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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses


Answers are provided below each question 1. The transmission of sound waves through the tympanic cavity of the middle ear occurs through: A. B. C. D. E.
c

air nerve fibers bone fluid jelly-like vitreous humor

2. The two sac-like structures of the inner ear called the utricle and saccule: A. B. C. D. E.
b

contain a fluid called perilymph are part of the membranous labyrinth within the vestibule form the connection between the semicircular canals and the vestibule function as part of the auditory system answers A and C.

3. Which of the following is not one of the auditory ossicles? A. malleus B. incus C. stapedius
c

4. Middle ear infection may follow a throat infection because: A. the auditory (Eustachian) tube opens into the base of the inner ear B. the pharyngeal (throat) mucosa is continuous with the mucosa of the middle ear C. the sphenoid sinus opens into the tympanic cavity of the middle ear D. the vestibulocochlear nerve passes through the tympanic cavity E. answers A and D.
b

5. The waxy material in the external auditory canal (meatus) is the product of A. endolymphatic sacs B. tarsal glands
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

C. lacrimal glands D. ceruminous glands E. none of the preceding.


d

6. The auricle or pinna of the outer ear contains: A. B. C. D. E.


b

fibroelastic cartilage elastic cartilage hyaline cartilage osseous tissue hemopoietic tissue.

7. In the physiology of hearing, which action is it that generates an action potential that causes release of a neurotransmitter substance? A. movement of cells in the basilar membrane against the spiral organ (=organ of Corti) B. pressure waves on cells of the vestibular membrane C. movement of the spiral organ hair cells against the rectorial membrane D. movement of the membrane covering the round window
c

8. Otoliths (crystals of CaCO3) are located in the: A. B. C. D.


d

utricle semicircular ducts saccule answers A and C.

MATCHING: Match the type of fluid (Endolymph or Perilymph) that is found within the cavities or spaces of the appropriate structures. Items A and B may be used more than once. A) perilymph B) endolymph 9. Scala vestibuli. 10. Cochlear duct. 11. Semicircular ducts. 12. Utricle. 13. Scala tympani.
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

14. Vestibule. 15. Semicircular canals. 16. Saccule.


a, b, b, b, a, a, a, b

MATCHING: INNER EAR (Note: Items A and B may be used more than once.) A) Membranous labyrinth B) bony or osseous labyrinth. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Semicircular ducts. Utricle. Cochlea. Vestibule. Saccule. Semicircular canals. Cochlear duct.

a, a, b, b, a, b, a

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer. 24. Aqueous humor: A. B. C. D. E.


d

provides nutrients for the retina is produced from capillaries in the iris can cause cataracts if overproduced is present in the anterior and posterior chambers all of the above.

25. A lesion that destroyed the left optic tract of a boy affected his eye by eliminating action potentials (=impulses) that would normally have been generated in response to light in the: A. B. C. D. E.
e

nasal (medial) retina of the left eye nasal (medial) retina of the right eye the temporal (lateral) retina of the left eye answers A and C answers B and C.

26. Which of the following is not part of the vascular layer or uvea? A. cornea B. choroid
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

C. ciliary body D. iris E. answers C and D.


a

27. During embryonic development, the lens of the eye forms: A. B. C. D. E.


e

from the rim or distal portion of the retina as part of the fibrous tunic, specifically the sclera from a condensation of aqueous humor from the lateral wall of the diencephalon none of the above.

28. Obstruction of the scleral venous sinus (=canal of Schlemm) interferes with the: A. B. C. D. E.
d

drainage of vitreous humor drainage of tears into the lacrimal sac drainage of the tarsal glands drainage of aqueous humor flow of blood through the ciliary body capillaries.

29. Which of the following cannot be seen as one looks into the eye through an ophthalmoscope? A. B. C. D.
b

macula lutea optic chiasma fovea centralis optic disc.

30. A person with an abnormally short eyeball (anterior to posterior) would be ____ and would wear ____ lenses to correct their vision. A. B. C. D.
d

nearsighted / concave farsighted concave nearsighted / convex farsighted convex.

31. The perception of color comes from all the following except: A. red cones
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. C. D. E.
b

yellow cones green cones blue cones answers A and D.

32. The visible outer white surface of the eye is covered by a distinctive epithelium continuous with the inner lining of the eyelids. This epithelium is called the: A. B. C. D. E.
d

palpebrae fornix coneal epithelium conjunctiva none of the preceding.

33. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye? A. B. C. D. E.
e

cornea pupil lens ciliary body iris.

34. Vision is most acute when light rays are brought to focus on the: A. B. C. D. E.
a

fovea centralis the outermost layer of the retina optic disc cells in the occipital lobes of the brain none of the preceding.

35. Night blindness can be treated with: A. B. C. D.


d

vitamin C vitamin D vitamin K none of the preceding.

36. Loss of the sense of taste on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue might be due to
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

injury to: A. B. C. D.
c

cranial nerve cranial nerve cranial nerve cranial nerve

VII III IX V.

MATCHING: Sense Organs (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.) A) B) C) D) E) gustatory cells macula lutea crista ampullaris macula spiral organ (organ of Corti).

37. A group of hair cells associated with taste. 38. The gelatinous membrane associated with this group of hair cells contains crystals of calcium carbonate. 39. A group of hair cells located in the saccule. 40. A group of hair cells associated with a cupola. 41. The sense organ of static equilibrium. 42. A group of hair cells located in the utricle. 43. Hair cells located on the vallate and fungiform papillae. 44. A group of hair cells associated with the rectorial membrane. 45. The sense organ of dynamic (angular) equilibrium. 46. A group of hair cells located in the cochlea duct. 47. The sense organ of hearing. 48. A yellowish group of cells surrounding the fovea centralism 49. A group of hair cells. located in the ampulla.
a, d, d, c, d, d, a, e, c, e, e, b, c

MATCHING: Cranial nerves and muscles associated with sense organs. Items A through E may be used more than once. A) B) C) D) oculomotor facial trigeminal abducens E. trochlear

50. Superior oblique 51. Superior rectus. 52. Orbicularis oculi.


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58.

Medial rectus. Levator palpebrae superioris. Lateral rectus. Inferior oblique. Inferior rectus. Tensor tympani.

e, a, b, a, a, d, a, a, c

TRUE OR FALSE: True = A; False = B 59. The function of the lens is to bend or refract light rays and focus them on the optic disc. 60. Tears contain a bactericidal enzyme called lysosome. 61. The conjunctiva is a serous membrane. 62. The sensation of pressure is associated with Pacinian or lamellated corpuscles. 63. Damage to the median rectus eyeball muscles would probably affect convergence of the eyeballs.
b, b, b, a, a

MATCHING: Retinal Cells. (Note: Letters may be used more than once, but only one letter per space.) A) B) C) D) 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. Ganglion cells Bipolar cells Both A and B Neither A nor B.

Contact the vitreous humor. Contain the purple pigment known as rhodopsin. Modified forebrain cells. Axons of these cells form the optic nerve. Contact the choroid layer. Cells contain melanin. Cells are multipolar neurons. These cells synapse with ganglion cells. These cells provide daylight vision.

a, d, c, a, d, d, a, b, d

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer. 73. Receptors that respond quickly to a stimulus but then adapt (sensory adaptation) and decrease their firing rate are called: A. phasic receptors
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. C. D. E.
a

sensory receptors somatic receptors proprioceptors tonic receptors.

74. Which describes the effect of the sympathetic system on the eye pupil and the muscles involved in the action? A. B. C. D.
c

dilates / circular muscles constricts circular muscles dilates / radial muscles constricts radial muscles.

75. How many different modalities are associated with olfaction? A. B. C. D. E.


e

one two three four hundreds or even thousands.

76. The bone that contains the osseous labyrinth is the: A. B. C. D. E.


a

temporal bone occipital bone ethmoid cribriform plate lacrimal bone none of the preceding.

77. During embryonic development the tympanic cavity develops from the: A. B. C. D. E.
e

2nd pharyngeal pouch optic vesicle 1st bronchial groove wall of the diencephalon 1st pharyngeal pouch.

78. The position of joints and the state of muscular contraction is monitored by: A. nocireceptors
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. C. D. E.
e

baroreceptors thermoreceptors chemoreceptors proprioceptors.

