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SUMMER TRAINING

PROJECT REPORT On
JOB SATISFACTION
Submitted to Punjab Technical University In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree Of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


BATCH - (2009 2011)
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. Singh Ritu Khurana Parminder Roll No. 95142238974

CHAPTER No. 1

ORGANIZATION PROFILE

INDUSTRY PROFILE TRACTOR INDUSTRY IN INDIA Higher productivity and greater output are the two major contributions in farm mechanization. Tractors form an integral part of farm mechanization and have a crucial role to play in increasing agricultural productivity. Tractor is a highly versatile piece of machinery having a multitude of uses, used in agriculture both for land reclamation and for carrying out various crop cultivation and also employed for carrying out various operations connected with raising the crops by attaching suitable implements and to provide the necessary energy for performing various crop production operations involved in the production of agricultural crops. Tractors are capital intensive, labor displaying used as a mode of transport, in electricity generation, in construction industry and for haulage operation. It has now become an integral part of farm structure .The application of tractor for agricultural activities which swept India during the last twenty years have erased the problem of farmers. Farm mechanization program in India aims to integrate the use of available human and animal farm power with mechanical sources of power for increasing the productivity. Indian tractor industry, comparatively young by world standards have expanded at a spectacular pace during last four decades. Consequently it now occupies a place of pride in India's automobile industry. U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and only a few Western European countries exceed the current production of tractors in India, but in terms of growth India's growth is unmatched even with countries of long history of tractor manufacturing. The spectacular achievement reflects the maturity and dynamism of tractor manufacturers and also the policies adopted by the government to enable it to effectively meet the demand. The tractor industry in India has made a significant progress in terms of production and capacity as well as indigenization of technology. It is a typical sector where both imported technology and indigenous developed technology have developed towards meeting the overall national requirements. The global spotlight on tractors manufacturers certainly in terms of volume seems to be swinging away from the USA, UK and Western and Eastern Europe towards India where growth in the number of producers and the total volume in recent years have been impressive. In India tractor industry has played a vital role in the development.

India's gross cropped area is next only to United States of America and Russia and along with fragmented land holdings has helped India to become the largest tractor market in the world. But it 4

drops to eight position in terms of total tractor in use in the country when compared to international figures, only 3% of total tractors used all over the world . It is to be noted that while the overall automobile industry is facing recession the tractor industry is growing at 9%.About 20% of world tractor production is carried out in our country only. The arable land in India is high as 12% of the total arable land in the world. Tractor market in India is about Rs. 6000 corers. On an average around 400000 tractors are produced and their sale is 260000.Uttar Pradesh is the largest tractor market in our country. One out of every four tractor is being purchased here. Indian tractor market has to be viewed considering its position in the world with respect to key parameters as given below: INDIAN TRACTOR MARKET WORLD TOTAL/AVG 1444 249.6 28

DESCRIPTION Arable Land Irrigated Area Tractors In Use

UNITS Mn Hectare Mn Hectare Tractors/000 Hectares

INDIA 170 45.8 10.5

INDIA RANK 2 2 8

The Tractors available in developed countries have advanced features and accessories that is not found in Indian tractors .Tractor industry has made a steady and satisfactory progress even in drought areas. Four factors have contributed to the steady progress: * Government laid stress on the mechanization of agriculture with a view to boost food grain production. Therefore agriculture sector started receiving financial assistance. * There is an increase in awareness among the farmers for the need of farm mechanization and are keen to acquire tractor with the help of credit facilities from financial institutions. * Agronomists believe that there is need for more tilling due to depletion of moisture and repeated cultivation of land .It is precisely for this reason that the demand for tractors was well maintained even during a draught period. * Animal power available is too inadequate to meet power demand of our farmers. Mechanized operations are preferred to eliminate drudgery and delay, also labor shortage during harvesting increased the use of tractor. At the end of the day there are enough reasons to believe that the industry will grow because: 5

* More farmers are opting for multiple cropping over last decade. Country's net cropped area had remained virtually stagnant while gross cropped area increased by about 4.7%. This indicates the increased popularity of multiple cropping. * 95% of tractor sales are on credit. Credit is extended by commercial banks, state land development banks and regional rural banks. * Irrigation facilities reduce reliance on the monsoon and allow for quick yielding varieties of food -grain .This reduces the cropping cycle to 3-4 months from the traditional 5-6 months. Reduced cropping cycle require deep tilling which translates into higher demand for tractors. * Cost of tractors in India is the cheapest in world .The cost of a finished tractor here is as much as the cost of gear box in developed countries. Hence there exists tremendous scope for exports. * According to a study conducted by PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry , Since purchase of tractor involves a big investment its demand in affected by the availability and easiness of credit. A higher availability of credit will lead to a higher demand for tractors. * The tractors between the 31-40 horse power and 31-40 hp range dominate the market .The reason for medium horse power tractors being more popular are that the major tractor demanding states like Punjab Haryana and Uttar Pradesh have plenty of alluvial soil which does not require deep tilling. Lately it is visualized that higher hp segment has the maximum growth potential Higher horse powered tractors will be the future requirement with the government intention to encourage contract farming through the leasing in and leasing out of farm lands.

* Regarding exports India of latter has been exporting tractors to a number of countries, but predominantly to Sri Lanka, Nepal and U.S.A .However the study reveals that exports from India are going down in the recent years .The major reason for the decline in exports of tractors of tractor from India is being the failure to find an extensive market overseas ,deteriorating foreign exchange situation in African countries and their poor buying capacity, comparatively cheaper imports of second hand tractors by South East Asian countries from developed countries and the disintegration of erstwhile U.S.S.R. but also the potential export markets can be explored by Indian in the future. Since Indian tractors confirm to the international standard by virtue of their foreign collaboration it is possible for India to export to more tractors to the rice and wheat growing countries like Canada, Philippines and Bangladesh. * FOREIGN COLLABORATION

Tractor industry along with others benefited from this policy which allowed free inflow of foreign technology .The manufacture of tractors started in India mainly with the help of foreign collaboration secured from internationally reputed companies from the USA ,UK, USSR ,WEST GERMANY, POLAND ,CZECH SLOVAKIA . Most of the models which were taken up for manufacture in India were developed overseas. Soon after the decision for the manufacture of tractors was made during second plan, government approved number of foreign collaboration agreements. The establishment and present status of tractor industry owes a great deal to the support received by the Indian entrepreneurs from foreign collaboration during the initial phase of manufacture. DSIR has introduced a scheme, "National Register of Foreign Collaborations", which envisages review and analysis of imported technologies in the country and suggested measures for appropriate choices acquisition and implementation of foreign know-how. Major objective of scheme is: * To undertake financial, economic and legal analysis of set of data on foreign collaboration. * Carry out a technological analysis of the imported technology and provide a stage of art technology in the country and status of implementation of collaboration.

