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## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

1.201

The following design information is based on Australian Standard AS3700: 2001 Masonry Structures. Reference to Clauses and Formulae are those used in AS3700. This information is provided as a guide only to the processes involved in designing masonry. All masonry should be designed by a suitably qualied structural engineer.

Robustness
AS3700, Clause 4.6.1 requires walls to have an adequate degree of Robustness. Robustness is a minimum design requirement, and may be overridden by re, wind, snow, earthquake or live and dead load requirements. In robustness calculations (AS3700 Clause 4.6.2), there are height, length, and panel action formulae. By reworking the standard formulae and inserting known data, it is possible to determine whether a chosen design and Boral brick will provide adequate robustness, as in the tables below and the charts on pages 1.202 to 1.204.
Table 1. Maximum Height of Isolated Piers
Pier Thickness (mm) 230 x 230 350 x 350 Maximum Height (m) 3.105 4.725

## Table 2. Maximum Height of Walls with Free Ends

Maximum Wall Height (m) Wall Thickness (mm) 90 110 150 230 No Lateral Support at Top 0.54 0.66 0.90 1.38 Lateral Support at Top 2.43 2.97 4.05 6.21 Concrete Slab on Top 3.24 3.96 5.40 8.28

Table 3. Maximum Wall Length where One or Both Ends are Laterally Restrained
Maximum Wall Length (m) Wall Thickness (mm) 90 110 150 230 Lateral Support One End 1.08 1.32 1.80 2.76 Lateral Support Both Ends 3.24 3.96 5.40 8.28

In the situation depicted in Table 3 above, height is not limited although length is. This typically applies to lift shafts and stairwells. Control joints and openings greater than one fth of the wall height are treated as free ends unless specic measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support. Where wall lengths exceed those in Table 3 above, AS 3700 Equation 4.6.2 (4) must be used to determine the maximum height for a wall of the required length. Should the initial choice of product not provide a suitable solution, then a thicker Boral brick or increased masonry width or extra restraints should be evaluated. t

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

1.202

Robustness (continued)
How to Use the Boral Robustness Graphs
These charts determine the minimum brick thickness for a known wall height, length and restraint criteria.

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported by other than concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2

## 1. Select the graph for the chosen wall restraint

F

(support) criteria. In this example there is support on one side and the top is supported by other than a concrete slab. Typically this would
230mm

be a wall supporting roof frames, joined into another wall at one end and with a door at the
150mm 110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

(m)

other end. 2. Plot the intersection of the design Wall Height and the Wall Length on the graph. (For this

WALL

1 0

## example 3 m height x 5 m length).

1 2 3 4 5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

3. The lines ABOVE the intersection point indicate wall thickness that are acceptable. In this example, the intersection point is just below the line for 110 mm bricks. Therefore a single leaf of 110 mm bricks would be suitable and the most economical.

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

1.203
R S

Robustness Limits

Laterally supported both ends and top laterally supported by a concrete slab
8 7 6

Laterally supported both ends and top laterally supported by other than concrete slab
150mm 110x110mm 8 7

150mm
(m)

(m)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

110x110mm

H E IGH T

H E IGH T

WALL

5
(m)

WALL

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

## Laterally supported both ends and top unsupported

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F R R

## Laterally supported one end and top unsupported

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F R F

(m)

H E IGH T

WAL L

WAL L

150mm

H E IGH T

(m)

(m)

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

1.204
S R

Robustness Limits

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported R by other than a concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported by a concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

230mm
(m)

(m)

H E IGH T

WALL

5
(m)

WALL

H E IGH T

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

1.205

Masonry Strength
Masonry Strength is dened as resistance to load per unit area. It must be remembered that thicker masonry will support more load than thinner masonry of the same strength.

## Characteristic Compressive Strength of Masonry fm

fm = km kh fuc km is a mortar strength factor and kh is a factor for the amount of mortar joints. km is 1.4 for M3 mortar and 1.5 for the stronger M4 mortar (see AS 3700 Table 3.1 for a full list of factors). kh is 1 for 76 mm high units with 10 mm mortar beds and is 1.24 for 162 mm high bricks with 10 mm mortar beds (see AS 3700 Table 3.2 to derive factors for other unit and joint heights). In other words, a wall of double height bricks is more than 20% stronger than a wall of 76 mm high bricks of the same fuc. fuc is the characteristic unconned compressive strength of bricks.

