Molecules 2011, 16, 1426-1451; doi:10.
ISSN 1420-3049 www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules Review
Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology
Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker 1,2,* and Hilmi Volkan Demir 1,2
Luminous! Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Microelectronics Division; School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Physics and Applied Physics Division, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics and UNAM, Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com; Tel.: +90-(312) 290-3534; Fax: +90-(312) 266-4365. Received: 17 December 2010; in revised form: 6 February 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
Abstract: Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers. Keywords: material binding peptide; filamentous phage; nanotechnology; nanoparticles; self assembly
Molecules 2011, 16 1. Introduction
Phage display (PD) has been utilized as a powerful tool for the selection of ligands for many biological molecules [1-4]. In the case of peptides, the power of the phage displayed peptide libraries arose from the diversity of peptide sequences displayed on the phage coat protein, which have been demonstrated in numerous studies [5-7]. Additionally, by integrating the diversity enabled by PD peptide libraries, the evolutionary processes of biomolecules in biological systems can be mimicked through a forced laboratory evolution [8-10]. PD peptide ligands were selected and screened for proteins, small molecules, and peptides using a man-made evolutionary process. In addition to the soft materials found in biological systems, such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, hard tissues have also been discovered and systematically investigated for medical and technological applications [11-13]. Biological hard tissues were formed in diverse arrays of functionality and strength under extended durations of evolutionary stresses [14-16]. In the past few decades more attention was paid to formation mechanisms of biological hard tissues such as teeth [17-19], sea shells [20,21], bones and cartilages [22-24]. These studies emphasized the crucial role proteins play in the formation of biological hard tissues . The synthesis of these biomaterials is uniquely controlled by specific biomolecules through molecular recognition and self-assembly [26,27]. The structure activity relationship of the biomaterial-forming proteins in living organisms has attracted increasing interest. In this context, some special proteins were extracted from organisms and shown to control the formation of biomaterials under ambient conditions, which revolutionized the area of biomaterials research. Hard tissue forming proteins and protein cascades are capable of forming materials in an unusual way compared to currently available synthetic methods. Naturally occurring proteins from various organisms were screened and extracted to observe in vitro their biomineralization and structural properties in vitro. Lustrin protein from Haliotis rufescens responsible for calcium carbonate mineralization , magnetite forming protein from magnetotactic bacteria localized in magnetosome of the bacteria , asprich protein from Atrina rigida , and silaffin protein isolated from Cylindrotheca fusiformis responsible for forming silica , are among the well known biomineral forming proteins. Biologically available proteins and peptides were formed through evolutionary pathways and these proteins operate based a molecular recognition. To mimic the naturally occurring biomineral forming proteins and create artificial biomolecules for technological applications combinatorial biology techniques, namely the phage display and cell surface display technologies, were employed. First attempts for the selection of the inorganic material binding peptides were successfully made using the cell surface display by Brown et al. [32,33]. However, due to the limitations in the cell surface display, for the selection of material binding peptides, phage display has become the dominant combinatorial method. The advantage of the phage display peptide libraries is that phages can be genetically modified and phage clones can be utilized as molecular building blocks. Compared to bacterial cells and flagella, phages are more resistant to shear stresses, which may emerge during the binding of cells or phages on substrate material . From a material science point of view, each of the phage clones displaying a different peptide motif is a different nanowire with different surface chemistry. For example M13 filamentous phage (Figure 1) can be considered a nanowire which is 1 µm in length and
carbon materials. Besides M13 phage display library.
. Figure 2. the binding affinity of phage clones was determined. metal compounds. 16
6 nm in diameter . direct quantitative methods have been employed as well . while the other is to synthesize the selected phage displayed peptides independently using solid state peptide synthesis method . M13 phage with the coat proteins represented (note that the image is not drawn in scale). Once the selection and characterization are completed. polymeric materials. Following the selection of peptides. one possible approach is to basically use the whole phage body as the material binding agent . however.
Phage displayed peptide libraries have been utilized for the selection of material binding peptides for a high number of materials. Figure 1. PD selected peptides have been utilized for practical applications (Figure 2). metal oxides. Later.37]. In this manner. after screening the peptides. Two different approaches for the utilization of PD selected material binding peptides: (A) PD selected material binding peptides expressed on pVIII major coat protein used to assemble nanoparticles. T4 and λ phage display libraries are also available. In the last decade peptides were selected for metals. Yet another possibility is to use the selected inorganic peptides as fusion partners. and semiconductors . molecular characterization of these peptides has become an important tool for the robust and controlled design of peptide based material systems. they are not used in the selection of materials binding peptides [36.Molecules 2011. the material binding phages were purified and amplified. Although these available methods have been useful for a quick classification of the phage clones. (B) individually synthesized material binding peptides (in this case with dual functionality) used for the assembly and ordering of nanoparticles on a different material surface. To utilize the selected peptides in material systems. to immobilize certain protein and enzymes on materials surfaces in an oriented and controlled fashion . using qualitative methods including fluorescence microscopy and colony counting.
2. Additionally. In addition. the buffer solution in which the substrate will be soaked needs to be optimized. Depending on the type of the target material. However. As a matter of fact. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. especially the chemical surface properties and crystal structure of the target materials play an important role during the binding process of phage clones. The design of binding experiments for the phage libraries is the key to the correct screening of binding phage clones. and molecular assemblers into technological applications. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. in a rotator) in a controlled way. then the peptide clones must be mixed (e. harsh washing needs to be carried out by modulating pH and ionic strength of the elution buffers. . Substrate materials need to be characterized with surface analysis tools including X-ray photon emission spectroscopy. materials synthesizers.Molecules 2011.) In most of the previous studies Tween has been used at a ratio of 1% (v/v) in the buffer solution during screening.. peptides. for the screening of the material binding phage clones. This requires a series of surface characterization right after treating the target material in chemically differentiated buffer solutions. Target materials may be prepared in varying physical forms. Surface properties of a given material before PD must preferably be characterized for binding experiments. widely used for identification of novel peptidic linker molecules. in powder form. which have been proposed and demonstrated for used in nanotechnological applications. Preparation of the target material substrates must be done carefully. the
. This paper gives an overview of PD based biomimetic materials research.g. there is a need for the optimization of incubation conditions of the phage clones. For this purpose the elution buffers must be carefully designed to harvest the strongest binder from the substrate surface. Different from the conventional phage display procedures. single crystal or polycrystalline films. the phage clones can be incubated directly on the material surface for a certain time. inorganic materials can be found in many different forms.g. this will allow for the suppression of nonspecific interactions. Phage Display Selection and Screening of Material Binding Peptides The screening and selection procedure for a peptidic ligand from a phage display library toward proteins. The optimization of the buffer material is not only important for preventing corrosion and eroding of the material but also vital for avoiding the effects of non-specific binding of the phage clones. but if the substrate is in sheet form. not only for the selection and characterization. and other biological and chemical molecules has been well established since the early times of phage display . it is essential to adapt combinatorial approaches to meet the needs of materials science. This step is especially critical to obtain strong binding clones.. Following the phenotype based selection of phage clones. but also for the utilization of these PD selected peptides as molecular linkers. the phages libraries are directly brought in contact with the targets and they are not coimmobilized on a support. The buffer solution must be inert to conserve the chemical surface properties of the material of interest. 16
The selection of materials binding peptides from phage displayed peptide libraries has become a popular instrument. the surface hydrophobicity of the material of interest needs to be prevented by decreasing the surface tension at the solution-material interface through using an emulsifier (which is possible by adding a certain amount of detergents in buffer solution. If the material is in powder form. to remove the weakly bound and non-bound clones. crushed sheets. e. Following the incubation of phage clones.
Figure 3. metal alloy. carbon material and polymer binders. The schematic presented in Figure 3 gives an overview of the phage display selection of material binding peptides. mineral. Schematic representation of PD selection of inorganic binding materials. commercially available M13 phage display libraries were used [45-47]. In this part. metal compounds. metal oxide. In M13 phage libraries the pIII phage minor coat protein is carrying the insert coding the peptide. The 7-mer peptides were expressed in constrained loop formed through a disulfide bridge. the phage display selected material binding peptides from literature are listed in corresponding groups. The insert was displayed as constrained heptamer or dodecamer linear peptides. Selection and Characterization and Potential Uses of the Material Binding Peptides The PD selected materials binding peptides can be classified as metal. To
. In most of the previous studies towards discovery of material specific peptides. The linear peptides were fused to the pIII protein through a linker sequence which is –SGGG in the linear phage libraries and –SGGGC-XXXXXXX-AC in the case of 7-mer constrained peptides.
3. A schematic of a M13 phage is represented in Figure 1. semiconductor.Molecules 2011. 16
genotypes of the phage clones were determined.