* Co-ordinate with Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Finance by providing technology data input. * Selective support to strength measures in Research and Development for technology absorption. List of tractor manufacturers, their collaborators and the year of commencement of production:

MANUFACTURERS AND COLLABORATORS MANUFACTURER Eicher Tractors Ltd Gujarat Tractors Ltd TAFE Escorts Ltd COLLABORATOR Gebr, Eicher Tractor. West Germany Motokov Praha. Czechoslovakia Messey Ferguson. UK Moloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Ursus Poland Mahindra And Mahindra +Escorts Tractor Ltd Hindustan Machine Tools *Kirloskar Tractors Limited Punjab Tractor Limited *Pittie Tractor Limited *Harsha Tractor Ltd *Auto Tractor Ltd *Pratap Steel Rolling Mill Vst Tillers *United Auto Tractor Ltd *Asian Tractor Ltd Bajaj Tempo Ltd International Tractors Larsen And Tourbo Ltd New Holland Tractor Greaves Ltd International Harvestor. UK Ford .U.K. Motokov -Praha. Czechoslovakia Klochner-Humboldt Deutz. Germany CMERI.INDIA Own know-how Moto Import. Russia British Leyland. U.K. Own know-how Mitsubishi. Japan Uzina Tractorul. Romania Own know-how Own know-how Own know-how John Deere. USA New Holland Tractors .Italy Same Deutz- Fahr. Italy 1965 1971 1971 1974 1974 1974 1975 1981 1983 1983 1986 1989 1987 1998 1999 1999 1999 YEAR 1961 1963 1961 1964

COMPANY PROFILE ABOUT THE SONALIKA GROUP Established in 1969, Sonalika group from the very beginning has tried to understand customer need so that they get better value for their money, hard earned. Sonalika has state of manufacturing, spread in acres, located at Hoshiarpur and tax free zone at AMB in Himachal Pradesh. Sonalika is the one of the top 3 tractor manufacturing companies in India; other products include Multi utility vehicles, engines and various farm equipments. Today the group stands tall with an approximate turnover of 3200 Crore INR. An average growth of 30% makes it one of the fastest growing corporate in India. It is also one of the few debt free companies. Group has strength of about 2000 employee & technocrats. History reveals that innovation is the key to continued progress and when applied to technology that touches human life, it can unfold a whole new economic phenomenon that has the power to change the world. With unique initiatives like the Thought leadership Forum, Leadership Forum, they have been able to create a unique platform for learning through success stories of industry leader. No, doubt that the sonalika products has created a position for themselves not only in India but also in foreign market. To maintain quality even a micro level is being taken care of and rectified. The industry has gradually transformed themselves into a world-class player involved in building stateof-the-art products, solutions and technologies. Sonalika Foundation intends to become a catalyst, encouraging there members to do more, capturing best practices for quality and harnessing a greater range of resources, from the industry and beyond, to make a major impact on the development. It has been their vision to cater to the needful agriculture and auto industry with quality products through untiring dedication and activities. As they step in to their fifth decade of existence, they continue to lead the development. Tractor and car plants work in 2 to 3 shifts depending upon volume of work for maximum production. They continue to march ahead on road to success and glory driven by the force of initiative and determination to have a leading position in the tractor industry in the days to come. They have ventured in to automobile sector also with the launching of Rhino MUV- to write another success story.

VISION The Dream Project of Sonalika group is to cater the agricultural and auto industry with quality abrasive products through untiring dedication and leadership. MISSION Sonalika pay personal attention to their customers so that, they can build products they need, and not merely sell the products they build. CORE VALVES To accomplish their mission, the ownership, staff, and management go to great lengths to treat each customer like a member of the family and provide them with the best choice of products and highest quality of service in the industry. ETHO STATEMENT OR LOGO RATIONALE Red symbolizes the strength, power, determination, and desire of company. Yellow surrounding the Sonalika produces a warming effect, arouses cheerfulness, stimulates mental activity, and generates the same. Green Leaf in the center symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility. Black underlining the logo associates with power, elegance, and formality. And Orange surroundings the complete logo represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity, encouragement, and stimulation. All this permutation of persona represents the Sonalika group as an asset in the industry. Company is manned by cream of the industries best of technocrat and service staff. They are proud of reputation as service & solution provider and innovator in agro industries. In a time marked by rapidly changing technology, they have developed best of the R & D team and have also developed the excellent quality control system to deliver high quality results in the industry. Their actions are guided by their core values of integrity, quality, commitment, and innovation. They are committed to living their values doing so, building a business as great as their products. Throughout their history, company has earned a reputation for high quality and integrity, and this has been an asset of incalculable value. They strive to live up to these expectations, not just because it is for good business, but also because it is the right thing to do. Their core values are never to be compromise for immediate success. Over the years they have completed transaction in over 30 countries around the globe and are well experienced in the international market for wide variety of machinery and tractor in comfortable price and range. Sonalika is a team that has carved in itself successful entrepreneurship over the 10

years. The Sonalika group is among the Indias leading agricultural conglomerates in the high growth sector of agro machinery, and material handling equipments and components having pioneered from mechanization in the country Sonalika has played a fundamental role in the agricultural growth of India for over five decades. When they decided to take up manufacturing of Tractors, it was a decision to tread a path fraught with difficulties, problems and obstacles. But they carried on with a clear vision, always seeing light at the end of the tunnel. Everything they did was with lot of innovation and creativity. They always kept in mind that it is TIME which is wealth not money. So their effort was to do everything in much less time than competition. This became their competitive advantage and helped them in touching great heights in the shortest possible time. The same scenario was repeated while developing MUV RHINO. This has been a great experience involving their ICML team, vendors, suppliers and dealers which is a fairly large family now. They wish that it should be a matter of great happiness for their associates to deal with them. With their help and good wishes, they wish to accomplish all the great promises hidden in the future, off course at the speed of light. INTERNATIONAL CARS & MOTORS LIMITED (ICML), is a Group Company of the Rs 1200 Crores SONALIKA Group. The Company is promoted by Mr. L.D.Mittal, Chairman, Mr. A.S.Mittal, Vice Chairman & Mr. Deepak Mittal, Managing Director, who are having vast experience in manufacturing of tractors, Farm machines & Automobiles. ICML is a project of its kind and is the Pride of Himachal Pradesh. The Company is having its state-of-the-art production facility, with centrally air-conditioned, dust & pollution free environment, to manufacture multi-utility vehicles / sports utility vehicles, in Amb, Himachal Pradesh. The Company is a Mother Unit as its establishment shall attract many other ancillary & small units for meeting the raw material requirements yielding manifold employment avenues, revenue & industrialization in the state. The Company has entered into Technical Collaboration Agreement with MG Rover of UK, with the technical know how from MG Rover, UK. The Company has manufactured MUV with the name of RHINO RX & the same MUV boasts of Rover engines. The company is in-process of developing its own Common Rail Direct injection (CRDI) engines. The company has the installed capacity to manufacture 2000 MUVs in a month i.e., 24000 MUVs in a year. In the first full year of production in 2006-2007, ICML is aiming to churn out about 5000 MUVs & expects to achieve a turnover of 250 Crores. The Company, besides catering to the 11