## Characteristic Flexural Tensile Strength of Masonry fmt

In exing, the top of the arc is in tension and the bottom of the arc is in compression. Masonry is good in compression but poor in tension. Flexural strength depends on the mortar/brick bond and for design purposes is generally taken to be zero. Using up to 0.2 MPa is permitted when designing for transient loads such as wind, earthquake, etc. Higher bending forces may be used for design but these require site testing to verify construction meets the stated values.

## Characteristic Shear Strength of Masonry fms

Shear strength, like exural strength, is related to the mortar/brick bond. For design purposes, at the damp course, it is taken to be zero unless testing shows another value. Elsewhere, mortar joints have fms values of between 0.15 and 0.35 MPa.

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

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Durability of Masonry
AS3700 requires masonry to be designed to continue functioning satisfactorily throughout its design life without undue maintenance. That is, all masonry materials, including bricks, mortar and all built-in components, must be sufciently durable for the exposure classication of the site (see AS3700 Appendix E). Masonry designed to meet the requirements of AS3700 Section 5, is deemed to comply with the durability requirements and Table 5.1 denes the durability requirements for bricks, built-in components and mortar in different environments. Salt attack is the most common durability problem. In the form of a solution, salt can be absorbed into masonry. As the water evaporates, the salt is drawn towards the outside face. The evaporating water leaves the solution super-saturated so salt crystals begin to form. The salt crystals grow in the pores just below the surface and depending on the texture of the brick, the amount of salt, the rate of drying and the temperature, the salt may ll the pores, exerting very high pressures on the matrix. The energy in the constrained salt crystal increases and if sufcient pops a piece of the outer surface off and salt attack has begun. Boral bricks graded General Purpose (GP) are suitable for use in all walls, excluding external walls in severe marine environments or in all walls in contact with aggressive soils and environments. Boral bricks graded Exposure Grade (EXP) are suitable for use in all walls including external walls exposed to severe marine environments, i.e. up to 1 km from a surf coast or up to 100 m from a non surf coast or walls in contact with aggressive soils and environments. The distances are specied from mean high water mark. Walls below damp proof course often require greater durability, even if they are well away from the coast, as they may be subjected to saline, acidic or alkaline soils. If unsure of the corrosive nature of the site, an inexpensive total soluble salt content test for soil is available in most areas. Remember it is the designers responsibility to specify the appropriate durability grade of bricks, mortar and built-in components and it is the builders responsibility to order bricks, etc. of appropriate durability grade specied by the designer. Brick manufacturers cannot take any responsibility in this decision as they are not aware of the design requirements of each site. t

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## Durability of Masonry (continued)

Refer to Section 1.4 Property Tables for tabulated properties of individual brick types for their salt attack resistance category. Mortar mix requirements for durability are referred in Table 11, page 1.301 of this manual and are detailed in AS3700 Table 10.1. M4 mortars are required and mortar joints must be tooled in all situations requiring exposure grade materials. Concrete oors, paths and steps are a source of sulfate salts that if dissolved in water may enter the brickwork and cause salt attack. Exposed slabs supported on external brickwork should clear the brickwork by 50 mm and incorporate a drip groove to prevent the run-off from the slab running down the brickwork. A damp proof course (usually a double layer) is also used under the slab on top of the bricks to prevent water passing through the slab into the bricks and as a slip joint to prevent a build up of forces as the concrete shrinks and the bricks expand over time. Landscaping and gardening practices are also possible sources of salt attack. Care must be taken to not bridge the damp proof course when landscaping at the base of walls. Watering gardens and lawns, against walls, may cause salts (fertilisers) to splash up on to the wall where they are absorbed and may cause salt attack.

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

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Brick Ties
In brick veneer construction, ties are used to pass all the lateral out-of-plane loads and forces (such as from wind) to the structural backing. In cavity brick construction ties either pass the lateral out-of-plane loads and forces to the stronger leaf or share them between the leaves. The design of ties in masonry for structural purposes must comply with AS3700 Clause 7.7 for veneer or Clause 7.8 for cavity construction. For small buildings the tie requirements are covered in AS3700 Clause 12.3.4 for brick veneer construction and Clause 12.3.3.2 for cavity brick construction. Type A ties are those that have no specic seismic design characteristics. It is difcult to nd brick ties other than Type A in Australia. Ties are available in heavy, medium and light duty in galvanised steel, stainless steel and plastic. Plastic ties are usually reserved for acoustic applications. Stainless steel ties are used in situations requiring exposure grade materials or very long life. Galvanised steel ties are those most commonly used. The Newcastle (NSW) earthquake which occurred in 1989 showed masonry survived well except where the ties were decient. Problems found included: galvanised ties rusted through; ties only built into one leaf during construction; loose ties; absent ties; and, incorrect duty ties used.

