FREE ENERGY GENERATION

JohnsonMotor

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J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r

Table of contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………4 Free energy – is it really possible? .......................................................................................4 Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor ………………………………………………………..5 What did Johnson think? …………………………………………………………………………..7 In terms of theory ……………………………………………………………................................16 Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition ……………………………………………36 An Excerpt by Tom Bearden …………………………………………………………………...58 JohnsonMotor Blueprints ………………………………………………………………….…62 System components ………………………………………………………………........................65 Important information on components …………………………………………………..67 Dimensions …………………………………………………………………………………………...69 Build your own JohnsonMotor – Best practices …………………….....................73 Safety Precautions …………………………………………………………………………………75 Operation of the Motor …………………………………………………………………………..76 Howard Johnson’s Patents …………………………………………………………………..77 US Patent # 4,151,431…………………………………………………………………………….77 Permanent Magnet Motor (April 24, 1979) ……………………………………………..77 United States Patent 4,877,983 …………………………………………............................103 Magnetic Force Generating Method & Apparatus …………………………………..103 US Patent # 5,402,021 ………………………………………………………………………….118 Magnetic Propulsion System ………………………………………………………………...118

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J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r JohnsonMotor Simplified ……………………………………………………………………132 List of materials ………………………………………………………………………………….133 List of tools ………………………………………………………………………..........................139 List of useful instruments ……………………………………………………………………140 Schematics ………………………………………………………………………………………….142 Schematic Drawing ……………………………………………………………………………...143 Schematic Diagram ……………………………………………………………………………...144 Analogous Circuit Drawing with explanations ……………………...........................144 Assembly ……………………………………………………………………………………………147 Connecting the batteries …………………………………………………….........................152 Adjusting Resistance …………………………………………………………………………..152 Cautions ……………………………………………………………………………........................154 Simplified Motor Designs ………………………………………………………………...155 Transistor and Arrangement Diagram ………………………………………………...156 Dual Battery Motor Diagram ………………………………………………………………157 Operation of the Motor ……………………………………………………………………….157

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But the increasing prices of fossil fuels and the general awareness about the fact that the Earth is actually running out of this resource sooner than we thought. which would ultimately shut down the big energy corporations. However. People are skeptic and somehow afraid to try new devices. Luckily. Thе аnѕwеr tο thе quеѕtіοn: саn free electricity bе generated fοr real using thеѕе devices? is a resounding yes. many brilliant people through the years have seen the potential of these devices and have dedicated their lives to building and creating the FREEE ENERGY THAT PEOPLE ARE ENTITLED TO. Perhaps уοu hаvе аlѕο come асrοѕѕ a few websites advertising free electricity generators аnd οthеr forms οf natural energy generators аnd wondered whether free electricity саn really bе generated thе way thеу promise.4 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Introduction Free energy – is it really possible? It is not yet certain for everyone if free energy is really possible. the free energy devices have been suppressed by the corporate world because such devices would allow people to create their own energy for free. 4 . might bring the change.

He filed the patent application in 1973. 1979 . This motor uses only the forces of magnetism to create motion.5 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor The battle to reveal a real magnetic motor that can provide free energy has been going on for a long time.Howard Johnson . and it was finally granted on April 24.151.was successful at obtaining a patent for his ideas (US Patent #4. He has been called “The Father of Spintronics” (meaning spin transport electronics or magneto-electronics.some 6 years later. His main focus in the field of magnetism was creating the magnet powered motor.431). One of these inventors . which exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic 5 . Howard Johnson spent most of his life studying magnetism and how to apply it to creating energy. Inventors come and inventors go and along the way there have been several inventors who have promised to show us a working magnetic motor. Howard built several working models of this device and this was the key to his finally obtaining a patent on the permanent magnet motor.

but we have all been told over and over again that no one has ever been able to build a working motor-generator using the patent information. 6 . his concepts seem to be very capable of working. In looking over his patent drawings.6 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r moment. in solidstate devices) and his ideas proved to be revolutionary for the world of magnets. But that changed recently… We now have enough information to build a magnetic motor just like Howard Johnson did. in addition to its fundamental electronic charge.

when we will show you how to actually build the motor.1979) Today when energy is so expensive. we thought you might be interested in what Johnson had to say about this technology and his own work. The Permanent Magnet Motor I. it is not hard to drum up interest for most any avenue that offers a breath of hope or a way of escape. but this was not necessarily so in 1942. Introductory remarks (by Mr. in 1942 using the Bohr model of the atom. 7 .7 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r What did Johnson think? Before you start your project. It took faith to spend money on it. It took faith to spend time on it. I kept wondering why we couldn't use these fields to drive something. Johnson . We were somewhat satisfied and convinced that we had the main sources of energy in view. So. So it took a pure act of faith to try to develop a new un-named source. And it took faith to consider facing the opposition later when I made my work known and faced all the status quo people. and knowing that unpaired electron spins created a permanent magnet dipole. The information will prove to be very useful to you later on.

Having a chemical background. materials that could be opposed with strong magnetic fields and not be demagnetized enough to damage them. It was a quiet. I had no knowledge of electron spins stopping and knew no method that I could exert to stop them. sometimes 8 .8 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r I was sure that the magnetic effect of the spins was similar enough to the field of a current in a wire to do the same thing.S. I thought it would be nice to use the best magnetic materials I could find in combination with an interstitial material that was highly diamagnetic to force the electron spin to stay in place. so I decided to try to work out a method to use them. So I kept checking magnetic materials while I worked on designs that I thought should be implemented. they would not give the thrust that I desired. At the same time there were no good hard magnetic materials that I knew of. but the internal coercive forces were so great that this strong magnet would fall apart if not encased in glass. Navy later made such a compound using bismuth and good magnetic materials. The U. Not only that. It was also expensive.

The dean of the school where I was teaching said. the six-sided spokes. I found a wonderful book there by Dr. He has 9 . I told him. It was about this time that I mentioned the fact that just as I believed. I began to freeze some designs and to have magnets custom made to fit them. etc. I went to the Library of Congress and looked up snowflakes. It said: "Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow? Or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail? Which I have reserved against the time of trouble. "No. I didn't know that. and long-field metal magnets appeared on the scene. My self-imposed security would not permit it. giving the six-spoked wheel." My comment was. "Well. In the fifties. and I knew of few people who would be interested anyway. I also believed that they were responsible for the 60° angles in the structure of snowflakes. electron spins made permanent magnets. against the day of battle and war.9 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r lonely job over the years. Bentley of New Hampshire. as ceramic magnets became better and harder." but I looked it up. "Maybe so" and asked me if I knew that snowflakes were mentioned in the Bible as being important." So I went ahead and worked on it another ten years. for I didn't share my plans with my associates. maybe this is more important than I thought.

Finally. He had found that snowflakes have gas pockets oriented on 60° angles and that the gas has a higher percentage of oxygen than air.10 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r spent many years making these studies and he had learned a lot. That's one reason why snow water rusts so well. The stator would be laid out as if it were unwound from around a motor. faith to spend your own limited funds when you have a family and other financial responsibilities staring you in the face. as well as turning out one of the world's most beautiful books. and an order was placed for these shapes. They even begged me to content myself with half an order. Dies were made for the curved armature magnets. They didn't know what it was for. faith to buck the recognized 10 . The parts of the armature would ride just above the stator and have the same beveled angular orientations I have just mentioned. despite the objections of magnet manufacturers who said it was a bad design. I did not agree and once again you have that little matter of faith. using the best ceramic magnets I could find and the best metal magnets. This higher concentration of oxygen also interested me because oxygen is more attracted to a magnetic field than other gases. I worked out a scheme for a linear motor. faith to try to implement a new theory. They wanted to make horseshoe magnets. but they were sure it was a bad design.

" and was able to operate it as easily as I could. 11 .11 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r authorities and manufacturers in the field. faith that you can resist being smashed into dust by industrial giants and/or being robbed by others who know only how to steal. showing that the focusing and timing of the interactions was not too bad. faith to believe that your work is good and that someday. Michigan. Finally. This was the first light at the end of a rather dark tunnel I had been traveling for many years. I was led to Dunkan Beaman of Beaman & Beamon in Jackson. Believe it or not. you will apply for and receive patent rights in your own country and perhaps throughout the rest of the world. and finally. I breathed a real sign of relief as my young son played with this "new toy. we entered the case in the patent office expecting a lot of opposition. After much testing of linear and circular designs. The little toy car on which I fastened the armature magnets for support ran in both directions over the stator. despite all the hazards. and looking for an attorney for years suited to securing a patent on the new theoretical work. It took some time to prepare the patent. my first motor assembly showed about two pounds of thrust. The attorney built some models himself to check certain parameters.

the permanent magnet motor has not received much consideration. and. Now the work requires different kinds of faith: faith in those who have taken cut licenses and who will license. secondly.12 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r We were correct. In fact. the two greatest obstacles to using a permanent magnet motor are. In fact. But again. nothing too radical has been done since Faraday took some very crude materials and showed the world that it was possible to make a motor. faith to continue the research to replace scarce materials in the magnets. 12 . first. and faith that this work will continue to progress and that it will eventually fulfill its goal. For a number of reasons. Today. faith saved the day as we battled for many years to gain a rather complete victory. the belief that it violates the conservation of energy law. that the magnetic fields of attraction and repulsion decrease according to the inverse square law then the air gap is increased. We got it. both contentions are quite wrong because they are based on wrong considerations. This work of his largely influenced the thinking of Clerk Maxwell and others who followed.

Usually when a magnetic air gap is increased. A loudspeaker composed entirely of electromagnets would be unreal in size and energy consumption. and the motor case and kind of iron used help to limit the leakage. brushes and contact rings give the timing. A field imbalance must be created. the size and shape of the wound fields and poles gives the focusing. and spacing of the magnets in the stator and armature. through which magnets oppose and attract each other. Yet. pole length. many hesitate to apply the same principles to motors and extend them even further by using permanent magnets for both the stator and armature. shape. is a rare phenomenon. The elements of all electric and permanent magnet motors are similar. This air gap. despite examples of this type. the field decreases inversely as the square. In our permanent magnet motors the timing is built into the motors by the size. In the wound motor. the fields must be focused and timed. and magnetic leakage must be controlled.13 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The permanent magnet is a long time energy source. 13 . The focusing is controlled by the shape of the magnets. and the width of the air gap. This has been shown for many years in the rating of magnets as high or low energy sources for many applications over long usage.

I believe that super conductors are simply large wound magnets. we measure its magnetic field. such as a battery. There is a large decrease in the reading at south pole of the armature and an increase in the reading at the north pole. In fact. This appears to be something like going out the door and coming back in the window. in order to determine how much current may be flowing in the super conductor coil. I believe that the permanent magnet is the first room temperature super conductor. Thus.14 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r When the air gap of the permanent magnet motor is increased. The attracting field is minimized and will not produce a locking force. The current in a super conductor is not initiated by a strong emf. As I tried to explain in the patent. but is instead actually induced into existence by a magnetic field. a curious but definite change takes place. Another rather unique feature of super conductors is the fact that their magnetic lines of force experience a change in direction. This helps explain why the thrust is better with a larger air gap than a smaller one. No 14 . while the repulsion of the crescent magnet is great enough to generate a thrust vector component that will drive the armature. a Hall-effect sensing probe will give a higher gauss reading at the north pole and a decreasing count at the south pole. Then.

the heavy conductor currents exist in the fine filaments of niobium within each small wire of niobium tin from which such super conductors are made.15 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r longer do these lines flow at right angles to the conductor. Theoretically. Isn't it interesting that the finer the wire the less the resistance until eventually there is no resistance at all? 15 . but they now exist parallel to the conductor.

but it is important that you have them handy. Jr. 1979) may appear conceptually simple (see Fig. It is not absolutely necessary that you assimilate all these formulas and equations.) 1.16 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r In terms of theory Next. Introduction Despite the fact that the linear version of the permanent magnet motor (Johnson. Try to extract as much information as possible and it will be very useful when we start building the device. II. the complex interactions of the fields alone place it in a class with other quite sophisticated motive systems. we want to present you some theory regarding Johnson’s work presented by William P. Theoretical Analysis (presented by William P. Don’t worry if this sounds too technical for you. 16 . Harrison. This might be helpful for those who want to have full theoretical understanding of the magnetic motor project. Harrison. Jr. 1).

17 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 1: Partial Front and Plan Views of a Linear Model of the Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor Many parameters play an important part in making possible the successful design of a permanent magnet motor. Johnson's motors are presently under development. and include such controllable parameters as stator-to-armature air 17 . Mathematical models for both the linear and circular versions of Mr. A number of these variables relate directly to the geometry of the system and its components.

negative if south). embodying the inverse square relationship as it does. armature pole length. considerable insight into the mechanisms that might prove predominant was gained. magnet material variations. Describing the interaction between two magnetic monopoles. it is our intention to share with you some of those early analytical investigations and findings. to mention only a few. Therefore. as often is true with simple models. r is the straight-line separation distance between the two poles. Coulomb's Law in vector form is recalled as (1) where M and M' are the pole strengths (positive if north. it nevertheless provides an exceedingly simple yet viable form upon which to base an elementary model of the linear version of the permanent magnet motor. may yet prove suspect. much of the early work involved quit simple mathematical investigations. and f [f with line over top] is the vector of force (see Fig. and multiple armature couplings. 18 .18 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r gap. magnetic permeability and geometry of backing metals. stator magnet dimensions. stator element air gap spacing. u [mu] is the permeability of the medium in which the poles are located. Also. However. Even though Coulomb's Law. and even at this level some remarkable revelations resulted.

