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Q60) Difference Between QA & QC?


Quality Control QC is about checking at the end of some development process (ega design activity ) that we have Definition built quality in i.e. that we have achieved the required quality with our methods. QC is like testing a module against requirement specification description or design document , measuring response time , throughput etc. To check that the modern methods of software development are largely designed to ensure right quality is achieved. QC What id does checks that these methods are in place and to discover where they are not then corrections are to be made. Define features and levels Define feature check procedure Carrying Stages out the check procedure Record the result take and record any corrective action taken. Best carried out QC is best carried out on products on QA should be done at end of Phase of every SDLC i.e. when product implementation building is complete. Technique

Quality Assurance QA is about having an overall development and management process that provides right environment for ensuring quality of final product. QA gives us added assurance that the whole producing or checking process is properly planned and executed and thus maintaining high quality. It gives us added assurance that the while producing / checking process is being properly planned and executed and hence is keeping high our chances of producing software of required quality. 1. determination of quality policy through Quality Management System 2. Checking that predetermined Quality control activities are being properly taken care off. QA is best carried out on process. QC should take place at every stage of SDLC.

Quality policy defined and generally Structured walkthrough, Fagan implemented in the form of Quality Techniques are some of QC Management System is used to carry out techniques. QA.

Q57) Differentiate between verification and validation.

5 marks


S NO. VERIFICATION 1. Verification is a static testing procedure. 2. It involves verifying the requirements, detailed design documents, test plans, walkthroughs and inspections of various documents produced during the development and testing process. It is a preventive procedure. Are we building the product RIGHT? It involves more then two to three persons and is a group activity. It is also called Human testing, since it involves finding the errors by persons participating in a review or walk through. Verification occurs on Requirements, Design and code. Verification is made both in the Executable and Non Executable forms of a work product Verification finds errors early in the requirement & design phase and hence reduces the cost of errors. An effective tool for verification tool is a Checklist. It requires cooperation and scheduling of meetings and discussions. Verification tasks include: 1) Planning 2) Execution

VALIDATION Validation is dynamic testing procedure. Validation involves actual testing of the product as per the test plan (unit test, integration test, system test and acceptance test etc).

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It is a corrective procedure. Are we building the RIGHT product? It involves the testers and sometimes user. It is also called Computer testing, since errors are found out by testing the software on a computer. Validation occurs only on code and the executable application. Validation is done only on Executable forms of a work product. Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence cost of errors reduced is less than Verification. Various manual and automated test tools are available for Validation. It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is accepted by the user. Validation tasks include: 1) Planning 2) Testware Development 3) Test Execution 4) Testware Maintenance Validation activities include: 1) Unit testing 2) Usability testing

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Verification activities include: 1) Requirements Verification


VERIFICATION 2) Functional design verification 3) Internal Design Verification 4) Code Verification Verification deliverables (work products) are: 1) Verification test plan 2) Inspection report 3) Verification test report

VALIDATION 3) Function testing 4) System testing 5) Acceptance testing Validation deliverables are: 1) Test plan 2) Test Design Specification 3) Test Case Specification 4) Test Procedure Specification 5) Test log 6) Test incident report


Q54) Give MEASUREMENTS for a] Test Effectiveness and b] Test Efficiency Ans54: Effectiveness - How well the user achieves the goals they set out to achieve using the system (process). Efficiency - The resources consumed in order to achieve their goals. In Software field, these terms are primarily used to indicate the effort put in to develop the Software and How much is customer satisfied with the product. Effectiveness signifies how well the customer requirements have been met i.e. does the final product provides the solution to the Customer problem effectively. Efficiency is something, which is internal to the Organization that produced the Software product. It is basically- how efficiently the available resources (time, hardware, personnel, expertise etc.) were utilized to create the Software product. Thus, Effectiveness of Software is a measure of Customer response on meeting product's requirements and Efficiency is a measure of optimum utilization of resources to create the Software product. Effective - producing a powerful effect Efficient - producing results with little wasted effort Example James efficiently made the calls he had wanted to make. Robert didn't make the calls he had planned to make, but effectively met his sales quota by profiting from a chance encounter with a business acquaintance. Key Point When you're effective, you are able to accomplish the worthwhile goal you've chosen. When you're efficient, you quickly carry out actions. You won't be effective, however, unless those actions result in your achieving a meaningful goal. Test Effectiveness = ((Defects removed in a phase) / (Defect injected + Defect escaped)) * 100 Test Efficiency = (Test Defects / (Test Defects + Acceptance Defects)) * 100 The Test defects = Unit + Integration + System defects Acceptance Defects = Bugs found by the customer

Q73) what is extreme programming and what does it have to do with testing? Ans73: Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. Testing ('extreme testing') is a core aspect of Extreme Programming. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first - before the application is developed. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help develop scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Acceptance tests are preferably automated, and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Detailed requirements documentation is not used, and frequent re-scheduling, re-estimating, and reprioritizing is expected.