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Talents, God', Gifts, need Uu Blessing.

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14. Wherefore the Apostle says, I have planted, Apollos TO watered, but God gave the increase. So then neither is he or. • that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth, but God 6,7. That giveth the increa,e! God gives to you in the spirit, and the Lord sows in your heart. Take care then that He breathe life and sow in you, that you may reap; for if you sow not, neither shall you reap. This is a sort of admonition to you to sow. If you sow not you shall not reap, is a proverb. The end agrees with the beginning; the seed is the beginning, the harvest the end. 15. Learn, he says, of me; nature aids the learner, and God is the Author of nature. It is of God too that we learn well, for it is a natural gift to learn well; the hard of heart learn not. Nature, which is preserved by the Divine bounty, gives the increase. The final consummation God giveth, that is, the most excellent and Divine Nature and Essence of the Trinity. Farewell: love us, as you do, for we love you.

TttE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL OF AQUILEIA AGAINST THE HERETICS PALLADIUS AND 8ECUNDlANUS.
TaB officlal Record of the Proeeedlngs of this Counell seems to be Inserted

A.D.3st.

among S. Ambrose'l Letters, partly because S. Ambrose took tbe leading part in tbem, and partly because they form the lubject of the next series of letten, directly of tbe four fint, and more Indirectly of tbe two next, all of wbleb, tbougb written In tbe name of the Bisbopll of Italy, we may prelume to bave beeu S. Ambrose's composltlou. The Council was beld In the 1fIAr 381 A.D., the same year in whlcb tbe Second General Counell was held at Constantinople. It will be remembered tbat that Counell, being 11lIIl. mooed by Theodosioa, then Emperor of tbe East, consisted of Eastern Bishops only. At tbis time Arianism, tllOugb rife in the East, seems uot to have been prevalent In the West. S. Ambrose says, (Letter xi. 1) 'as regards the West, two Individuals only bave been found to dare to oppose the Coun. ell wltb profanll and impiooa words, men wbo bad previonaly disturbed a mere comer of Dada Rlpenm.' These two men were Paladiu and Becundlanoa. Palladioa appe&n to bave applied to Gratlan to call a General Counell, on the plea tbat be was falsely accused of Arlanlam, In 379 A.D. Gratian granted bis request, but afterwards, &I we learn from his letter read at tbe Counell, on the representation of 8. Ambrose tbat Inch a question as the loundness nr beresy of two Blabopll migbt be settled by a Conn. eD of the BiIIIlopa of tbe Dloeeae of Italy, be 10 far altered hIa orlclnal order

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The Council

of Aquileia.

as to 'summon only these, giving pennission for otbers to attend if tbey pleased. This reconsideration, and perhaps also tbe troubles that prevailed In the Empire at the time, (Tillemont Vie de S. Ambr. ch. xxiii.) caused lIuch delay that it was not till towards the end of 381 A.D. tbat the Council assembled under the presidency of S. Valerian Bishop of Aquileia. The Bishops of Italy, with deputies from Gaul, Africa, and lIIyria, to the number of thirty two or thirty three (see note r) met at Aquileia at the beginning oC September. Tbe discussion recorded in the' Gesta' took place probably on Septr. 3rd (see note a) but S. Ambrose's words in § 2 imply that. previous discussions had been held oC wbicb no Record had been taken, (diu citra acta traetavimus.) The proceedings commence by the reading of the Emperor's Mandate. PaIIadlus then raises objections on the ground of the absence of the BlshoJIII from the East, and charges S. Ambrose with having tricked the Emperor Into summoning only a small Council, and declines to take part in a Council which is not General. After some discussion on this point S. Ambrose proposes that Arlus' letter from Nicomedla to S. Alexander should be read in detail, and PaIIadIus called upon to condemn each heretical proposition. Palladlus argues upon each, but eventually returns to his refusal to answer except In a General Conncil. In the end all the Bishops pronounce their decisions one by one, all agreeing that PaUadius' doctrine was heretical and that he should be deposed. Secundianus Is then more briefly dealt with in the same way. It would seem that the Record il incomplete, as the number of Bishops who give their decision Is only 25, and the account of Secundlanus' ease ends abruptly without recording any decision. It may be from the same cause that the Record itself is In one or two places seemingly defective, and the senile conCused. 8eeundianus is not mentioned again in History. Of PaIladius it is said hy Vlgilius, Bishop of Thapsus in Africa, who lived in the latter part of the 5th Century, that after S. Ambrose's death he wrote a reply to his writings against Arianism, which V'Jgllius himself answered (Tillemont Vie de S. Ambr. xxri). The genuineness of the Gesta has been disputed by ChifBet, who maintained that they were a forgery of the Vigilius mentioned above: his arguments however are satisfactorily refuted by TiUemont In an elaborate note. (Vol. x. p. 138. note 15. on S. Ambr. LIfe.)

EUClIERIUS,

1. IN the consulship of the illustrious Sy AGRIUS and on the 3rd day of September·, the undermentioned Bishops b, sitting in council in the church at
venlant post Dominieam diem, if he were speaking on a Sunday. b The reading of Ed. Rom. bas been adopted, whicb omits the preposition • cum.' If this were correct, it would Imply that the consuls were themselves taking a leading part in the Council; whereas It is clear that they are mentioned solely as the or_ dinary _y of fixing the year; nor bad the consuls at this time any other

• There can be little doubt that the true date is m. Non. Sept. I. e. the 8rd oC Sept., and not Nonls, tbe 5th. For In 381 A. D. tbe 5tb oC Sept. was on a Sunday, and it is bardlylikely that a Council would bave sat from daybreak till one 0' clotk (Ep. 10.5) In the Cbureb on sucb a clay, and moreover It would not have been natural for Palladlus to say, as he does In t 41. Non respondebo nlslauditores

The Biahops !oho assembled.

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Aquileia, namely, VALERIAN, Bishop of Aquileia, AM- OP BROSE, EUSEBIUS, LIME:lllUS, ANEMIUS, SABINUS, ABUN- AQUlLErA. DANTIUS, ARTEMIUS, CONSTANTIUS, JUSTUS, PHILASTER, CONSTANTIUS, THEODORUS, ALMACHIUS, DOMNINUS, AMANTIUS, MAXIMUS, FELIX, BASSIANUS, NUMIDIUS, JANUARIUS, PROCULUS, HELIODORUS, JOVINUS, FELIX, EXUPERAXTIUS, DIOGENES, MAXIMUS, l-IAcEDoNIUS, CASSIANUS, MARCELLUS, and EUSTATHIUS, Bishops: Ambrose, Bishop, said; 2. 'We han long been dealing with the matter without any Records c, and now, since our ears are assailed with such sacrilegious words on the part of Palladius and Secundianus, that one can scarce believe that they could have so openly blasphemed, and that they may not attempt hereafter by any subtlety to deny their own words, though the testimony of such eminent Bishops does not admit of doubt, still as it is the pleasure of 'all the Bishops, let Records be made, that no one may be able to deny his own profession. Do you therefore, holy men, declare what is your pleasure! All the Bishops said, ' It is our pleasure.' Ambrose, Bishop, said, 'Our discussions must be confirmed by the Emperor's Letter, as the subject requires, so that they may be quoted.' 3. The Letter is read by Sabinianus a Deacon; " Desirous to make our earliest efforts to prevent dissension among Bishops from uncertainty what doctrines they should reverence, we had ordered the Bishops to come together into the city of Aquileia, out of the diocese d which
than such omamental functions. See Gibbon's description, ch. xvii. vol. a ed. Smith p. 206-208. " By • acta' here are meant for. mal and official records taken down and published by autbority. Thus Jul. Caar ordered the' Acta' of the 8enatetoberegu1ar1ypubllsbed. Suet. C_. 20. d It is to be remembered tbat • diocese' was then a civil and not an Ecclesiastical term. A 'diO!ce.is' was an IIIfgregate of provinces, under the charge of a Vicarius, wbo was lubordinate to one of tbe fOllr Pnefeetl Praetorio, eacb Pnefeetus having under bim a number of dioceses. Thus the Vicariua ltalle, wbo was IUbD