domestic market, also has an eye on exports & exports to Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh & Indonesia are also in an advanced stage. It will also offload the product in African continent soon. The Company is eligible for the Central & State Govt. Tax sops, exemption from the excise duty & income tax for 10 years, which shall add to its viability & future expansion. Sonalika Group intends to inject Rs. 1000 Crores in Himachal Pradesh over the next 2 -3 years in the upcoming ICML plant & ICML has an ambitious plan to play a major role in the Indian Automobile Industry. SONALIKA AGRO Sonalika Agro was established in 1971 to support the Indian farmers with mechanization technology to facilitate persistence of green revolution. Sonalika Agro Industries Corporation, the groups maiden venture is one of the foremost Farm equipments and implements manufacturing companies in India with 80% share in threshers alone. Its product line includes Combine Harvesters, Tractor/Self Driven straw reapers, Potato Planters, Maize seller cum-Dehuskers, Seed Cum- Fertilisers Drills, various kinds of threshers, etc.; Sonalika Agro is a pioneer in manufacturing tractors mounted combine harvester, which is not popular in India, but also in various others countries across the globe. Today, the company is supporting the farmers with world class farming equipment to ease the process of making the Green Revolution II, a dream come true. In the light of the company's mission, highly qualified and experienced staff is working as a family in the manufacturing facility at Hoshiarpur (Pb). This plant is equipped with advanced technology to develop, manufacture and test the modern products for the modern farmer. The company has a wide range of farm equipments and implements to facilitate the farmers in all kinds of farming activities. It has a large dealer network spread all over country and have approximately 80% share in Indian market of farm machinery. Its products are also exported to Asian & African countries through various export promotion counsels. INTERNATIONAL AUTO TRAC FINANCE LIMITED is a non banking finance company approved by RBI. IAFL provide finance to customers of International cars & motors limited in rural & semi urban areas across India through customer friendly schemes. Its parent company Sonalika Group ranks among the largest tractor & farm equipment manufacturer in India 12

BUSINESS PLANS OF IAFL First Phase: In the first phase, the area of operations will be in the state of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu, H.P (Done). Second Phase: In the second phase, the area of operations will be extended to other parts of Northern India. Third Phase: In the third phase, the area of operations will be extended to whole India. Whom to Finance Salaried Agriculturist Self Employed Partnership Pvt. co. ,others INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LTD International Tractors Limited was incorporate on October 17, 1995 for the manufacture of Tractors and has since then built a distinct position for itself in the Tractor industry. ITL is manufacturing various Tractors of Sonalika brand between 30 H.P to 90 H.P, and CLASS brand between 70 hp to 90hp. The tractors manufactured by company have secured a reputation of performance, quality and reliability in the market because of their maximum pulling power, minimum fuel consumption and low emission. All this makes ITL one of the top five tractor selling companies in India. These tractors are also exported to various countries including South Africa, Australia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Canada, Bangladesh, Algeria, Zambia, Senegal, Ghana etc. ITL has entered into strategic alliance with YANMAR of Japan for joint manufacturing tractors in India. ITL has a marketing arrangement with TATA International for development of selected South American and African market. The companys marketing efforts are promoted by dealer network of 600, and 450 sub dealers. Such a networking has enabled the company to grow like a well-knit family whose roots lie in its customers, who have providing constant feedback and support to allow the company to turn their dreams into products. Their Manufacturing Process, Quality Control systems and Research & Development facilities are ISO-2000 certified, by the joint Accreditation system Of Australia and New Zealand. They are the first Tractor manufacturing company in the country to be accredited with ISO-14001. It bears 13

testimony to fact that company is having world-class R&D facilities, maintaining controls and systems of international Standard and Environment norms. They are also manufacturing tractors, meeting norms of Smoke & Mass Emission, Tested and certified by ARAI, Pune. United States Environmental Norms Agency, Washington DC has also certified our Engines. These certifications enabled SONALIKA Tractors to enter into world Market. All the Models of Tractors and Combines Harvesters manufactured by us are tested & approved by central Farm Machinery and Tractors Training & Testing Institute, Bundi (MP) India, (the Government of India Institute authorized for issuing test reports). Tractors from ITL offer the perfect combination of power and economy in the agriculture utility segment. For fast efficient operation in the rows and a minimum width, which is typical to small land holdings, the performance of ITL tractors is unparallel. Sonalika tractors are easy to handle, with outstanding maneuverability, low center of gravity and a tight turning radius, that combine to give fast and efficient operation in the field or yard. They also manufacture tractors whose specifications are approved and tested dimensionally and structurally, according to EEC and other international standard and homologations. Some of their tractor models offer the most technically advanced features available on the market today, including hydrostatic transmission, power steering, differential lock and advanced safety devices Production ITL has fully integrated and state of the art assembly facilitation for producing world class tractors. Several productivity improvements in assembly line over the years have made it possible to manufacture nearly 37000 tractors per Year. Atomization of assembly line not only increased production capacity, but also provided a quantum jump to the quality of assembled tractors. ITL assembly line producing tractors in broad range from 30HP to 90HP with effective planning of resources. Quality, Assembly & Testing Tools: Hydraulic Test Rig Up to 1600Kg Lifting Capacity Millipore Testing Equipment. Torque calibrator Hydraulic presses A unique 3-Stage oil filtration system having modern facility of centrifuge filtration

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Batch type Special purpose machines (SPM) at various locations for washing of heavy castings, components & subassemblies Pipe flushing machine for proper cleaning of hoses & pipes Induction Heaters for controlled heating of bearings Standard testing procedures for final product Roller testing Road testing Field Testing

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Brief of R & D : ITL R & D center is recognized by government of INDIA ITL R&D is a complete dept in itself starting from designing up to development, implementation

Capabilities : Highly qualified team of engineers for designing of transmission & vehicle areas Vendor development is capable for the development of new projects components of R&D through vendors & commercial settlement Vendor quality control is capable for ensuring quality requirements of components through verification at vendor end High skilled workers are capable for making any types of prototypes Facilities : High configuration workstations are used for design activities Team center is used for PLM concepts I-Deas, Solid-Edge & AutoCAD is used for 3D & 2D design activities Two transmission test rigs Circular test track (mgr) & Roll over protection test rig Hydraulic system test rig Endurance test rig for operator seat & fenders Pto test bed & Endurance test rig for MUV gearbox under commissioning Proto machine shop with HMC, radial drilling & turning centre Sonalika have In House Design Engine R&D department with up-to-date technology. Having a team of exceedingly competent & remarkable squad of engineers proficient of designing most excellent Engines in technology. Engines developed so far available in rating of 28-90 HP. Sonalika has started spreading roots in MUV manufacturing with own R&D team and designed two exclusive engines with latest technology. 16

Engines are designed with Rotary FIE from BOSCH & (CRDi) Common Rail Diesel that gives variable geometry turbocharger for superior engine response .The in house R&D has all supplies required for complete design of engine from structural parts to emission development. Use of CAD and FEA is made to design robust parts. While Emission test cell is also being commissioned using equipment imported from AVL Austria world leader in emission measurement for conducting in house emission measurement. Top of Form In-house R&D capabilities :

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CHAPTER No. 2 INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION Jo b satisfaction in regards to ones feeling or stateof mind regarding nature of theirw ork. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of ones relationshipw ith theirsu p e rvisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.

Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a person s attitude towards job. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- th eir evaluation may rest largely upon ones success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends. According to pestonej ee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of em ployees feelings in four important areas. These are: 1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers, opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools. 2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism. 3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier. 4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.

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Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals. Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of mind.

Scope of the study This study emphasis in the following scope: To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job. This study is helpful to that organization for conducting further research. It is help ful to identi fy the em ployers level of satisfaction towards welfare m easure. This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees.

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CHAPTER No. 3 JOB SATISFACTION

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3.1 DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION Different authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of them are taken from the b oo ko f D .M . Peston jee MotivationandJob Satisfaction w hi ch are givenbelow: Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from appraisal of ones job. A n effective reaction to ones job. By: Weiss Job satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areas namely: Specific job factors Individual characteristics Group relationship outside the job By: Blum and Naylor Job satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person hold towards the job, towards the related factors and towards the life in general. By: Glimmer Jo b satisfaction is defined as any contribution, psychological, physical, and environmntal e circu m s tances th at cause a person truthful ly say, I am satisfi ed w ithmy job. Job satisfaction is defined, as em ployees judgment of how well his job on a w holeis satisfying his various needs By: Mr. Smith Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting from appraisal of ones job or job experiences. By: Locke

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3.2 HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION

The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). He revived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes that Job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological and env iron mntal e circu m s tances. T hat causesa person to say. I m Satisfiedw i t h my job. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job, management, personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953) considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content, identification with the co., financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne study. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to fin dthe effects of various conditions (m ostnotably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. 24

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It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tonefo r Taylors work. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories

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3.3 IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as deviant work behavior. Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life. This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one anothe r. Thus it can be saidthat,A happy w orker is a productive w orker. organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and

It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.

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3.4 IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION

Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal. For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity- the quantity and quality of output per hour worked- seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. H ow ever, studies dating back to Herzbergs (1957) have show n at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization.

Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of loss of job, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and also as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. Although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequis ite to satisfying or delighting customers, thusprot e cting the b o tom line.

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3.5 WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTION If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and wellbeing on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and rewards excellent reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. Know more. Acquire new job related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relive boredom and often gets one noticed. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often results in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the w ork itself. T his help to give m eaning to ones existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stress management techniques.

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3.6 FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION Hoppock, the earliest investigator in this field, in 1935 suggested that there are six major components of job satisfaction. These are as under: The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations, The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person The relative status in the social and economic group with which he identifies himself The nature of work in relation to abilities, interest and preparation of worker Security Loyalty Herberg, mausaer, Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150 studies and listed various job factors of job satisfaction. These are briefly defined one by one as follows: 1. Intrinsic aspect of job It includes all of the many aspects of the work, which would tend to be constant for the work regardless of where the work was performed. 2. Supervision This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his immediate superiors. Supervision, as a factor, generally influences job satisfaction.

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3. Working conditions This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not necessary a part of the work. Hours are included this factor because it is primarily a function of organization, affecting the individuals comfort and convenience in much the same way as other physical working conditions. 4. Wage and salaries This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory remuneration for work done. 5. Opportunities for advancement It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of betterment of economic position, organizational status or professional experience. 6. Security It is defined to include that feature of job situation, which leads to assurance for continued employment, either within the same company or within same type of work profession. 7. Company & management It includ es the aspect of w orkers im m ediate situation, w hich is a function of organizational Administration and policy. It also involves the relationship of employee with all company superiors above level of immediate supervision.

8. Social aspect of job It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those employees at same or nearly same level within the organization.

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9. Communication It includes job situation, which involves spreading the information in any direction within the organization. Term s such as inform ation of em ployees status, inform ation on new developments, information on company line of authority, suggestion system, etc, are used in literature to represent this factor.

10. Benefits It includes those special phases of company policy, which attempts to prepare the worker for emergencies, illness, old age, also. Company allowances for holidays, leaves and vacations are included within this factor.

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3.7 REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

Reasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs:

1. Conflict between co-workers. 2. Conflict between supervisors. 3. Not being opportunity paid for what they do. 4. Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees. 5. Fear of losing their job.

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3.8 EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

1. HIGH ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or obligation.

If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate of absenteeism will definitely increase and it also effects on productivity of organization. As the job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absenteeism is low and vise a versa.

2. HIGH TURNOVER In human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industry relative to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff. If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of that company have shorter tenure than those of other companies.

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3. TRAINING COST INCREASES As employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. Then Human resource manager has to recruit new employees. So that the training expenditure will increases.

3.9 INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION

There are no. of factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, one recent study even found that if college students majors coincided with their job , this dimensions identified above. The work itself: relationship will predicted subsequent job satisfaction. However, the main influences can be summarized along with the

The concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction. For example, research related to the job characteristics approach to job design, shows that feedback from job itself and autonomy are two of the major job related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingredients of a satisfying job uncovered by survey include interesting and challenging work, work that is not boring, and the job that provides status. Pay:

Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant, but complex, multidimensional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs but need satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also important.

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If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefit plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. Promotions: Promotional opportunities are seem to be have avarying effect on job satisfaction. This is

because of promotion take number of different forms.

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WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION?

Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily good worker. In oth er words, if m an agement could keep the entire workers happy, good performance would automatically fallow. There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance relationship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, is that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of performance. This proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards, which results in a certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards. Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee turnover, and consequently organization can gain from lower turnover in terms of lower hiring and training costs. Also research has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism, but when job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism What job satisfaction people need?

Each employee wants:

1. Recognition as an individual 2. Meaningful task 3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile. 4. Job security for himself and his family 37

5. Good wages 6. Adequate benefits 7. Opportunity to advance 8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him 9. Satisfactory working conditions 10. Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as bosses.

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However, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction. It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms. Motivation is a drive to perform, whereas satisfaction reflects the individuals attitude towards the situation. The factors that determine whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those that determine whether he or she is motivated. the level of job satisfaction is largely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and the situation . Motivation, on the other hand is largely determine by value of reward and their dependence on performance. The result of high job satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, which may or may not result in better performance. A wide range of factors affects an individuals level of satisfaction. While organizational rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction is primarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by the organization. a high level of job satisfaction lead to organizational commitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behavior detrimental to the organization. For example, employee who like their jobs, supervisors, and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal and devoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given the freedom to make their own decisions.

