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# Question Bank

Machine Foundation (BC 2.2)

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c) Natural frequency d) Frequency freedom Q. yawing & rocking b) d) Rocking .1 c) 0.05 Q.8 Which are the design criteria for machine foundation a) Natural frequency should be 30% away from operating speed b) Amplituted of foundation should not exceed c) Stress of soils is within permissible limit d) All of the above Q. b) Operational frequncy.1 cm 2 of 16 . Q. pitching & yawing Yawing .5 cm d) 5. M.G.2 Which one of the following expression given below correctly relates natural frequency ‘fn’. isolated a) combine b) raft c) block type.1-0.7 Which are recommended methods for dynamic analysis of block type foundation? a) Barkan’s Mehotd b) Reynold’s Method c) Reck’s Method d) elastic method Q. rocking & yawing c) Pitching . spring stiffness ‘k’.G. mass ‘m’ of the machine foundation vibrating system with Cu.. the cofficient of elastic uniform compression of the foundation soil? a) c) fn = 1 / Π (k / m) fn = 2Π (k / m) b) d) fn = (k / m) fn = 1 / 2Π (k / m) Q.5 Which are geometric properties of machine foundation a) C.Y and Z direction These X.6 Classified machine foundation according to their structure form.9 Soil Dynamic is defined as the constituent part of soild mechnics which deals with soils a) Over dynamic conditions b) Under dynamic conditions c) Over and under dynamic condition d) None of the above Q.1 In rigid block foundation. wall & frame type.rotation and translation are occurred in X.10 If how ever the foundation block supported on an elastic pad of contact area A and the thickness T then the values of the stiffness are given by the following expressions: a) For vertical motors:kz=EA/t b) For horizontal motors Kx=CA/t c) For rocking motors Ky=E1y/t d) All are correct Q.001-0.11 The size of the foudation block ( in Plan) should be larger than the bed plate of the machine with a minimum all round clearance ofa) 51 cm b) 15 cm c) 1. Y and Z axes are called respectivily a) Pitching . Pitching.01-0.3 The Value of damping factor D for most soils genrally varies between a) 0.4 The system under free vibrations.01 d) 0.Multiple Choice Type Questions Q. & rocking Q. Q.I & Mass Moment of Inertia b) Size c) Capacity d) C.2 b) 0. box type.01-0. vibrates at a frequency known as a) Vibration frequency.

14 The vertical amplitute (a2) under the action of an exciting force pz sin wmt.a) rφ = 4 c) 2Ιz π 2Ιz b) d) rφ = 3 rφ = 4 zΙ z π 4Ιz rφ = π π Q. the equivalent circular radius for torsion is given by.16 For foundation with non circular base. where wm= circular operating frequency a) az = pz m(ϖ − ϖm 2 2 z b) az = pz m(ϖz − ϖm) c) az = pz m(ϖ − ϖm 2 ) 2 z d) pz m(ϖz − ϖm) Q.17 The spring constant for a rigid circular footing resting on elastic half space for horizontal mode of vibration is a) K x = 32(1 − v) gr 0 7 − 8v 32(1 − v) gr 0 c) K x = 7 + 8v b) d) 32(1 + v) gr 0 7 − 8v 32(1 + v) gr 0 K x= 7 + 8v K x= Q.12 The depth of the foundation should be such ________as to rest the foundation on a good bearing strata and to ensure stability against rotation a) c) In a vertical plance In both horizontal and vertical plane b) d) in a horizontal plance Z-plane Q. the radius of equivalent circular base for rocking about the horizontal axis is given by a) r 0 = 4 c) io π 4io b) d) r 0= 3 r 0= 2 4io π 2io r 0= 2 π π l0 = monment of inertia of the base about axis of rotation Q.18 The spring constant for a rigid circular footing resting on elastic half space for torsion mode of vibrationa) Kϖ = (16 / 3)Grϖ3 c) b) d) Kϖ = (3 / 16)Grϖ3 Kϖ = (3 / 16)Grϖ2 Kϖ = (16 / 3)Grϖ2 3 of 16 .Q.13 A rigid block has how many degrees of freedom a) 1 c) 3 b) d) 2 6 Q.15 For foundation with non circular base.