ordinate to the Prefeetus Pnetorio Italiae, had in his diocese fourteen provincl's, including both Liguria of which Milan was the capital, and Venetia in whicb Aqoileia was situated. It is to be remembered also that Italla at this time meant only the north of Italy, the rest of Italy being now Included In the DIocese of Rome, and under the Vicarius Urbis Romae. See the table given in Smith's Gibbon, vol. iI. p. 315. taken from Marquardt. When the word diocese came into Ecclesiastical use, it was applied, fint to" an aggregate not merely of Bevera! districts, governed each bT its own bishop, but of several proVlDCC8 (brIlf'XtlU) each presided over b1 a

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The Emperor's Mandate read.

has been confided to the merits of your Excellency. For controversies of dubious import could not be better disentangled than by our constituting the Bishops themselves expounders of the dispute that has arisen, so that the same persons from whom come forth the instructions of doctrine may solve the contradictions of discordant teaching. 4. "Nor is our present order different from our last: we do not alter the tenour of our command, but we correct the superfluous numbers that would have assembled. For as Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, eminent both for the merits of his life and the favour of God, suggests that there is no occasion for numbers in a case in which the truth, though in the hands of a few supporters, would not suffer from many antagonists, and that he and the Bishops of the adjoining cities of Italy would be more than sufficient to meet the assertions of the opposite party, we have judged it right to refrain from troubling venerable men by bringing into strange lands anyone who was either loacled with years, or disabled with bodily weakness, or in the slender circumstances of honourable poverty; e etc." 5. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'This is what a Christian Emperor has ordained. He bas not thought fit to do an injury to the Bishops: he has constituted the Bishops themselves Judges. And therefore since we sit together in a Council of Bishops, answer to what is proposed to you. Arius's letter has been read: it shan be recited now again, if you think proper. It contains blasphemies from the beginning; it says that the Father alone is eternal. If you think that the Son of God is not everlasting, support this doctrine in what manner you please: if you think it is a doctrine to be condemned, condemn it. Here is t.he Gospel, and the Apostle f: all the Scriptures are at hand. Support it from what quarter you please, if you think that the Son of God is not everlasting.'
metropolitan. The dllK'fle Itself was under an Exarch or Patriarch." Dict. of Chr. Ant. sub voc. ' Creditl' Is here read for • credltam,' as required by the order of the words. e It Is not certain to whom the Emperor's letter was addressed. Some have thought that It was addl't!ll8l'd to the Pretorlan Prefect of Italy. Tillemont maintained that it was addressed to Valerian, Bishop of AquUeia, in whose see the Counril was held. The language, though not decisive, seems in favour of the former suppolIition. In § 1. the Prefect of Italy Is spoken of as issuing letters In pursuance of it. , l. e. a copy of 8. Paul'. Epistles.

Palladiu8 objecta to tke Council,

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AQV1LEIA.

6. PALLADIUS said: 'You have contrived, as appears by . t he sacred document! wInch you have brought forward, that this should not be a full and General Council: in the absence of our Colleagues we cannot answer.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Who are your colleagues?' Palladius !laid; 'The Eastern Bishops.' 7. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Inasmuch as in formel' times the usage of Councils has been that the Eastern Bishops be appointed to hold them in the East, and the Western Bishops in the West, we, having our place in the West, are come together to the city of Aquileia according to the Emperor's command. Moreover, the Prefect of Italy has issued letters, that if the Eastern Bishops chose to meet, they should be allowed to do so; but inasmuch as they know that the custom is that the Council of the Eastern Bishops should be in the East and of the Western in the West, they have therefore thought fit not to come.' 8.· PALLADIUS said; 'Our Emperor Gratian commanded the Eastern Bishops to come: do you deny that he did so the Emperor himself told us that he had commanded the Eastern Bishops to come.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'He certainly commanded them, in that he did not forbid them to come Qither.' Palladius said; 'But your prayer has prevented their coming: under a pretence of benevolence you have obtained this, and so put the Council off.' 9. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'There is no occasion to wander any longer from the subject: answer now. Did Arius say rightly that the Father alone is eternal? and did he say this in agreement with the Scriptures or not?' Palladius said; 'I do not answer you.' Constantius, Bishop, said; 'Do not you answer when you have so long blasphemed? ' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'But you are under an obligation to express frankly the faith you claim the right to hold. If a heathen were to ask of you in what way you believe in Christ, you would be bound not to be ashamed to confess.' 10. SABINUS, Bishop, said; 'It was your own request that we would answer: we are come together this day acI

1. e. the Emperor'. letter.
D

2

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and demand. a General one.

cording to your wish, and upon your own solicitation, and we have not waited for our other brethren, who might have come. It is therefore not open to you to wander from the subject. Do you say that Christ was created? or do you say that the Son of God is everlasting? ' Palladius said; 'I have told you already: we said we would come and prove that you have not done well to take advantage of the Emperor.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Let Palladius's letter be read to shew whether he sent us this message, and it will appear that even now he is dece:ving.' Palladius said; 'Let it be read by all means.' The Bishops said: 'When you saw the Emperor at Sirmium, did you address him, or was it he that pressed you?' And they added: 'What do you answer to this?' Palladius answered; 'He said to me, " Go." We said: "Are the Eastern Bishops summoned to attend?" He said, "They are." Should we have come if the Eastern Bishops had not been summoned? J 11. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Let the matter of the Eutern Bishops stand over. I enquire at present into your sentiments. Arius's letter has been read to you: you are in the habit of denying that you are an Arian. Either condemn Arius now, or defend him.' Palladius said; 'It is not within the compass of your authority to ask this of me.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'We do not believe that the religious Emperor said other than he wrote. He has ordered the Bishops to meet: it is impossible that he said to you and no one else contrary to his own letter, that the case was not to be discuss'ed without the presence of the Eastern Bishops.' Palladius said; 'He did, if the Italian Bishops alone were ordered to assemble.' Evagrius, Presbyter and deputy, said; h [It is plain] 'that he promised to appear within four and even within two days. What then were you waiting for? was it, as you say, that you considered the opinion of your colleagues, the
10

Is there any tblng to guide us to IUP- general connectlon Is however clear ply the lacuna. What Is given In the enongh even If It be omitted.