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CHAPTER No. 4

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MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

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MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

There are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level of employees in the organization given by different authors. List of all the theories and methods measuring job satisfaction level is given below:

A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION A f f e c t theory (Edwin A. Locke 1976) D i s p o s i t i o n a l Theory( Timothy A. Judge 1988) T w o -Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) (Frederick Herzbergs) J o b Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham) R a t i n g scale P e r s o n a l interviews A c t i o n tendencies J o b enlargement J o b rotation C h a n g e of pace S c h e d u l e d rest periods

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3.1 MODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION Skill

Experience Training Efforts Age Seniority

Perceived personal job inputs Perceived inputs & outcomes of referent others Perceived amount that should be received (a)

Level Difficulty Time span Perceived job Perceived outcome of characteristic referent others Actual outcome received P

received (b)

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dissatisfaction a=b satisfaction a>b a<b guilt

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Fig.no.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfaction Edward E.lawler in 1973 proposed a model of facet satisfaction. This model is applicable to understand w hat determines a persons satisfaction w ithany facet ofjob. According to this m odelactualoutcom e level plays a key role in a persons perception of w hat rewards he receives. His perception influenced by his perception of what his referent others receive. The higher outcome level of his referent other the lower his outcome level will appear. This model also focuses on his perception on reward level.

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3.2 AFFECT THEORY Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the mostfamousjob satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfi ed one becom esw hen expectationsare/arent m et.When a person valu es a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Emplo yee A values autono my in the workpl ace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

3.3 DISPOSITIONAL THEORY Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. Thisapproach becam e a notable explan ation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.

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A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Selfevaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations thatdeterm ineones disposi tion towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of selfesteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction

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3.4 TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY) Frederick Hertzbergs Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors.. Finally, the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured 3.4 JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.).The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.

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3.6 MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION

In this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparison between various organizational terms and conditions at managerial level and also the organization at a large. SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICIES OF THE ORGANIZATION: 1. Managemen t hasa clear path for em ployees advancem ent 2. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees

3. Management is extremely fair in personal policies

4. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets

5. I innovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems.

SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION

1. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me

2. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect

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3. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily

4. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors

5. I get enough support from the supervisor

6. Individual initiative is encouraged

SATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS 1 . Overall I am satisfi ed w ith the co m p a nys compensationpackag e 2. I am satisfied with the medical benefits

3. I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance

4. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits

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5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility

6. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities

SATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY

1. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reverse scaled)

2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly

3. My job responsibilities are well defined and clear

SATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT

1. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow

2. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities

3. My skills and abilities are adequately used at work

From all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees.

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3.7 RATING SCALE

It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction. The popular rating scale used to measure Job satisfaction is to include: Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of pertinent satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees. Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension identified by Smith, Kendall, Hullin. Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management personnel and revolves around the problems and challenges faced by managers.

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3.8 CRITICAL INCIDENTS

Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method of measuring Job satisfaction. It involves asking employees to described incidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. Then the incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying those related aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes. 3.09 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS

This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of job attitudes. The main advantage in this method is that additional information or clarifications can be obtained promptly. 3.10 ACTION TENDENCIES

By this method, Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and gathering information on how they feel like behaving with respect to certain aspects of their jobs. This method provides employees more opportunity to express their in-depth feeling. In his study on American employees, hoppock identified six factors that contributed to job satisfaction among them. These are as follows: 1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations. 2. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons. 3. H is relative s status in th e social & econom ic group w ithw hichhe identifi es him self. 4. The nature of work in relation to the abilities, interest & preparation of the workers. 5. Security. 53

6. Loyalty. Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries between employees & management in conflict. They are concern with Job satisfaction or general job attitudes with the employees.

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Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction .as

1. Attitude towards work group. 2. General working conditions. 3. Attitude towards company. 4. Monitory benefits & 5. Attitude towards supervision Other components that should be added to this five are individual s stateof mind aboutthe work itself an d abo u tthe life in general .the individual s health, age, level of aspiration. Social status and political & soci al activities can all contrib ute to the Job satisfaction. A person s attitude toward his or her job may be positive or negative.

3.11 JOB ENLARGEMENT

The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. It is simply the organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to the capacity, actual and potential, of workers. Job enlargement is oblivious forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Stephan offers three basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement. Output will increase if 1. Workers abilities are fully utilized 2. Worker has more control over the work 3. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated.

Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job. It may widen the number of task the employee must do that is, add variety. 55

When additional simple task are added to a job, the process is called horizontal job enlargement. This also presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom. To check harmful effects of specialization, the engineering factors involved in each individual job must be carefully analyzed. Perhaps, the assembly lines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers on each line. Moreover, instead of assigning one man to each job and then allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permit more social contacts and greater control over the work process.

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3.12 JOB ROTATION

Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely different sets of job activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use the job rotation. When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill requirements. Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through systematically moving workers from one job to another. This practice provides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additional skills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to perform a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency. 3.13 CHANGE OF PACE

Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he wishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted to change their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment. 3.14 SCHEDULED REST PERIODS

Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they may increase both morale and productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring many advantages: They counteract physical fatigue They provide variety and relieve monotony They are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense of achievement. They provide opportunities for social contacts.

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CHAPTER No.5

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LITERATURE REVIEW

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Characteristics of Good Review of Literature A Literature review is the summary and critical evaluation of pervious published or unpublished researches made by various scholars and researchers. The source of literature review may be newspapers, articles, journals, magazines, books, thesis, reports etc. It may also include discussions, methodological issues and suggestions for future research. It must be written clearly and accurately. Simple and easily understandable wording should be used in a review and unnecessary statements, jargon should be avoided. It must be written in such a way that it keeps readers attention and dont m akehim bore. D ont m akeit too com plex. Simplify discussion. A good literature review gives only the relevant details, findings and feelings of the researcher comprehensively otherwise the reader lose the interest & attention. Here Comprehensiveness does not mean that you should mention every research report, article or paper that has ever been published on your subject. Concentrate on the most widely cited authors and the most significant findin gs. No Wastage of efforts. A review of literaturetellsthe researchers knowedge l ab ou tthe topic, there focus upon the specific problem whether they are logically developed and plan about the research area & major issues. When a researcher studies various research articles and thesis, he should write them in literature review as it is either he is agreed with it or not. The literature review provides the bases for the development of theoretical fame work by identifying variables that are very important, as determined by the previous research findings. Though it is based on assumptions but the researchers must use them near to the fact. Remember it is not a fiction or the researcher embossed his writing skills on the readers mind. He must be very clear to the objectives of the research and follow them accordingly. Variables, that are the foundation of the research and are taken to highlight the problem, should be simple and easily understandable for the readers as it increases the readers confid ence in the ability, com pet ency and professionalism of the researchers. All the details in a review should be synchronized in such a manner that it w ill no t leave any flaw in th e readers mind. A s a review tells us w hat has already find out abouta specific problem so it will help the future researcher to plan out their framework in different dimensions using different type of variables in the different situations to reach the result. A literature review ensures that you are at least familiar with the body of research in your field before starting your own investigations. Writing a literature review also provides practice in critical thinking. Once you have applied critical thinking skills to the findings of past 60

researchers, you are in a better position to apply these same skills to your own work. A comprehensive literature review enables the researcher to select most appropriate method of research. It tells us that which procedure and methods was used in previous studies and if there is any problem with these procedure and methods, what kind of strategy should be taken to avoid them. Repetition is never being appreciated in any literature as it bothers the reader. You have to avoid this if you want to engage the reader till the end. A review tells the whole story of the research so it should comprehensively precise including all necessary details about the topic, situation, variables that are taken and kind of questionnaire that are asked. After reading your