25 Q. a) Large mass and smaller natural frequency b) Small mass and large natural frequency c) Large mass large natural frequency d) Small mass and small natural frequency Q. d – 1 (d) a – 1.6> w/ Wn> 1.25 In Impact machine ( Is-2974 Pt-11-1980) the values lie between a) 0.S recommendations the relation between elastic unifrom compression ( Cu) & uniform shear coeff ( Cr) is.5 c) 0. b – 3. d – 3 4 of 16 . c – 2. c – 2. c – 2.Q.20 According to Bakers the relation between elastic uniform compression coeff ( Cu) & uniform shear coeff ( Cr) is a) Cu=1. b – 4.26 When natural frequency is lower than the operating frequency. c – 3.8> w / Wn > 1.46 Cr Q. The foundation is said to be a) heigh turned b) over turned c) under turned d) balance turned Q.73 Cr b) d) Cu=1. match the following (a) Translation along Y – axis (1) Pitching or rocking vibration (b) Translation along X – axis (2) Rocking vibration (c) Rotation about Y – axis (3) Longitudinal or sliding vibration (d) Rotation about X – axis (4) Lateral or sliding vibration (a) a --1. a) Cu=2.27 What is the percentage of the soil stress below the foundation shall not exceed of the allowable soil pressure( seismic forces are not considered) a) 75% b) 60% c) 80% d) 70% 28 In a rigid block under the action of unbalanced forces.50 Cr Cu=3. b – 4.23 Block foundation are generally used for:a) Diesel engines c) Rolling mills b) d) 30% 50% b) d) Turbo Generatores All of the above Q.22 According to codal provisions the natural frequency should at least be away from operation speed of the machine by an amount of: a) 20% c) 40% Q.Block foundation has. b – 4.46 Cr Q.50 Cr c) Cu=1.5 > w / Wn>2 d) 0.73 Cr b) d) Cu=2.24 Baker’s Method of analysis is based upon a) Linear theory of elasticity c) both a and b b) d) Linear Spring theory None of the above Q.5 b) 0. d – 1 (c) a – 2. d – 4 (b) a – 3.00 Cr Cu=3.4 > w/Wn>1.00 Cr c) Cu=1.21 According to I.19.

t. My * a / 2 a) Azr = Mmo(W 2 nφ − W 2 ) b) Azr = 30. The size of foundation block should be larger than bed plate of machine with a minimum al round clearance of (for reciprocating type machines) (a) 10 cm (b) 12.5 times allowable static stresses 34.2 times allowable static stresses (c) same as allowable static stresses (d) 1. Weight of anvil for foundation of impact machine should be (a) 15 times weight of tup (b) 20 times weight of tup (c) 25 times weight of tup (d) 30 times weight of tup 5 of 16 . Linear elastic weightless spring method is also unown as (a) Richar’t method (b) Barken’s method (c) Whitman’s method (d) Poission’s method In pure rocking vibrations of a block.r.8 / δ (c) 13. Mmo * a / 2 My (W 2 nφ − W 2 ) My (W 2 nφ − W 2 ) a / 2 * Mmo Mmo(W 2 nφ − W 2 ) a / 2 * My c) Azr = d) Azr = where My = moment acting in X—Z plane Mo = moment of inertia of the mass of foundation and machine w. what is the value of amplitude of vertical motion at the edge of footing.29. (b) 12 / δ (d) 14.8 / δ Stresses produced at the time of impact in the foundation base should be (a) 0.8 / δ 33. axis of rotation 31.8 times allowable static stresses (b) 1. Natural frequency is given by relation (for reciprocating machines) (a) 15.5 cm (c) 20 cm (d) 15 cm 32.

