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BASIC PENUMATIC OPERATIONS
1. To get an idea about pneumatic equipments. 2. To understand about pneumatic logic circuits.
1. Followed the given circuit diagrams and completed the all circuits by using supplied equipments. 2. The complete behavior of the system was observed.
PB-1 press press - PB-2 press press - CYLINDER extended extended extended - That means the valve is actuated as a logic OR gate.1. Compressor is the power source and connected lines are power paths. By observation we can see it is actually worked as a logic OR gate. . 6.1 The operation of shuttle valve By constructing the above circuit. we can understand the operation of this valve. In here two push buttons worked as two input switches in a logic circuit and the single acting cylinder is worked as the indicator. SHUTTLE VALVE CIRCUIT FIG.
TWO PRESSURE VALVE CIRCUIT FIG.2 The operation of two pressure valve By simulating above.2. 6. PB-1 press press PB-2 press press CYLINDER extended - . we can understand the behavior of this valve. we can say it is worked as a logic AND gate. Considering the two push button operated 3/2 way valves as inputs.
3. We want to repeat this procedure as a loop. we were named the two cylinders as A and B and extension moment was denoted by “+” sign and retraction moment was denoted by “ -“ sign.B- . at the same moment the first one should starts its retraction. Before we continue. For example. 6. 1. Actuate 1 cylinder first 2. Extension of cylinder A is denoted as A+ and retraction of it is denoted as ASo according to the above notation our requirement can be explained as. When it is fully extend the other one should start its actuation.3. After the full retraction of first one. A+ B+ A. After the full extension of the second one. at the same moment the second one should starts its retraction.3 Pneumatic diagram for the given sequential operation Our problem is to actuate two double acting cylinders in following manner. SEQUENCE CIRCUIT FIG. 4.
Then we can construct the following motion step diagram. . Because of that we were used normally open 3/2 way valve for S3 and normally closed 3/2 way valve as our start switch which can be bush and actuate. The valve S1 also initially pressed. the A+ is the first operation and we are using a start switch. when we pressed the start switch the cylinder A gets extend and S1 connection lost and S2 connection build up with time. So we have to use 2 pilot operated 5/2 way valves for our design. In here. According to those variables we can suggest four roller operated 3/2 way valves which are actuated with our 4 limit switches in some programmed manner. When it reached to S2 the valve S2 gets actuate and energized the cylinder B through its 5/2 way valve. because the S1 limit control the S1 valve. we can add another push button operated 3/2 way valve as start switch. then S1 sends the signal to B for retraction through S1 valve and actuator becomes the 5/2 way valve which was connected to the cylinder B. According to our solution strategy. For safety and quality of our design. Then we were constructed the following table which was used to draw above pneumatic diagram. I here the S1. In here we have to control 2 double acting cylinders with pneumatically signaling manner. After the piston of B reached to the S4 position it sends the signal to cylinder A to get retraction. When the piston of A reached to the S1 position. S2. In our diagram. A+ B+ ABS1 S2 S2 S1 S3 S3 S4 S4 S3 S2 S4 S1 The column of the above table can named as uncommon variable table according to our solution method. the normally open S3 is denoted as initially pressed normally closed 3/2 way valve. for A+ operation the S3 valve should signaled to actuation of the cylinder A. S3 and S4 are the 4 limit switches which are used to track the moments of full retractions and extensions. According to our diagram.
producing a propelling force and a retracting force. allowing air to flow from ‘P2’ to ‘A’ only. Consequently. Pneumatic symbol . the sphere will block inlet ‘P1’. As the effective area of the piston is small. SHUTTLE VALVE Shuttle valves are also known as double control or single control non-return valves. Air can then flow from ‘P1’ to ‘A’. this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring takes up. Pneumatic cylinders are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. the piston becomes displaced by the compressed air expanding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. hence. pneumatic rams. and compressed some trapped amount air at a time and store pressure energy. and a spring to return to the "home" position. When compressed air enters through ‘P1’. which convert the electrical energy into the pressure energy. A shuttle valve has two air inlets ‘P1’ and ‘P2’ and one air outlet ‘A’. More often than not. air motors and etc… PENUMATIC CYLINDER Once actuated. air pressure is applied alternately to the relative surface of the piston. This energized fluid is use to actuate several pneumatic elements such as valves.COMPRESSOR This is the instrument. the thrust produced during retraction is relatively weak. compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and.. a wheel which is used make reciprocating motion of a piston (piston type compressor) and etc. imparts force on the piston. Single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 100mm of stroke length. Single-acting cylinder Single-acting cylinders use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction. the sphere will seal and block the other inlet ‘P2’. When the contrary happens. In a double acting cylinder. a vane (vane type compressor). The working surfaces are also polished and coated with chromium to reduce friction. The electric motor rotates two intermeshing screws (screw compressor). The impeccable tubes of double acting cylinders are usually made of steel.
O. The open valves in the middle will close until ‘P’ and ‘A’ are connected together. electrically or pneumatically. Then another valve will open the sealed base between ‘A’ and ‘R’ (exhaust).C. The valves can be driven manually. This is achieved by a similar system to the one shown below. this would ensure the operators hands are out of reach of any hazardous operations.These valve types are commonly associated but not limited to safety circuits. for example a two push button operation system whereby an operator is required to use both hands to activate two push buttons. Pneumatic symbol 3/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE A 3/2 way directional control valve can be used to control a single acting cylinder. mechanically.TWO PRESSURE VALVE A two pressure valve requires two pressurised inputs to allow an output from itself. one active input slides the shuttle valve shut blocking any air flow.) and normally closed type (N. add two active inputs and the shuttle remains centralised allowing flow through the valve.) (a) Normally closed type (b) Normally open type . 3/2 directional control valves can further be divided into two classes: Normally open type (N.
connecting inlet ‘P’ and work passage ‘B’. Cross section of 5/2 way valve .5/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE When a pressure pulse is input into the pressure control port ‘P’. the spool will move to the left. Work passage ‘A’ will then make a release of air through ‘R1’ and ‘R2’. The directional valves will remain in this operational position until signals of the contrary are received.
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