The text bere seeml defective, nor at the meaning of the sentence. The

trallllatlon II no more than a

mesa

He i8 called on to condemn Arius' Itatemmts,

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Eastern Bishops was to be waited for? Then you ought to OP have said so in your message, and not to have pledged your- AQUILBIA self to discussion.' Palladius said; , I had' come, believing it to be a General Council, but I saw that my colleagues had not assembled. I decided however i to come, in accordance with the summons, to bid you to do 'nothing to the prejudice of a future Council.' 12. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; , You yourself required that we should sit to-day, moreover, even this very day you have said yourself' we come as Christians to Christians.' You have therefore acknowledged us for Christians. You promised that you would engage in discussion: you promised that you would either assign your own reasons or accept ours. We therefore willingly accepted your opening, we wished that you should come as a Christian. I offered you the letter of Arius, which that Arius wrote, from whose name you say that you often suffer wrong. You say that you do not follow Arius. To-day your sentiments must be made clear; either condemn him, or support him by whatever passage you will.' He went on; 'Then according to Arius's letter Christ the Son of God is not everlasting?' Palladius said; 'We said that we would prove ourselves Christians, but in a full Council. We do not answer you at all to the prejudice of a future Council.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'You ought to state your profession of faith straightforwardly.' Palladius said; , And what do we reserve for the Council?' 13. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'He has been unanimously condemned who denies the Eternity of the Son of God. Anus denied it, Palladius, who will not condemn Arius, follows him. Consider then, whether his opinion is approved of; it is easy to perceive whether he speaks according to the Scriptures, or against Scriptures. For we read: God's eternal Power and Godhead. Christ is the Rom. I. Power of God. If then the Power of God is everlasting, to. Christ surely is everlasting; Christ i8 the Power of God.' 1 Cor. L
I

1flD1lfl.

The reading of Ed. Rom. Is here adopted, as alone furnishing a reasonabI. 8. The Benedictine text 18 nnlntelligible.

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and to confess that the Son

of God

Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'This is our faith: this is the Catholic doctrine; who says not this, let him be anathema.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 14. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'He says specifically that the Father alone is everlasting, and that the Son at some time began to be.' Palladius said; 'I have neither seen Arius, nor do I know who he is.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'The blasphemy of Arius has been produced, in which he denies that the Son of God is everlasting. Do you condemn this wickedness and its author, or do you support it?' Palladius said; 'When there is not the authority of a full Council, I do not speak.' 15. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Do you hesitate after the Actsl.18. divine judgements to condemn Arius, when he has burat asunder in the midst?' and he added; 'Let the holy men too, the deputies of the Gauls, speak.' Constantius, Bishop and deputy ofthe Gauls, said ;.'This impiety of that man we always have condemned, and we now condemn not only Arius, but also whoever does not say that the Son of God is everlasting.' Ambrose,Bishop, said; 'What says also my Lord Justus ?' Justus, Bishop and deputy of the Gauls, said; 'He who does not confess that the Son of God is co-eternal with the Father, let him be accounted Anathema.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 16. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Let the deputies of the Africans speak too, who have brought hither the sentiments of all their countrymen.' Felix, Bishop and deputy, said; 'If any man denies that the Son of God is everlasting, and that He is co-eternal with the Father, not only do I the deputy of the whole province of Africa condemn him, but also the whole priestly company, which sent me to this most holy assembly, has itself also already condemned him.' Anemius, Bishop, said; 'There is no capital of Illyricum J
I By IDyricam is here meant lDyricum Occidentale, wbich at this time _ under the jurisdiction of the ViMUS Itali8!. (See the Table In Smitb', Gibbon, referred to in note d. p. 33) Sirmium, which in the following Ceotury was entlrell destroyed by the Goths under AUDa, was at this time

is Co-Eternal with the Father,

39

but Sirmium: I am its Bishop. The person who does not OP confess the Son of God to be ete}'nal and co-eternal with .t.QUfLEf.t. the Father, that is, everlasting, I call anathema; and I also say anathema to those who do not make the same confession.' 17. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Hear what follows.' Then it was read; "Alone eternal, alone without beginning, alone true, Who alone has immortality." Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In this also condemn him who denies that the Son is very God. For since He Himself is the Truth, how is He not very God?' And he added; , What say you to this? ' Palladius said; 'Who denies that He is very Son?' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Arius denied it.' Palladius said; 'When the Apostle says that Christ is God over all, can anyone deny that He is the very Son of God?' 18. Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'That you may see with how much simplicity we seek the truth, 10, I say as you say:· but I have then only half the truth. For by speaking thus, you appear to deny that He is very God; if however you confess simply that the Son of God is "ery God, state it in the order in which I propose it to you.' Palladius said; 'I speak to you according to the Scriptures: I call the Lord the very Son of God.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Do you call the Son of God very Lord?' Palladius said; 'When I call Him very Son, what more is wanted?' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'I do not ask only that you
• place of great importance both civil and eeeleaiaatical. It is spoken of by .Justinian &I capital of IIIyrieum both in civil and epilcopal matten (Tillemont, note xv on the Life of S. Ambroee voL x. p. 139). Its eeelesiastical importance Is shewn by the eontest in which S. Ambrose engaged with Justina, two yean before the Coundl, 379 A.D. to bring about the election of Anemius &I Bishop, when the Empress was uling all her inlluence to cause an Arlen Bishop to be appointed. Arianism had been rife there fur some time, and Oerminus a previous Bishop had been one of the leaden of that party. (Tlllemont, S. Ambr. ch. xx.) lIIyr1cnm had been finally separated into two divisionl, Orientale and Oecldentale, byOratian, in 379 A.D, who tranlferred the Eastem Division to TheodOlius when he made him Emperor of the East, from which time it formed part of the Eastern Empire. (Tillemont, Dist. des Emp. vol. v. p. 716.) .

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Very God,

should call Him very Son, but that you should call the Son of God very Lord.' 19. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'Is Christ very God, according to the faith of all and to the Catholic profession?' Palladius said; 'He is the very Son of God.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'We also are by adoption sons; He is Son according to the property of His Divine Generation.' And he added; 'Do you confess that the very Son of God is very Lord by His Birth and essentially?' Palladius said; 'I call Him the very Son of God, onlybegotten.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Do you then think it is against the Scriptures, for Christ to be called very God , 20. PALLADIUS being silent, Ambrose, Bishop, said; , He who says only that He is the very Son of God, and will not say that He is very Lord, appears to deny it. Let Palladius then, if he does confess it, confess it in this order, and let him say whether he calls the Son of God very Lord.' S.John Palladius said; 'When the Son says, That they might xvii. s. know Thee tl,e only true God and Jesus Christ Whom Thou hast sent, is it by way of feeling only, or in truth P IS.John Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'John said in his epistle; This v.lO. is the true God. Deny this.' Palladius said; 'When I tell you that He is true Son, I acknowledge also a true Godhead.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In this also there is evasion; for you art wont to speak of one only and true Godhead in such manner as to say that it is the divinity of the Father only, and not that of the Son also, which is one only and true. If then you wish to speak plainly, as you refer me to the Scriptures, say what the Evangelist John said; This is the true God, or deny that he hath said it.' Palladius said; 'Besides the Son there is none other that is begotten.' 21. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'Is Christ very God, according to the faith of all and to the Catholic profession, or in your opinion is He not very God?' Palladius said; 'He is the Power of our God.' Ambrose, Bishop said ; 'You do not speak frankly; and