MATCHING. Items A through E may be used more than once. A) B) C) D) E) 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. Presbyopia cataract glaucoma myopia hyperopia

Clouding of the lens. Elongation of the eyeball. Loss of elasticity of the lens with aging. Compression of, and loss of fibers in the optic nerve. Associated with an increase in intraocular pressure. Eyeball is too short. The lens tends to lose its ability to accommodate. Often referred to as nearsightedness.

b, d, a, c, c, e, a, d

MULTIPLE CHOICE 87. The organs of taste are called: A. B. C. D. E.


d

papillae taste pores taste hairs taste buds none of the preceding.

88. A cut on the finger would activate which receptors? A.baroreceptors B. nociceptors C. Ruffini corpuscles D. chemoreceptors E. none of the preceding.
b

89. Receptors for general senses provide information for all the following except:
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

A. B. C. D. E.
d

temperature pain touch sight two of the preceding.

90. Receptors for light touch are called and they are located in the A. B. C. D. E.
d

Meissner's corpuscles epidermis bulbs of Krause / dermis Pacinian corpuscles epidermis Meissner's corpuscles / dermis Ruffini corpuscles / hypodermis.

91. The oval window is located at the base of the: A. B. C. D. E.


a

scala vestibule auditory tube cochlear duct scala tympani external auditory canal

TRUE AND FALSE: True = A; False= B. 92. Another name for the vestibular membrane is eardrum. 93. Another name for the optic chiasma is the blind spot. 94. A person can see better during the day than at night because there are more cones within the retina than rods. 95. The visual image is inverted on the retina. 96. The nasolacrimal ducts empty into the lacrimal sacs. 97. The ear ossicles constitute the bony labyrinth. 98. Bending of light rays is called refraction. 99. The stapes transmits vibrations to the oval window.
b, b, b, a, b, b, a, a

MULTIPLE CHOICE 100. Sympathetic stimulation of the iris causes: a. Astigmatism b. Pupillary constriction c. Pupillary dilation
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

d. Vitreous secretion e. Decreased glucose reduction in iris smooth muscle


c

101. Cone a. b. c. d. e.
e

cells are photoreceptors that respond to: Low light levels Red light ONLY Light reflected from distant objects Light with wavelengths greater than 2500nm Colored light

102. The a. b. c. d. e.
b

region where the lens focuses the image onto the retina is the: Optic nerve Fovea Pupil Blind spot Infundibulum

103. The a. b. c. d. e.
e

fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye is the: Lachrymal fluid Lacrimal fluid Aqueous humor Choroid humor Vitreous humor

104. The a. b. c. d. e.
a

major light absorbing pigment in retinal photoreceptors is: Rhodopsin Cone opsin Melanin Asparagine Mesophyll

105. Photoreceptors release more neurotransmitters in (bright light - darkness).


Darkness

106) Sounds are detected by _____- receptors. A)chemo B)thermo C)mechano D)photo
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

Look here for the answer

107) The _____ are the actual areas that respond to chemical stimulations for the sense of smell. A)olfactory lobes B)olfactory mucous membrane cells C)cilia on olfactory cells D)olfactory organs
c

108) The olfactory receptor cells are examples of _____ neurons. A)sensory B)multipolar C)association D)bipolar
d

109) Which area allows one to perceive the aroma of a pizza? A)olfactory bulb B)olfactory lobe C)olfactory cortex D)olfactory tracts
c

110) Which sense is most likely to adapt rapidly? A)taste B)smell C)hearing D)vision
b

111) A person aged 21 will probably lose _____ of their smell at 22. A)none B)50% C)1% D)5%
c

112) The visible elevations on the tongue that contain the receptors for taste are the _____. A)taste buds
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B)taste pores C)papillae D)gustatory cells


c

113) Which of the following could be detected on the back of the tongue? A)sweet B)sour C)salty D)bitter
d

114) Which of these does not belong with the rest? A)strychnine B)nicotine C)alkaline D)alkaloid
c

115) The nerves that convey taste sensations, are the following except which one? A)VII B)VIII C)IX D)vagus
b

116) The gustatory cortex is located within the _____lobe. A)temporal B)parietal C)occipital D)frontal
b

117) Which of these does not belong with the others? A)pinna B)external ear C)ceruminous glands D)malleus
d

118) The purpose of the auricle is to _____sound waves.