A phage display selected gold binding peptide. a similar type of conclusion was also previously presented in the work by Brown et al. Like gold. The first example of the material binding peptide from a combinatorial peptide library is iron oxide binding peptides selected from a cell surface display library  and later gold binding peptides were isolated from a bacterial cell surface display library by Brown. this time the selection was carried out on a thin gold film. Silver binding peptides were screened and selected toward acid etched nanosized silver particles. materials synthesizer . The selected silver binding peptide ligands. Similarly. has recently isolated gold binding peptides with distinct nanoparticle formation capabilities. Naik et al.. 3. Most of the metal surfaces are well defined by means of chemistry and morphology. . These gold nano-platelets were formed in hexagonal. which are both 12-mer peptides.51].55]. however this was not specially selected towards gold surfaces. silver is another frequently studied material. The gold binding peptide screened and selected by Brown. is a good example for controlling the size and shape of nano-structures by tuning the structural properties of example specific solid binding peptides. The efforts for the characterization of these peptides were carried out by using both quantitative and qualitative methods. was first reported by Whaley et al. reported another gold binding peptide. Kim et al. another gold binding peptide was isolated by the same group.1. AG3 peptide was originally selected for silver surfaces but utilized also for gold nanoparticle synthesis [54. like in protein-protein interactions. They picked one of the peptides. which is positively charged and selected using gold powder as the target material. Midas-11 was shown to form large gold platelets as wide as 24 µm with a thickness of 30-150 nm. were determined as the predominant silver binding
. Metal Alloys and Metal Compounds Binding Peptides Metals and metal compounds have been utilized in many technological applications including biomedical ones [48. The Midas-2 mutant. The peptide was displayed on the pVIII phage major coat protein and used to assemble gold nanoparticles while additionally expressed peptides on the same coat protein were used to co-assemble with CdSe nanocrystals on to create 2D optical assemblies . AG3 and AG4. Both peptides were characterized using plaque counting on solid media for their binding affinity on gold. and became a well characterized peptidic linker for immobilization of nanomaterials . Metal. This work by Kim et al.49]. Their first set of nanoparticle synthesis yielded poly-disperse gold nanoparticles. This peptide was expressed on the phage coat and then gold nanoparticles were assembled on the phage via the selected peptide. whose studies pioneered the isolation and utilization of solid binding peptides .Molecules 2011. they carried out a point mutation based analysis by replacing each amino acid position with glycine. was later utilized in human studies. Metal Oxide. While probing the relationship between the primary structure of the binding peptide and shape-size of the synthesized nanoparticles. Most of the affinity characterization studies were related to the structural features of the peptides. a deep understating of both structural features and binding affinity has developed. trigonal shapes . [32. called Midas-2. 16
explore the utilization of these selected peptide sequences. and protein fusion partners for oriented protein immobilization . which they utilized for the gold nanoparticle formation. using PD approach and gold powder as the target material . structure-activity based research results were demonstrated. so here we have also included the studies towards characterization of peptides.
Molecules 2011. both isolated from 7-mer constrained phage display library. Copyright (2010). 16
peptides upon their capability to form silver nanoparticles with a strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band. which was also validated in a surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) study. Figure 4. which is directly related to the conformational control of peptide affinity [63. Also.
AG4 was also immobilized in a microfluidic system made of an elastomer to demonstrate its ability to grow arrays of silver nanoparticles .
. which is – TST. These binders were characterized for their interaction with the sliver nanoparticles.64]. and Arg7 residues were suggested to be the contact points for binding . using an agarose gel based separation of the particle-peptide complex . Phe6. Reprinted from  with permission from Elsevier. during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The exploration of silver binders was further continued by proposing a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based panning for phage displayed peptides. multiple AG4 peptides are stuck on a nanoparticle and. which resulted in many new silver binders. Leu5. Gold nanoparticle formation in the presence of Midas-2 peptide. The effect of elongation in the peptide sequence constrained conformation on the adsorption of the peptides onto platinum surface. The solution structure of the silver binding peptide was investigated as well. Molecular modeling studies of the platinum binding peptides indicated that a core domain may be responsible for the binding of the peptides. . AG4 was shown to control the orientation of maltose binding protein (MBP) on silver nanoparticles. A proof of concept application of the platinum binding peptides was demonstrated to immobilize a photoresponsive fluorescent probe on a platinum surface for sensing purposes . The data revealed that.62].region in strong binding platinum binding peptides [61. Moreover. Platinum and palladium binding peptides were first reported by Sarikaya et al. The results indicated the importance of the orientation of the interaction points on the peptides. this was achieved using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). an order in magnitude enhancement of the affinity of MBP AG4 fusion towards silver surface was achieved compared to MBP native . and gold platelet formed in the presence of Midas-11 peptides. the possibility of using platinum binding peptides was successfully shown to create biologically active surfaces for enhanced biocompatibility for biomedical applications . when it was genetically fused to MBP. Moreover.
A (10s). More recently. In this study iminodiacetic acid (IDA) adsorbed bead columns loaded with Pb+ and other metal ions were used to isolate Pb+ binding phage clones. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society. each image is taken at different time during nanoparticle formation. The eluted binders were subjected to another biopanning using Cu2+. but not the other metal ions mentioned above . B (60s) and C (5h).Molecules 2011. while avoiding cross-binding phage clones with unwanted metal ions from a cyclic septameric PD library. After successful biopanning. the strong platinum binder P7A was used to synthesize ultra small platinum nanoparticles. from a 7-mer PD library . have also demonstrated palladium nanoparticle formation utilizing a phage display selected peptide.
Another noble metal. silver or platinum. peptide ligands were screened and selected from a 12-mer PD library. with a size of ~2 nm. This approach can be extended to future studies for selecting peptides with specific aims .
. steel is another widely used material in many industries and the most important problem is that it is open to corrosion and can be eroded easily. Co2+ . Reprinted with permission from . was achieved by employing Pd2 and Pd4 peptides. synthesis of ultra small palladium nanoparticles. They used a special corrosive solution to elute weakly bound peptides. which have a narrow size distribution between 1. which is presented in Figure 5 . Like the platinum nanoparticles. To initiate a new route for the green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles.5–3. This enables picking of phage clones which are only specific to Pb+. Zuo et al. Ultra small platinum nanoparticles formed in the presence of platinum specific peptides. With the aim of suggesting a new method to prevent steel and alumina from corrosion.5 nm. Figure 5. The library was first cleaned from the non-specifically IDA binding clones. Not precious as gold. 16
Li et al. palladium. is also used as a catalyst in chemical reactions. and Fe3+ immobilized IDA beads. The most notable part of their study is their way of biopanning during the selection. Nian et al. Chiu et al. have also screened and selected platinum binding peptides from 7-mer phage display libraries using micrometer size platinum particles as the target substrate. have also carried out a novel and challenging bio-panning method for the selection of + Pb binding peptides. reported mild steel and aluminum binding peptides. Ni2+. in particular palladium nanostructures were found promising as catalysts for fuel cells or environmental applications .
Liu et al. reported the first silica binding peptides isolated from a phage display library with their unique capability to precipitate silica from silicilic acid. which are rich in proline amino acids . This type of behavior was considered as a sign for a complex binding mechanism of the solid binding peptides. also aimed to screen titania binding peptides in the same study. Meyer et al. on TBP1 peptide [41. However. Similar to those peptides selected for single crystalline quartz surface. selected peptides directly for a commercially used material cp-Ti.79]. and the importance of the peptide conformation on the binding affinity was demonstrated . As another type of silica substrate. carried out a more complete study following the selection of 12mer titanium binding peptides. screened silica binding peptides towards silica nanoparticles. The resulting peptides.2 µM and 11. Using confocal microscopy they observed surface bound clones. To solve existing problems of titanium surface functionalization. thermally grown silica binding peptides are also rich in proline residues . The affinity dissociation constants of TBP1 peptide for silica and titania were found to be close (13. For example. which are rich in charged amino acids are conformationally restricted . in a study by Etheshola et al. However. silica binding peptides were screened using different strategies for different types of silica targets. Different from Naik et al.2 × 106.. but not for QBP2. as a popular implant material. which shows that this peptide
. contributing complexity of the process . Here primary structure and conformational transition of the peptide upon adsorption at solid-liquid interface are to play a crucial role. 16
Titanium is a widely used biomaterial because of its biocompatibility.Molecules 2011. and characterized the binding of phages on cp-Ti surface . The peptides QBP1 and QBP2 were found to have equilibrium binding constants of 0. which provides an overall qualitative idea for degree of binding. Consequently. Interestingly. a technologically common substrate which is a smart choice for peptide selection considering that most of the silica surfaces on devices and sensors are actually thermally grown. The affinity of the silica binding peptides to thermally grown silica was classified according their biopanning yield. The effect of making concatamers for a increased affinity was also tested for these peptides. A quantitative analysis of the strongest binders among the single crystal quartz binding peptides was carried out using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR).1 µM respectively). but surprisingly they obtained with a sequence that showed a high affinity both towards titania and silica surfaces. Chen et al. They synthesized integrin binding domain functionalized RGD derivatives of their titanium binders and successfully demonstrated how the endothelial cells preferably grow on titanium binder-RGD decorated titanium surface . by employing point mutations a diverse conformational space of peptides was investigated. This kind of dual affinity behavior was previously observed in another study conducted by Shiba et al. Naik et al. many groups have focused on these materials to screen and select silica and titania binding peptides. In a complementary study. Moreover. As common metal oxides silica and titania are used in numerous applications ranging from optoelectronic devices to biomedical systems. This observation may also be expected due to the close chemical characteristics of both metal oxide surfaces . silica binding peptides were screened against a thermally grown silica substrate. which are rich in arginine or histidine amino acids . this was confirmed only for QBP1. Chen et al. peptides were screened from 12-mer and 7-mer PD libraries. respectively. TBP1 peptide was selected from a 12-mer PD library using atomized titania as the substrate.12 × 106 and 1. surface functionalization of titanium is challenging. another group of silica binding peptides were screened for their affinity towards a single crystalline quartz surface.