M. 39.6—1. As per code IS 2974 (part II) the reinforcement provided in the foundation block of impact machines should be (a) 20 kg per cu. 36. The minimum scale depth for passive trench is given between (a) 0.5 (c) 1. of conc. (b) 25 kg per cu. According to Barken. M. (c) 30 kg per cu.2—1. for effective isolation the depth of trench should be ______ of the wave length of vibration (a) 1/3 (c) 1/9 38. of conc. The concept of isolation by wave barrier is based on (i) Reflection (ii) Scattering (iii) Diffraction correct answer is (a) (i) & (iii) (b) (i) & (ii) (c) (i). (b) 1/6 (d) 1/12 (i) in active isolation test we use one exitor footing (ii) in passive isolation test we use two exitor footing (iii) in both test we use two exitor footing (iv) in both test we use one exitor footing Which of the statement are true ? (a) (i) & (ii) (b) (iii) (c) (iv) (d) None of these.5 m (d) 3 m 6 of 16 . (d) 15 kg per cu.2 (b) 1. M. For foundation subjected to rocking vibration only a portion of soil near edges foundation need to stabilize at depth of? (a) 1 m (b) 2 m (c) 2.8 (d) 2—2. M.5 40. of conc.5—1.35. (ii) & (iii) (d) (ii) & (iii) 37. of conc.

Factors affecting soil cement (a) Nature of soil (b) Cement content (c) Conditions of mixing & curing & admixtures (d) All of these 45. For an impact type machine foundation system Area of block = 0.41. Passive vibration isolation system consists essentially of following (a) Mass (b) Spring (c) Damper (dashpot) (d) All of these 42.2 Resonant Frequency = 40 Hz Mu of block.64 X 104 kN/m3 (b) 6.4 X 104 kN/m3 (c) 64 X 104 kN/m3 (d) None of these 7 of 16 . oscillator & motor = 2000 kg Co-efficient of elastic uniform compression of soil will be (a) 0. Damper has to (a) Terminate the oscillation (b) Softens vibrations (c) (a) & (b) (d) None of these 44. Compaction and drainage are examples of (a) Modifications of the properties with the help of admixtures (b) Modifications of improvement of soil property of the existing soil without any admixture (c) both a & b (d) None of above 46. Active vibration isolation system contains the following (a) Spring (b) Feedback circuit (c) (a) and (b) (d) None of these 43.

(i) If natural frequency is lower than the operating speed. 8 of 16 . How the strength and stability be affected if the fine grained soil are compacted wet of optimum water content and the coarse grained soil are compacted on the dry side of the optimum water content? (a) Strength increases but stability decreases (b) Strength decreases but stability increases (c) Strength and stability both increase (d) Strength and stability both decrease.02 mm Area of pad = 1.) In case of active isolation.) In case of passive transmissibility is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the sensitive instrument to the amplitude of the base. 50 What is the expression given for the amount of cement needed in tones for the constructin of foundation? (a) AH/( (b) AH (c) AH/( (d) AH /P Q. (c) Both A and B are true.47. Q. (b) a is false but B is true.8 m Area of foundation contact with soil = 7 m X 5 m Equivalent sprint constant = as calculate in 324 × 104 km/m2 (a) 20 kN/m3 (b) 200 kN/m3 (c) 18. B. the foundation is said to be under tuned (ii) If natural frequency is higher than the operating speed. the transmissibility is defined as the ratio of force transmitted to foundation to the vibratory force developed by the machine itself.8 m X 1. For a forging hammer of impact type machine foundation system Given—vibration amplitude of foundation = 0.5 kN/m3 (d) 185 kN/m3 48. (a) only i & ii are correct (b) only iii & iv are correct (c) only i is correct (d) only iii is correct 49. (d) Both A and B are false.18 mm Vibration amplitude of anvil = 0. (a) A is true but B is false. the foundation is said to be over tuned (iii) If operating speed is higher than the natural frequency of foundation is said to be under tuned (iv) If operating is lower than the natural frequency the foundation is said to be under tuned. 51 Consider the two statements A.

a) consoldation. 53 (d) In case of stablisation of soil which of the following geotechnical property of the soil plays important role.Q. cross-sectional area A and shear modulus G is given by (b) (a) (c) Q. 52 The shear stiffness (Ks) of a rubber block of thickness h. c) Stability b) d) permeability compaction 9 of 16 .