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

A)dampen B)increase the intensity of C)act as a collector of D)vibrate in response to


c

119) The first structure to vibrate in response to sounds is _____. A)auricle B)malleus C)organ of Corti D)tympanic membrane
d

120) The following belong together except which one? A)incus B)tympanic cavity C)middle ear D)cochlear duct
d

121) The purpose of the ossicles is to _____ the incoming vibrations. A)lessen the intensity of B)increase the force of C)change the wavelength of D)move with
b

122) The stapes sends its vibrations to the _____. A)incus B)tympanic membrane C)oval window D)round window
c

123) Which of these does not belong with the others? A)tympanic reflex B)stapedius C)increase sound D)decrease sound
c

124) The auditory tube acts to equalize pressure between the middle ear and
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

_____. A)throat B)inner ear C)outer ear D)cochlea


a

125) The term labyrinth refers to the appearance of the _____. A)outer ear B)inner ear C)middle ear D)vestibule
b

126) The membranous labyrinth contains _____fluid. A)cerebrospinal B)plasma C)endolymph D)perilymph
c

127) The portion of the inner ear that detects sounds, is the _____. A)semicircular canals B)osseous labyrinth C)vestibule D)cochlea
d

128) Reissner's membrane separates the cochlear duct from the _____. A)round window B)scala vestibuli C)scala tympani D)basilar membrane
b

129) Vibrations from the _____ reach the scala vestibuli first. A)round window B)scala tympani C)oval window D)cochlear duct
c
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

130) The cells that convert vibrations into neurological impulses are the _____ cells. A)hair B)otolith C)basilar membrane D)crista acoustica
a

131) The connection between the cochlear hair cells and the VIII cranial nerve are made by _____. A)direct contact B)release of neurotransmitter C)the axons in contact D)the dendrites in contact
b

132) The intensity of sounds is measured in units of _____. A)mv B)amperes C)daltons D)dB
d

133) The auditory perception center is located within the _____. A)medial geniculate body of thalamus B)midbrain C)temporal lobe D)medulla oblongata
c

134) Which type of deafness can be treated by a cochlear implant? A)presbycusis B)conductive C)sensorineural D)otosclerosis
c

135) The following belong together except which one? A)dynamic equilibrium B)vestibule C)static equilibrium
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

D)utricle
a

136) The maculae can be found in the _____. A)cochlear duct B)saccule C)semicircular canals D)semicircular ducts
b

137) Stimulation of the crista ampullaris results in _____. A)deafness B)loud sounds C)feeling of motion D)a sense of body position
c

138) The term for eyelid is _____. A)conjunctiva B)sclera C)levator palpebrae D)palpebra
d

139) Tears drain into the openings of the _____. A)puncta B)lacrimal sac C)canaliculi D)nasolacrimal duct
a

140) Movement of the eyeball is effected by muscles innervated mainly by the _____nerve. A)VI B)IV C)oculomotor D)vagus
c

141) The outer covering of the eye is called the _____. A)vascular tunic B)conjunctiva
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C)sclera D)choroid layer


c

142) The suspensory ligaments attach to the _____. A)lens B)sclera C)canal of Schlemm D)iris
a

143) The process of adjusting vision from a near to a distant object is called _____. A)adaptation B)accommodation C)amblyopia D)cataracts
b

144) An increase in aqueous fluid pressure is a symptom of _____. A)cataract B)migraine C)glaucoma D)hyperopia
c

145) Which of the following is the first to come into contact with light? A)rods B)bipolar neurons C)cones D)ganglion cells
d

146) The point of sharpest retinal vision is called the _____. A)fovea centralis B)macula lutea C)vitreous body D)optic disk
a

147) Which of the following is decomposed under light?


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

A)vitamin A B)retinene C)rhodopsin D)iodopsin


c

148) A sensory receptor capable of detecting changes in hydrogen ion concentration is more accurately described as a ______________. A)thermoreceptor B)pain receptor C)mechanoreceptor D)chemoreceptor
d

149) Which of these statements about the sense of smell is not true? A)Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons that are not replaced when damaged. B)Chemicals are received by specific plasma membrane receptors in the olfactory receptor cells. C)Olfactory receptors do not adapt quickly. D)The main areas of the brain that interpret the sense of smell lie in the temporal and frontal lobes.
c

150) The portion(s) of the tongue that actually perceives taste is/are the _____________. A)taste hairs B)papillae C)epithelium of tongue D)taste buds
a

151) How do the senses of smell and taste differ? A)They differ in the types of receptors they employ. B)They differ in the reproductive rate of the receptors. C)They differ in their rate of sensory adaptation. D)They do not both employ cilia or hair-like extension of their receptor cells.
b