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literature review, the reader should come away with a deeper understanding of your topic. A good literature review setsout the gaps in current understanding. It seeks to explain these reasons why gaps persist. Some problems have not been thoroughly investigated for technical or practical reasons. In other cases, gaps are the result of methodological or theoretical "blind-spots". Identifying these can lay the foundation for new insights. A review of the literature on Job Satisfaction & Employee Turnover The industrial and business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job dissatisfaction among the employees and high rate of turnover. JOB SATISFACTION is regard to ones feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision, organization policies & administration, salary & quality of life etc. Employers have a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work for other organizations. The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers. The good hopeis hard to find,is even truer these days than ever before because the job m arket in becomin g increasingly tight. (Eskildesen, Hammer) Theresa gave the study to examine the job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational design. He takes the sample (n = 107) consist of direct support professional who worked for non profit organization located in South Carolina that served People with disabilities development. Two instruments were utilized that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover (Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire). Demographic information regarding age and tenure were examined. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. The result from the study suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. It was demonstrated that tenure is related to job satisfaction and having positive & low relation. There was little evidence that suggest that age was significantly related to either job satisfaction or intent to turnover. Theresa take sample from single organization which in non profit organization. The non profit organizations are some extent running by the charity & remunerations for the employees in such organizations are low. donation and the

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1 Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization, Life of organization in years, Number of employee, Employee participation, Job satisfaction, Employee commitment & \Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate 1 Theresa Ricke-Kely. USA bosses. The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at their best knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization.

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Questionnaire was divided in to two portions. First line manager had to answer the question regarding name of organization, life of organization, number of employees, employee participation, job satisfaction and employee commitment. While the immediate bosses was to answer the question from the portion of employee productivity. The questionnaire consists on relationship among job satisfaction, employee commitment, and employee productivity. They used Likard scale questionnaire. They take sample from communication sector, banking sector and oil & gas sector of Pakistan. 34 organizations were selected for study. They measured job satisfaction by using the variables, employee productivity, employee commitment and employee participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the job satisfaction and mentioned variables. The finding suggests that management of organization should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation, policies and working conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover.2 The sample size was not enough to reflect image of the organizations functioning in Pakistan. Data collection method for research is very common. Other methods could have been used for this research study like group discussion / discussion forum. The late 1920s one of the first studies of job satisfaction undertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. This study referred to & focused on employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study highlighted that employees & workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and the social environment, which affects their 2 Komal Khalid Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi. attitudes towards their work. The findings of the study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911, that individual workers wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder for it. He used the global approach to measure job satisfaction. The study found that 88% of the surveyed were classified as being satisfied, and there was a direct linear relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction3 This section examines the literature regarding theories and models used to explain the determinants of job satisfaction. There are two broad categories to classify job satisfaction theories, that is, process and content theories. Content theories are predominantly concerned with the identification of specific needs or motives most conducive to s Need H ierarchy and Herzbergs Two-Factor theory are examples job satisfaction. The M aslow of content theories. Process theories go further than identifying basic needs that motivate people. T hey focus o n th e individuals Facet- Satisfaction attitudes and 64 Model, dynamic thought processes and how they produce certain types of behavior/attitudes. Equity Theory, Need-Fulfillment Theory, Social Comparison Theory, Job Characteristics Model. To better understand employee

motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job 3 Mayo & Hawthorne study dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfier hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.

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He describes that factors leads to job satisfaction are Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility, Advancement and Growth and the factors which leads to dissatisfaction are Company policy, Supervision, Relationship with Boss, Work conditions, Salary, Relationship with co workers Herzberg argued that management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. 4 The two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Furthermore, job satisfaction does not necessarily create a high level of motivation or productivity. Herzberg's theory has been broadly read and despite its weaknesses. True motivation comes from within a person and not from KITA factors (Kicks in the Pants). Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs, commencing with physiological needs then safety, social, esteem and at last self actualization need. He says that these needs must be satisfied in the order listed. Maslow's theory says, there are some important implications for management. There are opportunities to motivate 4- Frederick Herzberg 1959 employees and provide them job satisfaction through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages.5 Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. SelfActualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.

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Evaluation of Literature Review. I have read almost 14 articles & theories about my topic and discussed some of them which were easy to understand for me. The Source which I used for study was internet.The literature review given above is easy to understand and covered findings of home (Pakistan) and abroad researcher also. At the end of every researchers finding the criticism on theirresearch is also given in such a comprehensive manner that it shows the clear picture of all findings and lacking area of research. I used the way which attract the readers and tried to carry them till end. The variables used by the researchers are discussed in detail and their dependency & impact on problem. Some researcher used single variable to check the job satisfaction and some use two or more. I discussed both. 5- Maslow 1943 6- (www.netmba.com)

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The review given tells that there are many factors which influence the job satisfaction in an organization but in Pakistan are remunerations and monetary rewards as the research work done by Komal Khalid Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi. The literature shows the clarity and accuracy. It provide the base for further working and having complete knowledge about the topic that what has been done in the field so far. I tried to avoid the reputation of statements and convey the whole story in short wordings. The bad factor of my literature review is that I have only discussed five researches & Theories but that was only because of shortage of time and restrictions. Theoretical Foundation Many theories support The Topic Job satisfaction and Employee Turnover and define the characteristics of satisfaction and to some extent dissatisfaction. Some of the theories are discussed in detail here. Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback). These impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn nfluencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors.

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Maslow Hierarchy of Need Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs, commencing with physiological needs then safety, social, esteem and at last self actualization need. Maslow says that these needs must be satisfied in the order listed. According to theory, there are some important implications for management. There are opportunities to motivate employees and provide them job satisfaction through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages.Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory) To better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. The following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction, listed in the order of higher to lower importance. Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Com pa ny policy Su pervision Relationship w/Bo ss Work con di tions Salary Relationship w /Peers Achievem ent Recognition Work itself

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Resp o n isbility Advancemen t Growth Summary of Literature Review The industrial and business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job dissatisfaction among the employees which is causing the less productivity, less job commitment, and increasing turnover. Employers have a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work for other organizations. The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers. What is Job Satisfaction? Jo b s Satisfaction is regard to ones feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their w ork. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision, organization policies & administration, salary & quality of life etc. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization. Therefore, m anagers at all costsmustminimize employees turnover.

What is Employee Turnover? Employee turnover is a ratio comparison of the number of employees a company must replace in a given time period to the average number of total employees. Many factors play a role in the employee turnover rate of any company, and these can stem from both the employer and the employees. Wages, company benefits, employee attendance, and job performance are all factors that play a significant role in em ployee turnov er. The good hopeis hard to find,is even truer th esedays thanever before because the job m arket in becoming increasingly tight. (Eskildesen,

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Hammer) Theresa examine he job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational design. Two instruments were utilized that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover (Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire). Demographic information regarding age and tenure were examined. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. The result from the study suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. It was demonstrated that tenure is related to job satisfaction and having positive & low relation. Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization, Life of organization in years, Number of employee, Employee participation, Job satisfaction, Employee commitment & Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate bosses. The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at their best knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization.