21. Steel springs. 15. The main objective of machine foundation is to decrease the difference between natural frequency of the foundation system and the operating frequency of the machine 25. Barken’s method is also referred as linear elastic spring method. 15. The block vibration test can be used for finding spring constant and damping constant both. 11. According to Barkan the mass of vibrating soil should lie between 0. 24. The unit of amplitude is hertz. 22. F T T F T 11. 7. 8. the critical damping will be less than 2 . If the elastic deflection of the foundation (reciprocating machine) is 9 mm. 12. 24. 18. 13. 19. 20. 10. 2.2 times that of allowable static stresses. 23. For a foundation of mass in and spring constant of the state is K. Lazan Oscillator is a rotating eccentric mass type oscillator to produce unbalanced forces and moments along the three axes. The shear stiffness of a rubber block of thickness h1 cross sectional area A and shear modulus G is given by GA/n. 14. 4. y and z axes are known as pitching. 25. Cork layer. For a good machine foundation the combined centre of gravity of machine and foundation and the centre of contact area should lie on the same vertical line. rocking and yawing respectively 13. 10. 6. 16. 20. T T T T T 21. Answers 1. In a block type machine foundation the degree of freedom is zero. The value of Cu is less for rock as compared to that of soil. 5.67 to 1. 2. The operating frequency of the machine is given by 300 (1 + T / Tδ ) . The repeated plate load test is conducted to determine the stiffness of the soil 17. T F T F F . 7. In case of machine foundation the frequency ratio should not be more than 0. felt. the natural frequency will be 5. 3.True/False Type Questions 1. The weight of anvil for foundation of impact machine should be 25 times the weight of tub. Tup is a weightless block which strikes the material being forged on the anvil. 22. The natural frequency for reciprocating machine is given by 12/ . 3. 5. 9. Passive vibration isolation system consists of spring only. The stresses produced at the time of impact in the foundation base should be 1. 23. The rotation about x. F F T F F 6. 10 of 16 T T T F F 16. rubber mounting are used as absorber. Where is static deflection and T is transmissibility 4.5 times the total mass of machine foundation & vibrator. 14. Damping coefficient is the damping force per unit velocity of the vibrating machine at any instant. 17. 19. 18.26 cycle per second 9. Richart’s Chart exhibits the relation between limiting amplitude of vibration and frequency 12.6 8. The stiffness of the soil cannot be determined by plate load test.

the mass of machine is 20 K. 19. 12. Write the equation of motion for forced vibrations analysis with damping 15. Name the types of machine foundation with diagram. 21.4 * 107 N/ m3 24. Draw the amplitude frequency relationship for forced vibration. Define free vibration and forced vibrations with suitable examples. 22. What do you mean by vibration. Mention the prohibitive range of frequency ratio as per BIS 2974 (Part 1) 1992 8. Find the natural frequency of a machine foundation having a base area 8m2 mass of 180 K. What is damping. Name any three methods for finding spring stiffness of the soil. 10. 11 of 16 . How the spring constant of foundation vary with soil type and width of foundation. Explain mass spring analysis to the machine foundation system. 6. Discuss the types of machines with their speed 3. 20. What is machine foundation? 2. Explain the equation for frequency of vibration in critical damping condition. 7. 4. 14. 13. Discuss viscous damping 9. Discuss any three important design crilenias of the machine foundation. Write the equation for finding natural frequency of foundation soil system.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION 1. Write equation only. 16. Explain active isolation with neat sketenes. Define magnification factor. Analyze free vibration with damping effect. What is Barken’s equation 23. Explain passive isolation with neat sketenes. 25. 18. Describe resonance test in brief. 11.N. periodic motion and period of motion? 5. Explain degree of freedom of a block foundation of machines.N Cu=4. What is natural frequency of the system? How it depends upon degree of freedom. 17. Sketch response curve of free vibrating system.