152) Why do odors sometimes alter our moods? A)Because sensory input from olfaction is routed through the limbic system. B)Because odors act as neurotransmitters and alter brain chemistry.
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C)Because odors are satisfying to our sense of hunger. D)Odors do not alter mood.
a

153) Loss of the sensation of taste is referred to as _____________. A)dysosmia B)ageusia C)hypogeusia D)asnosmia
b

154) The chamber that actually houses the hearing receptors is the __________________. A)vestibule B)semicircular canal C)scala tympani D)cochlear duct
d

155) After the inner ear has detected vibrations caused by sound, how is the energy dissipated? A)perilymph inside the scala tympani absorbs the sound wave energy B)endolymph inside the cochlear duct absorbs sound wave energy C)air inside the middle ear dissipates the forces caused by vibrations. D)perilymph inside the scala vestibuli absorbs sound wave energy
c

156) The organs of static equilibrium are located within the ______________ and employ shifting ___________ to set up nerve impulses. A)semicircular canals; gelatinous material B)vestibule; otoliths C)cochlea; fluid D)vestibule; crista ampullaris
b

157) The inner surface of the eyelids is lined with ______________. A)conjunctiva B)extrinsic eye muscles C)dense connective tissue D)lacrimal apparatus
a
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158) The region on the retina that produces the sharpest vision is called the _______________. A)sclera B)aqueous humor C)fovea centralis D)optic disk
c

159) Objects are perceived by photoreceptors because the rods or cones _______________ as their _________________ in the presence of light. A)depolarize; pigments are manufactured B)hyperpolarize; pigments decompose C)repolarize; pigments remain unchanged D)depolarize; pigments decompose
b

160) The ability to sense body position is related to _____ receptors. A)general B)pain C)pressure D)proprioceptors
d

161) The area of the brain that integrates proprioceptor data is the _________. A)cerebrum B)hypothalamus C)cerebellum D)medulla oblongata
c

162) Most olfactory receptors are located on the ______ surface of the nasal cavity. A)superior B)inferior C)lateral D)medial
a

163) Which muscle moves the eye toward the midline? A)superior oblique B)inferior oblique
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C)medial rectus D)lateral rectus


c

164) Which extrinsic eye muscle rotates the eyes clockwise? A)inferior oblique B)superior oblique C)lateral rectus D)medial rectus
b

165) Which cranial nerve does not innervate eye muscles? A)III B)trochlear C)abducens D)II
d

166) The _____ is a membrane covering the anterior portion of the eyeball except for the cornea. A)cornea B)conjunctiva C)sclera D)eyelid
b

167) Which of these is the last in the tear flow sequence? A)lacrimal duct B)nasolacrimal duct C)lacrimal gland D)lacrimal sac
b

168) The actual receptors for hearing and balance are _______. A)chemoreceptors B)otoliths C)cochlear cells D)hair cells
d

169) The auditory canal is part of the _____.


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A)inner ear B)middle ear C)outer ear D)pinna


c

170) Which is the last structure to vibrate in this sequence? A)malleus B)oval window C)stapes D)incus
b

171) The right occipital lobe receives information from the right eye only. A)True B)False
b

172) Proprioceptors respond to changes in muscle positions. A)True B)False


a

173) As one ages, one develops an increased tendency towards anosmia. A)True B)False
a

174) Gustatory refers to the sensation of smells. A)True B)False


b

175) Taste cells are continually reproduced and do not diminish much with age. A)True B)False
a

176) Sweet stimuli are usually organic compounds. A)True B)False


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

177) The external auditory meatus leads into the inner ear. A)True B)False
b

178) The ear wax cerumen contains compounds that repel insects. A)True B)False
a

179) The ossicles are the malleus, incus and cochlea. A)True B)False
b

180) The difference in sound pressure at the tympanic membrane is about 22 times greater than at the inner ear. A)True B)False
b

181) The stapedius muscle inserts on the tympanic membrane. A)True B)False
b

182) It is easier to dampen the intensity of slow occurring sounds than rapid. A)True B)False
a

183) The mucous lining of the middle ear actually increases the probability of developing otitis media from an external cause. A)True B)False
a

184) The round window equalizes pressure between the middle ear and inner ear. A)True
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B)False
a

185) The detection of various frequencies of sound is made possible by the structure of the hair cells. A)True B)False
b

186) Human hearing responds to 20-20,000hz equally in all ranges. A)True B)False
b

187) The Rinne test is done to assess skin sensitivity to touch. A)True B)False 188) A sense of moving or dynamic equilibrium is sensed by the ampullae of the vestibule. A)True B)False
b

189) The fluid movement in the inner ear can cause a confusion between sounds and movements resulting in motion sickness. A)True B)False
a

190) Tears contain a lysozyme enzyme that has antibacterial effects. A)True B)False
a

191) Seeing two overlapping images or double vision is termed strabismus. A)True B)False
b

192) The most common form of blindness is retinitis or retinal damage. A)True
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B)False
b

193) The ciliary body is a smooth muscle as well as gland. A)True B)False
a

194) Vitreous fluid is made continually while aqueous humor remains the same throughout life. A)True B)False
b

195) Both pupil dilation and contraction involve muscle contractions. A)True B)False
a

196) The cones are sensitive to dim light and color. A)True B)False
b

197) The cerebral cortex functions in sensation and the perception of those sensations. A)True B)False
a

198) Sensory receptors are equally and proportionally distributed throughout the skin. A)True B)False
b

199) Taste and smell are sensations stimulated by chemical molecules. A)True B)False
a

200) The papillae on the tongue respond to sweet, sour, salt and bitter stimuli.
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

A)True B)False
b

201) The olfactory cells have microvilli that enable them to respond to chemical stimuli. A)True B)False
b

202) The taste buds on the tongue enable a person to perceive the taste of various foods such as the garlic in lasagna. A)True B)False
b

203) Free nerve endings in the skin are associated with the sensation of pain. A)True B)False
a

204) Bipolar neurons associated with sensory receptors are found in the A. retina B. taste buds C. inner ear D. finger tips
a

205) Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation? A. sweet B. salty C. pungent D. bitter
c

206) The olfactory receptors are examples of A. thermoreceptors


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. mechanoreceptors C. chemoreceptors D. proprioceptors


c

207) The external auditory meatus passes through the A. occipital bone B. cribriform plate of the ethmoid C. temporal bone D. nasal cavities
c

208) Which of the following helps maintain proper air pressure in the middle ear? A. stapedius muscle B. Eustachian tube C. external auditory meatus D. osseous labyrinth
b

209) Endolymph is found within the A. scala vestibuli B. scala tympani C. cochlear duct D. otolith
c

210) Which of the following generates a receptor potential in hair cells? A. contact with the basilar membrane B. movement of perilymph C. bending of stereocilia D. breakdown of photopsin
c
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

211) The round window connects to the A. scala tympani B. incus C. scala vestibuli D. basilar membrane
a

212) Nerve fibers that synapse with hair cells in the organ of Corti unite to form part of the _____ nerve A. optic B. oculomotor C. olfactory D. vestibulocochlear
d

213) Which of the following represents the correct pathway leading to the perception of sound? A. tympanic membrane, ossicles, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells B. tympanic membrane, ossicles, perilymph, endolymph, hair cells C. ossicles, tympanic membrane, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells D. ossicles, perilymph, tympanic membrane, endolymph, hair cells
b

214) Which of the following is associated with equilibrium? A. vestibular membrane B. basilar membrane C. otolithic membrane D. ciliary processes
c

215) Otoliths are A. crystals


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. hair cells C. taste cells D. bipolar neurons


a

216) Which of the following is part of the vascular tunic of the eye? A. cornea B. retina C. choroid D. sclera
c

217) When entering a dark room on a sunny day, it takes some time to be able to see because A. it takes time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin B. the rods of the eye work only in bright light, and it takes time for the cones to develop an action potential in dim light C. the iris dilates very slowly after being subjected to bright light D. the optic nerve fatigues in bright light, and takes time to recover
a

218) Each crista in the semicircular ducts is covered by a gelatinous material called the A. macula B. utricle C. cupula D. auricle
c

219) The anterior cavity contains A. the vitreous body B. aqueous humor C. endolymph
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

D. perilymph
b

220) The point of greatest visual acuity is the A. optic disk B. utricle C. optic chiasm D. central fovea
d

221) Intraocular pressure is primarily due to the A. aqueous humor B. iris C. lens D. vitreous body
a