Immortal, a, regard,

41

so anathema to him who does not confess that the Son OF d' AQVILBIA · very L or. of G 0 d IS All the Bishops said; , Let him be accounted anathema, who will not call Christ, the Son of God, very Lord.' 22. The reader continued; "Alone true, Who alone hath immortality." Ambrose, Bishop, said; , Has the Son of God immortality, or has He it not, in respect of His Godhead t' Palladius said; 'Do you accept or no the words of the Apostle, The King of leing' Who alone hath immortality?' 1 TIm. Ambrose, Bishop, said; t What say you of Christ the vi. 16. Son of God?' Palladius said; 'Is Christ a divine Name or a human t' 23. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'He is called Christ indeed according to the mystery of His Incarnation, but He is both God and Man.' Palladius said; 'Christ is a name of the flesh: Christ is a man's name: do you answer me.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Why do you dwell upon useless topics? When Arius' impious words were read, who says of the Father that He alone hath immortality, you cited a testimony in confirmation of Arius' impiety, quoting from the Apostle, Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto. But if you understand it, he haa expressed by the Name of God the dignity of the whole Nature, inasmuch as in the Name of God, both Father and Son are signified.' Palladius said; 'You also have not chosen to answer what I have asked.' 24. AMBRo8JI:, Bishop, said; 'I ask you to give your opinion plainly, has the Son of God immortality according to His divine generation, or has He not? I Palladius said; 'In respect of His divine generation He is incorruptible; and by means of His Incarnation He died.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'His divinity died not, but His flesh died.' Palladius said; 'Do you answer me first.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Has the Son of God immortality in respect of His Godhead or has He it not? But have you not even now betrayed your fraudulent and insidious

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His Godhead,

s. Matt. x.28.

meaning according to Arius' profession?' and he added j 'He who denies that the Son of God has immortality, what think you of him? ' All the Bishops said; 'Let him be accounted anathema.' 25. PALLADIUS said; 'A divine offspring is immorta1.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'This also have you said evasively, to avoid expressing anything clearly about the Son of God. I say to you, the Son hath immortality in respect of His Godhead, or do you deny it and sl1Y that He has not.' Palladius said; 'Did Christ die or not? ' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In respect of the flesh He did: our soul does not die: for it is written, Fear not them who kill the hody, hut are not ahle to kill the soul; seeing then that our soul cannot die, do you think Christ died in respect of His Godhead? ' Palladius said j 'Why do you shrink from the name of death? ' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Nay, I do not shrink from it, but I confess it in respect of my flesh: for there is One by Whom I am released from the chains of death.' Palladius said; 'Death is caused by separation of the spirit (from the flesh), for Christ the Son of God took upon Him flesh, and by means of flesh he died.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'It is written that Christ suffered: He suffered then in respect of His flesh: in respect of His Godhead He has immortality. He who denies this, is a devil.' Palladius said; 'I know not Arius.' 26. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Then Arius said ill, since the Son of God also has immortality in respect of his Godhead.' And he added, 'Did he then say well or ill? ' Palladius said; 'I do not agree.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'With whom do not you agree? Anathema to him, who does not frankly unfold his faith.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' Palladius said; 'Say what you please; His Godhead is immortal.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Whose? the Father's or the Son's?' And he added: 'Arius heaped together many impieties. But let us pass to other points.'

Wue, Good,

43

27. Then was recited; "Alone wise." 0' Palladius said; 'The Father is wise of himself, but the AQUILEIA Son is not wise.' Ambrose, Bishop said; 'Is then the Son not wise, when He Himself is Wisdom? For we also say that the Son is begotten of the Father.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Is there anything as impious and profane as this which he said, that the Son of God is not wise?' Palladius said; 'He is called Wisdom, who can deny that he is Wisdom?' Ambrose, Bishop said; 'Is He wise or not?' Palladius said; 'He is Wisdom.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Then He is wise, if He is Wisdom.' Palladius said; 'We answer you according to the Scriptures.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Palladius, as far as I can see, has attempted to deny also that the Son of God is wise.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'He who denies that the Son of God is wise, let him be anathema.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 28. EusEBIUs, Bishop, said; 'Let Secundianus also answer to this.' Secundianus being silent, Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'He who is silent wishes to reserve his judgement.' And he added, 'When he says that the Father alone is good, did he confess the Son or deny Him?' Palladius said; , We read, I am the good Shepherd, and s. John do we deny it? Who would not say that the Son of God x. 11. is good?' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Then is Christ good?' Palladius said; 'He is good.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Arius then was wrong in asserting it of the Father alone, since the Son of God also is a good IE God.'
I< The context requires the readlng aerts' Deum' In Eusebius' next speech, 'bonus' for' omnibus,' which Is that which Is required by the argument. of one MS. The lIUIIe MS. also in.

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The mighty God,

s. I,uke

S. John riL II.

Palladius said; 'He who says that Christ is not good, says ill.' 29. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'Do you confess that Christ is a good God? For I also am good. He has said to me; Well done, thou good servant; and, .A. good man out of the good treasure of his heart /ningethforth that which is good.' Palladius said; 'I have already said, I do not answer you until there is a full Council.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'The Jews said He is a good man; and Arius denies that the Son of God is good! Palladius said; 'Who can deny it ?' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Then the Son of God is a good God.' Palladius said; 'The good Father begat a good Son.' 30. AMBROSE, Bishop said; , We also are begotten of Him and are good, but not in respect of Godhead. Do you call the Son of God a good God?' Palladius said; 'The Son of God is good.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'You see then that you call him a good Christ, a good Son, not a good God; which is what is asked of you.' And he added; 'He who does not confess that the Son of God is a good God, Anathema to him.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 31. The reader likewise continued; "Alone mighty." Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Is the Son of God mighty or not?' Palladius said; 'He Who made all things, is He not mighty? He Who made all things, is He deficient in might?' Ambrose, Bishop, said: 'Then Arius said ill.' And he added; 'Do you even in this condemn Arius ?' Palladius said; 'How do I know who he is? I answer you for myself.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Is the Son of God the mighty God?' Palladius said; 'He is mighty.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Is the Son of God the mighty God?' Palladius said; 'I have already said that the only. ten Son of God is mighty.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'The mighty Lord.'

The Judge

of all,

Palladius said; 'The mighty Son of God.' OF 82. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Men also are mighty; for AQUILEIA it is written, Why haas/est thou thyself in mischief, thou Ps. m. 1. mighty man? and in another place, When I am weak, then' Cor. am I strong. I ask you to confess that Christ the Son of xli. 10. God is the mighty Lord; or if you deny it, support your denial. For I speak of one Power of the Father and of the Son, and I call the Son of God mighty in the same way as the Father. Do you hesitate then to confess that the Son of God is the mighty Lord?' Palladius said; 'I have already said, we answer you in discussion as we can; for you wish to be sole judges, and at the same time parties to the case. We do not answer you now, but we will answer you in a General and full Council.' Am brose, Bishop, said; 'Anathema to him who denies that Christ is the mighty Lord! All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 33. It was likewise recited; "Alone mighty, Judge of all!' Palladius said; 'the Son of God, the Judge of all. There is Who gives, there is who receives.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Did He give by grace or nature ? Men also have judgement given them.' Palladius said; 'Do you call the Father greater or not? ' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'I will answer you afterwards.' Palladius said; 'I do not answer you, if you do not answer me! Eusebius, Bishop, said; f Unless you condemn in order the impiety of Arius, we will give you no power of asking questions.' Palladius said; 'I do not answer you.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Is the Son of God, as has been read, Judge or not?' Palladius said; 'If you do not answer me, I do not answer you, a8 being an impious person! 84. AMBROSE, Bishop said; 'You have my profession, whereby I will answer you. In the mean time, let Arius' letter be read through.' And he added: 'In that letter you will find that sacrilegious argument also which you are endeavouring at! Palladius said; 'When I ask, do you not answer?'