We will use the superposition property of Eq.R. (1). its superposition properties when applied to multiple poles. Our analysis will be two-dimensional and coplanar. Eq. restricted to the vertical x-y plane. (1) to extend its application to a spatial domain containing many more poles than the two shown in Fig. and its restriction to static systems fixes in space are all well known conditions on Eq. (1).19 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 2) acting at each pole (positive in magnitude for repulsion and negative for attraction). However. the fact that f's line of action is collinear with the straight-line distance r between poles. Johnson's linear model comprises a plurality of flat 19 . It should be noted that the horizontal stator "track" of H. 2. (1) will first be resolved into scalar components so that analytical expressions can be more easily developed. Figure 2: Coulomb's Law The vector nature of Eq.

each having an aspect ratio (length-to-thickness ratio) of 16. Thus there is some justification for a twodimensional analysis. we consider first a north pole of strength M located at coordinates (E [epsilon]. respectively.20 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r magnets. at least in the case of the linear model we are considering here. Figure 3: Positional Locations of Two Opposing North monopoles in X-Y Space ~ As shown in Fig. (2) 20 . 3. when resolved into its horizontal and vertical components yields. located on the x-axis at (x. acting on the monopole at (E.0). n [nu]) with a second north pole of strength M'. n). This high value contributes to the two-dimensional nature of the model and helps to minimize and effects in the z direction. rectangular in cross section. Force f.

the simple example of a magnetic sheet lying along the x-axis will be considered first (see Fig. The Attractive Sheet Figure 4: Spatial Orientation of Thin.21 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r and (3) 2. To 21 . Magnetized Sheet having high aspect ratio and with S side face up To illustrate some of the assumptions and extensions of Coulomb’s Law that will be made. Underside effects will be ignored as though the sheet represented a continuous distribution of only south monopoles along the x-axis. of finite length L. is a permanent magnet magnetized across its ydirection thickness and having a high aspect ratio (to eliminate zdirection edge effects). 4). The south-pole face will be oriented up. The sheet. with north facing downward on the underside of the sheet.

Eq (5) reduces to (6) where (7) the strength parameter M’ having been determined by integrating Eq (4) over the sheet length L. Assuming that the magnetic density along the sheet can be represented by the southern constant -B. 22 . becomes (5) where x is the ratio x/L.22 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r incorporate such distributions into Eq. F. acting on an isolated north monopole of strength M situated somewhere within the upper half of the x-y plane. (1) we replace M’ with the differential dM’ and introduce the function B(x) so that (4) dM’ = B(x) dx Then the magnitude of the total force vector. and neglecting end effects at x = 0 and x = L. and p is the ratio r/L.

attracting sheet Figure 6: Force Imbalance Acting on a North Monopole above a magnetized sheet tending to restore the pole to sheet center If the north monopole is placed directly above the center of the sheet. at coordinates (E. with E = L/2 and the vertical air-gap separation distance n taken as arbitrary.23 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 5: North Monopole Positioned Symmetrically above the center of a magnetized. the symmetrical 23 . n).

as shown in Fig. Eq (8) can be integrated to give (11) 24 . similar to Eq (2) we write (8) where X and Y are the dimensionless ratios (9) and (10) For any fixed position (X. Note that a shift of the north monopole to the left results in a force imbalance which tends to pull the pole back to the right. 5.24 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r distribution of incremental force vectors acting at (E. So considering now only the x-component of F.Y) of the north monopole in the upper half plane. n) will appear as shown in Fig. 6.

In order to trace some trajectories through this field.1 the monopole is located much closer to the x axis. Reversal of the force component through its zero value at mid-sheet (X = ½) is clearly shown. whereas at Y = 0. we now observe that the y-component of force F will be 25 . magnetized sheet This ratio is shown in Fig (7) as a continuous function of X locations with Y treated parametrically. The Y = 1 curve represents the field influence on the north monopole situated at a constant air-gap separation (n = L) quite some vertical distance above the sheet.25 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 7: X-Direction Distribution of the X-Component of attractive force exerted on a north monopole by a thin.

unlabeled figure) In dimensionless form the equations of motion for trajectory paths of the monopole above the sheet in planar X-Y space become (13) and (14) where (15) (16) and (17) In these expressions t is real time and T is simply a time constant chosen arbitrarily. As previously noted. 26 . L is the length of the sheet.26 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r (12) This function is shown in Fig (8) with a Y value of 0.20 Figure 8: [Missing] (it may be the last.

As already implied in the discussion of Fig. g is the gravitational acceleration constant and W is the downward weight force of the moving monopole above the sheet. 7. Thus. 27 . regardless of the initial drop-point location. For magnetic force terms (rx)mag and (ry)mag we substitute directly Eq (11) and Eq (12). and manifests that attraction quite pervasively throughout the integration of Eq (14). the function (rx)mag given by Eq (11) has a stable point of equilibrium at X = ½ and therefore drives the free-falling monopole towards the sheet center. tailings of these trajectories (Fig 9) have been completed by manually overriding the plotter. 9). respectively. the computer integration procedure will not carry the monopole all the way to surface contact with the sheet at Y = 0 because of the infinite condition which exists there as reflected by Eq (12). Several of the trajectories resulting from the integration of Eq (13) and Eq (14) are shown in Fig. Actually.9. They all exhibit the expected behavior. even when the G term may be omitted (as it was in the trajectories of Fig. The function (ry)mag from Eq (12) is equally persuasive in pulling the monopole down towards the sheet itself.27 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r whereas.

28 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 9: Trajectories of a North Monopole in an attractive field generated by the thin. where B in Eq (4) is a simple constant. the sheet of length L lying along the x-axis becomes repulsive. 3.n). the reverse symmetry of (rx)mag about X = ½. with its northern face directed upward. magnetized sheet lying in the X-interval 0-1 As we would anticipate in working with this type of central field. Also. as seen in Fig. confirms that the energy integral for this function will vanish without any appropriate limit pairs of X. The Repulsive Sheet By substituting +B instead of -B for B in Eq (4). Of course the sign in Eq (6) becomes positive and the 28 . the field is conservative with curl of F vanishing. opposing the north monopole above it at location (E. 7.

29 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r functions (rx)mag and (ry)mag reverse their behavior accordingly. Several paths are shown in Fig 11 with different values used for the W/J trajectory in Eq (17). Parameter G was included. magnetized sheet acting on a moving north monopole 29 . 0.9. resulting trajectories for the north monopole are much more interesting in this case than they were with the attractive sheet. but now it is destabilizing. and in each example the trajectories commenced at (0.2) with zero initial velocity. as illustrated in Fig. Again (rx)mag will have an equilibrium point at X = ½. As a consequence. Figure 10: X-Direction Distributions of (rx)mag and (ry)mag for the repulsive field of a thin. 10.

M'. x 30 .interval 01 The attractive and repulsive sheet results are easily demonstrated since rubberized flexible sheet magnets are commercially available. NY. Figure 12: Pole Strength Influence Factor. such as those sold by the Permag Corp.30 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 11: Trajectories of a North Monopole in a repulsive field generated by a thin. It may also be interesting to note that with slight modifications this first simple analytical sheet model can be used to gain some insight into operation of the so-called "magnetic Wankel" reported on by Scott (1979). of Jamaica. as a cosine function of linear displacement distance. magnetized sheet lying in the X.

shown in Fig 13. The figure shown was produced by a plotter connected directly to the monitor computer controlling positioning of the Hall probe and processing its output signal. was obtained by moving a Hall-effect probe over the stator track of one of Mr Johnson’s early linear models having seven flat ceramic magnet elements. B. to any mathematical analysis of the permanent magnet motor adopted a cosine function (Fig 12) to simulate the distribution of influence parameter M’ generated by the flat stator track of Mr Johnson’s linear model. The Sinusoidal Model The first paper (Harrison. An experimentally determined distribution. 1979) relating. Ordinate values on the graph are magnetic flux density in gauss measured relative to a predetermined 31 .31 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Figure 13: Experimentally Determined Magnetic Flux Density. indirectly. along a linear model of the Johnson permanent magnet motor 4.

So we need consider only the X-component of F from Eq (19) which yields 32 . the total force magnitude expression Eq (5) becomes (19) where a total track length distance of L has been used to form the dimensionless ratios p = r/L. These direct-reading experimental results suggest that the function (18) substituted into Eq (4) should prove interesting to pursue as a more challenging test of what might be gleaned from this simple Coulomb model we have been discussing. Also. if Eq (7) is used for J in Eq (19). then in that expression one must substitute the product BL for M’. and xp = xp/L. x = x/L. It should be noted that one of the important differences between the function (18) and that shown in Fig 12 is that in Eq (18) the period length parameter xp is double that shown in Figure 12. Now we plan to hold Y constant while investigating linear motion of the monopole along this track in the X-direction only.32 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r background value. Using Eq (18).

integration becomes straightforward and yields the typical oscillatory type of trajectory path shown in Fig 14. by simply rotating the figure clockwise through 90 degrees. So. it becomes 33 . in Fig. 1). we are showing the X-direction motion from right to left instead of from left to right as in our previous examples. the focusing armature magnet of his linear model will start at either end of the stator track simply by insuring that the north end of this bipoled crescent is leading the south (see Fig. 14. Also. As Mr Johnson has brought out.33 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r (20) Figure 14: Oscillatory Path of a North Monopole restrained to xdirection motion over a three-element linear stator assembly With this expression substituted into Eq (13).

5. col. would certainly transform the field from conservative to nonconservative. Johnson (1979. an attempt was made to drive the armature monopole of Fig 14 on to the second stator magnet and beyond by varying the horizontal gap parameter xp during the 34 . It should by now be apparent that only a nonconservative model has any chance at all of even partially explaining the phenomena of the permanent magnet motor. Introducing this type of variation into a two-dimensional model. provided the charge is nonuniform.34 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r easy to follow the behavior of dimensionless velocity. line 39) states that the horizontal air-gap spacing between the magnet elements which the stator track comprises should vary slightly from normal in order to smooth out movement of the armature. We now discuss out final adjustment which proved to be an exciting revelation at the time it was first investigated several months ago. With these thoughts in mind. in Fig 11. since Vx is defined as (21) It will be noted in Fig 14 that the north monopole has been allowed to self-start its motion at the origin with Vx initially zero. Vx.

The results are shown in Fig 15. Figure 15: Continuous Path of a North Monopole restrained to x..direction motion shown traversing a linear stator assembly comprised of sever permanent magnet elements It was found that through small variations in xp in Eq (20). 35 .35 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r integration process (i.e. during the motion). sufficient control over the moving pole could be exercised to carry it over the full length of the stator and beyond. as the monopole advanced along its trajectory path from one X position to another.

Jr. 1979.431 (April 24. June 1979. 80. Richmond VA.151. Wankel’ for Electric Cars". Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition Below is the transcribed content from the “Science and Mechanics” Magazine about the Howard Johnson Magnetic Motor. It provides valuable information about Howard Johnson’s life. Scott. 57th Annual Meeting. May 8-11. Johnson. 36 . Popular Science. Howard R: US Patent # 4. 1979). References Harrison. William P. p. paper presented to the Engineering Section.. his struggle and priceless tips for the project that we are going to you show right away. "Magnetic. "Permanent Magnet Motor".36 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r III. David. Virginia Academy of Science.: "A Solution for the Optimal Gap of a Monopole Element Moving in a Sinusoidally Distributed Magnetic Field".

37 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor "We don't grant patents on perpetual motion machines. using only the energy contained in the atoms of permanent magnets.431 which describes how it is possible to generate motive power. Johnson has discovered how to build motors that run without an input of electricity or any other kind of external energy! The monumental nature of the invention is obvious.S.151. That's right. He has more important work to do." said the examiners at the U. as in a motor. he now owns U. 37 . inventor Howard Johnson is not the sort of man to be intimidated by such seemingly authoritative pronouncements.S. especially in a world facing an alarming.wide energy problems. "It won't work because it violates the law of Conservation of Energy. Yet inventor Johnson is not rushing to peddle his creation as the end-all solution to world. Patent Office. But because." said one physicist after another. Patent No. 4. escalating energy shortage.

000-watt electric power generator already in the building.38 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r First. 38 . His second and perhaps more difficult major challenge: persuade a host of skeptics that his ideas are indeed practical. there's the need to refine his laboratory prototypes into workable practical devices -in particular a 5.