Ferritin-TBP1 fusion was tested for its binding affinity and biomineralization activity. Nanocrystal filled ferritin-TBP1 was utilized as a molecular building block to create layer by layer assembled nanostructures. A remarkable study opened a new avenue to eliminate the possibility of dual affinity of titania binders. the phage particles harboring TBP1 was also found to be nonselective between titania and silica. Therefore. As discussed above. which provided a good source of information towards understanding possible interactions during the binding process [85. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.
. (101) and (111) titania surfaces. In addition to experimental studies oxide binders were investigated in comprehensive computational studies. They proposed a subtractive biopanning approach. The affinity constant for this fusion toward titania was calculated to be 3. EDS mapping of metal filled ferritin-TBP1 after LbL assembly (b). the importance of charged residues in binding process of the peptides was also discusses . Layer by layer (LbL) assembly of Fe. and after biomineralization of silica interlayer (III). 16
is not selective between these two metal-oxide surfaces. (B) intersection of the constructed LbL (a). most of the previous studies found that some of the titania binders also adhere on silica surfaces. In this study. they eliminated the possibility for a silica binder to be among the remaining of the 12-mer phage clones. TBP1 peptide has been also exploited in proof-of-concept studies on nanomaterial assembly. reported titania binders. Figure 6. Cd. similar to the study of Nian et al. where the silica binders were removed from the PD library by incubating them with silica nanoparticles. using a platinum patterned titania film .86]. If the cross-specificity experiment. (C) The QCM-D signal of the construction of ferritin-TBP1 and silica interlayers. so that a multilayered structure was constructed .. the importance of different effects other than electrostatic interactions such as pi-pi interactions and hydrophilic interactions were shown in silica binding peptides. and they were also shown to be capable of forming titania nanoparticles with anatase type monoclinic crystal domains.Molecules 2011. The final titania binders were demonstrated to precipitate titania from potassium bis(oxalato)oxotitanate(IV) but not silica from silicilic acid . TBP1 facilitated the biomineralization of titania and silica interlayer between assembled nanocrystal filled ferritin-TBP1. Similarly. Adapted with permission from . the selective formation multilayer of nanocrystal filled ferritin on titania strips but not on platinum was succeeded. which were selected for rutile type single crystaline (100). TBP1 was fused to the N-terminus of apoferritin. Se and CO filled ferritin-TBP1 molecules: (A) SEM images of titania surface (I). As an example.82 nM .
Dickerson et al. after decoration with Ferritin-TBP1 (II).
which needs a series of complex chemical reactions . which were used as a fluorescent probe to examine the quality of the ZnO coatings applied on galvanized steel. Besides silicon oxide. where iridium oxide binding peptides were on coat protein pVIII. titanium oxide and zinc oxide. copyright 2010. also selected 12-mer ZnO binding peptides. Figure 7. Umetsu et al. the formation of ZnO nanoparticles in a flower-like shape was tuned.
. These possible reasons for a lower number of such studies are that these metal oxides are not as widely used and/or that peptides are not suitable for surface functionalization under their processing. Construction of phage particles decorated with iridiumoxide nanoparticles coassembled with ZnDPEG.Molecules 2011. Iridium oxide is one of the oxide materials. and using a simple fluorescent microcopy the surface quality check was proposed . These studies proposed a novel way to create fluorescent ZnO particles with unique morphologies compared to available low temperature synthesis approaches. According to this study specific fluorescent labeled peptides were shown to adhere only into cracks of ZnO. These were utilized as a photocatalytic system for light driven water oxidation . the number of these reports for the rest of oxide materials is smaller. and further showed that ZnO binding peptides can discriminate ZnO from ZnS. 16
Zinc oxide is used in many optical and optoelectronic applications was a wide band gap material . (A) ZnDPEG grafted phage (B) iridium oxide nanoparticle nucleation via iridumoxide binding peptides on phage coat (C) final form of phage nanowire coated iridiumoxide.90]. As a co-assembly. same effect of the peptides on the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with distinct shapes and sizes on a biopolymer surface was explored [89. In this study iridium oxide nanoparticles were assembled on the phage body surfaces. By immobilizing ZnO binding peptides on a gold plate. Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Nanotechnology . however. In a similar study. Veruls et al. made the selection of ZnO binding peptides from a 12-mer phage displayed library using micrometer sized ZnO particles as the target substrate. porphyrin molecules were also chemically grafted on the coat protein of M13 phage as a photosensitizer. for which a binding peptide from a 8-mer PD library was selected. the phage display approach was also utilized to discover material binding peptides for other metal oxides.
g.was proposed . a general oxide binding motif of –SPS. A7 peptide was determined as a strong binder for ZnS. used the selected peptides for the synthesis of barium titanate nanoparticles . a similar type of approach was employed to create Co-Pt magnetic alloys using cobalt binding peptides as biotemplate [96. Using the phage clone harboring the A7 peptide formation of nucleated nanocrystal structures of ZnS was also realized. Based on molecular modeling studies. it may be difficult to define a single consensus sequence for all of the metal oxide binders. GaAs
.97]. The GaAs binding peptide selection also initiated selection of PD based peptides for a number of other semiconductors. Ferroelectric materials e. for the exploration of GaN specific peptides. The synthesized alloys were found to exhibit a strong ferromagnetic characteristic. The resulting ZnS crystals upon catalysis of A7 peptide was investigated in details using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. ZnTe. 3. However. Estephan et al.. GaAs. GaN. A detailed TEM analysis was also included for the exact demonstration of selectivity of these GaAs peptides . Reiss et al. Other than metals and metal oxides.104].and –SGS.2. GaSb.Molecules 2011.101]. But it may be plausible to argue the presence of some amino acids harboring charged groups on their side groups may which may contribute to the affinity of the oxide binding peptides. ZnS and CdS single crystals were used for biopanning of 7-mer and 12-mer PD libraries. PD libraries were used in screening and selection of semiconductor binding peptides. and these first GaAs binding peptides were also demonstrated for their selectivity among silica. 12-mer peptides for hematite surfaces were selected. ZnSe. GaAs binding peptides were selected using a 12-mer PD library. The metal alloy building activity of the selected phage clones were demonstrated. InAs. Similarly. barium titanate and perovskite have been investigated for selection of PD based peptidic ligands. some peptides were also screened to synthesize metal alloys and some special metal compounds that were utilized in actual applications. screened a 12-mer phage display library for the exploration of CdSe. gold and GaAs materials. For this. peptide ligands were screened and selected for metal alloys composed of Fe-Pt. considering the variety of the metal oxide binding peptides. Today semiconductor nanocrystals find a wide range area of applications in areas from optics to biosensing [100. For the selection of II–VI semiconductor binding peptides. Semiconductor Binding Peptides In the past two decades incredible progress had been made in semiconductor nanocrystals synthesis. Diffraction patterns from TEM analysis revealed the regulation effect of A7 peptide on the crystal formation of ZnS. for which they characterized the binding affinity of the peptide using a atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecular force measurement tested the cross specificity on a silica/GaN substrate through fluorescence microscopy of labeled peptidic aptamers . and noted no significant chemical alteration of the perovskite following the surface functionalization . A7 phage clones were further utilized to assemble nanocrystals in film-like supramolecular structures by using phages as a network formed by nanofibrillar structures [103. Similar approaches were later used by Estephan et al. Phage particles for both of the materials were classified regarding their adhesion on single crystals. employed the perovskite binding peptides for surface functionalization of perovskite. Ahmad et al. 16
Germanium precipitating phage clones were isolated with the aim of forming biochemically controlled germanium nanostructures .
especially for surface functionalization or fluorescent probing. Both in experimental and modeling studies.31. respectively.3. Cross specificity and affinity of the semiconductor binding peptides was studied using AFM by Goede et al. selected and characterized HA binding peptides.111]. which is commonly found in different crystal structures at the different parts of teeth and bones.4. As another calcium compound. they also conducted a detailed binding experiment using mass spectroscopy (MALDITOF). a peptide named P1was discovered from different rounds of the selection as a putative binder for most of the above listed semiconductor surfaces. The first carbon material binding peptides were selected for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Both sequences were found to control the calcite crystal formation. and however the weak binders can trigger smaller crystals in size . In both cases peptides deterred transformation from vaterite to calcite [110. where they carried out their selection in six rounds and extracted phage clones from each different round of selection. Carbon Materials Binding Peptides Carbon materials have found a vast range of use in technological applications [112-115]. teeth and bones were well studied as mentioned above. This was an innovative step towards developing CNT based biohybrid applications . they cannot be easily produced and fused with some other functional proteins.Molecules 2011. and the main constituent of these tissues is hydroxyapetite (HA) mineral. 3. both of the binders can produce minerals as crystals. A strong relationship between the peptide structure and affinity was shown upon the change in the adhesion coefficient .