Equal to the Father

Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'We call the Son of God equal God.' Palladius said: 'You are Judge: your note-takers are here.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Let any of yours write, who please.' 35. PALLADIUS said; 'Is the Father greater or not? ' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'In respect of His Godhead the Son is equal to the Father. You have it in the Gospel that s. John the Jews persecuted Him hecau8e He not only hroke the 8ahv. 18. hath, hut al80 called God Hi8 Father, making Him8elf equal with God j what then impious men confessed while they persecuted, we who believe cannot deny.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'And in another place you have: Phil. ii. Who heing in the form 0/ God thought it not rohhery to he equal toith God, but emptied him8e1f1 and took upon him the Himself form of a 8ervant, and was made in the likene88 of men; and hecame ohedient unto death. You see that in the form E.T. of God He is equal to God. And he took, S. Paul says, the form of a servant. In what then is He less? In respect surely of His form of a servant, not of the form of God?' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Just as, being established in the form of a servant, He was not less than a servant; so being established in the form of God, He could not be less than God.' 36. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Or say that in respect of Godhead the Son of God is less.' Palladius said; 'The Father is greater.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In respect of the flesh.' s. John Palladius said; 'He who 8ent me, is greater than I. Was xlv. 28. the flesh sent by God or was the Son of God sent? ' Ambrose. Bishop, said; 'We prove this day that the holy Scriptures are falsely cited by you, for thus it is writJb.27.28. ten: Peace I leave unto you, my peace I give unto you: not a8 the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart he trouhled, neither let it he a/raid: if ye loved me, ye would rl'joice, hecau8e 18aid, I go unto the Father,/or my Father is greater than I. He did not say, He Who sent me is greater than I.' Palladius said; 'The Father is greater.'
COUNCIL

aB touching HiB Godhead,

47

Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Anathema to him, who adds to ·, AQUILEIA or tak es f rom t he I10Iy S crlptures. All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' 37. PALLADIUS said; 'The Father is greater than the Son.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In respect of the flesh the Son is less than the Father: in respect of Godhead He is equal to the Father: I read therefore that the Son of God is equal to the Father, as also the instances that have been adduced testify. But why should you wonder that He is less in respect of the flesh, when He has called Himself a servant, a stone, a worm, when He has said that He is less than the angels, for it is written: Thou madeBt him a little neb. U.
lo,oer than the angeIB.' '/.

0.

Palladius said; 'I see that you make impious assertions. 'Ve do not answer you without arbiters.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'Let no one ask for an opinion from him who has blasphemed in such countless opinions.' Palladius said; 'We do not answer you.' 38. SABINU8 Bishop, said; 'Palladius has now been condemned by all. The blasphemies of Arius are much lighter than those of Palladius.' . And when Palladius rose, as if he wished to go out, he said; 'Palladius has risen, because he sees that he is to be convicted by manifest testimonies of the Scriptures, as indeed he has been already convicted: for thus it has been read, that in respect of Godhead the Son is equal to the Father. Let him admit that in respect of His Godhead the Son of God has no greater: it is written: When God made lb. vi. 1&
promise to Abraham, becauBe He could swear by no greater, lie swear by himBelf. You see therefore the Scripture, that

He could swear by no greater. But it is the Son of Whom this is !laid, since it was He Who appeared to Abraham, whence also He says, He Baw my day and waB glad.' S. John Palladius said; 'The Father is greater.' vUI. 66. Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'When He spake as God, He had no greater; when He spake as man, He had one greater.' 39. PALLADIUS said; 'The Father begat the Son; the Father sent the Son.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Anathema to himl who denies

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Inferior only in His Incarnation.

that in respect of His Godhead the Son is equal to the Father.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema.' Palladius said; 'The Son is subject to the Father; the Son keeps the commands of the Father.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; , He is subject in respect of His Incarnation. But even you yourself remember that you S. John have read; No man can come unto me, except the Father vi. 44. draw him.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; , Let him say whether the Son is subject to the Father in respect of His Godhead, or in respect of His Incarnation.' 40. PALLADIUS said; 'Then the Father is greater.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In another place also it is writ1 Cor. I. ten; God is faithful, by Whom ye were called unto the felB. lowship of His Son. I say that the Father is greater in respect of the assumption of the flesh, which the Son of God took upon Him, not in respect of the Son's Godhead. Palladius said; 'What then is the comparison of the Son of God? And can flesh say, God is greater than I? Did the flesh speak or the Godhead because the flesh was there?' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'The flesh does not speak without the soul.' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'God in the flesh spoke accordS. John ing to the flesh, when He said, Why do ye persecute!1 me, "Ut. 40. <J Wh 'd thOIS r , 'Butnowa man. 0 sal 'Ie seek Palladius said; 'The Son of God.' Ambrose, Bishop, said j 'Then the Son of God is God in E.V. respect of His Godhead and is man in respect of His flesh.' Palladius said; 'He took flesh upon Him.' Eusebius. Bishop, said; 'Accordingly He made use of human words.' Palladius said; 'He took man's flesh upon Him.' 41. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Let him say that the Apostle did not call Him subject in respect of His Godhead, but in respect of His flesh; for it is written, He humMed himself and became obedient unto death. In what then did He taste death t' Palladius said; 'In that He humbled Himself.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Not His Godhead but His flesh

Palladiua recurs to hia objections to the Council.

49

was humbled and subject.' And he added; 'Did Arius well OF or ill in calling him a perfect creature?' AQUILEIA Palladius said; 'I do not answer you, for you have no authority.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Profess what you please.' Palladius said; 'I do not answer you.' 42. SABINUS, Bishop, said; 'Do you not answer on behalf of Arius? do you not answer to what has been asked?' Palladius said; 'I have not answered on behalf of Arius.' Sabin us, Bishop, said; , You have answered so far as to deny that the Son of God is mighty, to deny that He is true God.' Palladius said; 'I do not allow you to be my judge, whom 1 convict of impiety.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; , You yourself forced us to sit.' Palladius said; 'I gave in a request that you might sit, in order that I might convict you. Why have you practised upon the Emperor ? You have gained by intrigue that the Council should not be a plenary one.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'When Arius' impieties were read, your impiety also, which harmonized with his, was condemned equally. You have thought fit while the letter was in the midst of being read, to bring forward whatever passages you would: you were told in answer in what way the Son has said that the Father is greater, because in respect of His taking flesh upon Him, the Father il greater than He. You have urged also that the Son of God is subject; and on this head you were answered that the Son of God is subject in respect of His flesh, not in respect of His divinity. You have our profession. Now hear the rest. Since you have been answered, do you answer to what is read.' 48. PALLADIUS said; , 1 do not answer you, because what 1 have said has not been recorded; only your words are recorded. I do not answer you.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'You see that every thing is recorded. Moreover, what has been written is abundant for the proof of your impiety.' And he added; 'Do you say that Christ is a creature or do you deny it?' PaUadius said; 'I do not answer you.'
E

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Altalus questioned.

Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'An hour ago, when it was read that Arius called Christ a creature, you denied it: you had an opportunity offered you of condemning his perfidy; you would not. Say now at last whether Christ was begotten of the Father or created.' Palladius said; 'If you please, let my reporters come and so let the whole be taken down.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'Let him send for his Palladius said; 'We will answer you in a full Council.' 44. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Attalus subscribed the formula 1 of the Council of Nicma. Let him deny it, as he has come to our Council. Let him say to-day, whether he subscribed the formula of the Council of Niema or no?' Attalus remaining silent, Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Though the presbyter Attalus is an Arian, yet we give him permission to speak: let him frankly state whether he subscribed the formula of the Council of Niema under his Bishop Agrippinus, or no.' Attalus said; 'You have already said that I have been several times condemned. I do not answer you.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Did you subscribe the formula of the Council of Nicma or no ? ' Attalus said; 'I do not answer you.' 45. PALLADIUS said; 'Do you now wish the formula to be regarded as general or no ?' Chromatius, presbyter, said; 'You have not denied that He is a creature, you have denied that He is mighty. You have denied every thing which the Catholic Faith professes! Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'We are witnesses that Attalus subscribed the Council of Niema, and that he now refuses to answer. What is the opinion of all? ' As Attalus did not speak, Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Let him say whether he subscribed the formula of the Council of Niema or no! 46. PALLADIUS said; 'Let your reporter and ours stand forward and write down every thing.'
I By • tradatua conciW Nieenl' Is meant limply tbe Nieeoe Creed. Tbia Is establlsbed by S. Ambr. De Fide IH. )5. (518 Eel. Ben.) wbere, speak. ing of tbe letter of E1IIIebiua of Nlco-

media read at tbe Coancll, In reference to tbe word .".,.w,,,., be BaYS, H_ cum lecta euet eplstola In ConciUo Nlceno, boe yerbum i. tr'flct."'fltid posuerant Patrea, etc.

Palladi1U .till evade. aR8wering,

51

Valerian, Bishop, said; 'What you have said and what or you have denied is already all written.' AQUILEIA Palladius said; 'Say what you please.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Since Palladius who has been already many times condemned, wishes to be condemned still oftener, I am reading the letter of Arius which he has not chosen to condemn: do you state whether you approve of my doing so.' All the Bishops said; 'Let it be read.' Then the words were read. "But begotten not putatively," &c. Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'I have answered you on the Father's being greater: I have answered you also on the Son's being subject: do you yourself answer now.' 47. PALLADIUS said; 'I will not answer unless arbiters come after the Lord's day.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; , You were come with a view to discussion, but since I have charged you with its doctrines, ·you have seen the letter of Arius which you have not chosen to condemn and which you cannot support: you now therefore shrink back and cavil. I read it to you fully point by point. Tell me whether you believe Christ to have been created; whether there was a time when he was not; or whether the only begotten Son of God has always existed. When you have heard Arius' letter, either condemn it or approve of it.' 48. PALLADIUS said; 'Since I convict you of impiety, I will not have you for judge. You are a transgressor.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'Say, what impieties you object to our brother and fellow-bishop Ambrose.' Palladius said; 'I have already told you, I will answer in a full Council, and with arbiters present.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'I desire to be confuted and convicted in the &lsembly of my brethren. Say then what I have said impiously; but I appear impious to you because I support piety.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'Does then he seem impious to you, who censures the blasphemies of Arius? ' 49. PALLADIUS said; 'I have not denied that the Son of God is good.' E 2

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and demands arbitrator., which iB refused,

Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Do you say that Christ is a good God?' Palladius said; 'I do not answer you.' Valerian, Bishop, said; 'Do not press Palladius so much: he cannot confess our with simplicity. For his conscience is confused with a twofold blasphemy: he was ordained by the Photinians and was condemned with them, and now he shall be condemned more fully.' Palladius said; 'Prove it.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'He would not have denied that Christ is true if he were not following his own teachers.' 50. AXBROSE, Bishop, said; 'You have objected to me that I am impious: prove it.' Palladius said; 'We will bring forward our statement, and when we have brought it, then the discussion shall be held.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Condemn the impiety of Arius.' Palladius being silent, Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'He dwells upon useless subjects. There are so many impieties of Arius, which Palladius has not chosen to condemn, nay rather has confessed by supporting. He who does not condemn Arius is like him, and is rightly to be called a heretic.' All the Bishops said; 'On the part of us all let Palladiu8 be anathema.' 51. AXBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Do you consent, Palladius, that the other statements of Arius be read l' Palladius said; • Give us arbiters: let reporters come on both sides. You cannot be judges unless we have arbitra;.. tors and unless persons come on both sides to arbitrate, we do not answer you.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'What arbitrators do you wish for?' Palladius said; 'There are here many men of high rank.' Sabinus, Bishop, said; 'After such a number of blasphemies do you wish for arbitrators l' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Bishops ought to judge of laymen: not laymen of Bishops. But tell me what judges you wish for.'

as contrary to the Emperor's Mandate.

53

Palladius said; CLet arbitrators attend.' or Chromatius, the Presbyter, said; 'Without prejudice .to AQU1LEIA condemnation by the Bishops, let those also who are of Palladius' party be heard at full length.' 52. P ALLADIUS said; C They are not allowed to speak. Let arbitrators attend and reporters on both sides, and then they will answer you in a General Council.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Though he has been convicted of many impieties, yet we should blush that a person who claims the priesthood for himself should seem to have been condemned by laymen, and on this very ground and in this very point he deserves condemnation becalise he looks to the sentence of laymen, when priests ought rather to be the judges of laymen. Looking to what we have this day heard Palladius professing and to what he haa refused to condemn, I pronounce him unworthy of the priesthood, and I judge that he should be deprived ID thereof in order that a Catholic may be ordained in his place.' All the Bishops said; 'Anathema to Palladius.' 53. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'The most gracious and Christian Emperor has committed the cause to the judgement of the Bishops and has constituted them arbitrators of the dispute n. Since therefore the decision appears to have been made over to us, so that we are the interpreters of the Scriptures, let us condemn Palladius, who has not chosen to condemn the sentiments of the impious Arius, and because he haa himself denied the Son of God to be everlasting, and made the other statements which appear in our proceedings. Let him therefore be accounted Anathema.' All the Bishops said; 'We all condemn him; let him be accounted anathema.' 54. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Since all who are met here
.. The reading in Ed. Ben. Is 'car. endnm.' If it Is genuine, the word mllllt have acquired a IIOI't of transi. tive Belllle and have eome to mean • to be deprived.' No traces of such an IlIIe Is to be found in Pacciolati or in Dumnge•. Ed. Ben. quotes a parallel IlIIe of ' but without any instances. Rom. reads 'privandam,' ehlmet • curandum,' elther of which give tbe required sense, but leem eorp rectlons without MS. authority. D The text in this paIIAge Is defective and confused: but the general sense, as given here, may fairly be made out of It as it stands.