39 . Here's why. so doing the unthinkable and succeeding is second nature to him. this former skeptic had become a believer. to meet with the inventor. he went there as an "open-minded skeptic" and as a former research Scientist determined not to be fooled. If a particular law gets in the way.39 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Johnson. he can demonstrate working models that unquestionably create motion using only permanent magnets. can be very persuasive in a face-to-face encounter because he cannot do more than merely theorize. When this writer was urged by the editor of Science & Mechanics to make a thousand mile pilgrimage to Blacksburg. Virginia. In this case they don't even know what the game is. Thus the physicists become game wardens who tell us what laws' we can't violate. he sees no harm in going around it for a while to see if there's something on the other side. Doing the Unthinkable Howard Johnson refuses to view the "laws" of science as somehow sacred. Johnson explains the persistent opposition he experiences from the established scientific community this way: "Physics is a measurement science and physicists are especially determined to protect the ‘Law’ of Conservation of Energy. Within two days. who has been coping with disbelievers for decades.

a few converted scientists. Johnson demurs.40 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r But they are so scared that I and my associates are going to violate some of these laws that they have to get to the pass to head us off!" The critics say Johnson offers a "free lunch" solution to energy problems." On the other hand. Johnson is the first to admit he doesn't actually know where the power be has tapped derives. be it a "particle" or some other as yet unsuspected characteristic of atomic structure. But he postulates that the energy may be associated with spinning electrons. 40 . including some who are associated with large and prestigious research laboratories. are intrigued enough to suggest that there should be a hunt for the answer. He also points out that no one talks about a "free lunch" when discussing extraction of enormous amounts of atomic power by means of nuclear reactors and atom bombs. perhaps in the form of a "presently unnamed atomic particle. and that there can be no such thing. it's much the same thing." How do other physicists react to Johnson's suggestion that there may be an atomic particle so far overlooked by nuclear physicists? Says Johnson: "I guess it’s fair to say that most of them are revolted. reminding repeatedly that he has never suggested that his invention provides something for nothing. In his mind.

including injection devices. we need to face up to another question that undoubtedly nags in the minds of many readers: Is Johnson a bona fide researcher. His contributions to the motor industry include: a hysteresis brake. Johnson worked on atomic energy projects at Oak Ridge.skid application. did magnetics research for Burroughs company. and a method of dissolving asbestos fibers.41 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r This article is prefaced with the foregoing brief summary of the ongoing controversy so that. we might all view his claims with open minds. this has been in production for the past 18 years. the inventor's credentials appear to be impeccable. The main question to be answered here and now is this: Does Johnson permanent magnet motor work? Before providing the answer. non-locking brake materials for anti. Following seven years of college and university training. 41 . For the military he invented a ceramic muffler that makes a portable motor generator silent at 50 feet. new methods of curing brake linings. even if it means temporary setting aside of cherished scientific concepts until more complete explanations are forthcoming. and served as scientific consultant to Lukens Steel. He has participated in the development of medical electrical products. in fairness to the inventor. or merely a "garage mechanic" mad inventor? As the following brief summary suggests.

Johnson is connected with more than 30 patents in the fields of chemistry and physics.42 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r He has also worked on silencers for small motors. provides 42 . 3 & 4: Magnet Motor Models ~ pictured here are three of the inventor's early models. that last item reduced the cost to one-eighth of the cost of an earlier design by utilizing metal-filled plastics for the armature and field. Top right is rotary motor upon which the prototype will be built. Top left is a linear motor which propels a magnetic vehicle at high speeds through a series of rings. The 8-ounce magnet. a super charger. hand held to the large ring weighing 40 pounds. and has perfected a 92-pole no-brush generator to go in the wheel of Lincoln automobiles as a skid control. Figures 2. In all.

the vehicle is propelled. we’ll have to rely on the inventor’s explanations. but I will reveal what happened when I tried the experiments myself. In the third assembly above. in either direction. That way I will not merely be telling what the inventor says they do. this amiable and unpretentious inventor likes to characterize himself as a "Sticky tape" scientist.43 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r enough force to spin the entire assembly. He sees no virtue in wasting time building fancy. 43 . Sticky Tape Scientist Despite his impressive credentials. permanent magnets packaged together so that they do not fly apart. the later material being used mainly to keep individual. Perhaps the best way to describe what these three gadgets do is by reciting this writer's personal experiences during the interview demonstration. elaborate equipment when more simple assemblies serve as well to test new ideas. by the force of the large magnets arranged below tracks. When we start talking about how and why the things work as they do. The prototype devices shown in the photographs in this article were assembled with sticky tape and aluminum foil.

plus some sort of weight. against the powerful magnetic forces that would otherwise push it askew. The moment the inventor let go of the vehicle be carefully placed at one end of the track. I need not have been concerned.44 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The first item consists of more than a dozen foil-wrapped magnets assembled to form a broad arc. The vehicle." I was prepared to develop eye strain in an effort to detect some sort of motion in the vehicle. it accelerated and literally zipped from one end to the other and flew onto the floor! Wow! 44 . Each magnet is extended upward slightly at each end to form a low U-shape. That 'is all there is to the construction of this representation of a "linear motor. the better to concentrate magnetic fields where they are needed. supports a foilwrapped pair of curved magnets. A transparent plastic sheet atop this magnet assembly supports a length of plastic model railroad track. The overall curvature of the mass of magnets apparently has no particular significance except to show that the distance between these stator magnets and the moving vehicle is not critical. basically a model railroad flatcar. in some cases merely a rock. The weight is needed to keep the vehicle down on the track.

I let go. the vehicle can even navigate a respectable upgrade. underneath. As instructed. Knowing that I would be asked if the track might have had a slant. you can discount any notion that this was a simple "coasting" effect. I reversed the vehicle and started it from the opposite end of the track. The 40 pound magnet 45 . The second device has the U-shaped magnets standing on end in a rough circular arrangement oddly reminiscent of England's Stonehenge.45 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r I tried the experiment myself. I gently eased the vehicle to the critical starting point. In light of these tests. on a free turning wheel obtained from a skateboard. taking great care not to exert any kind of forward push. Incidentally. In fact. the photograph shows the vehicle about half ways along the track. keeping it at least four inches away from the ring. This assembly is mounted on a transparent plastic sheet supported on a plywood panel pivoted. It was "frozen" there by the electronic flash used to make the picture. at the other end of the track. It worked just as effectively in the reverse direction. I eased the 8-ounce focusing magnet into the ring of larger magnets. and considering the remarkable speed of the vehicle. and could feel the powerful magnetic forces at work as I placed the vehicle on the track. Zip! It was on the floor again. there is no way of "posing" the vehicle in that position short of tying it down. even inadvertently.

and he has been congratulated for his ultimate victory over patent office bureaucracy as well as for his inventiveness. he overheard one sideline observer remark: "How would you like to follow that act?!" It took Johnson about six years of legal hassling to finally obtain his patent. One sign that he left the patent office more than a little shaken by the 46 . This was one of the demonstration models Johnson took to the U. but played with Johnson’s devices for the better part of an hour. Normally the patent examiners spend only a few minutes with each patent applicant. the large assembly turned in the opposite direction. Patent Office during his appeal proceedings. consists of a tunnel constructed of rubber magnet material that can be easily bent to form rings. When the focusing magnet was reversed. The third assembly. which looks like the bones of some prehistoric sea creature. there's no doubt that it is indeed possible to construct a motor powered solely by permanent magnets.46 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r assembly immediately began to turn and accelerated to a very respectable rotating speed which it maintained for as long as the focusing magnet was held in the magnetic field. As the inventor was leaving.S. Since this assembly is clearly a crude sort of motor.

it belongs in some other patent! The tunnel device of course worked very well in the inventor's office during my visit although Johnson observed that the rubber magnets are perhaps a thousand times weaker than the cobalt samarium magnets used the other assemblies. There's just one big problem with the more powerful magnets: they cost too much. Johnson says curved magnets with sharp leading and trailing edges are important 47 .S. the magnets used to construct the Stonehenge rotating model are collectively worth more than one thousand dollars. How do they work? The drawing that shows a curved "arcuate" armature magnet in three successive positions over a line of fixed stator magnets provides at least highly simplified insights into the theory of permanent magnet motive power generation. pay no attention to the "ferrite" graph on the first page. Magnets and Alloy Co. According to the inventor. Johnson and U. are in the process of developing alternative.47 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r experience was the inclusion of diagrammatic material in the printed patent that does not belong there. relatively low cost magnetic materials that perform very well. So if you look up the patent. But there's no need to depend solely on mass-production economies to bring the cost down to competitive levels.

but the drawing shows some of the fundamental relationships. repelled when passing over a space. As the armature north pole passes over a magnet. The best gap between the end poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets appears to be about 3/8 inch. Note that the stator magnets all have their North faces upward and that they are resting on a high magnetic permeability support plate that helps concentrate the force fields.48 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r because they focus and concentrate the magnetic energy much more effectively than do blunt-end magnets. and double lines in each case indicate the more dominant forces. It is attracted when passing over a stator magnet. These arcuate magnets are made slightly longer than the lengths of two stator magnets plus the intervening space. Solid lines represent attraction forces. in Johnson's setups about 3-1/8 inches long. 48 . it is repelled by the stator north pole. and there's an attraction when the north pole is passing over a space between the stator magnets. dashed lines represent repulsion forces. The various magnetic forces that come into play are extremely complex. The exact opposite is of course true with respect to the armature South pole.

these two repulsive forces (which obviously work against each other). because of the critical armature dimensioning. repulsion force between the south pole of the armature and the south pole in the space between the stator magnets.49 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r As the top drawing indicates. are not identical. more strongly by the magnet (double solid line) that tends to "pull" the armature to the left. Here also there is the added advantage of. the stronger of the two forces (double dashed line) overpowers the other force and tends to move the armature to the left. It overpowers the lesser "drag" effect of the stator magnet to the right. in relation to the pairs of stator in magnets plus the space between them. so that once again the attraction/repulsion forces work to move the armature magnet to the left. 49 . This left movement is enhanced by the attraction force between the armature north pole and the stator south pole at the bottom of the space between the stator magnets. at the indicated position of the armature magnet. in this case. But that's not all! Let's see what is happening simultaneously at the other end (S) of the armature magnet. In this case the armature pole (S) is attracted by the north surfaces of the adjacent stator magnets but. The length of this magnet (about 3-1/8 inches) is chosen. the leading (N) pole of the armature is repelled by the north poles of the two adjacent magnets. But.

Complex Forces Some very complex magnetic forces are obviously at play in this deceptively simple magnetic system. However. but always' in the same direction as the armature magnet moves along the row of stator magnets. If it is either too long or too short. and at this time it is impossible to develop a mathematical model of what actually occurs. 50 . However. VA). Also note that once the armature is in motion. move from left to right. conducted by Professor William Harrison and his associates at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Blacksburg. and additional momentum. if the armature is rotated 180 degrees and started at the opposite end of the track.50 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The importance of correct dimensioning of the armature magnet cannot be over-emphasized. in this example. it has momentum that helps carry it into the sphere of influence of the next pair of magnets where it gets another push and pull. it could achieve an undesirable equilibrium condition that would stall movement. computer analysis of the system. The objective is to optimize all force conditions to develop the greatest possible off-balance condition. it would behave in exactly the same manner except that it would. provide vital feedback information that greatly helps in the effort to optimize these complex forces to achieve the most efficient possible operating design.

All these interrelated factors must be optimized. and on. which is why computer analysis in this refinement stage is vital. As changes are made in the physical design. the researchers first passed the probe of an instrument used to measure magnetic field strengths over the stator magnets and the intervening spaces. Magnet distances and their strengths vary despite best efforts of manufacturers to exercise quality controls. The stator magnets affect each other and the support plate. To obtain this information. fast dynamic measurements are made to see whether the expected results have actually been achieved.51 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r As Professor Harrison points out. there are inevitable differences between horizontal and vertical air spaces. We shall call this the "Zero" level although there 51 . And so on. It's a kind of information feedback system. many other interactions are in play. That very different magnetic conditions exist at the two ends of the armature is shown by the actual experimental data displayed in the table and associated graph. in addition to the obvious interaction between the two poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets. The 'new computer data is then used to develop new changes in the design of the experimental model. In the assembly of the working model.

and correctly so. you would be very much in error! First study the two tables that show actual flux density measurements. that the flux measurements at the top and bottom of the air gap will differ. Another set of magnetic flux measurements is made. Note that in this particular experiment the total magnetic flux amounted to 30. These measurements in effect indicate what each pole of the armature magnet "sees" below as it passes over. and a total of 28.52 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r is a very tiny gap between the probe and the tops of the stator magnets.700 Gauss when the 52 . Now "Instinct" might suggest. Next the probe is moved to a position just beneath one of the armature poles. The procedure is repeated with the probe positioned just beneath the other armature pole. at the top of the 3/8-inch armature-to-stator air gap. the stator magnets.700 Gauss (the unit of magnetic strength) when the probe was held at the "Zero" level under the north pole of the magnet. But if "instinct" also suggests that these differences are pretty much the same at the two armature pole positions.

and 24. Points along the solid line indicate comparable readings made with the probe just beneath the armature south pole.000 Gauss. It is easy to see that there is an average 43% reduction of the attraction between the armature and stator magnets created by the air gap.700 Gauss at the top of the air gap. is the fact that there is an average 36% increase of repulsion when the south pole of the armature passes over the spaces between the stator magnets. The difference between these total 'measurements is 2. the "Zero" level readings made over the stator magnets and over the intervening air spaces. The 53 . the magnetic force conditions are far from identical at the two ends of the armature magnet. Equally true. or four and one half times greater than for the north pole! Clearly. This time the difference is a much larger 9. but perhaps not so obvious.53 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r probe was moved to the top of the 3/8-inch air gap. In the top "South Pole" graph the dashed line connects.025 Gauss. The middle five pairs of figures from each table hive been plotted in graphic form to make these differences more obvious.725 Gauss. Similar readings made at the air gap between the south pole of the armature and the stator magnets indicates a total flux at "Zero" level of 33.

be sure to note that the columns are labeled differently. The second graph shows that the changes are much less dramatic at the north pole of the armature. In this case there's an average 11. As you study the data. and a 2. there is repulsion. The conditions are exactly the opposite for the south pole of the armature magnet. The Ultimate Motor A motor based on Johnson's findings would be of extremely simple design compared to conventional motors.4% increase. Three arcuate armature magnets would be mounted in the armature which has a belt groove for power 54 . As shown in the diagrams developed from Johnson’s patent literature. the stator magnet areas repulse the armature north pole while the spaces between the stator magnets attract.7% decrease of attraction over the spaces. when it passes over a space. In the case of the north pole data.54 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r percentage increase only seems smaller because it applies to a much smaller "Zero" level value. of repulsion when the armature north pole passes over the stator magnets. there is strong attraction. the stator/base unit would contain a ring of spaced magnets backed by a high magnetic permeability sleeve. When the south pole passes over a magnet.

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transmission. The armature is supported on ball bearings on a shaft that either screws or slides into the stator unit. Speed control and start/stop action would be achieved by the simple means of moving the armature toward and away from the stator section. There is a noticeable pulsing action in the simple prototype units that may be undesirable in a practical motor. The movement can be smoothed, the inventor believes, by simply using two or more staggered armature magnets as shown in another drawing. What’s Ahead? For inventor Howard Johnson and his permanent magnet power source there's bound to be plenty of controversy, certainly, but also progress. A 5000 watt electric generator powered by a permanent magnet motor is already on the way, and Johnson has firm licensing agreements with at least four companies at this writing. Will we see permanent magnet motors in automobiles in the near future? Johnson wants nothing to do with Detroit at this time because, as he puts it: "It’s too emotional – we’d get smashed into the earth!" The inventor is equally reluctant to make predictions about other applications as well, mainly because he just wants time

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to perfect his ideas and, hopefully, get the scientific establishment to at least consider his unorthodox ideas with a more open mind. For example, Johnson argues that the magnetic forces in a permanent magnet represent superconductance that is akin to phenomena normally associated only with extremely cold superconducting systems. He argues that a magnet is a room temperature superconducting system because the electron flow does not cease, and because this electron flow can be made to do work. And for those who pooh- pooh the idea that permanent magnets do work, Johnson has an answer: "You come along with a magnet and pick up a piece of iron, then some physicist says you didn't do any work because you used that magnet. But you moved a mass through a distance. Right? That's work that requires energy. Or you can hold one magnet in the air indefinitely by positioning it over another magnet with like poles facing. The physicist will argue that because it involves magnetic repulsion, no work is done. Yet if you support the same object with air, they will agree in a minute that work is done!" There's no doubt in Johnson's mind that he has succeeded in extracting usable energy from the atoms of permanent magnets. But
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does that imply that the electron spins and associated phenomena that he thinks provide this power will eventually be used up? Johnson makes no pretense of knowing the answer: I didn't start the electron spins, and I don't know any way to stop them - do you? They may eventually stop, but that is not my problem." Johnson still has many practical problems to solve to perfect his invention. But his greater challenge may be to win general acceptance of his ideas by an obviously nervous scientific community in which many physicists remain compulsive about defending the law of Conservation of Energy without ever wondering whether that "law" really needs defending. The dilemma facing Johnson is not really his dilemma but rather that of other scientists who have observed his prototypes. The devices obviously do work. But the textbooks say it shouldn’t work. And all that Johnson is really saying to the scientific community is this: here is a phenomenon which seems to contradict some of our traditional beliefs. For all our sakes let’s not dismiss it outright but take the time to understand the complex forces at work here.

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58 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Here are a few notes from a man who closely watched Howard Johnson working and might have a piece of advice for those who have the courage to build his motor. whom I very much admire. that are necessary to make such a motor work in 58 . An Excerpt by Tom Bearden Howard Johnson is also a respected colleague. etc. including patenting various magnetic gates. Howard has continued to work quietly and patiently upon his patented permanent magnet motor.

. He demonstrates that a "spin-altered" magnetic assembly exhibiting (to a compass or other such detector) a north polarity can attract another unaltered magnetic assembly exhibiting a north polarity. the component lines are now curls. into two different pieces. a predominance of one form of curl particle gives a "time-forward" aspect. and also a particle traveling from the south pole to the north pole. each magnetic flux line is envisioned as having a particle traveling from the north pole to the south pole. and the antiparticle spins in the other direction. Howard then slightly separates the two particle flows. In other words. the forward-time particle spins in one direction. i. Howard employs a two-particle theory of magnetism. In short.59 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r a rotary configuration.e. so their paths curve. he can make a north pole attract a north pole. We will give you further insight into Johnson's two-particle theory in a future 59 . Johnson splits the flux lines themselves. one curls in one direction and the other curls in the opposite direction. Johnson is thus able to employ a deeper kind of magnetism than the textbooks presently contain. When so separated. while a predominance of the other form of curl particle gives a "time-reversed" aspect. The paths of the two "curl particles" are different. Further. The particles are spinning.

As I have pointed out repeatedly in the past. A south pole is just a 60 . one day when the new theory is done.reversed polar interactions. So when Johnson separates the particles and antiparticles. we will discuss this mechanism in the future. Make no mistake. It would definitely self. We will also explain how and why the physicists missed that antiparticle in the magnetic field's flux lines. Johnson may well be awarded a Nobel Prize for his epochal discovery of a deeper structure of magnetism.rotate as long as you wished to permit it to turn. and thereby failed to advance the theory of magnetism to a deeper level. he accomplishes a partial separation of timeforward and time. We have previously shown the process and the photon interaction mechanism that creates the flow of time itself. and toyed with it for about one hour. but he also alters the local character of time flow during which the resulting magnetic field forces must appear.60 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r article. In other words. photons also carry time. not only does he partially separate them according to spin. I personally saw and closely examined one demonstration rotary Johnson permanent magnet motor some years ago. not just energy.

Johnson's magnetic gate can provide a legitimate component of unidirectional magnetic thrust. That way Howard is able to create two north poles. Simply put. Therefore when the proper sides of the stator and rotor north poles are facing. On the other side it will continue to act like a normal north pole. By partially timereversing (phase conjugating) one side of the north magnetic pole piece. this "partially separating the spin particles." and thereby partially phase conjugating one face of a magnet. and time-reverse part of one face of the stator's north magnetic pole-piece. is what Johnson calls a "gate. Hence Johnson can make a surrounding north pole stator assembly "draw in" an approaching north pole rotor assembly. The two poles then repel each other normally as soon as the north rotor poles passes the north stator pole. one on a stator and the other on a rotor.reversed magnetic north pole. In short. because he has broken the local magnetic symmetry. they attract each other. and then kick it on out the other side. in the first place! So a north pole of a bar magnet that is slightly time reversed on one side will partially act on that side just like a south pole." and 61 . which means that he can indeed make a rotary permanent motor.61 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r time. contrary to the conventional textbook. Johnson makes that side look and act like a south pole.

and assembly and adjustments are extremely critical.62 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r this is the patented secret by which his magnet assemblies can be made self-powering. With Johnson's blessings we hope to shed more light on this subject in coming articles. JohnsonMotor Blueprints Here are the original blueprints for the magnetic motor. 62 . The entire process is still very meticulous.

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64 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 64 .

Motor Chassis Endplate Magnet Motor Rotor and Magnet Rotors 65 .65 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r System components Here are necessary components that you will need in order to build your magnetic motor.

eBay or you can also look to one of the magnet retailers on the internet. 66 . Just Google: “magnet retailer”.66 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Shield Rotor Magnet Stator Stator Rotor Rotor Magnet Spacing Tool All the components required for this project can be found on Amazon.

Rare earth magnets are of a harder metal (also more brittle) than iron and are less likely to lose their magnetism due to how they are aligned in a box or being dropped. but ceramic magnets ARE brittle and can chip or break.67 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Important information on components Magnets For soft iron magnets (the weak old fashioned ones. Care should be taken not to drop them or allow them to be exposed to heat (high heat. the bar magnets still sometimes used in class activities) they are to be placed side by side with opposite poles near each other and a "magnet keeper" another bar of unmagnetized steel at each end. it's best to line them up north pole to south pole. and dropping them will not cause the bits to move. and 67 . The ceramic magnets are magnetized bits in ceramic. like someone holding them over a flame) because this will cause the tiny magnetized bits inside to lose alignment and cause the magnet to lose strength. Most magnets today are ceramic or very powerful rare earth metal. Still. because they are stuck fast.

with the polarity through the thickness. 60 magnets will give you the option to fully populate (minus one spot) the rotor disc.68 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r depending on the shape to keep something between them so you can pry them apart when you want to. A suggested ratio is: R + R + S = T. where: (R) is the width of the stator magnet (as viewed from the top. parallel to the stator bar (S) is the small gap between the two stator magnets (~1/2 the width of the rotor magnet) (T) is the length of the rotor magnet. Rotor magnets We recommend that you get around 60 magnets to give you flexibility in your design. and to have some left over in case some are damaged or have the rounded edge along the length. these are “block” magnets. Keep in mind. 68 . They really have some hold in them! Magnet Ratios One of the crucial aspects is the relationship between the size of the rotor magnets and the size of the stator magnets.

and the "south pole" (or "south-seeking pole"). And if the "S"-pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. "S". Hence.69 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r A thing or two about Magnet Polarity In physics. However. or "A" and "B". based on the early use of magnets in compasses they were named the "north pole" (or more explicitly "north-seeking pole"). for example. "N". Conversely. 452mm (Cut from a 18 x 18 aluminum plate from the local sheet metal shop). if the "N"-pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. by this definition. 69 . physically a magnetic field south pole. with the north pole being the pole that pointed north (i. the one attracted to the Earth's North Magnetic Pole).e. then you know that pole is "S". Dimensions Aluminum Disc  Diameter. all magnets have two poles that are distinguished by the direction of the magnetic flux. Opposite poles attract so the Earth's North Magnetic Pole is therefore. the Earth's South Magnetic Pole is physically a magnetic field north pole. then you know that pole is "N". In principle these poles could be labeled in any way. as "+" and "-".

 Shaft is 6. 9. (Hobby town) Polycarbonate plate holding the bearings is bolteds to Aluminum Disc.  Another identical Poly disc is drilled to receive the shaft. (Local hardware store)  Bearings.5mm x 127mm dia. 12. (Home Depot) Base A slab of anything large enough to accommodate the rotor with a little extra to hold the stator supports.2mm thick.4mm ID A bearing is inserted in each end of sleeve.4mm OD 6.  A dozen 1/4 inch nylon or aluminum bolts.6mm OD. 2 Flange ball bearing. 3.5mm polycarbonate from US Plastic)  Nylon sleeve.5mm brass rod.2mm  Grade suggested is 1100 or 3003. 28mm long. Drilled to receive a Nylon sleeve (Cut from a 12 inch square sheet of 9.70 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  Thickness. 9. 70 .5mm ID 3. These are the most common grades and are available anywhere. (Hobby town)  Poly plate holding the shaft is bolted to the base. Bearing Assembly  Polycarbonate disc 9.

There can also be an overlap between the two stator magnets as relative to the circumference of the rotor disc. Magnet Adjustment You will need some way to adjust the stator magnet spacing both relative to the circumference of the rotor. 71 . as well as the gap between the magnets perpendicular to tangent.)  Two 1/4 inch wing nuts.375 Dia. Bolted to the base. (Home Depot)  Vertically adjustable Stator Mechanism was built to slide along the bar using trimmings from the aluminum rotor.71 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Stator Assembly  Two inch x 2 feet aluminum bar drilled on each end to allow a 1/4 inch bolt to slip into it.  1. (US Plastic) drilled and threaded on both ends to receive 2 inch by 1/4 inch threaded Nylon or aluminum bolt. We suggest the gap between the two stator magnets should be greater than the largest gap between adjoining rotor magnets at the perimeter of the disc. cast acrylic rod. (Cut off the head of the top bolts to allow the bar to be attached. There needs to be a space between these.

