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Summary Report on time spent at Turnbull & Scott Engineers Turnbull & Scott is an engineering company which specialises

in the manufacture of finned heat exchangers. Most of the products are manufactured according to customer specifications Product line The companys product line currently includes finned heat exchangers (either steam or hot water), finned trench heaters, continuous fin steam/water unit heaters (referred to as Thermoliers) and radiant panel heaters. T&S also carries out installation of biomass boilers of which it designs the heat exchangers to transmit The Design methods Finned heat exchangers: design is primarily done in imperial units with a steel or copper chart used to determine the number of tube rows required to achieve a certain heat duty. To achieve this, the ratio between the inlet and exit temperatures of the two fluids, is first found. This value is then read of the appropriate chart (steel or copper) to give an estimate of the number of tubes required to achieve the heat duty. It is usually desired to keep tube rows at an even number value, to make manufacturing easier. Face area of the heat exchanger bundle is calculated by dividing the incoming air volume flow rate by the air velocity which is aimed at between 450 600ft/min. The square root of the resulting area is found, and used to determine the appropriate length and breadth of the bundle. Almost always, a constant transverse and longitudinal tube pitch is used which is used to determine the number of tubes that can fit into a bundle face. As mentioned earlier, velocity of incoming air is usually aimed to be between 450-600ft/min. This serves to keep the pressure drop across the bundle at a minimum, as well as ensure that the desired heat load is achieved. These finned heat exchangers primarily use steam as the heat transfer medium. Low Pressure Hot Water (LPHW) heat exchangers: These constitute the second group of heat exchangers manufactured by Turnbull & Scott of which hot water supplied at low pressure is the medium of heat transfer. Fins are not circular as seen in the steam type, but rather continuous.

Transverse pitch of tubes are maintained at 38.1mm, as a result of manufacturing processes where the drilling machines are set to drill at this pitch value. Unless specified by the customer, inlet water velocity is set at 3ft/sec and inlet air velocity is also set at values between 450-600ft/min. Using the tube outer diameter which is usually a -inch -hard copper tube, the volume flow rate of the hot water is determined. The tube fin pitch which is usually constant at 8fins/inch is used to determine a constant corresponding to the hot water velocity (3ft/s) as well as the air inlet velocity (450-600ft/min). This constant referred to as the F-factor is multiplied by the difference between air inlet and outlet temperatures and then divided by the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) between the two fluid temperatures. The resulting value is chosen as the number of tube rows required to affect the heat transfer. Thermolier unit heaters: These are available with either steam or hot water as the fluid heat transfer medium. No documented design data exists for the products manufactured in this category rather; unit heaters are recommended based on heat loss calculations carried out by the design team for locations where they will be installed. The Thermolier unit section was acquired by Turnbull & Scott, and with it came the manufacturing procedure based on design that has never verified. Unless otherwise requested by the customer, the Thermoliers are made with copper tubes and aluminium fins. Manufacturing: When the design is completed and dimensions specified, it is reproduced in CAD format where further specifications are shown. This is passed down to the manufacturing floor, where the welding technicians begin manufacture. The Areas requiring improvement: Current design methods: with the methods used for calculating number of rows for all the types of heat exchangers being manufactured, little consideration is given to analysing the structural integrity of the pressure equipment. With almost all the pressure equipment being manufactured lying in the Sound Engineering Practice (SEP) category of the PED, the necessity for structural analysis has never been deemed necessary. Fluid properties: Heat load calculations are calculated using the Design is currently hampered as a result of

Growth potential: A huge growth potential exists, especially with the wealth of experience available in the design team. This experience could be extended to the design and manufacture of other heat exchanger types which would include shell and tube type heat exchangers as well as plate fin heat exchangers. As shell and tube heat exchangers are the most commonly employed in the oil & gas industry, it would serve good purpose to learn their method of design, in order to increase the size of market T&S aims to reach. The welding qualifications of the welders has somewhat hindered the variety of work available to T&S, as certain customers especially those in the nuclear industry specify the kind of welds desired in a particular product and in most cases, this qualification is lacked by the welders.