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The Bishops, one by one,

are Christian men, brethren approved of God, and our fellow-bishops, let each individual say, what he thinks.' Valerian, Bishop, said; 'My sentence. is that he who defends Arius is an Arian; that he who does not condemn his blasphemies is himself a blasphemer; and therefore I judge that such a man is alien from the fellowship of Bishops.' Palladius said; 'You have begun to play; play on. Without an Eastern Council we answer you not.' 55. ANEMIUS, Bishop of Sirmium said; 'Whoever does not condemn the heresies of Arius must of necessity be an Arian. Him therefore I judge to be alien from our communion, and to be without place in the assembly of Bishops.' Constantius, Bishop of Orange, said; 'As Palladius is a disciple of Arius, whose impieties have been long since condemned by our Fathers in the Council of Nice, but have this day severally, when recited, been approved of by Palladius, inasmuch as he was not disturbed at his acknowledging that the Son of God was not of the same Nature with God the Father, and at his calling Him a creature, and saying that He began to be in time, and denying Him to be true Lord, on these grounds, I judge that he should be condemned for ever.' 56. JUSTUS, Bishop, said; 'Palladius who has refused to condemn the blasphemies of Arius, and who seem! rather to acknowledge them, can in my judgement no longer be called a Priest or be reckoned among Bishops.' Eventius, Bishop of Ticinum, said; 'I think that Palladius who has refused to condemn the impieties of Arius, is removed for ever from the fellowship of Bishops.' 57. ABUNDANTIUS, Bishop of Trent, said; 'Since Palladius maintains evident blasphemies, let him know that he is condemned by the Council of Aquileia.' Eusebius, Bishop of Bologna, said; 'Inasmuch as PaJl&.. dius has not only refused to condemn the impieties of Arius, impieties written with the pen of the devil, and which it is not lawful so much as to listen to, but has also appeared as the maintainer of them by denying that the Son of God is true Lord, is good Lord, is wise Lord, is everlasting Lord; both by my sentence, and by the

condemn Palladiw,

55

ment of all Catholics I think that he is rightly condemned or and excluded from the assembly of Bishops.' AQUILEIA 58. SABINUS, Bishop of Placentia, said; , Since it has been proved to all that Palladius supports the Arian perfidy and maintains its impiety that was counter to the Evangelical and apostolical institutions, a just sentence of the whole Council has been passed upon him, and humble individual as I am, let him by my judgement be deprived once more of the priesthoo::l and banished justly from this most holy assembly.' Felix and Numidius, deputies of Africa said; 'Anathema to the Sect of the Arian heresy to which by the Synod of Aquileia Palladius is pronounced to belong. But we condemn also those, who contradict the truth of the Nicene Synod.' 59. LUIENIUS, Bishop of Vercellre, said; 'It is manifest that the Arian doctrine has been often condemned: and therefore, inasmuch as Palladius having been appealed to in this holy Synod of Aquileia has refused to correct and amend himself, and has rather proved himself worthy of blame and defiled himself with the perfidy which he has publicly professed himself to hold, I too by my judgement declare that he is to be deprived of the fellowship of the Bishops.' Maximus, Bishop of Emona, said; 'That Palladius, who would not condemn, but has rather himself acknowledged, the blasphemies of Arius, is justly and deservedly condemned God knows, and the conscience of the faithful has condemned him.' 60. EXUPERANTIUS, Bishop of Dertona, said; 'As the rest of my Colleagues have condemned PaUadius who has refused to condemn the sect and doctrine of Arius, and on the contrary has defended them, I also likewise condemn · , h un. Bassianus, Bishop of Lodi, said; 'I have heard along with the rest of my Colleagues the impieties of Arius, which Palladius not only has not condemned but has confirmed. I.et him be anathema and be deprived oC the priesthood.' 61. PRILASTER, Bishop of Brescia, said; 'The blasphemies and iniquity of Palladius, who follows and defends the Arian doctrine I in company with all have condemned.'

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and sentence him to be deprived of his order,.

Constantiua, Bishop of Sciscia, said; I As the rest of my brother Bishops, I also think that Pa.lladius is to be condemned, who has refused to condemn the blasphemies and impieties of Arius.' Heliodorus, Bishop of Altinum, said; 'The man who maintains the perfidy of Arius, and of all the heretics with whom Palladius is partner, whose heart is foolish, and who has not confessed thd truth) together with the rest of my brother Bishops I condemn.' 62. FELIX, Bishop of Jadera, said; 'I also in like manner unite with all in condemning Palladius, who speaks blasphemies against the Son of God as Arius did.' Theodorus, Bishop of Octodorum, said; 'We judge Palladius, who has denied Christ to b3 true God, co-eternal with the Father, to be in no wise either a Christian or a priest.' Domninus, Bishop of Grenoble, said; 'As Palladiusadheres to the perfidy of Arius, I also judge -that he is to be condemned for ever, as my brethren also have condemned him.' 68. PROCULUS, Bishop of Marseilles, said; 'Palladius, who by a kind of impious succession to the blasphemies of Arius has defended them in that he does not condemn them, as he has been already designated a blasphemer by the sentence of many venerable Bishops, and pronounced alien from the priesthood, so by my sentence also is marked out in the same manner as condemned for ever.' Diogenes, Bishop of Genoa, said; 'Palladius who while he does not confess has even denied Christ to be true Lord and God, like and equal to the Father, I together with the rest of my brethren and fellow Bishops adjudge to have the lot of condemnation.' 64. AMANTIUS, Bishop of Nice, said; 'Palladius, who has refused to pull down the sect of Arius, according to the judgement of my brother Bishops, I also condemn.' Januarius, Bishop, said; 'As all my brother Bishops have condemned Pa.lladius so also do I think that he ought to be condemned by a similar judgement 0.'
o It Is to be noticed that the sen- three. It Is probable therefore that tence of only twenty-five Bishops are the Record Is defective, and that the here given out of thirty two or thlrty sentences of the rest have been loet.

Secundianua is questioned.

51

65. "SECUNDIANUS having withdrawn for a while, and OF then returned to the CouncilP, AQUILEI4 Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'You have heard, Secundianus, what sort of sentence the impious Palladius has received, having been condemned by the Council of Bishops: and though we have been displeased that you have not shrunk from his madness, I nevertheless make some special enquiries of you. Do you say that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is or is not very God?' Secundianus said; 'He who denies the Father of our Lord and God Jesus Christ to be true God is not a Christian, nor is he who denies that the Lord is the very Son of God.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'Do you confess that the Son of God is very God?' Secundianus said; 'I say that He is the very Son of God, the very only begotten Son of God.' 66. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Do you call Him very Lord?' Secundianus said; 'I call Him the very only-begotten Son of God. Who denies that He is the very Son of God? Eusebius, Bishop, said; It is not enough that you con-" fess Him to be the only-begotten Son of God, for all confess this. But what influences us is that Arius said that the Father alone is Lord, alone is true, and denied that the Son of God is very Lord. Do you confess simply that the Son of God is very God?' Secundianus said; 'Who Arius was, I know not; what he said, I know not. You speak with me, living man with living man. I say what Christ said: The only begotten s. John Son Which is in the bo.om of the Father. Therefore He L 18. asserts Himself to be the only-begotten Son of the Father: the only-begotten Son is then the very Son of God.' 67. AKBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Ie the very Son of God also very God? It is written in the divine books: he that IIIL Ixy. aweareth on the earth, .hall awear by the true God, and 16. that this applies to Christ there is no doubt. We thereP Ed. Ben. here reads, Et com Seeundianua lubripullllet. As lubripulsset by Itself could have no sense, the readIng of Ed. Rom has been &dopted, Et com SecnndIanua se paul-

Iulum lubrlpuiaaet et poatea convenislet. Thil Is adopted In TlUemont'lI narratlYe, II IIOrtlt mesme de 1'&11mals n revint que\que tempi &pm.