. Interestingly. Mineral Binding Peptides In Nature many peptides and proteins were evolved to function in the synthesis of bio-mineralized hard tissues [28. They also demonstrated the importance of the solvent used for the correct assembly of solid binding peptides to their targets [45. Although some of the HA binding proteins were characterized in detail. sorting and dispersing of CNTs. aptamers for HA were screened and selected from 12-mer and 7-mer PD libraries. HA binding peptides were observed to be selective between amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapetite. it was found that histidine and tryptophan rich residues are important in the interaction of CNT binding peptides with the CNT surfaces [116. Other HA binding peptides were screened and tested for their selectivity for different calcium phosphate minerals by Roy et al. The results were promising. They tested the effect of HA binding peptides on the biomineralization of calcium phosphate. Calcite binding peptides were isolated from phage display libraries separately by Gaskin et al. Gungormus et al. To utilize in biomedical applications. 16
and InP binding phage clones. namely HABP1 and HABP2. Among these hard tissues. 3. CNT binding peptides opened a new avenue for the surface functionalization.117]. which depends on the mass analysis of the bound synthetic peptides extracted from the target surface.107]. To eliminate the possibility that the P1 peptide cloning phage is overexpressed in the M13 phage library. to characterize the interaction a peptide adhesion coefficient was calculated. and Li et al. which are strong and weak binders. and to exhibit high affinity towards human tooth surface which rich in hydroxyapetite minerals . calcite was also investigated to control its formation using peptides.105].
reported on a PD selected 7-mer peptide. Its binding and unbinding measurements revealed a strong binding within the peptide-polymer surface. The equilibrium binding constants of this peptide was found to be Keq of 7. C60 recognizing peptides were also screened and selected using PD library. The first polymer binding peptides were isolated for chlorine-doped polypyrrole. These isolated ligand molecules were also classified and investigated from a structural point of view. In a later study. the binding affinity of T59 peptide and its variants was tested. The results suggested a strong binding with the polymer surface. which is a conductive polymer used in electronic and biomedical applications. 3. Moreover the RGD integrated T59 was used to enhance cell proliferation on the polymer surface .121]. 16 Figure 8.sequence was detected as a core motif in this peptide for the affinity. which is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the peptide selected for poly-L-lactate . In this work. T59 peptide was hybdrized with an integrin binding peptide GRGDS. Aiming to create a new PS surface modifying agent. After the report this first polymer binding peptide. Decorating of the surface of a microsphere with CNT using CNT binding peptides. only recently PD libraries have been employed for polymers and polymer binding peptide ligands have successfully been screened for the functionalization of polymer surfaces. Polymer Binding Peptides Material binding peptides have been routinely screened and selected for solid inorganic materials. which can recognize the stereoregularity on isotactic poly(methylmethacrylate) (it-PMMA) surface. during the binding analysis of phage clones. they also demonstrated that these peptides can recognize the stereoregularity
. The resulting phage clones can strongly adhere on PS surfaces. (A) Microsphere surface in the absence of CNT binding peptide and (B) adhesion of CNTs on CNT binding peptide decorated microsphere Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Materials . Serizawa et al.6 × 105 M−1 [120. Serizawa et al. The results suggest that of labile structural properties of the selected peptides play a crucial role in the binding of the peptides . -RPTR. the binding kinetics and affinity of the ti-PMMA binding peptide were examined. Polystyrene (PS) is a widely used polymer in many areas of biomedical research applications.5. Strong binder selected from 12-mer PD library was independently synthesized and. Similar to their previous studies. C60 binding peptides promise a good strategy for surface functionalization of C60 . copyright 2003. screened and selected peptides for syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). using atomic force spectroscopy. However.Molecules 2011. A B
Single walled carbon nanohorns were also targeted by phage display to elute new peptidic ligands. for which fluorescence microscopy analysis yielded string binders.
124]. ATWVSPY  RKKRTKNPTHKLGGGW.46 × 108  Depletion assay Keq (M−1): 7.Molecules 2011. *STPLVTGTNNLM * QSGSHVTGDLRL. along with available binding affinity constants and special applications. Cellulose binding peptides were also screened and selected as the only naturally occurring polymer binding ligand with high affinity. #RGRRRRLSCRLL 
RLNPPSQMDPPF.58 × 104 Subtractive biopanning ELISA Keq(M−1): 4 × 106
RKLPDAPGMHTW [79. a list of which is presented in Table 1. *ATTLHPPRTSLP
# # # * * *
SCSDCLKSVDFIPSSLASS  LNAAVPFTMAGS .24 × 106
VSGSSPDS . 1.81]
YPSAPPQWLTNT. *GLHVMHLVAPPR  VRTRDDARTHRK  AGETQQAM  LSTVQTISPSNH 
ZnO NP synthesis Surface Quality Control NP formation. #LKAHLPPSRLPS  TGTSVLIATPYV  AYSSGAPPMPPF  IRPAIHIIPISH.12 × 106. 16
of the polymer surfaces. studies on material binding peptides have led to the formation of a large collection of PD selected material peptides. HTKHSHTSPPPL  CHKKPSKSC  Titania/ Titanium
LacI fusion QCM-D Keq (M−1): 2. Strong Material Binding Peptides from Literature. KSLSRHDHIHHHGGGW TQHLSHPRYATKGGGW  EAHVMHKVAPRP . which may further allow cellulose fibers to be utilized in biomedical studies .
Material of Interest Gold Peptide Sequence
Notes Gold nanoparticle (NP)assembly Gold NP synthesis Ag NP synthesis Ag NP synthesis Silica precipitation SPR Keq(M−1): 0. and concluded that this property can lead to differentiation of nanostructural changes in the polymer films surface by using these peptides [123. *WSWRSPTPHVVT  MSPHPHPRHHHT. Examples of Material Binding Peptides Utilization toward Practical Applications In decade.co assembly
Iridium Oxide Iron Oxide
. QTWPPPLWFSTS  HPPMNASHPHMH. 4. Table 1.
QLMHDYR  THRTSTLDYFVI  ELWRPTR  YLTMPTP
SPR Keq (M−1): 6. *NLNPNTASAMHV 
NP network formation SPR Keq(M−1): 3. Some of these uses and potential applications are summarized above. material binding peptides act as regulating agents that to restrict the growth
. *SVSVGMKPSPRP  CNNPMHQNC. VISNHRESSRPL 
FePt NP synthesis CoPt NP synthesis
HSVRWLLPGAHP. and genetic fusion partners of proteins and enzymes.PbS. #SPHPGPY.  SVSVGMKPSPRP  CMLPHHGAC 
Poly(L-lactide) Polypyrrole it-PMMA sPS Semiconductors GaAs. * independently synthesized using FMOC solid peptide synthesis. peptides alsoserve as catalysts for the particle formation in the case of metal and metal compound based nanoparticles.
Thus far PD selected peptides have been utilized in nanotechnology and biotechnology applications. KLHSSPHTLPVQ. #CTYSRLHLC 
On phage particles.InP ZnS. materials binding peptides have been utilized as molecular assemblers.4 × 106. material synthesizers. #QNPIHTH.Molecules 2011. Nanoparticle synthesis is an area of application in which PD selected peptides are widely used.1 × 104 AFM analysis SPR Keq (M−1): 7. However. #HAPTPML  VPSSGPQDTRTT. During the nanoparticle synthesis. Pd NP synthesis Phage ELISA
Aluminium Stainless Steel
Surface Quality Control
Fe-Pt Alloy Cobalt Hydroxyapatite
HNKHLPSTQPLA.6 × 105 ELISA Keq(M−1): 2 × 1011
* * #
AQNPSDNNTHTH . These peptides are presented above. These peptides are capable of synthesizing nanoparticles made of the materials they are selected. 16 Table 1. Cont. *CTLHVSSYC QQSWPIS .
Germania Platinum Palladium
TGHQSPGAYAAH. SVSVGMKPSPRP. and there is a still a large room for applications. for the formation of minerals. To date. *NFMSLPRLGHMH . Because the area has been emerging just about for a decade now. #YSPDPRPWSSRY  MTWDPSLASPRS  ATIHDAFYSAPE. 9.0 × 104. *SLKMPHWPHLLP  CPTSTGQAC. SVTQNKY.
