# MATHEMATICAL PROOFS

Existence
Prove is irrational
Definition: A number p is rational if p=m/n, where m,n Z and n≠0. Proof by contradiction: Assume that is rational, then =m/n where m,n Z and n≠0. We may assume (p,q)=1. Then 2 2 =m/n implies that 2 = m /n and 2n2=m2 hence n2=m2/2. But n2 Z since n Z. Then 2|m2hence 2|m that is since 2 is prime. It follows that if m is prime m=2 and m2=22. It follows that since n Z, then similarly n must be prime since n|m and n2|m2. It contradicts that |ab n|a or m|b Hence m=2k for some k Z, then k2 Z Since 4k2=m2, itfollows that 2|k and 2|m and n is even which contradicts (m,n)=1.

Prove

is irrational.

Definition: A number p is rational if p=m/n, where m,n Z and n≠0. Proof by contradiction: Assume that is rational, then =m/n where m,n Z and n≠0. Assume (m,n)=1. Since =m/n and it follows that 6=m2/n2 and m2/n2 Z and then 6n2=m2 and since n2|m and n|n2 then n|m and it contradicts (m,n)=1, is irrational. Prove p≠q (are distinct primes then is irrational.

Prove

+

is irrational.

Definition: A number p is rational if p=m/n, where m,n Z and n≠0. Proof by contradiction: Assume that is rational, then =m/n where m,n Z and n≠0. We may assume (p,q)=1. Then 2 2 =m/n implies that 2 = m /n and 2n2=m2 hence n2=m2/2. But n2 Z since n Z. Then 2|m2hence 2|m that is since 2 is prime. If m is prime  m|ab n|a or m|b Hence m=2k for some k Z, then k2 Z Since 4k2=m2, itfollows that 2|k and 2|m and n is even which contradicts (m,n)=1. The number, , is irrational, ie., it cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers a and b. To prove that this statement is true, let us assume that is rational so that we may write = a/b for a and b Z. no two such integers can be found such that 3 = a /b or that 3b = a . If b is 2 2 2 2 odd, then b is odd; in this case, a and a are also odd. Similarly, if b is even, then b , a , and a are even. Since any choice of even values of a and b leads to a ratio a/b that can be reduced by canceling a common factor of 2, we must assume that a and b are odd, and that the ratio a/b is already reduced to smallest possible terms. With a and b both odd, we may write a = 2m + 1 and b=2n+1such that 3(4n + 4n + 1) = 4m + 4m + 1. It follows that 6n + 6n + 1 = 2(m + m) and obviously an odd interger can not equal an even one.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

B is a well-ordered set. 3.5.-1. P(n) is true for all n. Hence P(k+1) is true and by induction P(n) is true. Proof: Assume A is a nonempty set of negative intergers. The transitive property allows us to say that C belongs to A. n=k+1. It follows by Theorem 6. Since C has a least element. then we are done. 6. Then 1+2+…+k=(k(k+1))/2 and 1+2+…+k+(k+1)=((k+1)(k+1+1))/2.11…} is a well ordered set.1.1 Exercises 1. a. Induction . (It just so happens that √2^√2 is irrational. 1. If A is any well-ordered set of real numbers and B equals a nonempty set and B is a subset of A then B is also well-ordered. Then P(n) is true for all n N P(n): 1+2+…+n=(n(n+1))/2 P(1): 1=(1(1+1))/2 P(k): 1+2+…+k=(k(k+1))/2 P(k+1): 1+2+…+k+(k+1)=((k+1)(k+1+1))/2 Thus by the theorem. If P(k) is true.) CHAPTER 6: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION Well Ordering Principle: Assume A is not empty. 4. a.1 that A contains at least one least element. Any subset A ⊆Ncontains at least one element Theorem (Principal of Mathematical Induction): For each n N. b. Once again. It follows that P(1) is true. a.3. S={-2. then 1+3+5+…+(2(k+1)-1)=(k+1)2=[1+3+5+…+2k+1]+[2k+2-1]=[k2]+[2k+1]= (k+1)2 6. S={x Q: x>-10} is not well ordered b. S={p:p is prime}={2. 2. then let a=√2 and b=√2 and we are done.2} is a well ordered set b/c the set contains a least element or a minimum. but we dont need to prove that to prove the conjecture.7. Now choose an arbitrary set C a nonempty set belongs to B. Use mathematical inductionto prove that 1+5+9+…+(4n-3)=2n2-n for every positive integer n a. then B contains a least element. Suppose P(k) is true. Prove that 1+3+5+…. c. If √2^√2 is rational. a=2^(1/√2) = √2^√2 If √2^√2 is irrational. since √2^√2 is rational. an irrational number then let a^√2 = 2 therefore. P(1) is true 2. Suppose. then P(k+1) is true. let P(n) be a statement. 3. Prove that every nonempty set of negative intergers has a largest element. and b an irrational number with ab as a rational let b = √2. Proof: For n=1 then 1=1=(1(1+1))/2.0. Well-ordered sets. by definition since A is a well ordered set whose subsets contain a least element. Proof: Assume A is a well-ordered set.+(2n-1)=n2 for every positive interger n. Since B belongs to A and B is a nonempty set and by definition since A is well ordered.There exists an a number. 5.

