Q60) Difference Between QA & QC?
Quality Control QC is about checking at the end of some development process (ega design activity ) that we have Definition built quality in i.e. that we have achieved the required quality with our methods. QC is like testing a module against requirement specification description or design document , measuring response time , throughput etc. To check that the modern methods of software development are largely designed to ensure right quality is achieved. QC What id does checks that these methods are in place and to discover where they are not then corrections are to be made. Define features and levels Define feature check procedure Carrying Stages out the check procedure Record the result take and record any corrective action taken. Best carried out QC is best carried out on products on QA should be done at end of Phase of every SDLC i.e. when product implementation building is complete. Technique
Quality Assurance QA is about having an overall development and management process that provides right environment for ensuring quality of final product. QA gives us added assurance that the whole producing or checking process is properly planned and executed and thus maintaining high quality. It gives us added assurance that the while producing / checking process is being properly planned and executed and hence is keeping high our chances of producing software of required quality. 1. determination of quality policy through Quality Management System 2. Checking that predetermined Quality control activities are being properly taken care off. QA is best carried out on process. QC should take place at every stage of SDLC.
Quality policy defined and generally Structured walkthrough, Fagan implemented in the form of Quality Techniques are some of QC Management System is used to carry out techniques. QA.
Q57) Differentiate between verification and validation.
detailed design documents. Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence cost of errors reduced is less than Verification. 11. It involves verifying the requirements.
13. Verification is made both in the Executable and Non Executable forms of a work product Verification finds errors early in the requirement & design phase and hence reduces the cost of errors. integration test.
It is a corrective procedure. Validation involves actual testing of the product as per the test plan (unit test. system test and acceptance test etc). Various manual and automated test tools are available for Validation. It is also called Human testing. It is also called Computer testing. Design and code. 6.
10. Are we building the product RIGHT? It involves more then two to three persons and is a group activity. It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is accepted by the user. Validation is done only on Executable forms of a work product. Verification tasks include: 1) Planning 2) Execution
VALIDATION Validation is dynamic testing procedure. Validation occurs only on code and the executable application. 2. It requires cooperation and scheduling of meetings and discussions. 4.Ans57:
3. Verification is a static testing procedure. An effective tool for verification tool is a Checklist. since it involves finding the errors by persons participating in a review or walk through. 9. since errors are found out by testing the software on a computer. VERIFICATION 1.
Verification activities include: 1) Requirements Verification
. Are we building the RIGHT product? It involves the testers and sometimes user. test plans. Validation tasks include: 1) Planning 2) Testware Development 3) Test Execution 4) Testware Maintenance Validation activities include: 1) Unit testing 2) Usability testing
7. It is a preventive procedure. walkthroughs and inspections of various documents produced during the development and testing process. 5.
12. 8. Verification occurs on Requirements.
Thus.e.The resources consumed in order to achieve their goals. however.) were utilized to create the Software product. hardware. Effective .
VERIFICATION 2) Functional design verification 3) Internal Design Verification 4) Code Verification Verification deliverables (work products) are: 1) Verification test plan 2) Inspection report 3) Verification test report
VALIDATION 3) Function testing 4) System testing 5) Acceptance testing Validation deliverables are: 1) Test plan 2) Test Design Specification 3) Test Case Specification 4) Test Procedure Specification 5) Test log 6) Test incident report
14.how efficiently the available resources (time. When you're efficient. Effectiveness signifies how well the customer requirements have been met i. you quickly carry out actions.How well the user achieves the goals they set out to achieve using the system (process).
Q54) Give MEASUREMENTS for a] Test Effectiveness and b] Test Efficiency Ans54: Effectiveness . which is internal to the Organization that produced the Software product.producing a powerful effect Efficient . does the final product provides the solution to the Customer problem effectively. these terms are primarily used to indicate the effort put in to develop the Software and How much is customer satisfied with the product.S NO. Robert didn't make the calls he had planned to make. personnel. Test Effectiveness = ((Defects removed in a phase) / (Defect injected + Defect escaped)) * 100 Test Efficiency = (Test Defects / (Test Defects + Acceptance Defects)) * 100 The Test defects = Unit + Integration + System defects Acceptance Defects = Bugs found by the customer
. but effectively met his sales quota by profiting from a chance encounter with a business acquaintance. Key Point When you're effective. Efficiency . you are able to accomplish the worthwhile goal you've chosen. It is basically. Effectiveness of Software is a measure of Customer response on meeting product's requirements and Efficiency is a measure of optimum utilization of resources to create the Software product. Efficiency is something. In Software field. You won't be effective. expertise etc.producing results with little wasted effort Example James efficiently made the calls he had wanted to make. unless those actions result in your achieving a meaningful goal.
re-estimating. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help develop scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Detailed requirements documentation is not used. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Testing ('extreme testing') is a core aspect of Extreme Programming.before the application is developed. and reprioritizing is expected. and frequent re-scheduling. Acceptance tests are preferably automated.
. and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first .Q73) what is extreme programming and what does it have to do with testing? Ans73: Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements.