Development Blueprint by the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Sustainable Development (IMCSD). Both are lessexplored options.sg/page. Public resistance is also likely to be strong for nuclear projects tend to bring the spectre of Chernobyl. the perspectives on the potential on geothermal energy are divided.nus. a feasibility study is required to ascertain the costs and dangers (such as human-triggered seismic activities) that could result.
Chemicals and Materials. Green Buildings. advanced R&D infrastructure and continue to invest heavily in scientific research. especially in the areas of clean technology and urban management. 15 Siemens‟ Picture of the Future (PoF) process identified seven research programmes that could be recommended under the Sustainable Development theme – Waste Management. By mandating energy management practices. the government could set the standards for energy audit schemes that are gradually introduced to firms before making them mandatory. Singapore should capitalize on its strengths in science and engineering. Hence. brings about growth potential for innovative solutions from our R&D efforts. In this light. the government should lead the private sector in the adoption of energy efficient technology. Sustainable Fuels. policy and practices. As alluded to by the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. the key drivers of policies to ensure energy efficiency are that of credibility. and complement existing schemes and capability building programmes which provide support for companies investing in energy efficiency. Singapore should provide relevant platforms (such as audit firms) for the private sector to adopt public sector initiatives. ii. coupled with the growth opportunities stated earlier. 15 Singapore‟s unique conditions.14 Greater energy efficiency across the sectors allow firms to be more cost-effective. Energy Storage. Korea and Denmark already require such practices.efficiency (energy use by S$GDP) by 35% from 2005 levels by 2030. best practices and establishing partnerships between SMEs and firms in the private sector could prove beneficial here. Sustainable Manufacturing. the act will focus the companies‟ attention on energy issues. . compelling the private sector to become energy-efficient. especially with the introduction of the Energy Conservation Act. Promoting R&D Clean Energy and Green Technology Given that science is a crucial part of innovation. 14 The Energy Conservation Act is slated to be introduced and enforced in FY2013. Sharing of knowledge. Countries such as Japan. and Intelligent Eco-city Infrastructure & Systems. Solar PV. certainty – for they provide strong signals on the determination of the government. For instance. achieving gains in resource productivity and making them more resilient in face of resource constraints.
alternative (solar) energy. there are huge opportunities for R&D in the world‟s oldest and most biologically 16 17 The ESC expects growth rates of 12% until 2020. as will be described later. iii. Capability-building. but not limited to waste management. energy efficiencies in emerging markets are lower than that of developed economies. environmental consultation and urban planning. ecobiology.3 billion (2007) to 6. greater focus will have to be placed on R&D in clean technology and urban management solutions. sustainable forestry. pharmaceuticals (from the diverse plant products in tropical rainforests).4 billion (2050) with more than half of this increase to take place in Asia. 17 scaling up existing investments in clean technology and sustainable industries 18 will help Singapore seize opportunities for research. However. This is by no means an easy task. Source: UN World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2007 Revision. 18 Specifically industries such as. As research on environment and sustainability issues are often and increasingly multidisciplinary. In fact. businesses and jobs. will begin primarily through environment and sustainability education. Her unique geographical location allows businesses and investments from the West to reach the Asian markets with ease. China. especially with her proximity to Asian markets and advantages in the region. and focus on capability-building for the future. Close to some of the largest tropical rainforests and sprawling urban centres. water reclamation. is three times more inefficient than the United States of America. Global Exporter of Clean Technology and Urban Solutions The global low-carbon industry is growing with greater awareness of the environmental challenges.19 Singapore should establish a competitive advantage in this niche area. Singapore should provide more grants for its interdisciplinary research institutes. for one. This essay identifies export of clean technology and urban solutions as a key industry Singapore should establish a niche in. .16 With climate change rearing its ugly head and rapid urbanisation in emerging economies (particularly in Asia) requiring efficient urban solutions. 19 The UN estimates urban population globally to nearly double from 3.Singapore‟s strong engineering base will allow it to branch out to meet the demands of sustainable growth paths.