then P(k) is true. P(a). Let P(n) be a predicate defined for integers n. Let n=k. =[(k+1)3(k+2)2]/4 for every positive interger n. there are nonnegative integers a and b s. P(k) is also true.n2 is the number in an nxn square composed of n21x1 squares. Use the strong principle of mathematical induction to prove that for each interger n≥ 12. Assume P(a)=a2 is true. a3=9 and an=an-1-an-2+an-3+ 2(2n-3) for n≥4. then 1=(1)1x1=1 ii. Then P(n) is true for all integers n≥a. a and b be fixed integers with a≤b.n2= n21x1 And let n=1. F4=3. 13+23+…+(k+1)3=[13+23+…+k3]+[ (k+1)3]= [k2(k+1)2/4] ]+[ (k+1)3]= vi. Since 13+23+…+n3 =[n2(n+1)2/4] Now assume for n=k+1 and we show that iv.4 Exercises 42. 13+23+…+(k+1)3=[(k+1)3(k+2)2]/4.F2=1.a.F5=5. (inductive step) • (basis step) if P(i) is true for all integers i with a≤i<k.n=3a+7b. Section 6. For any interger k≥4.F2. P(a+1).t. 49. then P(k+1) should also equal (k+1)2=(k)2-(k-1)2+(k-2)2+2(2(k+1)-3)=k2+2k-1-4k+4+4k2=k2+2k+1=(k+1)2. For any integer k>b. Conjecture a formula for an and prove that your conjecture is correct. . i. A sequence {an} is defined recursively by a1=1. Prove that 4n>n3 for every positive interger n. • That’s where the Strong Form of Mathematical Induction comes in useful. • However. Let 12+22+…. What does 13+23+…+n3 represent geometrically. It follows that the conjecture is true. … .k2 is the number in an nxn square composed of k21x1. (a) Define the sequence of Fibonacci numbers by means of a recurrence relation an=an-1+an-2 xn = xn-1 + xn-2 (b) Prove that 2|Fn 3|n. Let P(k+1)=(k+1)2. Consider the sequence F1. then 12+22+…. iii. so observe that v.t. The terms of this sequence are called Fibonacci numbers. sometimes we need to “look” further back than 1 step to obtain P(k+1). 45. Suppose the following statements are true: 1.F3…where F1=1.a2=4. 44.F6=8. 6.F3=2. We have seen that 12+22+…. P(b) are all true 2. P(i)=i2 is also true with 4≤i<k s.4 The Strong Principle of Mathematical Induction The Principle of Mathematical Induction asserts that P(k) being true implies P(k+1) is true.

while R2={(1. 6.3). Let A={0.c).Midterm 1. Let A be a nonempty set and B⊆P(A).3. A relation R is defined on A by x R y if there exists z 1z zR2y.(2.a). The ran(R)= R)={s ( ) ( ) .b. The dom(R)={a ( ) ( ) .(2. Contrapostitve 3.4)} is a relation from A to B. Define a relation R from A to B by x R Y if x Give an example of two sets A and B that illustrate this.4}.(4.t). Determine all the relations on A.s). Furthermore. let R={(a. 6.1 Relations 1.(4. 4. .(1.c} and B={1. Induction 4.c). Let A={a.(c.t)} be a relation from A to B. Determine dom(R) and range (R). Contradiction b. Direct proof 2.2).b).c} and B={r.5.t.1).3). (a.c)} is a relation from B to A. 5.(3.(b. Indirect proof a.(a.(b. 2.1}. Since by definition the domain would be in the first part of R and the range in the 2 nd ( ) ( ) part of R.6 Section 8.s. 6. a. Express R by listing its elements. 6.b).a). Let A={a.2. What is R for these two sets? 3.u}.(b. Problems a.1.b. Then R1={(a.2.