Glue It’s an important principle that the magnets should touch the aluminum if possible.72 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r So. Screws All screws in the assembly should be non-magnetic. You will need 3 to fasten bearing assembly to rotor disc. Hence the use of hot glue is probably not a good idea as it creates too much of an insulating factor between the magnets and the aluminum. The N-S orientation of the two stator magnets will be the same.  Super Glue for gluing the rubber feet to the bearing base and the stator assembly feet. position the trailing lip of one so it’s ahead of the trailing lip of the other. relative to the circumference of the rotor disc. One direction will yield rotation in direction. and 4-10 to fasten stator assembly.  Crazy Glue for gluing the magnets to the aluminum. Razor Blades 72 . Swapping them 180-degrees will yield rotation in the opposite direction.

These are polarized N-S across the two legs. which are suspended by an aluminum stator assembly.  You can experiment with a set of 6 magnets or more (some successful simplified versions of Johnson’s motor use two sets of 18 magnets).73 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r You will need something like a razor blade to scrape off the Crazy Glue when you remove magnets to adjust them. and N is up. 73 .  The polarity of these magnets is through the thickness. which can be necessary for the flux effect to work. but stay away from exact measurements.  The second key ingredient for this motor is a set of two offset stator (stationary) magnets. not the length.  The rotor magnets are nominally evenly spaced. or when they fall off for some reason.  Use magnets all the way around except for one spot. Build your own JohnsonMotor – Best practices Our recommendations:  Use an aluminum rotor disc lined around the circumference with bar magnets arranged like railroad ties.

If you are going to use stronger magnets. SN in their relationship.  The speed of operation is apparently in proportional to the magnet strength and perhaps to the distance between the stator and the rotor magnets (though the latter may be more a matter of going in/out of sync).  Your magnets must be secure but when you are building and testing you can use his Crazy Glue to attach them.74 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  The stator magnets are arranged such that they point down to the rotor magnets. including the gap between them (positioned pointing down at the rotor bar magnets) is approximately the same as the horizontal length of the rotor bar magnets 74 . They will come unglued fairly easy. whether from banging into something. to make it easy to adjust things in the process of finding an optimal arrangement.  The horizontal width of the two offset stator magnets. and that they are not N-S. you’ll need to build your assembly more sturdy. with one polarity leading and the other trailing. or from the centripetal force of high rotation speeds. or from being pulled into the stator magnet.  The polarity of the two off-set stator magnets have N on the same side. and S on the other side.

75 . If you modify this design and end up with a device that has higher rotation speed.  If you chose stronger magnets. you will need to guard/protect against rotor magnets becoming detached and flying off.  Because the stator and rotor assembly are positioned by hand in this set-up. etc. it will be fairly easy to accidentally cause the rotating rotor magnets to collide with the stationary stator magnet. Safety Precautions  Generally speaking. causing things to come unglued and to bunch together.75 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  Some have also successfully used the bottom of the stator magnet and positioned it level with the bottom of the top lip of the rotor magnet.  The methods for removing magnets and glue can be hazardous: razor blades. The higher elevation apparently works better from tests. be aware of the likelihood of pinching your skin with the magnets.  While others nearly put it level with the rotor magnet. one should always wear safety goggles when using strong magnets. acetone.

You could try tighter circumferences just by scribing a line on your rotating disc as a reference point. Bring the stator assembly into place so that the stator magnets are situated directly over the center of a rotor magnet length. with enough flywheel and small enough cog to make it to the next set of magnets. Moreover. the disc diameter is probably not a highly crucial component. Give yourself plenty of room. The stator should pull the rotor magnets by. 76 . but changing it will require finding the proper spacing of magnets to work with the different circumference. If your generator doesn’t work for some reason:  Try changing the distance between individual magnets.  Try changing the numbers of magnets per set. Make sure you have some non-symmetry there. gradually accelerating until an equilibrium speed is reached. Make sure there are not any magnetic objects in the vicinity. where the effect is repeated. Turn the rotor so it is at the beginning of a row of magnets.76 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Operation of the Motor Position the rotor assembly on a nominally flat surface with at least 6 inches of free space around it.

Stronger magnets will require better engineering to prevent detachment of the rotor magnets.151. In the practice of the invention the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilized to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a 77 . For you to best understand how the JohnsonMotor should properly be put together.The invention is directed to the method of utilizing the unpaired electron spins in ferro magnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors.77 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r You should try to go with weaker magnets for this replication.431 Permanent Magnet Motor ( April 24. Howard Johnson’s Patents US Patent # 4. Johnson Abstract --. 1979 ) Howard R. we advise you to go over Howard Johnson’s Patents. You do not want to seek uniformly magnetized magnets for the rotor magnet. and to permanent magnet motors for utilizing this method to produce a power source.

415/916. H02N 011/00 Field of Search: 24/DIG.137 AE.131 A. Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention pertains to the field of permanent magnet motor devices solely using the magnetic fields created thereby to product motive power. Inventors: Johnson. 1973 Current U. The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by permanent magnets to produce a motor is accomplished with the proper geometrical relationship of these components.124.130 A.138 A 273/118 A. Patent Documents 4. Class: 310/12..122 A. Howard R.119 A.123 A. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 78 .120 A.121 A.074.: 422306 ~ Filed: December 6. 9 415/DIG. 2 46/236 .125 A. Hope Rd. 310/152.153 (Feb. Grass Lake. 416/3.S.135 A. MI 49240) Appl. 1978) Baker.134 A. (3300 Mt.78 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r permanent magnet and the magnetic flux created by the magnets are controlled and concentrated to orient the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to do useful continuous work. 415/10.136 B. No. 505/877 Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00.131 AD References Cited: U. 126 A.. 310/12. such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator.S. et al.

or both types of magnetic forces. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron 79 . or to cause the armature to be displaced in a linear path. Normally. but in the art heretofore known the use of permanent magnets in either the stator or armature require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the field produced by the permanent magnets. to produce the motive power. repulsion. or stator. or both . Electric motors operate on the principle that when a conductor is located in a magnetic field which carries current a magnetic force is exerted upon it. and switching means are employed to control the energization of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields. are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnetic may employ attraction. the rotor.79 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotative or linear motion. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components. in a conventional electric motor. It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognized or utilized because of incomplete information and theory with respect to the atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. to impose a force upon the armature to cause rotation.

being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins have been oriented in one direction. and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating one themselves. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge and to be located at right angles to the moving electron. in their various states as well as their known compounds. the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles.80 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the lossless current flow of Amperian currents in permanent magnets. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass there through. However. and the fact that very powerful electromagnets that can be formed with superconductors 80 . and the particle would be very small as to penetrate all known elements. their magnetic fields would cancel out. If they were paired. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields. Ferro electrons differ from those of most elements in that they are unpaired. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor. In niobium superconductors at a critical state.

when critical. at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning. wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation of the magnetized material results in the spins permitting them to continue and for the flux to flow parallel to the metal. the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. later. It is a superconductor because the 81 . i.81 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow. a permanent magnet may be considered the only room temperature superconductor.e. In a sense. In a superconductor.. In a superconducting metal. the reverse occurs. These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal. the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles.

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electron flow does not cease, and this electron flow can be made to do work because of the magnetic field it supplies. Previously, this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. In a conventional electric motor, switching is accomplished by the use of brushes, commutators, alternating current, or other known means. In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor, it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places. The best method to accomplish this is to use the superconductor of magnetic flux and concentrate it to the place where it will be the most effective. Timing and switching can be achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields generated by the electron spins.
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By the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration, it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio, greater than 100 to 1, capable of producing a continuous motive force. To my knowledge, previous work done with permanent magnets, and motive devices utilizing permanent magnets, have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept, and it is with the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilized as a motive force. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to utilize the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferro magnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner as to permit a motor to be driven solely by magnetic forces as occurring within permanent magnets. In the practice of the inventive concepts, motors of either linear or rotative types may be produced. It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the force generated by unpaired electron spins existing in permanent
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magnets to power a motor. Whether the motor constitutes a linear embodiment, or a rotary embodiment, in each instance the "stator" may consist of a plurality of permanent magnets fixed relative to each other in space relationship to define a track, linear in form in the linear embodiment, and circular in form in the rotary embodiment. An armature magnet is located in spaced relationship to such track defined by the stator magnets wherein an air gap exists there between. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity, and the length of the armature magnet is disposed relative to the track defined by the stator magnets in the direction of the path of movement of the armature magnet as displaced by the magnetic forces. The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of like polarity are disposed toward the armature magnet and as the armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets, both attraction and repulsion forces act upon the armature magnet to produce the relative displacement between the armature and stator magnets. The continuing motive force producing displacement between the armature and stator magnets results from the relationship of the length of the armature magnet in the direction of its path of
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By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified. This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings. in the direction of the path of armature magnet movement. This high permeability material is thus disposed adjacent poles of like polarity of the stator magnets. will produce a resultant force upon the armature magnet which displaces the armature magnet across the stator magnet along its path of movement. and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets. and in the disclosed embodiments such magnetic field concentration means are disclosed. The disclosed magnetic field concentrating means comprise a plate of high magnetic field permeability disposed adjacent one side of the stator magnets in substantial engagement therewith.85 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r movement as related to the dimension of the stator magnets. and the spacing there between. In the practice of the invention movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attraction and repulsion forces existing between the stator and armature magnets. and the magnetic field may further be 85 . The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet.

86 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component. 86 . Means are disclosed for producing relative axial displacement between the stator and armature magnets to adjust the axial alignment thereof. In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets. Preferably. In this manner the speed of rotation of the rotary embodiment may be regulated. a plurality of armature magnets are used which are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of armature magnet movement. and thereby regulate the magnitude of the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature magnets.

1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins. 87 . 3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement there through. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins. FIG. FIG.87 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The aforementioned objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein: FIG.

and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. 88 . 3. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of FIG.88 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG. FIG.

7 is a further elevational view similar to FIGS. 5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. 5 and 6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left. 89 . FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon. FIG. 8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets. and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location.89 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG.

9 is a diametrical. and FIG. elevational. 9.90 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG. sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX-IX of FIG. 90 . 10. 10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along section X--X of FIG.

In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. reference is made to FIGS. The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognized. FIG. It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass there through. the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conducting material 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3. 1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2. 1 through 4. 91 . 2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3.91 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept. In FIG. and superconductors have been utilized to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets.

and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material. 3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux there through is indicated by arrows 5. It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilizing the concepts of the invention may take many forms.92 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease. and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles. in the practice of the invention. The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in FIG. are utilized to produce motor force. geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction. By utilizing the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons. and is without resistance. FIG. 92 . 4. the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which. thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work. it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials.

5 through 8. and so magnetized that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets.93 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from FIGS. and position the stator magnets with respect to each other. although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate. as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration. the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12. and preferably in direct engagement therewith. at any given time. which is preferably of a metal material having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by the Perfection Mica Company of Chicago. and thus results in a smoother 93 . 8. Preferably. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. Thus. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20. Illinois. FIG.

For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by beveled surfaces 30 to minimize the cross-sectional area at the magnet ends at 32. 5. The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right. 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed. In FIGS. and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. 8 a pair of armature magnets are shown.94 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. In 94 . and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from FIG. the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in FIGS. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in FIGS. Thus. and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. FIG. 5 through 8. 5 through 7. 5. while in FIG.

or moving closer thereto. but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide. The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of FIG. To clarify the illustration. or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a nonmagnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet. and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets. 5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction 95 . the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of invention.95 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r like manner the magnetic fields of the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines. guide or track located above the stator magnets. It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing there between.

tend to move the armature magnet further to the left. FIG. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line. 5 and 6.96 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet. FIG. 7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of FIG. 5. displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in FIG. and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIGS. and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left. 6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIG. While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets. 5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left. 6. and the stator magnet will continue to 96 . and the north pole field of the sector magnets. In FIG. 5. the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces.

The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of FIG. The use of several armature magnets tends to "smooth out" the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets. 5.. the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. 5. 97 . 8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44. and the theory of movement is identical to that described above. i. and the south pole is positioned at the left. the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right. Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in FIG.97 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r move to the left. but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement.e. In FIG. and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12.

and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial 98 . Of course. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis. Preferably. rather than a linear movement being achieved. The stator member 48 is made of a nonmagnetic material. aluminum. In FIGS. or the like. such as synthetic plastic.98 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22. any number of armature magnets may be interconnected. 10. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in FIG. 9 and 10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis. In FIGS. 9 and 10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48.

and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of FIGS. 99 . 5 through 7. The armature 62 is formed of a nonmagnetic material. 8. is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion. a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to "smooth out" the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not disposed as 120. or other power consuming device. and an axially extending portion 64. and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power from the armature to a generator. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64.degree.99 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56. and a convex outer pole surface 60. Rather. The armature 62. in the illustrated embodiment. Circumferential relationships to each other. The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in FIG.

minimized by using a plurality of armature magnets. effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52. the decreasing of the spacing between the armature and stator magnets creates a "pulsation" in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable. and the resultant force vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases. However. but also 100 . but can be. an air gap exists between the armature magnet or magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing. As will be noted from FIGS. and shaft 70. 4-7 and 9 and 10. In this manner rotation of the knob 74. The increasing of the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet. axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58. If the distance between the armature magents. and may be rotated by the knob 74.100 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by antifriction bearings 72. and such axial displacement will vary the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature. to some extent. and the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased.

it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means.101 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing there between. with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation. As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention. the movement of the armature magnet or magnets results from the described relationship of components. combined. the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field. In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets. Thus. produce the desired result and motion. The inventive concepts may be practiced even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the 101 . While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities. and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes.