20 Leveraging on her business friendly environment. (Source: http://www. with its combined GDP of US$1. Developing economies. Singapore can become a high-end manufacturing. services and consultation hub in this area by attracting MNCs and GCCs into Singapore.8 trillion.4% this year and 5. up to 70 million years old. Moreover.Europa.blueplanetbiomes. economic opportunities in exporting sustainable solutions and expertise are indeed immense. allowing ASEAN. European Union Relations with ASEAN. represent the next wave of opportunities.eu. 22 ASEAN. Aligning itself with consumer markets of the future allow Singapore to remain economically competitive and relevant. employment and growth. would rank as the ninth-largest economy in the world. While burgeoning cities in Indonesia. meanwhile.htm).21 Increased integration within ASEAN will improve access to neighbouring markets. with 601 million potential consumers to Singapore‟s 5 million to become an economic hinterland for Singapore. Already home to some 7000 companies. are hotbeds of biological products.diverse lowland forests for natural products as well as urban management solutions. especially for the clean energy and sustainable development sector.9% in 2013. socio-political stability and sound intellectual property environment that other regional cities have yet to rival will allow Singapore to develop her aforementioned niche to meet the burgeoning demand from developed economies and emerging markets. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 22 As the region moves towards greater economic development.org/se_asian_rnfrst. Source: EC. and notable Myanmar following her successful elections last month. While developed economies‟ efforts in reducing budget and trade deficits will result in sluggish growth and declining trade importance.2% and 1. endeavours to attract MNCs and other Globally Competitive Companies (GCCs) should continue. Philippines and even China present future demands for urban management solutions. as compared to developed economies. with most of its member countries being on-track for economic development – such as Indonesia. integrating local SMEs as part of the supply chain or strategic partners.9% in 2012 and 2013. strong R&D infrastructure. Expansion of this industry will not only enhance export competitiveness. 21 The IMF January 2012 World Economic Outlook forecasts that emerging economies will grow by 5. they are still significant for their technological edge and share of global GDP. Peninsula Malaysia and Sumatra. but also the inherent 20 Tropical Rainforests in Borneo. estimated to grow at 1. . growth potential of the region is huge.
Singapore can also act as a consultation services hub for firms seeking to invest in the region. Global Testbed Centre for Clean Technology The compact 24 and highly urbanized nature of Singapore makes it an ideal site for testbedding. the “living lab”) before commercialising and exporting the improved technology. Consultancy companies in consumer-related fields23 can be attracted or nurtured to provide upstream research on consumer trends and demands in the Asian markets. clear evidence of the growing demand for urban management solutions to house the population without straining the capacity of urban infrastructure. experimentation and modification (as the ESC describes. iv. as well as data-gathering and consumer-prototyping. consumer research. As a platform to Asian markets. such that products and services are tailored to suit the Asian markets.capacity of the country through technology and skills transfer. Yet the road ahead is not free of challenges. However. China has already signalled intention to develop the profitable green industry as well. Hence relevant statutory boards should actively nurture the business-friendly environment through incentives and schemes. Sharing of best-practices and energy efficiency schemes can achieve cost-savings and critical productivity gains for foreign and local firms alike. 23 24 such as marketing. market intelligence and analytics. 2 In being the country with the highest population density in the world. intellectual property rights remain as the key deterrent of FDI from innovative industries into China.257 persons/km . branding. Local universities and think tanks could play a part in improving the investors‟ understanding of the region. design. This makes it critical for Singapore to step-up her efforts in pursuing the sustainable growth path. at 7. (Source: Singstat) . with generous state subsidies indicative of her interest to become a global leader in this field. It has been estimated that by 2030 two-thirds of the world population will live in urban centres.
especially since MRT is the main mode of communication. Treelodge@Punggol and Jurong Lake District have already become such test-bed centres. 26 Average MRT and Bus riderships reached 2. 2011) . (2) obtain new avenues of economic growth. such as the Marina Bay District. is a beneficiary of such international efforts for sustainable solutions in cities.069. Yet recently. Managing and Improving Transport Infrastructure Developing a world-class transport system has been the main thrust of transport sustainability in land-scarce Singapore. 25 In these centres. engineering and consultancy services and (4) assist the development of local SMEs in partnership with MNCs and GCCs. new concepts and prototypes developed at research centres and universities in collaboration with private sector partners can applied through government-supported test-bedding programs before their entry into regional and global markets.gov.sg/pr/text/2012/pr12-29. (Source: http://www.ura.26 25 Jurong Lake District. since public transport impose a smaller ecological footprint than private transport.Singapore is in good position as a pilot city for pilot-scale integrated systems to be built and trailed. we are able to (1) benefit from the range of sophisticated.199.000 trips daily in 2010. construction and opening of new MRT lines. (3) buttress the expertise in the related sectors of research. (Source: Land Transport Authority.html) 7 May 2012. Key precincts. These benefits are evident from the successful example of aerospace industry. While the ongoing Committee of Inquiry will prescribe necessary preventive measures. (See Appendix 2) v. frequent disruptions to train services and alleged stresses to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) infrastructure have put public transport under-fire. Leveraging on the abovementioned strengths of Singapore as a platform to Asian markets. we need to recognise that the total population increase has been too fast for the pace of development. cutting-edge urban solutions. named by IBM as Smarter Cities Challenge Grant Recipient for 2012.000 and 3.