Ties are required to meet the durability requirement of the site for the design life of the building. Should the design life of the building be exceeded and the ties begin to fail, they can be replaced with remedial ties but this is a very expensive process and as ties are hidden it is unlikely they will be seen until a catastrophic failure occurs. As sustainability considerations become more important, the life of buildings is likely to be extended. Properly maintained, brick buildings may last for centuries. It should be remembered that stainless steel brick ties offer a longer service life and, although more expensive as a proportion of the overall building cost, the difference is trivial.

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## Movement in Masonry Walls

To allow for movements in masonry (expansion and contraction and footing movement) control joints are required. These can usually be constructed so that the expansion joint and the articulation joint are one and the same.

Expansion Joints
Expansion and contraction must be allowed for in masonry design by inserting control joints at spacings designed to suit the magnitude of the movement. Clay products expand permanently over time. This is the opposite of cement-based products, which permanently shrink. For this reason it is unwise to use clay and concrete units in the same band in a wall. If clay bricks are used in concrete framed buildings, control joint spacing and workmanship are critical, as the bricks will expand as the concrete frame shrinks. The magnitude of thermal changes varies from brick to brick depending on the many factors, however, allowing 0.008 mm/m/C is usually recommended. Expansion and contraction from wetting and drying of clay bricks is less than for concrete and calcium silicate products and usually can be ignored in brick masonry design. AS3700, Clause 4.8 requires expansion joints to be spaced to limit panel movement so that movement from both sides closes joints by less than 15 mm and joints are at least 5 mm wide when closed. This means the gap, when constructed, should be 20-25 mm. However, in most buildings articulation joints are used and these are closer than required for expansion making separate expansion joints unnecessary.

Articulation Joints
Articulation joints are vertical gaps that allow for minor footing movements, to prevent distress or signicant wall cracking. Articulation joints provide the exibility needed when building on reactive clay soils and usually are not required for masonry on stable sites (classied according to AS2870). Spacing of articulation joints depends on the site classication and the slab or footing design, but where used must be placed no closer than 0.5 metres and no further than 3 metres from all corners. The width of articulation joints depends on the height of the masonry: 10 mm for masonry up to 3 metres and 15 mm for masonry up to 6 metres high. t

1.210

## Movement in Masonry Walls (continued)

Control Joints (General)
Control joints should be used beside large openings, where wall thickness changes (except where this is for support eg. engaged piers), where wall height changes by more than 20%, at changes of level in footings and at other points of potential cracking. Control joints must not continue through bond beams. Ideally, control joints are located near a corner and concealed behind a down pipe. The bricklayer and renderer must keep the control joint clean, otherwise, bridging mortar or render will induce cracks as the masonry moves. External control joints should be nished with a soft exible sealant to prevent moisture penetration. The design and construction of control gaps in the external leaf of a full brick wall is identical to that in brick veneer. In internal masonry, control gaps are not usually required, except at re-entrant angles in long walls. However, where an internal control joint is required the design is as for external leaves but the thermal component may be ignored in calculations. Internal control joints can usually be located at a full-height opening such as a door or window. Ties are required on both sides of a control joint, but where it is not possible to use them masonry exible anchors (MFAs) must be used across the joint. Where MFAs are used in walls over 3 metres or in walls exposed to high winds, MFAs must be built in at half height and every seventh course (600 mm) above. MFAs are ties that are of a type that only allows movement in one plane. Unless ties are used, control joints create a free end in terms of Robustness and Fire Resistance Level calculations for structural adequacy, so their positioning is critical to the overall design of the structure. In portal frame construction, the control joint is positioned at a column so that both ends can be tied to the columns anges. The principles of control joint
Dividing wall with articulation joint and MFA's at intersection with cavity wall Articulation joint Articulation joints with compressible backing and mastic sealant

## Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

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Thermal Properties
As at 2004, the Building Code of Australia (BCA) requires energy efciency performance for housing (BCA Vol 2). Australia is divided into 8 climatic zones. (Sydney and Perth are in Zone 5, Adelaide and Melbourne are in Zone 6, Brisbane is in Zone 2 and Canberra is in Zone 7). The zones and Local Government boundaries are detailed on a map, which is available from the Australian Building Codes Board (www.abcb.gov.au) but the Local Council should be able to provide the information where there is any doubt. The BCA set the minimum energy efciency requirement of 3.5 stars for Zones 1-3 and 4 stars for Zones 4-8. While the BCA sets these minimum requirements, State governments may adopt these minimums or may opt for different requirements. Local authorities may adopt higher star ratings but may not opt for lower ratings than the State adopts. The ABCB has indicated they are considering requiring 5 stars in line with Victoria and ACT. Victoria requires a 5 star rating on the building fabric from July 2005 using FirstRate or NatHERS software. Pre-July 2004, the requirement was 4 stars on the building fabric. Post July 2004, the requirement is either 5 stars on the building fabric; or 4 stars on the building fabric plus water saving measures and a solar hot water system; or 4 stars on the building fabric plus water saving measures and a rain water tank. ACT requires 5 stars from ACTHERS software. South Australia requires 4 stars from NatHERS or FirstRate software. The NSW situation is complex. From 1 July 2004 in the Sydney Metropolitan area and 1 July 2005 eleswhere in the State all new housing, dual occupancies and small (under 300 m2) hostel type accommodation will be required to have a BASIX rating. From 1 February 2005 in the Sydney Metropolitan area and 1 October 2005 elsewhere in the state this will apply to all new residential developments. From 1 July 2005 these measures apply to alterations to residences in Sydney and from 1 October 2005 elsewhere in the State. BASIX is a comprehensive sustainability rating software, incorporating energy and water efciency initially with the intention of including stormwater, transport, site ecology, waste and recycling and materials at a later date. It is a web-based system in which you enter data about the development in boxes and the whole has to meet targets to get Development Application approval. BASIX is aimed at achieving energy reductions of 25% (going up to 40% in July 2006) and potable water savings of 40%. Different star rating software can produce different ratings. To overcome this, the Australian Building Codes Board has developed a protocol to ensure all star rating software, as nearly as practical, produces the same rating for the same design. t

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## Thermal Properties (continued)

The requirements to meet a star rating are complex because the rating is based on the total building design for a given site. It is important to remember that roof insulation, shading, orientation and window size and placement have a much greater impact on energy efciency than the walls. Heat enters and leaves buildings more readily through the windows and roof and greater insulation in the roof space is usually the most cost-effective measure to increase star ratings. Although there is not an exact relationship, to meet the star ratings walls generally have to meet the following requirements:
Table 4. Wall Insulation Requirements
Zones 1, 2, 3 & 5 Qld Zones 1, 2 & 3 4&6 7 8 Wall insulation value R1.4 R1.0 R1.7 R1.9 R2.8

The BCA states that brick veneer construction made with a single leaf of 110 mm wide bricks has an R value of 0.54 and must incorporate insulation to produce the values above. Cavity clay masonry is treated differently and is deemed to satisfy wall insulation requirements if it achieves a mass of 220 kg per square metre of wall in Zones 5 and 6 and in the ACT. In Zone 6 the masonry must be constructed on a concrete slab in contact with the ground. In the ACT the masonry must be constructed on a concrete slab in contact with the ground or having an insulated timber oor. Cavity clay masonry is deemed to satisfy because heavy mass walling has a high thermal inertia (thermal lag). Heat is slowly absorbed during the day and slowly lost during the cool night. Most thermal requirements focus on thermal insulation, denoted as R value. When dealing with heavy mass walling and typical non-tropical diurnal temperature cycles, R value is misleading as it assumes a steady state (constant temperature difference across the wall) which is not the case because of the day-night temperature cycle. Cavity brick houses are well known to have a lower temperature uctuation than lighter weight construction and the deemed-to-satisfy provision is in recognition of this fact. In February 2004 the ABCB released a proposal to impose energy efciency requirements in the BCA Volume 1 for Class 2, 3 & 4 buildings, (residential buildings other than houses). ACT currently has requirements on these classes of building and Victoria has requirements on these classes and on Class 9c buildings. The requirements are essentially the same as for Class 1 buildings.

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## Masonry Design for Fire Resistance

Fire Resistance Levels (FRL)
FRLs come from the Building Code of Australias (BCA) Volume 1 tables for Type A, B or C construction. The Type of construction depends on the Class of building and the number of stories or oors. FRLs for housing come from BCA Volume 2. There are three gures in the Fire Resistance Level. Eg: FRL 120/60/90 means that the wall must achieve Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes / Integrity for 60 minutes / Insulation for 90 minutes.

This governs the walls height, length, thickness and restraints. Brick suppliers do not control the wall height, length or restraints so therefore do not control Structural Adequacy.

Integrity
This is the resistance to the passage of ame or gas. To provide integrity, walls must be structurally adequate and they must maintain insulation. Extensive re testing of masonry has shown integrity to be closely related to structural adequacy or insulation. AS 3700 therefore allows Integrity to be equal to the lesser of the Structural Adequacy or the Insulation periods.