Similarly Kuang et al. semiconductors.79. which relies on preparation of a SWNT field effect transistor. Kacar et al. derived from PD selected silica binders using computational tools. In addition. QBP1. To date material binding peptides have been used in the nanoparticle synthesis of Au [51. Similarly.96]. Recently. SiO2 [46. also built a bifunctional peptide that consists of a gold binding peptide and carbon nanotube binding peptide connected via a linker. The main challenge was (and always is) that each material surface of a
. where they have been commonly utilized to assemble nanomaterials. several case studies for the genetic fusion of some PD selected material binding peptides are described above [59. However. functionalized the single walled carbonnanotube surface with a SWNT binding peptide. Other groups used filamentous phage clones. and polymers. The same approach was previously shown to be effectively used in the synthesis of single crystal ZnS and CdSe nanowires as well as free standing ordered FePt and CoPt nanowires .Molecules 2011.67]. Pd . TiO2 [77.127]. to assemble quantum dot nanocrystals and flourescein in the shape of arrays. For this purpose. successfully demonstrated coupling of the graphene surface with gold nanoparticles using such a bifunctional linker molecule . In this case. putting all these together. and similarly the gold surface was functionalized using silica nanoparticles . In the case of using phage clones. Both platforms were demonstrated as a candidate for a TNT sensor. the same group demonstrated gold binding peptide as a linker to control the distance between quantum dots and nanofabricated gold nanoarrays to enhance the fluorescence via near-field plasmonic coupling . materials binding peptides are capable of controlling the morphology of the synthesized nanomaterials and micromaterials. mica  and hydroxyapetite . barium titanite . Pt [5. the peptide is expressed generally on the pVIII major coat protein because of the high copy number of this protein on the phage body. Nochomovitz et al. In a recent study. PD selected material specific peptides have been widely used as the molecular linker molecules.111]. metal alloys. there is a need for the fine tuning and optimization of the method. and germenia  as well as minerals of calcite [110. Ag [55. Ki Tae Nam et al. 16
of the mineral crystal. in the adaptation of PD for the selection of material specific peptides. Today PD is a well established tool for the selection of ligand molecules for biological molecules and other small non-proteinous molecules.74.76]. a notable challenge was achieved by means of which multiple virus genes encoding different material binding peptides was utilized in the formation of an actively operating lithium-ion battery . Cui et al.81. both independently synthesized peptide linkers and phages were used. used a silica binding peptide. metal compounds. Conclusions To date PD libraries have been successfully applied for the selection and screening of material binding peptides grouped as follows: those for metals. 5. expressing selected material binding peptides as a nanowire platform to assemble nanomaterials to create ordered assemblies.87]. which after potential use as optically active layers .126].56]. Fe-Pt and Co-Pt metal alloys [58.129]. which is coupled with a TNT binding domain (honeybee odor binding protein) . zinc oxide [89. This bifunctional peptide was used to functionalize the silica surface either with carbon nanotubes or with gold nanoparticles. minerals. This is a desire property by the material scientists for the invention of novel material synthesis routes. demonstrated utilization of a phage clone to express a specific gold binding peptide and a non-specific cobalt nucleating motif to create Co-Au hybrid nanowire .54.84.
Despite some problems in the selection and application of such PD selected material binding peptides. as sometimes the phage clones bound very strongly due to defects or surface chemistry. 2. Barbas. Grover. Curr.V. 577-585. Rader. H. C. there are a limited number of studies that have investigated the mode of interaction between PD selected peptides and target material systems. Acknowledgements We acknowledge the financial supports from Singapore NRF-RF-2009-09.K. Rev.K.Y.B. applications and future. Molecular biomimetics: nanotechnology through biology. Thus not only chemical approaches. Biotechnol.. Filamentous Fusion Phage .D. M. PD system must be carefully optimized. 15121-15134. 26. Pacardo.S. 8.P. 503-508.M. 1315-1317. ESF European Young Investigator Award (EURYI) Program and TUBITAK under the Grant No. 228. Szewczyk. PD display has made use of Nature’s way of material evolution to create new generation of materials with new functionality. G. Phage display of combinatorial antibody libraries. J.M. 7. Knecht..Novel Expression Vectors That Display Cloned Antigens on the Virion Surface. Curr. J. Following the biopanning process. Adv. R.. 28. 2003.Molecules 2011. Pande.R. A. Opin. A. 16
given has distinct surface properties. C. each time so as to avoid non-specific binders. Sethi. 3454-3463. Phage display of proteins. To date remarkable progress has been made in the discovery and utilization of material specific peptides.. Soc. Opin. C. TUBA GEBIP. 109E004. I. 109E002.. Naik. Probing peptide-nanomaterial interactions. Elution of the bound phage particles from the material surfaces can be problematic. F. Smith.
. To date. This challenge deserves a deeper understanding of molecular interactions of PD selected peptides with materials surfaces. Sarikaya.. 2010. Tamerler. 39. Biotechnol. Langmuir 2010. 3. 547-553. References 1. which has brought new challenges and opportunities. acknowledges additional support from the Turkish National Academy of Sciences Distinguished Young Scientist Award.R. Slocik.. 5. 2. Biotechnol. Dunn. D. 1996. for each material system in a specific form. This is important to the specificity as well as the affinity of the PD selected peptide within the material system given the targeted application as their most remarkable feature. 2010. the selected peptides further need to be characterized not only for their binding affinity toward the target material but also for their selectivity. K. Nat. Therefore. M. 7. 4. Schulten. innovations. 6. Phage display: Concept.. Mater. but also some physical approaches might be necessary to remove strong phage clones very efficiently .F. they promise a wide range of unusual applications in nanotechnology. M.. Jen. Baneyx. Biological Surface Effects of Metallic Nanomaterials for Applications in Assembly and Catalysis. 1997. 110E010 and 110E156. Chem. EEEAG 107E088. 849-858. Science 1985.. M. Another point that needs to be addressed is that some studies do not employ a set of negative control groups to demonstrate use and applications of the particles under investigation.
2004. 20. Biomimetic strategy for antifouling materials developed from mussel adhesive protein mimetic polymers. T. D. Molluscan shell proteins: Primary structure. Mapping amorphous calcium phosphate transformation into crystalline mineral from the cell to the bone in zebrafish fin rays. Ziblat. Mol. 2003.. A. Dent. Marin. 10. Mah. 2005. 80.C. M. J. 2010. Rev. Chem. P.. Directed evolution of highly homologous proteins with different folds by phage display: Implications for the protein folding code. Luquet. Bridges..N. Shimoni. Sarikaya. Foster.H... 87. 15. Reis. 6316-6321.. Chem.. P. T. Randall. 273.E. Natl. Yang. Wang. Zhou.. S. Silica structure in the spicules of the sponge Suberites domuncula. Biochem.S. N.K. Schroder.. E.. 25.H. M. U. Y.... Oral Biol. Regeneration of human tooth enamel. 14045-14054.
. Li..Molecules 2011.. Yla-Pelto. J. Biol. 24. J. Chen. S. Mol. 408-409. J.B. Azevedo. H. Bryan.A. Marie. Leonor. 107.G. M. Weiner.. 20. Somerman.Y..X. I. 6329-6234. Compositional determinants of mechanical properties of enamel. Lin. T. H. The biomimetics of enamel: A paradigm for organized biomaterials synthesis. Sci... Ravindran. P.. 205. Fratzl... 2008. Mahamid. Am. 67. Medakovic. J. R. J. P.. Mol. 2911-2921. L. 465-474. Alexander..U.. origin. Ciba Foundation Symp. P. Cell. Evans.. Hansma.. J.. C.. 28. Soc. Vehniainen. G.. Killian. Fong. Gilbert.F. E. W. J. Mater.A. Baldassarri. Mano. Life Sci. 1428-1431. Protein templates in hard tissue engineering. 132. 261-274. Hu. 18. 254-266. E. H.. 9. K. Bratkovic.N. Acad. Arch.. Acta Biomater. 131-138. 19. 44.. Proc. Ed. Chem.. Struct. Oligovalent Fab Display on M13 Phage Improved by Directed Evolution. 14. Top. 69-115. Holzhuter. Siegel. P.J. 2008. Orban. Sanmark. Aichmayer.L. R.P. 2009. 1121-1126. Lakshminarayanan. M. Curr. Meyers. Res.J. 17. H.. 44. J.. Margolis. 5.T. Salih. Progress in phage display: Evolution of the technique and its applications. Smart Mater. Nacre protein fragment templates lamellar aragonite growth. Gerber. 364. F. Angew. B. D. Huovinen. 382. Paris.. S. Dev. Bioanal. 749-767. Busch. Biotechnol. D. 4. Muller... Mann. J. S. S.L. Churchill. R. N..C. 2010. 2010. and evolution. Biochemistry 2005. Designing biomaterials based on biomineralization of bone. 21.S..Y. Fluckiger. 54. doi: 10. USA 2010. B. Coppersmith.A. Rozak. Alves. 1997.. 221-231. T. 13.. 2002. 16. G. Metzler.1088/0964-1726/19/10/105011. Cell. X. D. 570-576. Biol.. Nano Today 2010. Natural variation in the extent of phosphorylation of bone phosphoproteins as a function of in vivo new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix in soft tissue and bony environments. C. George. C. 645-649. 19.. 22. Structure and mechanical properties of Ank/Ank mutant mouse dental tissues--an animal model for studying periodontal regeneration. Wang. C. 2010. 209-276.E. A. Giant Siliceous Spicules from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis Chuni. O. Addadi. 11.. 43. The growth of nacre in the abalone shell.M. Lamminmaki. Int. 2009. 12. 23. H. B.H.Y. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control. Chem. R.. M. S. Mrs Bull. 16
8. 2008. Beniash. Lin. J. Appathurai. Anal...H. Int. H.A. 2010.