In effect. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 11/2" and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately 1/2" inch. the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track.102 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component. the stator magnets 12 are 1" wide. 1/4" thick and 4" long and grain oriented. with respect to FIGS. the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype: The length of armature magnet 24 is 31/8". By way of example. 4-7. and other variations of 102 .

310/152 ~ Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/152.S. and the "direction" or "length" of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement. Patent Documents USP # 4. (Box 199. Main.S. 1979) Johnson (Cl. (Cl.074. 1978) Baker. et al.12. Blacksburg.. VA 24060) Appl. Howard R.46 References Cited: U. Class: 310/12. 314 N. 1985 Current U. 103 ..A permanent magnet armature is magnetically propelled along a guided path by interaction with the field within a flux zone limited on either side of the path by an arrangement of permanent stator magnets.877. Inventors: Johnson.983 Magnetic Force Generating Method & Apparatus Howard R.151. United States Patent 4.103 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof.: 799618 ~ Filed: November 19. 310/12). USP # 4. As used herein the term "track" is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets. 310/12). 1989 ) Abstract --. No.431 (Apr.153 (Feb. Johnson ( October 31.

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Primary Examiner: Skudy; R. ~ Attorney, Agent or Firm: Fleit, Jacobson, Cohn, Price, Holman & Stern Claims What is claimed as new is as follows: 1. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said magnetic stator means including a plurality of magnetic gate assemblies fixedly spaced from each other along said path and respectively establishing stationary magnetic fields, each of said gate assemblies including a plurality of interconnected bar magnets substantially bordering said limited flux zone exposing
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pole faces of opposite polarity in parallel spaced planes intersected by said path, and magnetic means connected to said interconnected bar magnets exposing one of the flux emitting surfaces of said one polarity perpendicular to said parallel planes for magnetic interaction of the stationary magnetic fields. 2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located, the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging each other toward the guiding means. 3. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles faces thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally
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propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said armature magnet being curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located, the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means. 4. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said magnetic stator means including a pair of permanent magnet assemblies having continuous, confronting pole
106

the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in a plane parallel to said path. and a second armature magnet connected to the first mentioned armature magnet in mirror image relation thereto. The combination of claim 4 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. the improvement comprising a plurality of permanent magnet gate assemblies mounted in spaced relation to each other along said path establishing interacting stationary magnetic fields along said path. each of said assemblies having means for varying magnetic field intensity in the flux zone along said path. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet mounted on the armature having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path. 5. each of said assemblies including stator magnets interconnected in surrounding relation to said path and having pole faces of opposite polarity aligned with parallel planes intersected by said path and magnetic means fixed to the pole faces aligned with one of the parallel planes for interaction of the armature magnet 107 . In combination with a movable armature.107 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r faces of said one polarity bordering said limited zone. 6.

said magnetic means being an annular magnet having a radially inner pole surface of one polarity enclosing a magnetic flux zone through which said path extends. Description BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to the use of permanent magnets to generate unidirectional propelling forces. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement.108 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r with said stationary magnetic fields for unidirectional propulsion of the armature along said path. by way of example. 4. respectively.151. According to applicant's own prior Pat. Nos.151. Pat.431 and 4. 4.S.431. The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U. It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide certain improved stator arrangements of permanent magnets interacting with a permanent magnet armature for 108 .215.330 to Johnson and Hartmen. No.

the flux zone is formed between continuous confronting pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field of varying intensity along the armature path. with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. According to one embodiment. the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention. 109 . the armature magnet is guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. According to another embodiment.109 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r unidirectional propulsion thereof in a novel manner believed to be more efficient.

These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed. 1 is a somewhat schematic side elevational view showing an installation of the present invention in accordance with one embodiment.110 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r In yet another embodiment. wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout. 110 . reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof. with parts broken away and shown in section. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. at least two curved bar magnets are interconnected to form the armature with two pairs of pole faces spaced along the armature path.

111 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG. 1. 111 . 1. FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 2--2 in FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 3--3 in FIG.

4 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with another embodiment of the invention. 112 . FIG.112 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG. 4. 5. 6 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG. FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG.

113 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIG. FIG. 113 . 7 is a simplified side view through the flux zone shown in FIGS. 8 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with yet another embodiment. 9 is an enlarged partial sectional view through a plane indicated by section line 9--9 in FIG. 5 and 6 with the armature bar magnet positioned therein. FIG. 8. 4.

The armature 10 in the illustrated example includes a wheeled vehicle mount 24 to which the armature magnet 22 is fixedly secured with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the guiding track 12. includes four bar magnets 30 interconnected at corners by non-magnetic elements 32. Each of the stator gate assemblies 28 as shown in FIGS. 1-3. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the invention in which a magnetic armature generally referred to by reference numeral 10 is unidirectionally propelled along a predetermined path established by a motion guiding track 12 fixed to a frame or support 14. FIG. 3. The pole faces 18 and 20 are furthermore orientated so that the magnetic field extending between pole faces 18 and 20 is movable therewith within a flux zone 26 limited in surrounding relation to the guided path at spaced locations by stator gate assemblies 28 formed by permanent magnets fixed to the frame support 14. Pole faces 34 and 36 between which a stationary 114 . to form a rectangular enclosure in surrounding relation to the track 12. The path is represented by a line 16 extending through pole faces 18 and 20 of opposite polarity at the longitudinal ends of a curved armature bar magnet 22. such as triangular wooden blocks as more clearly seen in FIG.114 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings in detail.

Such assemblies 28 are spaced apart distance dependent on the magnetic field intensity or strength of the permanent magnets 30 and 38 which dictate the effective axial extent of the aforementioned magnetic fields associated with the assemblies 28 and the armature magnet 22. The pole face 34 of one polarity (north) is effective through its magnetic field to magnetically interact with the magnetic field of the armature magnet 22 causing unidirectional propulsion of the armature 10 as actually observed during tests. Such magnetic interaction is obviously influenced by the pole face 36 of opposite polarity (south) abutting and fixed to an annular or circular ring magnet 38 magnets 30. The ring magnet 38 has a radially inner pole surface 42 of the same polarity (north) as that of the pole faces 34 to interact with the other pole faces 36 as aforementioned. 3. to the exclusion of the radially outer pole surface 44.115 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r magnetic field extends are formed on the bar magnets substantially aligned with parallel spaced planes in perpendicular intersecting relation to the path line 16. The interconnected and 38 may be held in assembled relation by an outer skin or sheathing 40 as shown in FIG. 115 . The obvious effect of said arrangement is to exert a net magnetic force on the armature magnet 22 causing the observed continuous. unidirectional propulsion thereof through the gate assemblies 28.

4-7 illustrate another embodiment of the invention utilizing the same type of movable armature 10 guided along a predetermined path by a frame mounted track 12 extending through a flux zone 46 established by another type of permanent magnet stator arrangement. and carried on the ceramic bodies 54. The stator 48 includes a pair of permanent magnet assemblies 50 extending in parallel spaced relation to each other on opposite sides of the armature path established by the track 12.116 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r FIGS. for example. Each assembly 50 is a mirror image of the other so as to expose continuous confronting pole surfaces formed by a magnetic layer material 52 such as Neodynium. 4 and 6 to thereby vary the magnetic field intensity along the guided armature path within the limited flux zone 46 in which the magnetic fields of the stator assembly 48 interact with the magnetic field of bar magnet 22. generally referred to by reference numeral 48. The bodies 54 have transversely extending flange portions 60 at the abutting ends so as to mount the layer sections sections 58 laterally outwardly of layer sections 56 as more clearly seen in FIGS. The confronting pole surfaces of the magnetic layers 52 are of like polarity (north). 116 . opposite to the polarity of the pole surface of magnetic layer sections 56 and 58 made of Samarium Cobalt. mounted on interconnected ceramic bodies 54.

The end pole faces 68 and 70 for each magnet 64. it was found that maximum propelling thrust is produced by optimum location of the path line 16 through the pole faces 18 and 20 a distance 62 closer to the upper edge of surface layer 52 than the lower edge on the frame support 14. 8 and 9 illustrate yet another embodiment of the invention involving the same type of permanent magnet stator arrangement 50 as described with respect to FIGS. 117 . including two curved armature magnets 64 that are mirror images of each other with respect to an intermediate abutting portion 66. However. 4-7. a higher and more efficient propelling thrust may be achieved. 1-3. are aligned with a plane in parallel spaced relation between the path line 16 and the pole surface on 52. with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the track 12 as previously described in connection with FIGS. 7. With the number of pole faces thereby doubled for the armature.117 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The curved armature magnet 22 is orientated within the flux zone 46 between the confronting pole surfaces on 52 as depicted in FIG. The magnets 64 are interconnected at the abutting portion 66 in alignment with a plane containing the path line 16 centrally between the confronting pole surfaces on 52. 8 and 9. FIGS. a modified form of armature 10' is featured in FIGS.

it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described. and accordingly. Preferably.021 Magnetic Propulsion System Howard R.402. falling within the scope of the invention. the walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. The propulsion system further includes two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets. A 118 . US Patent # 5. all suitable modifications and equivalents may be restorted to.118 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art. Johnson ( March 28. Further.A magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. 1995 ) Abstract --.

: 064930 ~ Filed: May 24.S. H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/12. Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet.S...119 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r first wall. the propulsion system includes several spin accelerators.215. Patent Documents: 4.. 1980 ~ Hartman (335/306). 4. (1440 Harding Rd. Howard R. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets. 4.. VA 24060) Appl. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets.805 References Cited [Referenced By] U. Class: 310/12.151.431 ~ Aug. 119 . for example. Blacksburg.877. In addition. 1993 Current U. 310/12).46 198/619. 198/619. Inventors: Johnson. 1989 ~ Johnson (310/12). except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. 1979 ~ Johnson (Cl.152. The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets. each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel.983 ~ Oct. No. 310/152 Intern'l Class: B65G 035/06.330 ~ Jun.

S. Nos. Pat. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement.330 to Hartmen.120 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Other References: Advances in Permanent Magnetism. by way of example.983 to Johnson. Pat. 120 . According to applicant's first patent (U. pp. pp. Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets.877.431 and 4.S. 4.215. 129-135 date unknown. pp. pp.S.431). 4. Pat.151. 4.151. 90-97. Jan. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. No. No. 1989. 44-57 date unknown. Scientific American. Applications of Magnetism. 42-47 date unknown. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U. and U.

the armature magnet is mounted on a vehicle and guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. Pat.121 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r According to the applicants second patent (U.983). with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces.877. According to one embodiment of the second patent. however. 4. Several other embodiments are illustrated including variations in the armature structure and in the stator structure. all of the embodiments teach use of an annular stator assembly.S. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved magnetic propulsion system having a plurality of permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. wherein the permanent magnets need not encircle the path of the magnetic vehicle. No. 121 . the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity.

Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets. Accordingly. The pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets. except that the North-to-South axis for 122 . each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel.122 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r In order to achieve this and other objects. the present invention comprises two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets. The walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. a gap on the inside surface of the wall is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet. for example. A first wall.

This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators. The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet is facing outwardly. Each spin accelerator comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet which is preferably identical to that of the first and second walls. In addition. Each spin accelerator further includes a shorter magnet having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet and a wedge separating the generally rectangular magnet of the spin accelerator from the shorter magnet.123 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. the propulsion system of the present invention includes several spin accelerators for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls. The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles 123 . The spin accelerators project laterally outward from each of the walls at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall.

Accordingly. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets. Each curved magnet is arranged on the vehicle such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall.124 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator and the thinner magnet in the wall. The vehicle itself is preferably a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track. the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets in each wall. it is understood that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as 124 . the angle of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet in the spin accelerator and the North-toSouth axis of the thinner magnet in the wall. but here. In particular. In particular. The shorter magnet in the spin accelerator is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet in the wall. however. an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet is established by the wedge.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of a magnetic propulsion system in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. Since the armature of the vehicle is rigidly attached to the vehicle.125 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r the vehicle is maintained between the walls of the propulsion system. In operation. the magnetic fields created by the two walls exert a propelling force on the armature of the vehicle in the desired direction of travel. the curved magnets of the vehicle armature are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets. Preferably. the vehicle itself begins to accelerate and is hence set in motion by the propulsion system. 125 . except for the thinner magnets. it is understood that other permanent magnet shapes will suffice. Although the present invention has been described with regard to generally rectangular magnets. The thinner magnets are preferably made of rubber or plastic. The magnets which constitute the walls and spin accelerators are preferably made of neodymium and ceramic material. and each can comprise a plurality of magnetic rubber or plastic layers. including but not limited to generally cylindrical shapes.

1 schematically illustrates a propulsion system 10 comprising two parallel magnetic walls 12. a preferred embodiment of the inventive magnetic propulsion system and vehicle propelled thereby will now be described. and an armature 16 rigidly attached to a vehicle 18.14 are formed from several permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. 1. 1.14 which are stationary. The desired direction of vehicle travel is indicated by an arrow A in FIG. The two parallel walls 12. The two walls 12. FIG.126 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT With reference to FIG.14 are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall 12 are opposite from the polarities 126 .

The opposite (or second) wall 14 includes the same general arrangement of magnets 20. the pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet 22 is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets 20.127 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall 14. except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 points in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel. A first wall 12. a gap 24 on the inside surface of the wall 12 is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet 22.South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel (indicated by arrow A). Also. each magnet arranged with a North-to.22. Each thinner magnet 22 is preferably made from rubber or plastic permanently magnetic material. Each of the magnets 20 preferably comprises a ceramic magnet with a neodymium north pole. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets 20. Consequently. In addition. while the 127 . The thinner magnets 22 are arranged with their North-to-South axes pointing laterally toward the opposite wall 14 and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets 20. each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet 20 by a thinner magnet 22. for example.

there is a pole shading effect on the magnets 20 of the walls 12.14. By arranging the thinner magnets 22 between the generally rectangular magnets 20 in the foregoing manner.14 at every other thinner magnet 22 (as is shown in the middle of FIG. According to the preferred embodiment. Each spin accelerator 26 further includes a shorter magnet 30 having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet 28 and a wedge 32 separating the 128 .14.128 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 point away from the first wall 12. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators.14. The spin accelerators 26 project laterally outward from each of the walls 12.14 at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall 12. the propulsion system 10 of the preferred embodiment includes several spin accelerators 26 for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls 12. 1). the spin accelerators 26 are positioned along the walls 12. In addition.14. Each spin accelerator 26 comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet 28 which is preferably identical or very similar to that of the first and second walls 12.

the angle .14. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet 30 and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet 22 is facing outwardly.14.129 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r generally rectangular magnet 28 of the spin accelerator 26 from the shorter magnet 30.14. The shorter magnet 30 preferably consists of neodymium. an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 is established by the wedge 32. but here. The shorter magnet 30 in the spin accelerator 26 is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12.alpha.14. Accordingly. In particular. The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 and the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. Each curved magnet 34 is 129 . The magnetic vehicle 18 which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system 10 includes a rigidly attached armature 16 comprising several curved magnets 34.

14. In operation.14. that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls 12. The spin accelerators 26 can be reversed in order to lessen their effectiveness at crowding the magnetic fields.14 of the propulsion system 10. the acceleration of the vehicle is enhanced as the vehicle passes these predetermined positions. however. It is understood. since the spin accelerators 26 serve to crowd and thereby intensify the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the walls 12.14 exert a propelling force on the armature 16 of the vehicle 18 in the desired direction of travel (arrow A). when the vehicle 18 is positioned as is shown in FIG.130 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r arranged on the vehicle 18 such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets 34. Reversing of the spin 130 . the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets 34 point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 in each wall 12. Since the armature 16 is rigidly attached to the vehicle 18. is a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track 36. The vehicle 18 itself. 1. the vehicle 18 itself begins to accelerate and hence is set in motion by the propulsion system 10. In particular. the magnetic fields created by the two walls 12. according to the preferred embodiment. Furthermore.

height.25 131 .sub.75 inches.875 inches to 1.sub. respectively. height.22 of the thinner magnets 22 in the walls 12. 3. and 1.13 are 0.28.625 inches.75 inches to 1.sub. and pole-to-pole length 1.75 inches to 4.75 to 4. 3. and pole-topole length 1. and pole-to-pole length 1. rather than in the direction of travel as is the case for the illustrated embodiment.sub. of 45 to 90 degrees. height. while the width w. and no more than one half the width w.14 are 1 inch to 1.sub.75 inch to 1. the curved magnets 34 of the vehicle armature 16 are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets.32 of the shorter magnets 30 are 0. while the wedges 32 comprise wood or similar material and an angle .375 inches. 3. The width w. respectively.22. Preferably.5 inches.32.75 to 4.20.20 of the generally rectangular magnets 20 in each wall 12.alpha. and 0.25 inches.25 inches. height.25 inches to 1. the width w. The width w. respectively.sub. and pole-topole length 1.sub.sub.20 of the generally rectangular magnets.25 inches. In the spin accelerators 26.sub.25 inches.131 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r accelerators 26 can be accomplished by rotating the spin accelerators 26 so that the shorter magnets 30 tilt away from the intended direction of vehicle travel.125 to 1.28 of the generally rectangular magnets 28 are 1.

Also. Testing of the foregoing prototype propulsion system resulted in the vehicle moving 2 feet in one second. and not by the illustrated embodiment.375 inch.125 inch to 0.25 inches .14. respectively. we know exactly what you need. In this regard.14 being equidistant from the tips of the armature 16. Preferably.14 is 0. A more simple and cheap JohnsonMotor to get you started. Many people who have gotten this guide have chosen to build numerous 132 . the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims appended hereto. and 0. is such that each wall 12.25 inches away from the tips of the armature magnets 34.132 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r inches.75 inches to 4. both walls 12. the curved magnets 34 of the armature 16 are preferably 0. Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment. it is understood that various modifications to this embodiment will become subsequently apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art.625 inch apart from one another.375 inch to 0.5 inch to 1. 3. JohnsonMotor Simplified If the JohnsonMotor inspired by the work of Howard Johnson is too complicated for you at this time. the distance separating the walls 12.

hooking up output batteries in parallel). An identical battery to the input battery should be obtained for a control -. You need 6 to 24-volt batteries. More recommended for experimental options. Rechargeable Batteries – They are used for running the circuitmotor and receiving a charge from the circuit (input and output need to be from/to different batteries. at least 12" recommended. Alligator Clips – They are used to connect batteries to circuit. 12-volt lead acid. you may want to keep building more of these simplified motors until you feel ready to get back to the full JohnsonMotor. Wires need to be larger than #20. So if you get the building process down. (1) Control.g. you want to get at least two: one for input. There is no limit to how many of these you can build. A dozen recommended for experimental variations (e. You will need about four of these. As for the quantity.133 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r simplified versions instead of the full motor to provide their energy needs. List of materials 1. 2.to test the discharge parameters of a battery independent of the circuit under the same discharge 133 . closed loop will not work). clips need to be rated for at least 5 Amps. gel cell recommended. one for receiving charge.

134 . For your first replication of this. Bearings should be in good shape. to graphically demonstrate more output than input). you will want to use new batteries so that bad batteries will not be a possible reason for malfunction of the circuit.g. Plan ahead the experiment you want to run before purchasing. Rotation should be fairly straight. Not all rechargeables are suitable for receiving charge from this setup. Bicycle Wheel Rim .134 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r parameters being put to the input battery for characterization. 3. Lead acid recommended. (2) Additional batteries of the same voltage and impedance can be added to the output in parallel (e. of a matched voltage and impedance (size) of the input battery. connected in parallel.Or Other Rotor Device – You will use this to cycle the magnets past the coil in repeated motion. There can be more than one battery on the receiving end. You want an approximate + / .10 inches in the diameter (not crucial at all). 24-inch diameter would be fine. Remember. the input and output batteries need to be matched in their voltage and impedance (size). This is the widest and most crucial variable in the system. Make sure the rim is non-magnetic.

135 .Dissipates heat from transistor.Recommended: 1N4001. 4. 50 V. These plans are for a 24-inch rim. 3 inch diam. 7. by 3 inches long. You might want to source your wheel before purchasing magnets so you know how many magnets to get. Diode . Diode. if you want to have your shaft coming from the wheel to convey the torque of the wheel. fast silicon diode.Assures one-way flow of energy from circuit to receiving battery. Any non-magnetic rotating wheel of similar size and weight should work. with 3/4 inch center opening. 1 A. low power. Also. If you go smaller or large than this. 1000 Volt . you will need to configure an alternative bearing system. you will need to adjust the number of magnets accordingly so that the spacing is approximately the same distance as on the 24-inch specified plans. It should be a 1N4007 (1000 Volt. Heat Sink . 6. You will need a plastic one. 5. You need a 4" x 4" x 1/16" aluminum plate one.135 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r It doesn't have to be bicycle wheel. Coil Spool – Used to wind the parallel lengths of magnetic wire around to (1) create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel and (2) receive pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery. 1 Amp) one.

Copper with high voltage coating. Magnet Wire for Trigger Coil Winding – It is wound parallel to the #20 magnet wire. 3 foot lengths. Get some extra in case of breakage. The purpose of the #20 gauge is to pass current from the input battery into the coil to create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel. Can't have splices. You also might consider one or two for a control. coated.136 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 8. (around 10 rods of 3 feet each). The #23 gauge magnet wire receives pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery.) of #20 wire.Electromagnet core material to propel magnets along as it is pulsed by the circuit.) of #23 wire. Magnet Wire for Coil Winding – It is wound parallel to the #23 magnet wire. Magnets . coated. to 136 . 11. Can't have splices. welding rod. 0. ( it will be cut to length of the coil spool) 9. Get 3-5 lbs.Affixed to wheel to pass by the coil to both (1) receive a magnetic pulse from the input battery to propel it along and (2) infuse a pulse into the receiving winding to pass energy into the receiving battery. 10. You need one length (900 turns is about 350 feet. You need one length (900 turns is about 350 feet. Magnet Core (Welding Rod) .042" inch diameter copper coated steel rod. Get 16 for a 24-inch wheel.

14. for bare minimum. but if you want to be able to tune your device.Varying the resistance is the "volume/speed" control for this device. 12. This prevents burn-out of the transistor. 680 Ohms should work well for this particular arrangement. Neon Lamps . Resistor . (2) securing the welding rods inside the spool to serve as a core.The lamp provides a path for the output energy in case the receiving battery is disconnected while the motor is running. 15. four tubes of 3 gm) . Super Glue – Used for (1) attaching the transistor to the aluminum heat sink. Use 137 . You want one. Also to maintain wires to prevent snagging. 13. Tape – Used for second level of adhesion of magnets to wheel (beyond just glue).137 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r measure Gauss before and after experimental runs.6mA NE-2. You will need one Chicago Miniature Neon Base Wire Terminal T-2 65VAC . They have to be ceramic 5. you should get one 47 ohms resistor and one 10k ohms potentiometer to connect in series.g. You will need quite a bit to secure all the welding rods (e. dimensions: 1" x 2" x 3/8" inches.standard super glue. The light should not go on unless the output battery is disconnected.

to hold the wheel steady. You need: . for the circuit and maybe several extra in case you burn one up.two for uprights and one for base) . if you cannot find some of the parts you need on Amazon and eBay we encourage you to search for individual retailers online that specialize in selling the part you are looking for. Transistor – You need one. Wood (Stand) .one sheet approximately 3' x 2' feet square by ~3/4" inch thick (to be cut into three pieces -. fully metal. However. 138 . We recommend you search eBay and Amazon for cheap (possibly used) parts to keep your costs low. preferably electric tape or duct tape enough for the circumference of your wheel plus a little for overlap and do-over. 100V. 17. TO-3 case.138 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r one-sided.two lengths of 2" x 6" or larger of about 6 inches long (to hold coil and stabilize uprights) Sourcing All the materials you need for your motor can be found online. non-magnetic. and to fasten the circuit and hold the coil. precisely 2N3055 Transistor. 16.

to cut boards.  Drill. when we built our motor we typically found the lowest prices online (namely at Amazon and eBay).  Something to cut the welding rods to length (may want to use cutter available where you purchased the rods).  Screw driver and 2-4 screws to screw heat sink to stand.  Soldering gun and solder. to wind wires on coil. (e. However.139 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Also.  Skill saw. many of the parts can be found at your local hardware store.  Something to fabricate the stand for the wheel.  Paintbrush and paint or sealant.g. List of tools  Wire cutter. 139 . jig saw to cut wood). so you can check there first for convenience. to apply paint or sealant to wood.  Metal drill to put hole in aluminum heat sink to fasten circuit to device.

for digital display is 100 mA.to quantify the discharging of a charged battery. This can help identify batteries.10-40 Watt Light Bulb . supplied with the CBA. which may be defective or deteriorated. Non-test load.for measurement of voltage and amperage.  Graphs may be displayed. We used BK Precision Battery Capacity Analyzer. 140 . saved and printed. . .  Software. a safe maximum discharge current and recommends a minimum safe cutoff voltage  Plug-and-play USB interface to the computer.Whatever model you get make sure it measures the storage capacity of 12V Lead Acid Batteries and displays the batteries capacity as a percentage. .Multimeter .Battery Capacity Analyzer .140 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r List of useful instruments . is easy and intuitive  Graphically displays and charts voltage versus time  Constant current load is controlled both with software and electronically. Model 600 and it pulled just over 5 amps for less than a second.Computerized Battery Analyzer  Software provides automatic sensing of the battery cell count.

may be compared or overlaid.optical tach. etc.  May be printed on a color or black and white printer.Tools for measuring rpm (revolutions per minute) of a rotating device .Gauss Meter . makeshift oscilloscope.Odometer . Next. 141 . we will go over the schematics that will show you exactly how to build the simplified JohnsonMotor. multimeter option.141 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  Multiple graphs of the same battery. .  CBA will even measure the temperature of a battery using the optional external temperature probe. . .Would be good for documenting that any effect is not coming as a result of the degaussing of the magnets.To be able to detect the North pole of the magnets. or multiple batteries.Compass .