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Questionnaire was divided in to two portions. First line manager had to answer the question regarding name of organization, life of organization, number of employees, employee participation, job satisfaction and employee commitment. While the immediate bosses was to answer the question from the portion of employee productivity. The questionnaire consists on relationship among job satisfaction, employee commitment, and employee productivity. They used Likard scale questionnaire. They take sample from communication sector, banking sector and oil & gas sector of Pakistan. They measured job satisfaction by using the variables, employee productivity, employee commitment and employee participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the job satisfaction and mentioned variables. The finding suggests that management of organization should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation, policies and working conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover. The late 1920s one of the first studies of job satisfactionundertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. This study referred to & focused on employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study highlighted that employees & workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and the social environment, which affects their attitudes towards their work. The findings of the study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911, that individual workers wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder for it. He used the global approach to measure job satisfaction. The study found that 88% of the surveyed were classified as being satisfied, and there was a direct linear relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction. The study of job satisfaction and its effects have been of concern and of interest to organ izations and researchers sin ceHop pocks first study of th e to pic in 1 93 5 .Studies have found that the lack of satisfaction can have serious consequences. One is the intent to turnov er. T urn over is a serious problem is and its serious ly effect the quality of service, productivity success. and ultimately overall organizational

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Methods of Data Collection The broader purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship among employee job satisfaction and employee Turnover. Data will be collected from the accounts employees of various organizations. A questionnaire technique will be used in order to obtain data and employees will be asked to give the answers of questions in accordance to their best knowledge. Questionnaire will be divided in to two parts dissatisfaction factors and satisfaction factors. Methods of Data Analysis Data will be analyzed according to job experience with respect of salary and secondary data will be used to make calculations and analysis.

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CHAPTER No. 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 INTRODUCTION Research refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic method of collecting and recording the facts in the form of numerical data relevant to the formulated problem and arriving at certain conclusions over the problem based on collected data.

Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the research process followed by the collection, recording, tabulation and analysis and drawing the conclusions. The problem formulation starts with defining the problem or number of problems in the functional area. To detect the functional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of any research as the whole research is based on the problem.

According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting, organizing and evaluating data: making deductions and reaching conclusions: and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. Research can be defined as th e m anipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purp ose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction o f th eo ry or in th e practice of an art In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.

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4.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a survey operation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. Structured questionnaire consist of only fixed alternative questions. Such type of questionnaire is inexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. All questions are closed ended.

4.3SAMPLING It was divided into following parts:

Sampling universe All the employees are the sampling universe for the research.

Sampling technique Judgmental sampling Sample was taken on judgmental basis. The advantage of sampling are that it is much less costly, quicker and analysis will become easier. Sample size taken was 100 employees.

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4.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research has been undertaken with following objectives.

To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of Sonalika Pvt Ltd. To study the factors affecting job satisfaction among the employees of Sonalika Pvt. Ltd.

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4.5 DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection begins after the research problem has been defined and research design chalked out. While deciding the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. Primary and secondary data.

Primary Data: The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data were collected through well-designed and structured questionnaires based on the objectives.

Secondary Data: The secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else and passed through statistical process. The secondary data required of the research was collected through various newspapers, and Internet etc.

4.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfaction level of the employees of Sonalika. Limitation for the study, the study was restricted to Sonalika only and other being the time as constraint.

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CHAPTER No. 7

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

After data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through tabulation and drawing statically inferences.

Tabulation is the part of technical procedure where in the classified data are put in the form of tables.

After analyzing the data, the researcher should have to explain the findings on the basis of some theory. It is known as interpretation . The data has been collected from 100 employees of Sonalika through questionnaire. The data thus collected was in the form of master table. That made possible counting of classified data easy. From the master table various summery tables were prepared. They have been presented along with their interpretation in this manner.

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1. Are you satisfied with the workplace of organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 31 49 12 5 3 Percentage 31 49 12 5 3

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied

Above
Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied

table are with work 61% are with

shows that 31% employees strongly satisfied their place employees satisfied

Satisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

their workplace. It means over all 92% employees are satisfied and other 18% are not satisfied with the work place.\

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2. Are y o u satisfied with the infrastructure of organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 50 20 10 16 4 Percentage 50 20 10 16 4

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied

Above table shows


Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

that

70% pondents satisfied with rastructure d 30% are satisfied with rastructure sonalika. It n erpreted be

res are inf an dis inf of ca int


Satisfied Slightly satisfied

that 30% are not satisfied with infrastructure which not more in number.

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3. Are y o u satisfied with the canteen facility provided by orgarization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 56 17 16 9 3 Percentage 56 17 16 9 3

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Satisfied

Above table shows that 88% employees are satisfied with the canteen facility provided by the organization. Only 12% employees are not satisfied with canteen facility

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4. Are you satisfied with the implementation of rules and responsibilities? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 51 23 10 11 6 Percentage 51 23 10 11 6

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied

Satisfied

Above table shows that 84% employees are satisfied with implementation of rules and responsibilities. And 16% of respondents are not seems to be satisfied with the implementing rules and responsibilities.

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5. Are y o u satisfied with the freedom given at work? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 30 36 14 16 4 Percentage 30 36 14 16 4

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied

Strongly satisfied

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied

Slightly satisfied Satisfied

Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

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Above table shows that 80% respondents are happy with the freedom at work given by management but only 20% of respondents are not satisfied with freedom given at work place

6. Are you satisfied with the team spirit in organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied
Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied

No. Of respondents 52 21 7 16 4
Strongly satisfied Percentage

Percentage 52 21 7 16 4
Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied

Satisfied

90

Above table shows that 80% employees are satisfied with team sprit built in organization and other employees are not satisfied with team spirit in the organization.

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Are y o u satisfied with working hours? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 20 41 11 23 5 Percentage 20 41 11 23 5

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied

Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied Satisfied

Above table shows that 20% employees strongly feels that the working hours decided by organization are most convenient for them. Other 52% employees are satisfied with these working hours. And only 28% employees are not much satisfied with the working hours.

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8. Are you satisfied with Job security? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 13 18 11 12 46 Percentage 13 18 11 12 46

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

Strongly satisfied Satisfied

Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied

Above table shows that only 31 % employees are satisfied with the job security. And remaining 69% of employees are not satisfied with the job security provided by the organization.

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9. Are you satisfied with the targets given to you? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 64 21 11 11 4 0 Percentage 64 21 11 4 0

Percentage

Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied

Slightly satisfied

Satisfied

Strongly satisfied

Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Above table shows that 96% employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are achievable and only 4% are not feels that the targets given are achievable.

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10. Are y o u satisfied with the opportunities for promotions? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 8 14 6 26 46 Percentage 8 14 6 26 46

Percentage

Strongly satisfied Satisfied

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied

Only 22% of the employees are satisfied with the opportunities of promotions given by organization. And most of the employees nearly 78% are not satisfied with opportunities of promotions.