Insulation
This is resistance to the passage of heat through the wall. Insulation is a function of the thickness of the brick as shown in Table 5, page 1.222 of this manual.

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## Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL

Structural Adequacy is a minimum provision and may be overridden by design for robustness, wind, live or earthquake loads. A re on one side of a wall will heat that side, making it expand and lean towards the re. When the lean or bow reaches half the thickness of the original wall, the wall becomes structurally inadequate. The formulae in AS3700, Clause 6.3.2.2 limits the panel size, depending on its restraints and thickness. The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of a proposed wall is calculated according to AS 3700 Clause 6.3.2.2. If this value is less than the maximum Srf in Table 6.1 of the Standard [or the Srf calculated from Fire Tests and AS 3700 Clause 6.3.3(b)(ii)], then the wall complies. If the Srf of the wall is greater than the maximum permissible, it must be recalculated for an increased thickness and/or extra restraints. There are 3 formulae for calculating Srf. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (1) and (2) are the formulae for vertically spanning walls (with no support along either vertical edge). Formula (1) and (2) always govern where there is no end restraint, and often govern where walls are long, relative to their height. Projects with multiple wall lengths (eg: home units) can use this formula as a one size ts all method of calculating the wall thickness. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (3) allows a wall to exceed the height given by formula (1) and (2) provided the top and at least one end is supported. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (4) allows a wall to exceed the height given in formula (3) where walls are short, relative to their height (eg: a lift well or vent shaft). Short walls with no top restraint often occur in situations like portal frame factories. For cavity walls where both leaves are equally loaded (within 10 per cent of each other, including where there is no load on either leaf) the thickness is equal to two-thirds of the sum of the thicknesses of both leaves and the edge restraint condition is that for the leaf not exposed to the re. Where one leaf is more heavily loaded than the other, the thickness and edge restraint condition is that of the more heavily loaded leaf. Where cavity walls are constructed with leaves of different masonry unit types, the structural adequacy is based on the less re resistant material. t

1.215

## Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL (continued)

Refer to the Structural Adequacy Graphs on the following pages for maximum height and length values for walls of different thicknesses and restraint conditions. An appropriately qualied engineer should check all calculations. Other loads may supersede Structural Adequacy requirements.

1.
S

## Laterally supported on all sides

15 14 13
(m)

Select the graph with Structural Adequacy for the required minutes. (240 minutes for this example).

2.

Select the graph for the chosen wall restraint (support) criteria. (Support on both vertical edges, top and bottom for this example).

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORTS

3.

Plot the intersection of the design Wall Height and the Wall Length on the graph. (For this example 3 m height x 5 m length).

BETWEEN

230mm

HEIGHT

4.
150mm 110mm 90mm

The line ABOVE the intersection indicates the minimum brick thickness required for the wall. In this example, 150 mm bricks would be

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

1.216
S S

15 14 13
(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported

15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

150mm

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

## Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported

15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

1.217
S S

15 14 13
(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported

15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 230mm 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

HEIGHT

HEIGH T

BE T WE E N

SUP OP RT S

12

10

11

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported

15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

1.218
S S

15 14 13
(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported

15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

## Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported

15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

## 230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

1.219
S S

15 14 13
(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported

15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 230mm 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

HEIGHT

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

## Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported

15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

## 230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

## 230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

1.220
S S

15 14 13
(m)

## Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported

15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

## Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported

15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

## 230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

## 230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

1.221

## Structural Adequacy for Panels with Unsupported Ends

This gure shows the situation where there is support top and bottom but none on the sides. This applies where there are control joints, large openings, long walls, etc. To use this graph select the desired FRL in minutes and the height of the wall. The line above the intersection shows the brick thickness required.
Maximum Wall Heights for Structural Adequacy for any Wall Length
S

(m)

6 230mm

HEIGHT WALL

MAXIMUM

0
FRL

60
F OR

90

120

180

240

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## Masonry Design for Integrity FRL

It is impractical to provide test results for all possible wall designs, and therefore Integrity must be proved in some other way. The most practical way to prove Integrity is to prove Structural Adequacy and Insulation equal to or better than the Integrity requirement. Logically, if the wall is designed to minimise bowing it will not crack and therefore resist the passage of ame and gas for the specied time. This method is also the best way to prove Integrity even when a wall may not be required to comply with a Structural Adequacy FRL value, such as is the case with non-load bearing walls. Eg. If the BCA requires an FRL of -/90/90, the wall has no actual Structural Adequacy requirement, but to prove Integrity of 90 minutes, the wall must be structurally adequate for at least 90 minutes.