92 cps] 9. [3. The m/c is vibrated vertically by an exciting force of 3D sin(30t) kN. D = 0.012 cm Amplitude = 0.50 Mg vertical Compressor foundation system is operated @ 40 Hz. assuming Ms = 0. The soil at the site is medium stiff clay (Cu = 4 x 104 kN/m3). natural period.1.Long Type Question 1.022 mm] 12 of 16 . The exciting force of a m/c is 100 kn. Negligible (b).43 cps.87 x 104 kN/m3] 10. Determine its magnification @ the operating frequency of 8 hertz. Calculate the coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu).75 m. [Cu = 8.43 cps. natural circular frequency and the amplitude of vertical displacement. D = 0 [M = 1. resonance occurs at a frequency of 20 cycles/ seconds in the vertical vibration. Resonance occurs at a frequency of 20 cycles/sec. Determine the coefficients of elastic uniform compression (Cu) if the mass of oscillator is 70 kg and the force produced by it @ 15 cycles / second is 1000 N. D 204 & the operating frequency as 5 Hz. The natural frequency of a machine foundation is 4 hertz. also compute the maximum amplitude @ 15 cycles/ second. The damping factor is 0.30 [M=0.12] 6. Determine the frequency of a m/c found which having base area 2m x 2m and a mass of 10 mg.42 rad/s δst = 0. The mass of oscillator used was 60 kg. 20% of the mass.Total mass of engine = 5 Mg Speed of rotation = 300 rpm Mass of block = 20 Mg Mass of participating Soil = 25 Mg Spring stiffness = 60 x 104 kN/m Determine the natural frequency and maximum amplitude. In a test block of the size 1. 0.0 Hz.5 m2.50. Determine the coefficient of a compression if a vibration test on a block 1m x 1m x 1m gave a resonance frequency of 30 Hz.16x103 kN/m3. [75 kN] 5. A foundation block of wt. 15.31] 3. in the vertical vibration of a list block (1m x 1m x 1m). [fn = 14. Zmax = 0. The foundation of a gas engine with a vertical cylinder & vertically oscillating parts has the following data. A 2.05 T = 0. Take Cu=4x104 KN/m3 [Ans – 16.013 cm] 8. in the vertical direction. The mass of the oscillator is 50 kg. Determine the natural frequency and the magnification factor.0523 mm] 7. Determine the transmitted force if the natural frequency of a m/c foundation is 3. the unbalanced vertical force in 12 kN.069 Seconds w = 90.39 cycles/ sec M =1. Assuming the soil participation in the vibration is (a).0 x 0. [17. Cu = 104 kN/m3 [17.5 m x 1. Take damping factor (D) as 0. [Cu=29. The base area is 2. Find the natural frequency. 30 kN rests on a soil for which the stiffness may be assumed as 25000 kN/m.43 cps (hertz)] 2. Determine the natural frequency of a machine foundation having a base area 2m×2m and a mass of 15 Mg including the mass of the machine.74x107 N/m3] 4.2 mf.

After it was installed.03 mm/sec (3) Ace. velocity & acceleration of the vibrating machine Neglet damping[(1) Y0 = 0.05 mm. of 2. A Seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6 Hz is used to measure the vibrations of a machine running at 120 rpm. Determine E. the machine produces an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N @ a speed of 50 c/s. Two geophines were placed in the ground respectively at 1. for determining the insitu velocities of wave propagation and dynamic elastic modulii. Mathura.5 N ] 13. determine (1) The amplitude of motion due to unbalance (2) The transmissibility (3) The transmitted force [(1) 0.12 kg] 15. Vr. Define the terms: (6) Frequency Ratio (1) Vibrations (2) Degrees of freedom (7) Resonance (3) Free vibration (8) Damping (9) Forcing frequency (4) Natural frequency (5) Forced vibrations (10) Amplitude of motion 12. it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to the natural frequency of system. the average values of shear wave velocities were observed as 110 m/s and 130 m/s respectively.6x104 kN/m2 GD=2.96x104 kN/m2] 13 of 16 . B.40 mm (2) Velocity = 5. = 63. [Gc=2.0 m.7 x 105 N/m.17 mm/sec2] 14. A machine of mass 100 kg is imported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm.0 m depth below the ground surface. The instrument gives the reading for the relative displacement of the seismic mass as 0. [E = 76453 kN/m2 G = 30581 kN/m2 Vs = 174 m/s Vr = 160 m/s] 16.11. Seismic waves were generated by the impact of hammer falling through a height.0 m from the source.0m and 5. Assume damping factor of 0. ma = 10. Wave propagation tests were conducted near Mathura Refinery. The soil profile at a site as shown in figure below. What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 20% from the forcing frequency. Two cross borehole tests were conducted at the site to determine the values of shear wave velocities in the small areas around points A and B. Vs. [Ka = 40. C and D. Determine the values of dynamic shear modulus G for the points A.1467 (3) 57. Determine the amplitudes of displacement.042 mm (2) 0. Vp as 300 m/sec the soil @ the site was cohesinnless & position of water table was at 1.7x104 kN/m2 GB=3. G. The analysis of data gave the velocity of compression wave. A small reciprocating m/c weighs 50 kg and runs @ a constant speed of 6000 rpm.20.