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11. Are you satisfied with the payment of salary in regard to time? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 44 16 4 32 4 Percentage 44 16 4 32 4

Percentage

Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly satisfied

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied Satisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Above table shows that 60% of employees are satisfied with the payment of salaries on time. Only 40% of the employees are not much satisfied with the payment of salaries on time.

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12 Are you satisfied with the quality of formal training and induction program? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied No. Of respondents Percentage 42 36 4
Strongly dissatisfied 14

42
Percentage

36 4 14
Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied4 Slightly satisfied

Strongly 4 satisfied

Satisfied

From the above table it shows that 76% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of training and induction program and only

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13. Are you satisfied with the working of HR division? Satisfaction Level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied 18 2 6 2 No. Of Respondents 72 Percentage 72 18 2 6 2

Percentage Strongly dissatisfied

Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Strongly satisfied

Above table shows that 92% of the respondents are satisfied with the HR division Only 8% of the respondents are not satisfied with the proactive and proper HR division, which is very negligible in number.

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14 Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied No. Of respondents 62 28 4 4 Percentage 62 28 4 4 2

Strongly dissatisfied2

Percentage

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied

Satisfied

Above

table shows that

90% respondents are satisfied with the performance appraisal system and only 10% of the respondents are not much satisfied with the performance appraisal system implemented in organization.

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15. Are you satisfied with acceptan ce of employees suggestions? Satisfaction Level Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Slightly Satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly Dissatisfied No. Of Respondents 4 22 4 45 25 Percentage 4 22 4 45 25

Percentage

Strongly Dissatisfied

Strongly Satisfied Satisfied

Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Slightly Satisfied Dissatisfied Slightly Satisfied Strongly Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Above table shows that the 26% of the respondents are satisfied with the positive acceptance of the suggestions given by the respondents but most of the respondents 70% are dissatisfied with this point.

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CHAPTER No. 8

FINDINGS

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FINDINGS
All the findinds are drawn based on the analysis and interpretation of the primary data regarding the job satisfaction of the employees of sonalika.

From the analysis and interpretation, it is concluded that 80 % of the employees are satisfied with the workplace and only 20% employees are not satisfied with the workplace, which are negligible in number. And similarly in case of infrastructure 70% of the employees are satisfied and very small number of employees are not happy with the infrastructure of sonalika and the canteen facilities. It means the workplace and infra- structure of sonalika is good or satisfactory. It is notice that near about 84% the employees are satisfied with implementation of rules and responsibilities. And only some of them are not seems to be satisfied with the implementing rules and responsibilities. Therefore it shows that implementation of rule and responsibility is done fairly. From the study it is clear that the 70% percentage of employees are happy with the freedom at work given by management but only some of them are not feeling satisfied with the freedom given at work place. According to analysis and interpretation, 60% of the employees are satisfied with the team spirit built in organization and only few are not happy with team spirit in the organization. From this it seems that the team spirit in the organization is strong. This study shows that only few employees strongly feel that the working hours decided by organization are most convenient for them. Other is not in favor with these working hours. So it is clear that the management kept the main consideration about working conditions and the hours, which satisfies the employees.

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The study shows that very small numbers (32%) of employees are satisfied with the job security. And remaining most of the employees are not satisfied with the job Security provided by the organization. Hence from this analysis it is cleared that there is feeling of fear of job loss in the employees of sonalika. An analysis shows that about 75% of employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are achievable and only are not feels that the targets given are achievable. Hence the targets set by management are achievable. SUGGESTIONS

The suggestions are drawn from the analysis and observations. Few suggestions are given as under: In case of working hours decided by the organization are not convenient for the employees of sonalika. The working hours are 6 hours per day that from 8.30AM to 5 PM. These hours should minimize up to 5 hours. The criteria for Job security is not much satisfactory so management need to concentrate on job security of employees so that they can work without fear of job loss in the organization. Opportunities of growth of employees are very less so that there can be employee turnover hence management has to give emphasis on increasing the promotion opportunities for according to the performance of employees. From analysis we concluded that the period of in house training is very short that is of only 3 days, which is not sufficient to get complete knowledge about the work. Hence the training period should extend up to 5 days.

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As there is an active participation of employees in decision making but rarely the suggestions given by them are drawn in action. Hence the confidence of employees gets demotivated. So to motivate the employees management can take into consideration some proper suggestions given by the employees. It will help to increase the motivation and ultimately the Job satisfaction of the employees of sonalika.

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CONCLUSION
From the analysis it is concluded that very small number of employees are satisfied with the payment as per their roles and responsibility and remaining all are not satisfied with the payment according to their roles and responsibilities. Hence from this analysis it can be cleared that payment according to roles and responsibilities are not much satisfied. Only little number of the employees is satisfied with the opportunities of promotions given by organization. It shows that the employees do not have any growth of opportunities. Analysis shows that the payment of salary is made always on time. From the analysis and interpretation it is clear that very large number of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of training and induction program and in house training held by the management. And few are not satisfied with the quality of in house training. But the period of training is not satisfactory to the employees. From the analysis it is clear that HR division is most satisfactory to all employees only few are not satisfied with the HR division in the company. In case of performance appraisal system and the office events and parties organized by the organization near about all the employees are satisfied. The birthdays of all the employees are remembered and celebrated in the organization. It is concluded that the employees are not much satisfied with the forum for

face-to-face communication. From the analysis it is clear that half of the employees are satisfied and other half are not satisfied with the encouragement given to the suggestions of the employees. But only few thinks that there is positive acceptance of the suggestions given by the employees. From the analysis it is clear that management is able all the promises

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CHAPTER No. 9

107

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books: Hitt, M iller, Colella Organ izational Behavior A Strategic Approach, Edition. th Wiley Stu de n ts

Lu th an s Fred

Organ izational Behavior, McGraw Hill 7

Edition.

Newstrom John W., Davis Keith, Organizational Behavior Human Resource At Work, 9 th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition. Motivation and Job Satisfaction, 1 s t Edition. Macmillan India

Pestonjee D. M. Limited.

Websites: www.hrcouncil.com www.workforce.com www.google.com

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CHAPTER No. 10

110

ANNEXTURE

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ANNEXTURE Questionnaire NAMEAGEMOBILE No.OCCUPATION-

1 Are you satisfied with the workplace of organization?

1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

2. Are you satisfied w i t h t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

3 Are you satisfied with the canteen facility provided by organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 112

4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

4. Are you satisfied with the implementation of rules and responsibilities? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 5. Are you satisfied with freedom given at work? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

6. Are you satisfied with the team spirit in organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 7. Are you satisfied with convenient working hour? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 113

4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

8. Are you satisfied with job security? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 9. Are you satisfied with the targets given to you? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 10. Are you satisfied w i t h t h e opportunities of promotion? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 11. Are you satisfied with the payment of salary in regards to time? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 114

12. Are you satisfied with the quality of formal training and induction program? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 13. Are you satisfied with the working of HR division? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied

14. Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 15. Are you satisfied with positive acceptance of employees suggestion? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 115

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