## Masonry Design for Insulation FRL

Insulation is the one FRL component that a brick manufacturer does control. It is governed by the type of material and material thickness. Material thickness (t) is dened in AS3700, Clause 6.5.2 as the overall thickness for bricks with cores not more than 30% of the bricks overall volume. For cavity walls, t = the sum of material thicknesses in both leaves.
Table 5. Insulation periods for standard bricks (minutes)
Wall thickness (mm) Insulation period (minutes) 90 60 110 140 or 150 90 120 160 (150 plus 10 mm 180 230 render on both sides) (90/90 cavity) 180 240 240 220 (110/110 cavity) 240

## Effect of Recesses for Services on FRLs

Recesses that are less than half of the masonry thickness and are less than 10,000 mm2 (0.01 m2) for both sides within any 5 m2 of the wall area do not have an effect on re ratings. If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the recess.

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## Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry

To assess the effect of chases on Structural Adequacy FRLs, the direction in which the wall spans must be taken into account. Walls spanning vertically may be chased vertically to full height but horizontal chases are limited in length to 4 times the walls thickness. Walls spanning vertically and horizontally may be chased either horizontally up to half the walls length or vertically up to half the walls height. If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the chase or, in the case of vertical chases, designed as 2 walls with unsupported ends at the chase. Horizontal chases in all walls should be kept to a bare minimum. Note: Chases affect the sound reduction capacity of walls. See Acoustic Design page 1.225 of this manual.

## Integrity and Insulation FRLs

AS3700 limits the maximum depth of chase to 30 mm and the maximum area of chase to 1,000 mm2. The maximum total area of chases on both sides of any 5 m2 of wall is limited to 100,000 mm2 (0.1 m2). If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the chase.

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## Options for Increasing FRLs

Structural Adequacy FRLs can be increased by adding wall stiffeners, by increasing the overall thickness, by adding reinforcement or by protecting the wall, e.g. with Boral Plasterboards FireStop board, xed to furring channels (on both sides of the wall if a re rating is required from both sides). Note: Be careful of the effect of plasterboard on sound reduction in party walls. See Acoustic Design page 1.225 of this manual. Integrity FRLs are increased by increasing the other two FRL values to the required Integrity FRL. Insulation FRLs can be increased by adding another leaf of masonry, by rendering both sides of the wall if the re can come from either side. Note: Only ONE thickness of render is added to the material thickness and that must be on the cold side because the render on the exposed face will drop off early in a re.

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## ACOUSTIC DESIGN Acoustic Performance Rating

The BCA requirements for Class 1, 2, 3 and 9c buildings changed in May 2004 with the issue of Amendment 14. Amendment 14 has been adopted by all jurisdictions other than Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia where Amendment 13 continues in force. It must be remembered that the BCA requirements are the minimum requirements and some Local Authorities may require better performance. Check with Local Councils for specic requirements above the BCA minimums. Note: Incremental improvements in sound insulation come at an ever-increasing cost. The BCA Amendment 14 requirements are met by: 1. Testing a sample of constructed walls to verify that they meet the Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt,w explained further in Acoustic Performance On-Site on page 1.231 of this manual) requirements; or 2. Constructing walls using the same materials and techniques as walls that have been constructed and tested in a laboratory and shown to meet the Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) requirements; or, 3. Constructing walls using the materials and techniques in the Acceptable Construction Practice section of the BCA; and, 4. 5. Where impact sound reduction is required, it is to be achieved by discontinuous construction; and, Except where the requirements are veried by on-site testing, chasing of services into masonry walls is not allowed and electrical outlets on either side of the wall must be offset by no less than 100 mm. t

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## Acoustic Performance Rating (continued)

Table 6. BCA Volume 2 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating two or more Class 1 Buildings
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit bathroom, sanitary compartment, laundry or kitchen Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit habitable room except a kitchen Wall Rating Rw+Ctr50 Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction

Table 7. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating sole occupancy units from other parts of the building in Class 2&3 Buildings.
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit bathroom, sanitary compartment, laundry or kitchen Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit habitable room except a kitchen Plant room or lift shaft Wall Rating Rw+Ctr50 Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction Rw50

## Stairway, public corridor, public lobby or areas of different classication

Table 8. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating sole occupancy units from other parts of the building in Class 9c Buildings (aged care facilities).
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Laundry, kitchen Wall Rating Rw45 Rw45 and discontinuous construction or No less resistant to impact noise than a deemed-tosatisfy wall Rw45

## Sole occupancy unit all areas

Bathroom, sanitary compartment (but not an associated ensuite), plant room, utilities room

## Table 9. BCA Amendment 14 Service separation* in Class 1, 2, 3 & 9c buildings.

Building service A duct, soil, waste, water supply or stormwater pipe passing through a separating wall Adjacent room Sole occupancy unit habitable room other than a kitchen Sole occupancy unit kitchen or non habitable room Barrier rating Rw 40 Rw 25

* In Class 1 buildings the requirements apply to those services that pass through more than one building. In Class 2, 3 & 9c requirements apply to all stormwater pipes and other services that pass through more than one sole occupancy unit.