Cut 150 to 350 feet of each wire (same length). The neon bulb (NE-2) is simply one neon bulb. You can charge the batteries in parallel or otherwise. One additional update is on the coil (T1).142 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Schematics Do not worry about paralleling the diodes. You can use two #18 size wire at 150 feet instead. Instead of winding two wires in parallel. twist the two wires 142 . D1 can be 1N914. Try and get 10 new or used Interstate 6v golf cart batteries. just make D2 3W 1000V 1N5408. Build as below but add the small bulb (LP1) and 1K pot (R1) in series with the resistor (R2 which is now a 100 Ohm resistor or you can use 10 Ohm).

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J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r

like litz wires. For these smaller size wires you can have 6 or more twists per inch. Just don't twist too much or they will break. Then wind it as you would have the other wires. Use the parts listed below and on this site. Schematic Drawing

  

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J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r

Schematic Diagram

Analogous Circuit drawing with explanations

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Legend: 1 Solder junction (insulated base [same for 2,3,4]) joining (a) wire coming from (+) battery "in" and (b) #20 magnetic wire to coil and then to collector 2 Solder junction joining (a) wire coming from (-) battery "in" and (b) emitter and (c) Diode 1N4001 and (e) #23 magnetic wire going to coil then resistor then base. 3 Resistor 680 Ohms, between (a) Base/Diode1N4001 and (b) #23 magnet wire going to coil then emitter. 4 Solder junction joining (a) diode {19} (1N4007) and (b) wire to battery receiving charge. 5 Insulated wire coming from (+) battery "in" 6 #20 magnetic wire from (+) battery "in" to coil and then to collector 7 Insulated wire coming from (-) battery "in" 8 #23 magnet wire coming from emitter to coil to resistor. 9 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to junction {2} 10 Transistor emitter, connected to junction {2} 12 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to (a) base and (b) resistor {3}. 13 Transistor base: connected to resistor and diode 1N4001

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146 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 14 Resistor connected to #23 magnet wire going to coil then to emitter. 15 from resistor to #23 magnet wire to coil to emitter 16 #20 magnet wire from transistor's "collector" lead 17 connection of transistor's "collector" lead to wire to Diode 19 and to #20 magnet wire 16 to coil to input battery's positive lead 18 wire from transistor's "collector" lead to Diode 19 19 1N4007 Diode 1000V 20 Insulated wire to positive terminal of battery receiving charge 21 Transistor (Different one in this photo than is called in these plans) 22 Aluminum plate heat sink 23 Neon bulb. and that is where it is situated on the motor). nor schematic. between collector and emitter. but that is where it goes. The diode between the base and the emitter of the transistor 146 . (not shown in picture.

147 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Lay out the diodes.  Rotor shouldn't have much resistance in its turning. 147 .  Plan for ~1/8 inch gap or less between the coil spool and the wheel with magnets glued and taped. Assembly 1. resistor. Building the frame:  Stand needs to have stability front-back. and needs to be made of non-magnetic material. and neon bulb in a line for easy access and soldering. but some metal can be present. left-right.  Frame material should be non-magnetic.

but can be at 90 degrees as well. The Earth's North Pole is magnetically south. but if you want to later add more coils (each with a separate circuit).  Direction of rotation does not have to be perpendicular to coil.  Determine an equal spacing for the magnets about the perimeter of the wheel and mark where they should go. This is not crucial to proper operation with one coil. 2. adjust the number of magnets accordingly to be within 148 . North faces out -. so the "north" end of your compass will be attracted to the "south" end of your magnet. If your wheel diameter is more or less than the ~24 inches called in these plans.toward the coil. Fastening Magnets to Wheel  Use a compass to determine "N" the north end of your magnets.148 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  You may want to be able to increase or decrease the distance between the wheel and the spool.  Magnet spacing does not need to be uniform unless you are going to attempt more than one coil.  Label your magnets.  All magnets face the same direction (north out). symmetrical spacing will be important for symmetrical firing. for experimental variable purposes.

so the magnet spacing will need to be uniform. Think fishing spool or kite spool. 149 . Winding the Coils "Fill the spool." Approximately 900 turns.  Use super glue and/or tape (or rubber bands. Spacing between magnets should not be less than 1.  Wind the two wires on the coil together.  You might use a drill to spin the spool.  If you wish to use more than one coil.. making it easier to count turns and to make sure the two wires are wound parallel the whole distance. or .149 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r the same range of spacing between magnets.) to affix the magnets. All coils will need to fire in unison.  It is very important that the two wires be next to each other the entire distance of the winding. The window of tolerance is very wide here. and you'll be fine. There is no pattern required.5 .. 3.5 .2 widths apart. A cordless drill generally can turn slower.2 magnet widths (whichever way you have them oriented). Symmetry is not required. You don't want to get your magnets much closer than 1.  Arrangement of the winding is not crucial. each coil will need its own complete circuit.

150 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r  The Exact number of turns on the coil is not crucial.  Tap the last few rods in with some light object until you can't fit any more. an exact count will be necessary for scientific rigor in documenting and reproducing. protruding outward around 1/2 inch. However. a clacker on the spool).g. 4. Counting visually is nerve-wracking and prone to error. Use an audible trigger in winding (e.  You might drill a 1" inch hole in your base around 1/2 inch deep for the other side of the core to protrude into. This will hit your hand as the spool turns. you might affix tape to both ends of spool. The window of tolerance is quite wide here. Close is adequate.  Keep track of input output pairs. Alternatively.  Use glue on each rod to keep it from moving. 150 . so you don't have to cut your rods short. helping you to count turns. Filling Core  Be sure to have the side that will be facing the magnets flush with the top of the spool so you can spin your magnets close to the spool without hitting a rod in the core.

but it works better when they are short. You should have one bank of batteries under charge. or transistor when soldering. The circuit will work with the wires being longer. In functional application.  A little 9-V battery can be used to test the circuit. and then switch between them. and another for discharge.  Keep the wires in the circuit as short as possible. Soldering the Circuit  Try to keep all wires as short as possible. resistor.151 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 5. be sure to use a heavy gauge wire when connecting your batteries in parallel or series.  If you don't know how to solder.  Don't overheat your diodes. you should not draw power from the same battery that is presently being charged.  Also. 151 . Alligator clips can be used to hold things in place until you solidify them.  Make sure the circuit works before soldering the connections. you could use wire nuts or even nuts/bolts to secure your connections. go nearly to the quick when fastening his diodes to the transistor.

you 152 . you will want to beef up your connections to optimize the effect. The 5k Ohm potentiometer enables a wide berth of tuning. allowing for single battery charging (fresh from the front) while that battery comes up the same voltage as the bank of batteries. so they can then be connected in parallel. The 25 Ohm resistors give a fine-tuning capability. Use a set-up for rotation of batteries from the back end to the front. the 5k ohm potentiometer tends to be unstable in how it holds the resistance.152 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Connecting the batteries Once your system is confirmed running. Depending on how responsive the meter is. Adjusting Resistance Adjust the resistance on the circuit. The bread board enables hard resistor plug-in to the appropriate range desired. Use a heavy gauge wire and terminal connectors with crimping. The arrangement we used while doing this includes a switch to enable meter readings without extended disconnection of the circuit. If you wish to lock into a particular resistance. Note. the circuit is interrupted for maybe one or two seconds using this method.

can be brought to the front end to run the circuit. branch off to each battery with a 1N4007 diode so that they see the circuit independently. .The worst battery in the set does not become the weak link in the chain.no need to stop the circuit when rotating batteries . the battery with the highest charge from the bank (not necessarily the one that has been there the longest). .153 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r should consider hard wiring the hard resistors into the bread board and bypassing the 5K potentiometer. 153 .in addition to the 1N4007 diode coming from the circuit to the batteries positive terminal. It’s recommended that we set up our 1:4 battery arrangements as follows: .when the input battery discharges.no need to have the bank standing idle discharging while the battery from the input comes up to charge .

154 . but also with wheel rotation and soldering.Dangers associated with this project are mainly with the batteries. .If the neon bulb is not in place.While this design can deliver some good shocks. The neon bulb absorbs the excess output energy and serves similar to a shock absorber or fuse (though nothing is "tripped" and has to be reset).154 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Cautions . the transistor is likely to burn out if the device is run without a receptacle for the radiant energy (e. . they are not of a dangerous level. a receiving battery).g. Be sure you understand the risks and that you take necessary precautions.

155 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Simplified Motor Designs 155 .

156 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Transistor and Arrangement Diagram 156 .

157 .157 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Dual Battery Motor Diagram Operation of the Motor 1. It will then accelerate or decelerate to a point of equilibrium. there is more than one stable rate of rotation. Turning the Motor On To run the motor. connect circuit and give the rotor a spin (by hand or some other external mechanical input). At some resistances in the circuit.

low resistance produces high rotation speed. Characterizing the Window of Operation You will want to modify the resistor of the circuit from low to high to find various idea windows of operation.158 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r 2. One Input. In some cases only one or the other will exist. place four batteries on the back end (charging). 158 . with one on the front end running the circuit. Bear in mind that your success in achieving this may be determined first by finding the optimal window of performance for your particular set-up. Four Output. In some cases they co-exist. 3. Rotate One Once the batteries are supercharged. The sequence of rotation should be one of taking turns so that the one on the back side that has been there the longest goes to the front side. Also in the higher resistances you will find solid state resonance either with or without rotation. rotate one of the four batteries on the back end into the front. Once that battery has gone down to its 20% from full level. while high resistance results in lower rotation speed. Higher than a certain resistance you will find that only solid state exists. Generally.

Next. and physically move it to the front end next to the battery presently there. (Probably a detail I need not mention. and one on the front and you constructed clips with short wires between to connect the batteries in parallel on the back side. while disconnecting the hard clip and inserting the diode. Keep the alligator clip in place. and disconnect from back end bank. take a long enough jumper cable with alligator clip and hook the last battery (going to front end). while keeping it connected via jumper cable. Next. connect a 1N4007 diode into the (+) wire coming from the circuit to the back end. which has the male/female clips fastened to it for insertion. You can do this because the arrangement has two ways to connect (Y connection): alligator clip and hard clip. move the wire with clips one battery set down. Make room for the battery presently on input to be placed last in line on the back side. keeping electrical connect with temporary jumper cables while disconnecting and reconnecting one position over on the 4x parallel clips.) 159 .159 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r How to Rotate the Batteries without Disconnecting the Circuit If you have four batteries (each "battery" = 2x 6V in series) on the back end. Next.

Remember. Then physically move the new input battery into position to hook the hard terminals into place and remove the jumper cables. and hook it to the new battery coming from input to output. Now. As long as the positive end isn't connected. so the new battery is providing input power (needs to be quick because of the voltage differential between them). and then quickly disconnect that battery. which has been providing the direct electrical connection. Once the previous input battery comes up to the same voltage level as the bank on the back end. remove the diode insert and hook the connection direct. Now disconnect the alligator clip. on the positive end you can use the diode inserted on one of the two Y connections. it's still electrically isolated. 160 . physically move the disconnected input battery into the output row and connect the negative lead from the 4x jumper set you can make for this experiment.160 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r Now you’re ready to quickly disconnect the battery in queue for input and then quickly connect it in parallel to the battery presently on input.

We would like to thank you for taking the time to read our guide and join the other smart people who are producing their own energy and helping the environment. 161 . They are almost never the same total. the 12V is made up of two 6Vs in series. that we take voltage readings of each individual battery just before rotation.161 J Jo oh hn ns so on nM Mo ot to or r That's it. We should mention. we average the two sums obtained by reading individual 6Vs and by measuring the group of batteries. These are two stable times that give a benchmark indication of overall charge level over time. as well as immediately after merger of the recent input with the back end bank. too. In as much as in my set-up. Congratulations! You have managed to build your own JohnsonMotor and are now on your way to free energy. Then repeat the same procedure once the next rotation is called. An average is going to provide greater accuracy than going from one or the other reading alone.