] 18. The block is embedded in the ground by 2.5m high.0 24. Determine the value of max.2m above top of block wt.6 rad/sec] 19.) 36 72 108 144 Fnz 41. 1 2 3 4 θ (deg.0 32.0x3.0x3.47 µ Av=39.8 rad/sec] 14 of 16 .8 µ Wn1=33. [Ans = Ah=85.) 36 72 108 144 Fnz 41.70m = block dimension S.0 kN/m 2.8×10-6 m Wn1=20 rad/s Wn2=62. The properties of the soil are r=17 kN/m3. horizontal load that can be applied on footing. Limiting amplitude of the m/c is 150 microns. Data is given below. The water table lies @ a depth of 3.75 m × 0.0 34.0 Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13. of foundation. A block resonance test was conducted @ the site to evaluate the dynamic elastic constants. 1.0 m below the ground surface.41×10-6 m Av=99. of 0. 2..0 40.0 32. A reciprocating m/c is symmetrically mounted on a block of size 4.0 31. Also compute the rotation @ time equal to 0.5m wide continuous surface footing is subjected to a horizontal transient load of duration 0.17.0 kN @ ht.5 kN 4. horizontal unbalanced force = = = θ (deg.8 rad/s Wn2=100.0 [Ans = Ah=120. φ= -8229 rad.No. 1 2 3 4 Max.0 Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13. Determine the natural frequency and amplitude by Elastic Half Space Method in S.No. The m/c vibrating @ a speed of 250 rpm generates. The soil @ the site is sandy in nature having φ = 35º and γsat=20 kN/m3.0 24. of m/c <<< wt.0 31.0 Determine the natural frequency and amplitude by weightless spring Method.0 40. A 2.65 [Q=8290 kN.0m from the base of footing. C=30 kN/m2 and φ= 32º.5m × 0.0 40.0 40.0 m depth.4 sec applied at a height of 4.0 34. vertical unbalanced force torque about Z-axis Max.

of m/c is 18 kN.No. f upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pr Wt. A 15 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial complex.5 m below the anvil. & it produces an unbalanced force of 4.0 32. Allowable soil pressure=225 kN/m2.0 24. Test details (Vertical Resonance test) S. Dynamic shear modulus = 2×104kN/m2.12 m2 600 kN/m2 300 kN 400 kN 1.0 34.5mm 1. Design a suitable foundation for the hammer.0 40. of anvil block Total Wt.0 Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13.0 Soil is sandy in nature & water table is 3m below ground surface.8m × 1. of tup without die Max. (Poisson’s ratio) = 0. The wt.0 40.35 [Ans – 1. below to bring the vibration amplitude to less than 0. tup Stroke Wt.0 kN when operated@ speed of 600 rpm. of hammer Bearing Area of anvil Permissible amplitude for foundation = = = = = = = = 11 kN 800 mm 40 kN 0. The hammer has the following specifications Wt.) 36 72 108 144 Fnz 41. Epad = 5×105 kN/m2 & compressive stress allowable in pad is 3500 kN/m2.20. 21. 1 2 3 4 θ (deg.8m = = 1.02 mm.0 mm Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil Its proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0.0 31. Determine stiffness of isolator to be kept b/n a reciprocating m/c & the foundation shown in fig.40×103kN/m] 15 of 16 .

What is vibration Isolation. Its planned to install a compressor having operating speed of 1000 rpm @ a distance of 50m from a precision m/c. Ref. Ltd 16 of 16 . 25. 23. Suggest a suitable open bench barrier to provide effective vibration isolation. Briefly describe the various field tests used to determined the dynamic properties of soil.22. Also describe its various types with neat diagrams. 24. What the various requirements of m/c foundations. The velocity of shear waves at the site was found as 140 m/s. Book Machine Foundations Swami Saran Galgotia Publications Pvt.