since the buses would cost more. More bicycle stands and enhanced security features would be the first phase of the program.29 A residential estate can be the first for testbedding of the new scheme. At the same time. with more than 58. This help to reduce costs for public transport operators. 29 Dublinbikes is one of the most successful bike rental schemes in the world. This essay also proposes the slow adoption of a nation-wide cycling program to complement the current public transport system. can assist the government to enforce minimum efficiency standards on the operators.guardian. recognising the government‟s budgetary constraints. as well as the enthusiasm of the locals. Alternatively. 27 28 5 years from the publication of the ESC report. giving them greater capacity to absorb cost increases before raising fares. introduced to all sectors of the society ranging from pre-schools.2m rentals.000 subscribers and 2. 28 Other benefits accrued transcend the financial aspect too. institutions and communities to engage a broad base of the population. (Source: http://www. vi. schools. Encouraging Community Participation and Stewardship through Education This essay proposes environment and sustainability education. regulatory measures can be put in place.co. Success is attributed to the low costs that encourages adoption by both visitors and residents alike. before developing into the bicycle-hire schemes seen in London and Dublin today. PTC reviews have to avoid significant increases in transport fares simply due to adoption of more efficient cars.uk/environment/bike-blog/2011/aug/04/dublin-bike-hire-scheme) . mandating a fixed percentage of profits to be directed towards fleet replacement and specifying energy efficiency standards for new buses purchased. 27 Adoption of clean and efficient engines for public buses should be mandated by government and subsidised if necessary. Bicycle tracks linking residential estates to key transport nodes such as MRT stations and key bus-stops allow commuters to reduce their carbon footprint and avoid congestion (and reducing congestion simultaneously). The Public Transport Council (PTC).In terms of supply. and public feedback. recommendations and improvements collected will allow smoother implementations at other estates in the future. for one. replacement schedule for buses presents opportunities as half the bus fleet needs to be replaced by 2016.
recent political trends in Singapore has seen a greater demand for engagement of the locals in the policy processes. Competitive. While this is still a reasonable approach.30 Bottom-up approaches in policy-making is gaining traction locally. adults and elderly citizens with knowledge on sustainable development and energy conservation methods also allow the government to achieve her goals of energy efficiency through a broad-based approach and enable the population to better appreciate and participate in related policies. Greater experimentation and innovation freedom should also be encouraged . Singapore: Attractive. As foot-loose top talents settle and assimilate into Singapore. Green. Sustainable growth path ensures that Singapore is an attractive and dynamic global city for people to work. they bring along with them diverse economic and business opportunities. to equip students. 30 As can be seen from the recent issues surrounding the land from the disused KTM rail and Bukit Brown Cemetery.students should to be allowed to propose. or at least without excessive interference or restrictions. initiate and conduct projects in their schools with relevant support. Also. .Currently. the concepts of environmental protection and sustainable development are integrated into the different mainstream subjects such as Social Studies and Geography. it plays a critical role for Singapore to nurture a greater talent pool in this growing industry. vii. live and play in. By imparting comprehensive knowledge about this subject. While most of the approaches mentioned earlier are top-down approaches that have been the main mode of policy processes so far. and rightly so as it involves and reflects the interests and insights of the relevant stakeholders. While Singapore is building up our technology and innovation capacity. adopting the sustainable growth path will make Singapore an attractive talent destination. this essay also urges relevant authorities to study the feasibility of introducing the interdisciplinary subject of Environment and Sustainability Studies from Primary to Tertiary levels. Technology and talent are the twin drivers of future growth.