222) As they extend from the retina to the brain, nerve fibers A. from the nasal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex B. from the temporal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex C. from both nasal and temporal portions of the retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex D. travel straight from each retina to the visual cortex, without crossing or synapsing
a

223) Which cranial nerve carries visual impulses to the brain? A. I B. II C. IV D. X

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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

224) Aqueous humor drains from the anterior chamber into the A. vitreous body B. lacrimal duct C. ciliary processes D. canal of Schlemm
d

225) Sound waves are translated into nerve impulses in the A. cochlea B. saccule C. middle ear D. utricle
a

226) A reflex reaction to loud sounds prevents damage to the inner ear. This reaction is due to contraction of A. hair cells B. tensor tympani & stapedius muscles C. the Eustachian tube D. the pinna, allowing it to fold over the external auditory meatus
b

227) The oval window connects to the A. Eustachian tube B. basilar membrane C. utricle D. stapes
d

228) As a result of an injury, a person cannot see at all with the left eye, but has no trouble seeing with the right eye. The injury has probably severed the
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

A. optic chiasm B. left optic tract C. left optic nerve D. right optic nerve
c

229) Pitch is A. the frequency of a sound vibration B. the loudness of a sound C. the angle light travels through the lens to reach the fovea centralis D. measured in decibels
a

230) The blind spot is the area where A. there are more rods than cones B. there are more cones than rods C. the optic nerve exits the eye D. the iris attaches to the cornea
c

231) Perilymph fills the A. anterior cavity B. bony labyrinth C. membranous labyrinth D. rods and cones
b

232) Sensory stimulation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is conducted by the A. hypoglossal nerve B. glossopharyngeal nerve C. vagus nerve D. trigeminal nerve
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

233) A sty is caused by A. infection of the sebaceous ciliary glands B. paralyzing the levator palpebrae superioris muscle C. damage to the ceruminous glands D. infection of the Meibomian glands
a

234) Which of the following conditions is not related to lens pathology? A. glaucoma B. hypermetropia C. cataract D. astigmatism
a

235) In humans, both eyes focus on only one set of objects. This is called A. constriction B. refraction C. binocular vision D. LASIK
c

236) Circumvallate papillae are located on the A. posterior region of the tongue B. sides of the tongue C. tip of the tongue D. soft palate and pharynx
a

237) The fibrous tunic is composed of the A. sclera and cornea


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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. choroids, ciliary body, and iris C. retina D. optic nerve


a

238) The white of the eye, which gives shape to the eyeball, makes it more rigid, and protects its inner parts is the A. cornea B. sclera C. choroid D. conjunctiva
b

239) Most of the refraction of light entering the eye occurs at the A. conjunctiva B. cornea C. lens D. retina
b

240) During accommodation for near vision A. the cornea becomes more curved B. the iris dilates and lets in more light C. the lens increases in curvature D. the eyeball shortens to bring the image in focus
c

241) Constriction of the pupil is brought about by contraction of the A. ciliary muscle B. circular muscle of the iris C. extrinsic muscles of the eye D. cornea
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

242) Photopigment in the rods and cones is imbedded in the A. mitochondria B. Golgi complex C. synapse region between these cells and the horizontal cells D. membrane folds of the outer segment of these cells
d

243) The most common type of color blindness is A. red-blue color blindness B. red-green color blindness C. blue-green color blindness D. total color blindness
b

244) In daylight, rods contribute little to vision because A. they become totally depolarized B. the mitochondria cannot generate enough energy C. the rhodopsin is bleached as fast as it is regenerated D. the outer segments lose their photopigments
c

245) When light hits the rods A. Na+ channels close and less inhibitory neurotransmitter is released B. the outer segment depolarizes and initiates a nerve impulse C. they inhibit the activity of bipolar cells D. more photopigment is manufactured
a

246) The neural receptors for the sense of hearing are located in the A. outer ear
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STUDY QUESTIONS Special Senses

B. middle ear C. inner ear D. brain


c

247) High intensity (loud) sounds can cause deafness because they are most damaging to the A. hair cells of the spiral organ of Corti B. secondary tympanic membrane C. bones of the middle ear D. tympanic membrane
a

248) Meniere's syndrome is caused by A. bacterial infection of the middle ear B. increased number of blood vessels growing over the ear drum C. increased amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labyrinth D. excessive stimulation of the vestibular apparatus by motion
c

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