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He rej'aues to confess the Son

fore profess the true God, and this is our faith and profession, that the only-begotten Son of the Father is very God. Do you then say , of very God,' and then that the Son is very God.' Secundianus said; 'Of very God.' 68. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Is the Son of God very God?' Secundianus said; 'Then would he be a liar.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'In this you practise an evasion to avoid saying very God, but instead thereof, God, very only-begotten, and therefore say simply, The only-begotten Son of God is very God.' Secundianus said; 'I called Him the only-begotten Son of God.' 69. EUSEBIUS, Bishop, said; 'This Photinus does not deny, this Sabellus confesses.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'And he who does not confess this is justly condemned, and on this point I appeal to you many times though by cavilling you have denied the truth. I do not ask you to call Him merely the very onlybegotten Son of God, but to call Him also very God.' Secundianus said; 'I profess myself the servant of truth. What I say is not taken down and what you say is taken down. I say that Christ is the true Son of God. Who denies that He is the true Son of God ?' 70. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'He who denies that the only-begotten Son of God is very God, let him be anathema.' Secundianus said; 'The only-begotten Son of God, very God 1 why do you state to me what is not written? ' Ambrose, Bishop, said: 'It is plain sacrilege, that Arius denied Christ the Son of God to be very God.' Secundianus said; 'Forasmuch as Christ is called the Son of God, I call the Son of God very Son q; but that He is very God is not written.' 71. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Have you not yet recovered your senses?' And he added; 'Lest it should appear that he has been unfairly treated, let him state his opinion. Let him then say that Christ the only-begotten Son of God is very God.'
q

This .. according to the text of Ed. Rom.

to be tJery God.

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Secundianus said; 'I have already said. What more 0' . AQUILEIA wonld you wrmg from ' me? Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'What have you said 1 certainly if you had said so great truths, what is said gloriously, may well be often repeated.' M Secundianus said; 'It i. written, Let yom- contJerBation 8. a 7.tt • J ., v. • ue yea, yea, nay, nay. 72. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'He who says that the Father Himself is the Son, is sacrilegious. This I ask of you that you would say that the Son of God is begotten very God of very God.' Secundianus said; 'I say that the Son is begotten of God, as He says Himself I hatJe begotten Thee, and that Reb. I. 5. He confesses Himself to be begotten.' 73. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; f Is He very God of very God?' SecUndianus said; 'When you add to the Name and call Him very [God], do you understand what the character of your own faith is, and are you a Christian l' Eusebius, Bishop, said; 'Who has denied that He is very God 1 Arius and Palladius have denied it. If you believe Him to be very God, you should simply express it.' 74. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'If you will not say that He is very God begotten of very God, you have denied Christ.' Secundianus said; 'When asked about the Son, I answered you: I have answered as to the manner in which I ought to make my profession. We have your statement: we will bring it forward; let it be read.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; , You should have brought it forward to-day, but you are attempting a subterfuge. You demand a profession of me and I demand a profeaaion of you. Is the Son of God very God l' Secundianussaid; 'The Son of God is God only-begotten. I also ask him: Is He only-begotten l' 75. AMBROSE, Bishop, said; 'Let reason move us: let us be moved too by your impiety and folly. When you speak of God very only-begotten, you do not apply the 'very' to 'God,' but to ' only-begotten.' And therefore

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The list of Bishop,.

to remove this question answer me this: Is He very God of very God?' Secundianus said; 'Did then God not beget God? He Who is very God begat What He is; He begat one true only-begotten Son.' Ambrose, Bishop, said; 'You do not confess Him very God but you would call Him very only-begotten. I too call Him only-begotten, but also very God.' Secundianus said; '1 say that he was begotten of the Father, I say to aU that he was very begotten't.' The Names of the Bishops and Presbyters who were present at the Council. VALERIAN, Bishop of Aquileia '. AMBROSE, Bishop of Milan. EUSEBIUS, Bishop of Bologna. LUriENJUS, Bishop of Vercellre. ANEMIUS, Bishop of Sirmium in Illyricum. SABINUS, Bishop of Placentia. ABUNDANTIUS, Bishop of Brescia. CONSTANTIUS, Bishop of Orange, Deputy of the Gauls. THEODORUS, Bishop of Octodurus. DOMNINUS, Bishop of Grenoble. AMANTIUS, Bishop of Nice. MAXIMUS, Bishop of Emona. BASSIANUS, Bishop of Lodi. PROCULUS, Bishop of Marseilles, Deputy of the Gauls. HELIODORUS, Bishop of Altinum. FELIX, Bishop of Jadera. EVENTIUS, Bishop of Ticinum '.
• The abrupt termination of the dIIcuuIon with Secundianua, without any account of a decision in his case, seems to point to the same conclusion as the incomplete list of Bishops who give eentence on Palladiua, that the Record is defective. Moreover the unuanal number of variOUI readings is generally a sign of a defective text. The force and cleverneu of the evalions of 8ecundianua _ sometimes to be lost thereby. • With regard to the names of the eees, thOle of which the modern name is as familiar or more famUiar than the ancient have been rendered by the modern name, thOll8 of which the modem name would be unfamiliar to general readers have been left in their ancient form. It would be all'ectation to call S. Ambroee Bishop of Mediolanum: on the other band nothing would be gained by calling Felix Bishop of Jadera, Bishop of Zara. t This name is omitted in the list at the beginning, 10 that there are thirty three in this list, only thirty two in the other. The two presbyters _ probably repreeentatives ot Bishops. but it hi not stated of whom.

The announcement

of the deci8ioJIB,

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EXSUPERANTIUS, Bishop of Dertona. OP 4QUILEIA DIOGENES, Bishop of Genoa. CONSTANTIUS, Bishop of Sciscia. JUSTUS, Bishop of Lyons, also Deputy ofthe Gauls. FELIX, Deputy of Mrica. NUJrlIDIUS, Deputy of Mrica. EVAGRIUS, Presbyter and Deputy. ARTEJrlIUS, ALJrlACHIUS, JANUARIUS, JOVINUS, MACEDONIUS, CASSIANUS, MARCELLUS, EUSTATHIUS, MAXIMUS, CHROJrlATIUS a Presbyter.

LEYrER IX.
A PO• •4L letter from the Italian Bisbops IIIIt!mbled at Aqullela, tbanklng tbe Bishops of tbe three Provinces for tbe presence of tbelr deputies, and announcing officially tbe condemnation of Palladius and Secondlanus.

A.D.3SI.

THE COUNCIL WHICH IS ASSEMBLED AT AQUILEIA TO OUR MOST BELOVED BRETHREN, THE BISHOPS OF THE VIENNESE AND THE FIRST AND SECOND NARBONESE PROVINCES· IN GAUL.

1. WE retum thanks to your holy unanimity that in the persons of our Lords and brethren Constantiua and Proculus you have given us the presence of you all, and at the same time following the directions of former times, have added not a little weight to our judgement, with which the profession of your holinesses also is in agreement, Lords and brethren most beloved. Therefore, as we received with gladness the above mentioned holy men of your order and ours, so do we also dismiss them with an abundant offering of thanks. 2. But how necessary the meeting was will be plain from the mere facts, since the adversaries and enemies of God, the defenders of the Arian sect and heresy, Palladius and
• It Is probable tbat similar Ietten were addreued to the Bishops of the other Provinces of Gaul, wbo bad sent Justus u tbelr deputl' and to Africa and Inyrleum, tbough no record of .&hem remallll. POIII1bl, tbe, were
Identical, except tbe addreu. Gaul bad at tbls time been so subdivided. tbat tbe Vicariate or cltII Diocese conslated of no 1_ than seventeen provinCft. See Marquardt's Table, u quoted above.