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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

SECOND SEMESTER/YEARLY EXAMINATIONS MAY 2009

PROGRAMME

BEng (Hons) Chemical and Environmental Engineering / BEng (Hons) Chemical and Renewable Energy Engineering Level 3

MODULE NAME DATE

Chemical Process Design Thursday 7 May 2009 MODULE CODE CHE 3202(5)

TIME NO. OF QUESTIONS SET

9:30 12:30 Hours 5

DURATION NO. OF QUESTIONS TO BE ATTEMPTED

3 Hours 3

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Answer any THREE (3) Questions.

CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN CHE 3202(5)

Answer any THREE (3) Questions.

Question 1 Fresh orange juice typically consists of about 12% (mass %) dissolved solids, largely sugars, in water. In order to reduce cost of shipping, the juice is often concentrated prior to shipping and then reconstituted by adding water at the destination. Concentration must be carried out in specially designed, short residence-time evaporators operated at below atmospheric pressures in order to reduce the loss volatile and thermally sensitive flavour. Since some loss of these good characteristics are somewhat unavoidable, it is required to overconcentrate the juice and then add a small amount of fresh juice (called the cutback) to the concentrate to produce a product of improved aroma and flavour. Suppose that 10% of the feed to such a process is used as cutback and the evaporator is operated to produce an outlet concentrate containing 80% dissolved solids. (i) (ii) Draw the process flow sheet and devise a solution strategy for this problem. If the process feed rate is at 10,000 kg/hr, calculate the rate at which water must be evaporated and determine the composition of the final product. [25 marks]

Question 2 Chlorine dioxide gas is used in the paper industry to bleach pulp produced in a mill (Fig. 2.0). The gas is produced by reacting sodium chlorate, sulphuric acid, and methanol in lead-lined reactors: 6NaClO3 + 6H2SO4 + CH3OH 6ClO2 + 6NaHSO4 + CO2

Suppose 14 mol of an equimolar mixture of NaClO3 and H2SO4 is added per 1 mol CH3OH (see Figure 2.0 below) (a) (b) Perform the degree of freedom analysis for this system. Determine which is the limiting reactant. [4 marks] [6 marks]

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CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN CHE 3202(5)


Question 2 [continued] (c) Calculate the reactant flows required to produce 10 metric tons per hour of ClO2, assuming 90% conversion is obtained. [15 marks]

CH3OH

Reactor

NaClO3

Reaction products

H2SO4
In equimolar mix Fig. 2.0 [Total 25 marks]

Question 3 Sodium hypochlorite is formed according to the reaction 2NaOH + Cl2 NaOCl + NaCl + H2O

in a continuous reactor by bubbling Cl2 through a concentrated 40% (mass) NaOH solution. Suppose the solution of NaOH in H2O is fed at 1000 kg/h and the Cl2 gas, at 10 kgmol/h. (a) Perform the degree of freedom analysis assuming the conversion is specified. [9 marks] Determine which is the limiting reactant. [7 marks]

(b) (c)

Calculate the outlet composition of the reactor assuming 100% conversion of the limiting reactant. [9 marks] [Total 25 marks]

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CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN CHE 3202(5)


Question 4 The reaction 2A + 5 B 3C+6D

is carried out in a reactor with 60% conversion of B. Most of the unreacted B is recovered in a separator and recycled to the reactor. (Figure 4.0) The fresh feed to the reactor consists of A and B, with the fresh A being in 30 % in excess of the stoichiometric amount required to react with the fresh B. If the overall conversion of B in the process is 95%, calculate the product and recycle flows required to produce 100 mol/hr of compound C.

Fresh Feed A&B REACTOR

S E P A R A T O R

A B C D

Recycle B

Figure 4.0

Question 5 Determine the root of the equation f(x) = 3 xe x 1 = 0 using interval halving and the initial estimates xL = 1.0 xR = 2.0 [25 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER
sg/

Use ten trials.

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