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## Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw)

Rw is a single-number rating of the sound reduction through a wall or other building element. Since the sound reduction may be different at different frequencies, test measurements are subjected to a standard procedure that yields a single number that is about equal to the average sound reduction in the middle of the human hearing range. Two spectral corrections can be applied to Rw: C and Ctr. C compensates for medium to high frequency noise and Ctr compensates for low frequency noise. C and Ctr are both negative numbers.

## Impact Sound Resistance

The BCA Amendment 14 says there is no appropriate test for impact sound reduction in walls. However, in the case of Class 9c buildings the BCA allows impact sound reduction to be demonstrated by showing a wall performs no worse than a deemed-to-satisfy wall. To achieve impact sound resistance, the BCA requires walls consist of two leaves with at least a 20 mm cavity between them and if ties are needed in masonry walls they must be of the resilient type. Except for the resilient ties in masonry walls there are to be no mechanical linkages between the walls, except at the periphery (i.e. through walls, oors and ceilings).

## BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls

BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Specication F5.2 Table 2 gives deemed-to-satisfy walls for sound insulation for walls separating sole occupancy units. BCA Volume 2 Amendment 14 Table 3.8.6.2 gives deemed-to-satisfy walls for sound insulation for walls separating two or more Class 1 Buildings. These walls are the same as those in Volume 1 except only walls achieving Rw+Ctr 50 are allowed. Deemed-to-satisfy clay brick walls are detailed on the following pages. t

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## BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls (continued)

Table 10. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Deemed-to-Satisfy Brick Walls
Construction Rating

Two leaves of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A cavity not less than 50 mm between leaves; and (b) 50 mm thick glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 or 50 mm thick polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 in the cavity. Rw+Ctr50

Two leaves of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A cavity not less than 50 mm between leaves; and (b) 13 mm cement render on each outside face. Rw+Ctr50

Single leaf of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A row of 70 mm x 35 mm timber studs or 64 mm steel studs at 600 mm centres, spaced 20 mm from the masonry wall; and (b) 50 mm thick mineral insulation or glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 positioned between studs; and, (c) one layer of 13 mm plasterboard xed to outside face of studs and outside face of masonry.

Rw+Ctr50

Single leaf of 90 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A row of 70 mm x 35 mm timber studs or 64 mm steels studs at 600 mm centres, spaced 20 mm from each face of the masonry wall; and (b) 50 mm thick mineral insulation or glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 positioned between studs in each row; and (c) one layer of 13 mm plasterboard xed to studs on each outside face. Rw+Ctr50

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## BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls (continued)

Table 10. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Deemed-to-Satisfy Brick Walls (continued)
Construction Rating

Single leaf of 150 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw50

Single leaf of 220 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw50

Single leaf of 110 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw45

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## Solid v. Cavity Walls

Acoustic performance with single leaf masonry follows the Mass Law. The acoustic performance of these walls depends on their mass. More mass gives better performance, however, the relationship is logarithmic: If a 110 mm wall gives Rw = 45, a 230 mm wall of the same brick may give Rw = 57. Cavity walls behave differently because sound waves can resonate in cavities. The narrower the cavity becomes, the more resonance occurs. Insulation in the cavity helps absorb resonating sound and narrow cavities should have bond breaker board, to prevent mortar from providing a bridge for sound to travel between the leaves.

## Brick Walls with Render

Render on one side of a brick wall adds 2 or 3 to the walls Rw but adding render to the second side only adds 1 to the walls Rw. The render appears to ll defects in the wall surface reducing the sound transmission, but this is a one-off benet.