tapping on her unique economic nature. However. while attracting MNCs and GCCs. the transition will bring greater uncertainty and challenges. through skills retraining and upgrading.Conclusion Adaptation is a multi-dimensional process and any shifts will involve overcoming inertia. but a successful shift will enable Singapore to sustain growth with higher productivity while creating quality jobs with good wage growth for the majority of the population. this is not to suggest the government to replace the free market. Also. Meanwhile. The government should be ready to offer assistance to the vulnerable groups in the economy. minimizing the impact of the transition. The new areas require new capabilities and skills from the workforce. this essay envision the government as an enabler and facilitator of this shift. as with economic restructuring efforts. . but rather to assist it through policy incentives. In sum. will also have nurture her inherent capacity that enable local SMEs to compete and own a genuine stake in Singapore‟s future growth from a sustainable growth path. Singapore has the potential to be the trendsetter and leader in a sustainable growth path. as government policy remains crucial though there needs to be greater shift towards bottom-up policies. Thus the government. for instance.
Does not include grid charges . a price reduction by 20% for each doubling of the shipment. The red line represents price reductions according to a learning factor of 0.e. World market prices are shown as a function of the global cumulative shipment (logarithmic scales). and cost parity32 to be achieved by 2020. i. The strong reduction of prices is due to: (1) economies of scale. It is very likely that grid parity in Singapore is expected to be achieved by 2015. 32 Cost parity: Parity with the price of traditional fossil fuels. Grid parity31 has already occurred in some international markets.8. Source: A*STAR 31 Grid parity is the point where renewable electricity is equal to or cheaper than wholesale electricity cost. (3) reduced company margins in the course of the economic crises and (4) a multitude of highly essential innovations from R&D.Appendix 1 – Increasing Economic Feasibility of Solar Power Over the past decade. (2) optimisation of production in industry. and can be expected in Singapore. Figure 3: Price experience curve (learning curve) for silicon wafer based photovoltaic modules. while fossil fuel energy costs continue to rise. the capital cost of PV in Singapore and other countries have fallen dramatically (see Figure 4).
This makes the strong case for close. and it is the first time that the in-competition giants are collaborating on a common platform to chart R&D strategy and direction in the . physics. The success of the sector is tied closely to the early-years investment in technologies such as materials sciences. This sector is anchored by world leading companies such as ST Aerospace. strategic partnership and integration of SMEs with the MNCs and GCCs. Singapore‟s aerospace industry grew from US$13 billion in 2000 to more than double in 2008 with an estimated figure of approximately US$27 billion. In particular. This is the world‟s first-of-its-kind aerospace consortium comprising the four aerospace giants of Boeing.200 in 2002 – 2008. These traditional strengths enabled Singapore to enter into the high value-add activities of manufacturing the engine parts. A*STAR Aerospace Consortium To further strengthen the strategic alliances of the players within cluster. Pratt & Whitney. avionics and airframe parts. and provide the supporting services such as inspection and testing. precision engineering and electronics. As a consequence. the skilled employment in this cluster has tripled to over 10. or 7 to 8 percent of the global market. GE and Rolls-Royce. and sustain technology leadership and efficacy through R&D. with CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of over 10%. of which 80% of the workforce is made up of Singaporeans and Permanent Residents.Appendix 2 – Singapore’s Successful Aerospace Cluster Example The Aerospace Cluster in Singapore is a fast growing one with good sustainable prospects. Pratt and Whitney and Rolls-Royce and A*STAR Research Institutes as founding members. the A*STAR Aerospace Consortium was launched in Jan 2007. This 10% CAGR is expected to continue to 2020. Singapore is well recognised as an MRO (MaintenanceRepair-Overhaul) hub with a quarter of Asia Pac‟s market share.
have full access to the R&D results developed under the programme and have the option of attaching their company staff to the programme to work on joint projects with researchers from SERC research institutes. This lays the ground for innovation in the global aerospace industry through Singapore-made technologies.aerospace industry. The consortium not only actively engages industry players as well as R&D community. including the SMEs. Members. infrastructure and resources in all the research institutes under the Science & Engineering Research Council of A*STAR to conduct pre-competitive research and address technological challenges in various aspects. facilitates eventual technology transfer of the research conducted. and presents opportunities for our local supporting industries to build new capabilities that will anchor global players in Singapore. but also taps on existing capabilities. Source: A*STAR .
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