29. Sano. A. M... 470-475.. N.M. S. Morse. Natl. S. N.. Hu.. Selection of peptides with semiconductor binding specificity for directed nanocrystal assembly. 37. 125.S.. Biotechnol.K. Soc. Chem. Kim. Y. Matsunaga.. Proc.J. Anal.. Acad. Kay. Arakaki. S.K. G..a New Powerful Tool to Study Protein Ligand Interaction.. Chem. J. T.. 38. T.P. Dahl. C.B. D.. Tanaka. Whaley. T.. R. Sumerel. 10.H. S. M. 665-668. J. Kim. R. M. Brown..L.. Barbara. 14234-14235. A-Math.. A. George. Chi-Jin. USA 1992. Biosilica formation in diatoms: characterization of native silaffin-2 and its role in silica morphogenesis. Chem. Am.R. Phage display. E. A. 1997. Trends Biotechnol. 2003. R.H. M. Display of Peptides and Proteins on the Surface of BacteriophageLambda.. J. 27. 2007. V. J. 173-177. FEBS Lett. X. 6. Metal-recognition by repeating polypeptides. Kini. 28... Kessler. 34.F. T. J. Belcher. D. R. Sci. Shen. Rev. Biotechnol. Nat. Sumper. N. Vivekanandan.D. Park. Lee. K. 1705-1726.. 32472-32481. 89. English. 405. G. K. Nat. 43. Chem. Park. 304-314.. 40. Protein nanopatterns and biosensors using gold binding polypeptide as a fusion partner.P..Y. Engineered iron oxide-adhesion mutants of the Escherichia coli phage lambda receptor.L. Molecular analysis of magnetotactic bacteria and development of functional bacterial magnetic particles for nano-biotechnology.. L. Addadi. a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens. D. Selecting peptides for use in nanoscale materials using phagedisplayed combinatorial peptide libraries. V. 12075-12080. 307.E. Brown. S. Lee. 2008. K. Annu. Soc. V. Rev.T.Molecules 2011.. Jois. B. 39. Curr. S. 1609-1613. Structure.. S. K. D. S.O.. 31. 2009. 33.. A hexapeptide motif that electrostatically binds to the surface of titanium. 92.V. A. 269-272. Ku. Cesareni. Bacteriophage-T4 as a Surface Display Vector. Valiyaveettil.Y. Sci. I. Sci.M.. P.. Yang.... 1992..J. S. Teo. Shiba.D. Shin. Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A. 373-408.A. 2. B.B.O. 15. 2006. Eng.. S. Sarikaya. Kroger. 41. Molecular biomimetics: nanotechnology and bionanotechnology using genetically engineered peptides. 32. 391-410. Lee. P.J. 36. 66-70.V. Roy... U. Nucleation of apatite crystals in vitro by self-assembled dentin matrix protein. Natl. S. USA 1995. Trans. Sternberg.S. Acad. T. Proc. Efimov. C. 97. Weiner. 552-558. Proc. Belcher.. Chem.S. N.. Kriplani.. Asprich: A novel aspartic acid-rich protein family from the prismatic shell matrix of the bivalve Atrina rigida. Smith. 182-188. 78. Kim.B. 2004. 1. Banerjee. Schwartz. 2003. 30. Stucky.W. N. G.M. Sci. Nepluev. Peptide Display on Filamentous Phage Capsids . 35. G. Samy. 16
26. I. Soc. E. Hansma. Mesyanzhinov. Sarikaya. Phys. Materials assembly and formation using engineered polypeptides.. Opin. 272. Mater. Res. Tamerler. 8651-8655. A. USA 2003. 25.. 4660-4668. Morse. 16. 42. Chembiochem 2005. Am.
. Choi. Virus Genes 1995... He. 34. Poulsen. 2005. Natl. Baneyx.A.E. 1997.. Gotliv. 7197-7205.H. Lakshminarayanan. Petrenko. Chung.. Park. F. Phil. B.K. Mater. Tamerler. K.. D. Y.. Veis. self-assembly. J.P. Nature 2000. 130. Hoess.. 1997. Acad. 367. and dual role of a betadefensin-like peptide from the chinese soft-shelled turtle eggshell matrix.S.. 100... Tuross. Ko.. Biol. S.P.. Suzuki..
A genetic approach for controlling the binding and orientation of proteins on nanoparticles.. 595-598.. 14. 2010.S. Sadowsky. Mechanism underlying specificity of proteins targeting inorganic materials. 1048-1052. T. Sarikaya. S. Armitage.. Y.. Colic.V. K.. U. C.J. Matmor.. Biol. Baneyx. Schwartz.. 45. Kumashiro. Nat..G. 515-519.T. Biophys. Jen. Zheng. Mater. M.. 51.. D... Sahin. Woo. M. 49.R. Kang.. Y. Iwasa. 46. Cuisinier. Acta Biomater. Bozhilov. Nochomovitz. Nat. 2. K. F..J. Hara... Sano. Y.. M. 48.. Y.. M... S. F. 250-257. H. Amit. B. H. S.F.. M. 5. Murray. Naik. Jones.L. M. Res.. Naik.. Y.O. Chiang. Biochem. K. T. Anzel.M. Acta Biomater. 185-190.J. Stamenkovic. Mol...E... 2006. Seker. D.L.. M.. R.. Catal. D. 28.E. Lazic. Tamiya. Bec. Lojen. Small 2005. Gao. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using multifunctional peptides.. Naik. Huang.O. S.Y. Nano Lett. J. Gergely. C. D.. Hur. E. 141-147. Biotechnol.J. Slocik. 104. C. 2003. Molecular biomimetics: nanotechnology through biology. Belcher. Hur.. Programmable assembly of nanoarchitectures using genetically engineered viruses. Biomed. Lee.K. Commun. Mol. D. N. Y. D. 169-172. Kim. A genetic analysis of crystal growth..
. J. Kim.M. 10. E... 55. Kim.Y. S. A.. Wilson.and size-tunable synthesis of gold nanostructures. Res. N. Solution structure of peptide AG4 used to form silver nanoparticles. 1. T. 58. 54. Sengupta.. D...N. 2000. I.K. 308-317. J. E.A. 6. 50. Biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of surfacemodified NiTi alloys.G. P. J.. Mater. 47. J. Tamerler. R.J...J.... B. V. R. 577-585. M. G. R. K. Lee. Lim. Grant. 2002. A. 2010. N. Stringer. Funct. Bioassisted multi-nanoparticle patterning using single-layer peptide templates.. Mater. M.R. S. Thai. 299. 1-7.. Agarwal... A. Larroque.. 2009.. Langmuir 2008. Ashkenasy. 25-30.O. E. 52. C.. Vucevic.A. Chong. Adv. E. De Yoreo... M. E. 1429-1434. S. Development of a whole-cell biosensor by cell surface display of a gold-binding polypeptide on the gold surface. Y.M.R. Stone. 725-735. 57. Estephan. Ohsugi. Brown. J. Parker. Shiba. 2004. Peptide templates for nanoparticle synthesis derived from polymerase chain reaction-driven phage display. 2004. T. 376. C. T. FEMS Microbiol. 293. J. F. 2005. Y. Mater. 53. Rudolf... Peptide-mediated shape. Bioeng. 21..J. Biomacromolecules 2009. Nano Lett.K. 59.H. Lee. Davis. Quantitative affinity of genetically engineered repeating polypeptides to inorganic surfaces. J. M. Lett. Baneyx.. Sarikaya. M... McAuliffe. 60. Hayashi. Matthaei. Nanotechnology 2010.. Morita. Selection and mass spectrometry characterization of peptides targeting semiconductor surfaces. 2000-2008... 6. Tamerler. R. Jones.. Schulten. Yoo.. Rheem. Stone. Part A 2003. Stone. Jenko. C.O. Park. Vaia.C.Molecules 2011.R. Yamashita. 56. 16
44.... Relationship between microstructure. A screening of phage displayed peptides for the recognition of fullerene (C60). C. 1121-1131. Hu.. M. I. 2008. 1. 66A. R. cytotoxicity and corrosion properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy. Iwahori. Myung. Johnson. 6. 24.. Sarikaya. Martineau.. G. Biomimetic synthesis and patterning of silver nanoparticles. Y. Cloitre.. Y. B-Enzym. Sastry.. K. 2009. D. 129-137. 2681-2689.
Y. Choe. Peptide aptamers against titanium-based implants identified through phage display. 70. Adsorption behavior of linear and cyclic genetically engineered platinum binding peptides. Syst. Am. 602. 1288-1296. J. 505-509. Nanotechnol..H. Cetinel. A 2010. U. Tamerler. Selection and characteristics of peptides that bind thermally grown silicon dioxide films..K. Yoo. B. H. Polymer 2005.J.. D. Wilson. S. Khatayevich. J. M. Piskin. Sci... P. 2006. Sahin.R. Mater. 21. Jen.. Seker. Cai. Kim.. Biomol. P. Sarikaya. So. 2010. Chromatogr. Gungormus. Mater. QCM-D analysis of binding mechanism of phage particles displaying a constrained heptapeptide with specific affinity to SiO2 and TiO2. 4872-4879.R. Li. 2005. Wei.. Seker. Chem. Y.. Photoresponsive peptide-azobenzene conjugates that specifically interact with platinum surfaces.. Walsh.-Int. 1757-1762. E.Q. E.. Quantitative Affinity of Genetically Engineered Repeating Polypeptides to Inorganic Surfaces. K. M. 65. J. S.M.S. M.R. Wang. Ornek... B. I. Brott.. C. Y. C. Neoh. L. Wilson. Specific peptide regulated synthesis of ultrasmall platinum nanocrystals. 16
61.B.. Choi. Gong. Zuo.B. Eng.J. T... ACS Nano 2009. H... Zhou. S. Anal.. L. Whyburn. 74. 201-204.. I. M. 10. Y. R. S. Meyers. C.. 49.W. Ma.. D. 5940-5949. Tamerler.. M. Ed. Silica-precipitating peptides isolated from a combinatorial phage display peptide library. Choe.. 46. Sethi. Angew.W. D. Microbiol. Tamerler.E. Chromatographic biopanning for the selection of peptides with high specificity to Pb2+ from phage displayed peptide library. Surf. J. Sci. 15998-15999. Haliloglu. Jones.. 68. M. W..S. 4634-4641. 1103-1107. Tamerler..S. Adzic. Doruker.. 76. Vukmirovic. R. Mater. 415-419. Oren. 69. Tamerler.C.R.. 2492-2498. Tan. Fong. S. 23..D. H. S. U. Huang. 2. 19. Hamilton. Dincer.T.. Sarikaya.....S.. 67. B. Dincer. Lee. Su. 8602-8607.E. Soc..