## Brick Walls with Plasterboard

Cornice cement daubs, used to x plasterboard directly to brick walls, create a small cavity in which resonance occurs. Brick walls with daub xed plasterboard on both sides stop less noise than the same walls, bare. Adding extra daubs (halving spacing) gives lower performances, presumably due to extra bridges through the daubs. Plasterboard on furring channel is marginally better than daub xed. A bigger cavity between the wall and the plasterboard makes it harder for resonating energy to build up pressure on the board. When standard furring channel clips are used, this system transfers vibrations to the plasterboard via the channels and clips. Boral Impact Clips (BICs) have a rubber shank on their masonry anchor that isolates the vibrations from the masonry. The use of BIC mounts can add 3 or 4 dB to the walls Rw. Polyester and glass wool in the cavity helps prevent resonance and further decreases the sound transmission. Denser grades of plasterboard and additional layers of plasterboard (xed with grab screws and leaving no cavities) also decrease sound transmission.

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## Points to Consider When Designing Walls for Acoustic Performance

The BCA species minimum levels for sound isolation but experience shows that achieving the minimum standards is not always sufcient to satisfy occupants. In view of this it is recommended that architects, developers, builders, etc., consider a higher level of sound insulation, commensurate with the expectations of the end user. End user expectations are frequently related to the cost of occupying the unit. Wall design is a balance between acoustical performance, thickness, weight and cost. Frequently it is not possible to optimise one factor without seriously compromising the others.

## Acoustic Performance On-Site

The Rw ratings on walling systems are obtained from tests carried out in accredited laboratories, under controlled conditions. When identical partitions in buildings are tested in-situ, it is often found that the actual result obtained, called the Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt,w), is lower than the laboratory Rw. This reduction in performance can be due to rooms being too small, varying size of the element being tested, anking paths (noise passing through other parts of the building) or background noise. The allowance in the BCA for a difference of 5 between the laboratory test and the eld test is not to allow for poor construction practice. To repeat the performance in the eld, attention to detail in the design and construction of the partition and its adjoining oor/ceiling and associated structure is of prime importance. Even the most basic elements, if ignored, can seriously downgrade the sound insulation performance. The most common eld faults include bricklayers not completely lling all mortar joints, poor sealing between walls and other building elements, electrical power outlets being placed back to back, chasing masonry and concrete walls, leaving gaps in insulation, screwing into insulation and winding it around the screw when attaching sheet materials, not staggering joints in sheet materials and poor sealing of penetrations. Boral Bricks cannot guarantee that eld performance ratings will match laboratory performance. However, with careful attention during construction of the wall, correct installation to specication and proper caulking/sealing, the assembly should produce a eld performance close to and comparable with tested values. The following items can also affect the acoustic performance on site.

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## Perimeter Acoustical Sealing

As the Rw of a wall increases, the control of anking paths becomes more critical. Consequently, the perimeter sealing requirements for a low sound rating wall, such as Rw = 45, are much less than for a high sound rating wall, such as Rw = 60. Note: it is neither necessary, nor is it cost effective, to provide very high perimeter acoustic sealing for a low Rw wall. Effective sealants have the following properties: Good exibility, (elastic set); Low hardness; Excellent adhesion, usually to concrete, timber, plaster and galvanised steel; Minimal shrinkage (less than 5%); Moderate density (greater than 800 kg/m3); and are, Fire rated where required (All walls required by the BCA to be sound rated also have re ratings).

All of the above properties must be maintained over the useful life of the building, that is, greater than 20 years. Note: Use of expanding foam sealants is not acceptable. Refer to the manufacturer to ensure the particular type or grade of sealant is suitable for the purpose.

Doors
Hollow, cored and even solid doors generally provide unsatisfactory sound insulation. Doors can provide direct air leaks between rooms lowering the overall Rw of the wall in which they are inserted. Where sound insulation is important, specialised heavyweight doors or, preferably, two doors separated by an absorbent lined airspace or lobby should be used.

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## Lightweight Panels Above Doors

Panels are often incorporated for aesthetic reasons, however, they should not be used unless they have an Rw equal to or better than the walls requirement.

## Air Paths Through Gaps, Cracks or Holes

Seal all gaps, cracks or openings, however small, with an acoustic sealant. Holes readily conduct airborne sounds and can considerably reduce the Rw of a wall.

Appliances
Noise producing xtures or appliances such as water closets, cisterns, water storage tanks, sluices, dishwashers, washing machines and pumps should be isolated from the structure with resilient mountings and exible service leads and connections.

## Electrical Outlets & Service Pipes

Penetrations of all sorts should be avoided but if unavoidable, seal around them effectively. If possible introduce a discontinuity in pipe work between ttings, such as a exible connection within or on the line of a partition. Use acoustically rated boxes for all general power outlets, light switches, telephone connections, television outlets, etc. Seal the sides of electrical boxes and the perimeter of all penetrations with acoustic sealant. Offset all power outlets on either side of a wall by at least 100 mm.