. R... Yazici. 62. 75. 2007.X. 78.S. K.K. Naik.O.. N. 131. C. Sarikaya. Grinstaff... Evans. Biofunctionalization of materials for implants using engineered peptides. D. 66.B. J. J. W. C. N. M. P. Thuong. 73. 71. Pacardo. Supramol.P.. Biomacromolecules 2009. C.. Stone.. Oren. Eteshola... Kim. 2005. Kacar. Y.J. 2007. J. 2010.. 6.. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes.... Genetically engineered polypeptides for inorganics: A utility in biological materials science and engineering. E.. 27. M 2010. S. Naik. Kenan. 95-100. M. Sarikaya..and mild steel-binding peptides from phage display. Chen. 2008. D. 2002. D.E. Sci. M. Aluminum. 63. Kim.Molecules 2011. W.G. R. C. M. Endothelialization of titanium surfaces. Tamerler.. 68. Wood.. Liu. 64. Kantarci. Eng...L. Nian.R.. Liu. Metal recognition of septapeptides via polypod molecular architecture. Appl. A. Molecular dynamics simulations on constraint metal binding peptides. T.. L. Biotechnol... Mao. 72. Langmuir 2007.. Brillson. Advan. 4307-4313.O. 558-564. Sasaki. D. Nano Lett. Sarikaya. Chem... Sarikaya. Sarikaya.W. M. Acta Biomater. M. Sahin.J. Biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanocatalysts for the Stille coupling reaction. 2009. 5. Bn. 250-257..O.B. 7895-7900. CBiomim. 77. Mater. M. X. R. Nanosci. Chem.S.. Tamerler. 2005. H. 3.. E. T. G. Naohara. Clarson. 22. C. S. Knecht. 1217. C. H.. E.
... M.. Langmuir 2008. K. Pollom. S.E. Mater.O.B. Endowing a ferritin-like cage protein with high affinity and selectivity for certain inorganic materials. Kumagai. N.. Samudrala. Nalk. D. T.. M. 2008. D. 2010. Jr.B. T. 5. U. Dickerson.Molecules 2011. 86. 1013-1021..S. Soc.R. N. Sano. I. K. M. 20. Morphological control and assembly of zinc oxide using a biotemplate. Sano.M. K. J.. 9205-9214. M. He. 80.. 3090-3095. Neoh.. 16
78. Tsumoto. Bonne. Chem. Weitz. 18. Umetsu... Chem. Ajima.M. Utilization of the pleiotropy of a peptidic aptamer to fabricate heterogeneous nanodot-containing multilayer nanostructures. 6852-6857. Sarikaya. K. C. Zocchi. J. Bioassisted room-temperature immobilization and mineralization of zinc oxide .. Surface properties and thermal stability of SiO2-crystalline TiO2 nano-composites. H. Marecot.. H. 83. Y. Genin. 2005.. Yoshii. 90. 92. Jones. 87. A. W.S. Sandhage.M.. Mater. Shiba. Oren. 2009.L... Kroger... 93. Duprez. K. D.. Small 2005. A. Magyar.K.D. Courtois. Adschiri. R. In aqua structuralization of a three-dimensional configuration using biomolecules. A novel knowledge-based approach to design inorganic-binding peptides.S. Shiba. 25. X. S. K.H. 11. Ohara. K.. Mizuta. Cai. Naik. Bright. Yudasaka.. 24. 1. J. Martial. Bioinformatics 2007.A. 128. Oren. P.. Yamashita.. C.. 3266-3274. Van de Weerdt. S.B. Batonneau. Y. 20.. high-yield formation of nanoparticulate TiO2 from aqueous solutions at room temperature.. 2000. Am. M. Gupta. Chen. H. D.... R. L. Nano Lett. Probing the interaction between peptides and metal oxides using point mutants of a TiO2-binding peptide. Jones.. Iijima. A. 81. Identification of peptides capable of inducing the formation of titania but not silica via a subtractive bacteriophage display approach.. Ginley.F.S. Nanotechnol. K. Yun. 2010. M. Seker. F.. K. C.. G.. M. N. 2008.. Biologically templated photocatalytic nanostructures for sustained lightdriven water oxidation. Acta Biomater. 15-18. X.. R. D. Sano. R. Sasaki. Dickerson.W.I. Transparent conducting oxides. K. Notman. M. 2816-2822. 876-882. Mrs Bull.R.. R. 89. Rozenzhak. 84. 85. Fang.. J. Belcher. M. 2007. D. Am.. Nam. 21.. K. Nat. Kim. Cai. Low-Temperature Solvothermal Synthesis of ZnO Quantum Dots. Shiba. K. Advan. Park. Pronier.. Walsh. Tomczak.. M. Langmuir 2005. Identification and design of peptides for the rapid. Lee. H. Sasaki. Y.. 1578-1584.. Naik. Shiba. 93. Hnilova. Mater. Ceram. Solution Study of Engineered Quartz Binding Peptides Using Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics. Archambeau. 23.. Inorg. 82. J. G. H..G.. Watanabe.P. S. S. Ahmad. Takami. E. Tsuzuki..R.E. 3200-3202. E... Yamashita. Soc. Royer. 104.. J. S.The structural ordering of ZnO nanoparticles into a flower-type morphology. 2010. Sandhage. Sahin. Iwahori. Drummy. C.. Vreuls. 826-832.E.. Mater.. Kroger.. S. Chem...S. T. 5. Tamerler. C. J. Can. I. Y. 340-344. Poulsen.. Specificity and biomineralization activities of Ti-binding peptide-1 (TBP-1).. R. Samudrala..E. 17. Y. 2010..... Inorganicbinding peptides as tools for surface quality control. 91. K... S. I. 7.R. Su.. Chem. Choe. S. C.. 2571-2575. 2006. 88... 79. K. Sarikaya. T. 3871-3875..H. R. M. 1717-1722. 2281-2285. Tamerler. Biochem.
.. Sano. Biomacromolecules 2010.
A.L. 2004.G. Lourdudoss. Nanocrystal-based hybrid white light generation with tunable colour parameters.E. A. Biological routes to metal alloy ferromagnetic nanostructures. M. 2008.B. 2008. Cuisinier.. 88. Peelle. M. K. Demir.V. Naik. L. M.A. 1-3. Wang. M. 101. R. Twigg. S419-S424. Nano Lett. Lett.R. K. Appl. Chem. L.. Hochella. Naik....W. 4.B.P. Evans.. 205. S. Soc. T. 9. Grundmann. Chem. Y..O. Gungormus.. Straatsma..H. Ocola. Gergely. B.. 14-17. Olsson.G. Auciello. Oestreicher.D. Kim. Opt. Nano Lett... Clapp.W. Opt. Williams.
Dickerson. S.M. I.. A. F.. J. In vitro evolution of a peptide with a hematite binding motif that may constitute a natural metaloxide binding archetype. Vernon. Bai. Solis. Identification of peptides that promote the rapid precipitation of germania nanoparticle networks via use of a peptide display library.M. R. 112. Y. C. Flynn. Hayhurst. J. Medintz.. G.. 20.. E.. Identification of a highly specific hydroxyapatite-binding peptide using phage display. M.. Reiss. Am. C.B. USA 2004. Stanish.. Subrarnanyarn. 51. Lower. Synthesis and organization of nanoscale II-VI semiconductor materials using evolved peptide specificity and viral capsid assembly. Proc. J.. Cai. 13. R. 130. D. S. Larroque. Phys..K.
104.. Peptides for functionalization of InP semiconductors.H. Ernst.K.. Sarikaya. Belcher. 107.M. B. 8799-8805.. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-derived structure of a quantum dotprotein bioconjugate nanoassembly.. Acad. M. 2009.R. M.. Ryan. Estephan. 1127-1132. Becker... 16 94. C.
. 2004. Martin.J. Tailoring GaN semiconductor surfaces with biomolecules. J. 4. B. Mao. Regulation of in vitro calcium phosphate mineralization by combinatorially selected hydroxyapatite-binding peptides. Chem.. G. Sandhage. G..H. Lins. B 2008. M. organization and assembly of materials. Cobalt ion mediated self-assembly of genetically engineered bacteriophage for biomimetic Co-Pt hybrid material. M.. Deschamps. 2115-2120. J.. M. 2003.R.. J.S.D.
96. B. Lower. Tamerler.E.R. S. 3821-3827. Dickerson.
99. G..K. Gergely. C. D. Sandhage...A.E. 118-134..
106. 358-363. 98. Thomson. 4-5.. Mattoussi. Ahmad. Z. Rapid bioenabled formation of ferroelectric BaTiO3 at room temperature from an aqueous salt solution at near neutral pH. Estephan. H. Busch. A.J. Colloid Interface Sci. C. Mauro.D.... Balint. Fincham.D.B. 1830-1836. A-Pure Appl. S..E. J... Nizamoglu. Phys. Z. Chem. A.... Lee.S. Mater.M. Belcher. I. 100. 1776-1777. Mater. K. B.. O.H. Sci. M.. Amelogenin proteins of developing dental enamel.. Georgiou.P.R. M... Identification of peptides for the surface functionalization of perovskite ferroelectrics. 1997. Stanley. S. C. J.M. 9612-9617.. I. E.S. H. Viruses as vehicles for growth..Molecules 2011. Fong.S. 7. 108. Biomacromolecules 2008.B. C.E. 105. J. T... Sci. Shi. S. F. 2008.. Yun.. 97. Belcher. 966-973. Biomacromolecules 2006. E.. J. Binding specificity of a peptide on semiconductor surfaces. Reiss.J. Acta Mater. Natl. 101. Technol. Roy. Amis. Environ. K. 2004.. P.P.
95.. Fang. Iverson. 2006. Mao.. A. 9.. Konnert.. 2414-2421.L. C. Stone.L.R.. C. Firestone. H. Lee.. J. M. Ciba Foundation Symp. 103. Haluska. M. Advan. Saab. Flynn. Goede.
109.. Commun.. A. Belcher. Y.M. J. 5867-5880. Larroque.. Cai. Jones. 2007. 337. J. Simmer. E.F. 2003. 42.
S.. Biotechnol.. Mayes. 11127-11133. C.G. Peptide motifs that recognize differences in polymer-film surfaces. S. 723-726.. Takami. H. Elimelech. ACS Nano 2008. 988-989. 115.L. Techawanitchai.R. Lee. J. Parker. 2005.J. 36. T. Shannon.T. T. E. S. Nat.M.. Material-binding peptide application-ZnO crystal structure control by means of a ZnO-binding peptide. 1637-1639. Medium-scale carbon nanotube thin-film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates. M. Y. M. Matsuno.M. Kulkarni. Peptide-mediated reduction of silver ions on engineered biological scaffolds. 1480-1486. J..L. N.S. P. 11907-11914. H.. C. Belcher.R. Abe. T. Kumagai. 4. 655-657. 120. G.T. T. 124. C.. Miller. 2.A. 496-502. Marinas. A. Serizawa.
. Growth Des. K.. Science 2010. Kitayama. Outlaw... J. 112. Highly specific affinities of short peptides against synthetic polymers. Ohara. 114. Wang.. Belcher.M. E. 387-393. J. Chem. H. Sekine. 2010.. E. Investigation of the influence of surface defects on peptide adsorption onto carbon nanotubes. Chembiochem 2007.. 495-500. C. 113. N. K. Nature 2008. Vulfson. H. T. 6399-6403..W.A. Peptides with selective affinity for carbon nanotubes.M. 2003. Krauland. 117. 2. 21... T. T. 1707-1718. Nature 2008. Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with ac LineFiltering Performance.. Gaskin.. Am.S. Biosyst. Evans.. Lett. A.. 2007.Molecules 2011.. Tomasio. H. Rogers. M. T. Q. 23. Y. A peptide motif recognizing a polymer stereoregularity.. Biomaterials functionalization using a novel peptide that selectively binds to a conducting polymer. H. 122.. Humphreys. Cao. Wang. Shim. Langmuir 2005.. Umetsu. 989-993.. 118. 127. Wang.Y.. Botsaris.. J.C. 301-310.. Yokoo. Langmuir 2008.F. 6. Sawada. T. T. A. Serizawa. Li. 454. S.. K. J. Jagota. Alam. T. Shiba... Matsuno. Biological selection of peptides for poly(Llactide) substrates. N. 8. S. Nam. 127. Mater. Bioeng..C. D. T. S. M. Yi. A.. Soc. 140-145.. K..-Int. Chung.M.. Mol. 2007.J. Holloway. 121. Adschiri. Delduco. Chung.. Nat. Yajima. Schmidt. H. Angew...D. 2010. Miller. Subramoney. Matsubara. Ed. 2.M.J. D. J. K. K. Bohn. Sanghvi.. T. 2002.. 329..E. S... 125. M. I. Kim. K. Cellulose-binding heptapeptides identified by phage display methods. Kulp.. Isolation of peptides that can recognize syndiotactic polystyrene.N. Rizzo. 16
110. Science 2010. 1211-1216. 196-200. Matsuno...A. J.P. 24. Biosci. Matsuno.H.. 452. 2000. 119.M. Probing the conformational features of a phage display polypeptide sequence directed against single-walled carbon nanohorn surfaces. Iida. 22. Pimparkar.. Togashi. Langmuir 2007. Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades. Serizawa. Chiang. B. Georgiadis. Sato. S. T. Lett. Roy.. Naka.. T. P.. 330.P. Serizawa. Selective in vitro effect of peptides on calcium carbonate crystallization. Mater. Transferable GaN Layers Grown on ZnO-Coated Graphene Layers for Optoelectronic Devices.J... Starck. 111. 2005... K. Serizawa. Sawada.. Identification of inorganic crystal-specific sequences using phage display combinatorial library of short peptides: A feasibility study.W. 13780-13781. 126. Sawada.. K... 3rd.. H. Lustig. 116.R. B.S.N.. Chem. T. H. 111..A.. 46. R. Matsuno. A. J.. Kaplan. Kurita. D. Lee. 123.H. Chem. Cryst.B. Serizawa. Walsh. Kottmann. G.
Urgen.. Selection and characteristics of peptides that bind thermally grown silicon dioxide films. 1186-1192.. Naik. S. C. B. Mater.Y. Sano. 4559-4565.... 29.. K. 324. Belcher. S. Biomimetic chemosensor: designing peptide recognition elements for surface functionalization of carbon nanotube field effect transistors.N. G. Naik. ACS Nano 2010. Ray. Funct. Sarikaya. Lee.Y. C. 141. Hammond. Nanoscale 2010..G. G. M. Gungormus. 135.Y. W. 137. B. Y.N. 4536-4538. Zin. I. E. Kim. M. Mater. X. Sweeney. 14-19. S. Switzerland.T. Meethong. Basel. © 2011 by the authors.R.T. Cui. Strano. Gungormus... Bermek. M. Biomimetic synthesis and patterning of silver nanoparticles. D. Reiss.. Ceder. Chiang... 303. 2008. J. McAlpine. Tamerler.. 140.Y...0/).. 1051-1055... Fabricating genetically engineered high-power lithium-ion batteries using multiple virus genes.J. S. A.. Size-controlled synthesis of Pd nanocrystals using a specific multifunctional peptide. 16
128.. M. 129. Eteshola. M..J. Iverson. 201-204. A. K. 20.. Naik. Brillson. Directional affinity of short peptides for synthetic polymers. Mater... Stringer. Kottmann. Syst.. A. Supramol. Neoh.R. 17.J. Tamerler. Choe. P. D. Langmuir 2009. D. T. Nam. 2009. Eng. Yazici. 136. L.L.B. Biomol. Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Enabled by Phage Displayed Peptides..T.. M. Belcher... Su. Jones. E. Y. W.. J. T. 2007.. Mater. Kim. 131. C.. Mao...K. Y. G. 927-930. 134. 312.J. K. Physical elution in phage display selection of inorganic-binding peptides. 133. 21. M. C. 169-172. Hara..C.S.M.J.S. Stone. H.O. Jones. Sci. M. 885-888. Sarikaya. Hayashi. Yi. Sarikaya..M.. Z.. 2009. Virus-based toolkit for the directed synthesis of magnetic and semiconducting nanowires. Critical Amino Acid Residues for the Specific Binding of the Ti-Recognizing Recombinant Ferritin with Oxide Surfaces of Titanium and Silicon. S.T.. Advan. Kang. 139. Kim. Chen. R. Wissler. Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes.D. Nagamura. Ginger. Kim. S.. 866-872. Y.W.. H. T. S..S. Nano Lett. Adv... K. Agarwal. Yun. Date.. 2010. Chem.I. 132. Mater. N. W. 2002. Solis.. Engineering Lacl for Self Assembly of Inorganic Nanoparticles on DNA Scaffold through the Understanding of Lacl Binding to Solid Surfaces. Belcher. 1. 452-458.. Jen.L.R. C. P. H. 19. Eng. Ma...D.. Tanaka. C. Yoo.E. 10901-10906. 295-299. 10..
. H...Molecules 2011. Kacar. K. R.org/licenses/by/3. Georgiou. Lee. 2.J..E.. T.. A.J. Science 2006. Wong. licensee MDPI. M.. Peptide-mediated surface-immobilized quantum dot hybrid nanoassemblies with controlled photoluminescence.S. M. 4.. Crookes-Goodson.M. Li. Tamerler.C. Y. Nat. Chiu. M.. T. Chem. H. D.. Oren. Farmer. Chiang. Hayhurst. Serizawa. 2005. K. L. Munro. C-Biomim.Y. 25. K. 130. Shiba. 138. Science 2009. Yamashita.E.. R. Huang. S. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons. B.. R.. 213-217. Kuang. Quartz Binding Peptides as Molecular Linkers towards Fabricating Multifunctional Micropatterned Substrates. 2009..M... Science 2004. A. Mater. 22. A. Iwahori.M.J.. Donatan. N..