TERM PAPER ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS ECE201

Topic : Schottky diode D.O.A.: D.O.S.:

Submitted to: Miss Nidhi Head of Electronics Department

Submitted by : Gyan Ankush Das RD6905A28 10906598 D6905

Topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Introduction to solid state devices Diodes Schottky diodes Construction Real Schottky diodes Schottky barrier diode Schottky junction Operation of schottky diodes V-I characteristics Comparison with p-n junction diodes Advantages Applications References .TABLE OF CONTENTS : Serial no.

. whose internet connection contributed a lot to make an end to this project .ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The topic is about the “ SCHOTTKY DIODE “ and consists a stipulated amount of information about its types . The two most important types of semiconductors are the transistors and the junction diodes.e. various diodes which includes a variable capacitance diode. low power consumption.  DIODES : Diodes are the fundamental electronic building block. It is generally a minute piece of semiconductor material that can give rise to complete electronic functions. In recent years. junction diodes and transistors. efficiency and versatility. a PIN diode. They have a very good ability to restrict current flow substantially to one direction is a critical property relied upon in every electronic circuit manufactured till date. Gyan Ankush Das  INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE DEVICES : The use of semiconductors is not new. The project has been conveniently and satisfactorily completed by me. For the completion of this project I want to convey my gracious thanks to the Wi-Fi connection of the Lovely University. thin and lightweight. some devices are old as the electron tube. mobile communication equipment which includes digital cellular phones and high speed data communication equipment have been required to be small. light emitting diodes . The most recent development that has dominated the modern electronic industry is the integrated circuit known as the IC. These devices are generally electronic devices which works by the virtue of the movement of the electrons within a piece of semiconductor material . from the smallest power supply to the largest industrial process control. Solid state devices which are made from semiconductor material offers compactness. In addition to the two most important types of semiconductors i. In response to reduction in the size of the high frequency module. These devices fall under a more generalized category called the solid state devices. a Schottky diode which is used in the high frequency module are required to be small. a whole new family of related devices have been developed namely zener diodes. a high frequency and multi bands.

 SCHOTTKY DIODES : Schottky diodes are those semiconductor devices which consists of a metal semiconductor transition as their basic structure and its basic electronic properties are defined by this transition. A separate metallization layer is insulatively disposed over the substrate to provide an electrical contact to the Schottky contact layer. A barrier known as the Schottky barrier is formed at the junction of the metal layer and the doped semiconductor layer. Figure : Symbol of a schottky diode  CONSTRUCTION : It is formed by the connection of a metal or silicide layer to a doped semiconductor layer. Figure : Deposited metal and oxide film Schottky diode It is also safe to interpose a separate diffusion barrier layer between the metallization layer and the underlying Schottky contact layer to prevent interdiffusion of the metallization layer with the Schottky layer and the semiconductor substrate. These diodes .

This process is called modulation of the epitaxial layer. voltage type.consist of a metal semiconductor transition as their basic structure and whose basic electronic properties are defined by this transition. forward current density and the junction temperature increase. Figure : Schematic representation  REAL SCHOTTKY DIODES : These diodes also have minority-carrier injection through their barriers although it is smaller by several orders of magnitude. The barrier between the metal and the semiconductor in the Schottky barrier diode provides advantages over the point contact diode. This injection increases as the barrier height.  SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE: It is actually a variation of the point contact diode in which the metal semiconductor is a surface rather than a point contact. .

8 V for typical Schottky diodes.  OPERATION OF SCHOTTKY DIODES : 1.Figure :Deposited metal Schottky barrier diode  SCHOTTKY JUNCTION : It is formed by plating a very pure metal. The external energy of the opposite polarity increases the barrier height. The metal or semiconductor junctions exhibit rectifying behavior. OPERATION IN FORWARD BIASED : When forward biased. Electrons from semiconductors lower their energy levels by inward flow into the metal resulting in the accumulation of charge in the interface. distorting the energy bands in the semiconductor. that no more electrons can go into the metal. thus preventing conduction. onto a wafer that has been doped with either p-type or n-type dopant atoms. typically by evaporation under vacuum. electrons diffuse out of the semiconductor into the metal leaving a region known as the “depletion layer” under the contact which consists of no free electrons. then their Fermi levels become equal.3-0. The voltage difference between the metal and the semiconductor is referred to as the contact potential. The process of diffusion continues until the semiconductor is so positive with respect to the. This region contains donor atoms. the high energy electrons in the N region are injected into the metal region where energy is being given by them in excess. When these materials are brought into contact and equilibrium is achieved. . When the metal is brought into contact with the n-type semiconductor during fabrication of the chip. and falls in the range 0. This creates the Schottky barrier which prevents more electrons from flowing from the n-type material to the metal without assistance from an external energy source of the correct polarity to elevate their energy above the Schottky barrier height.

The resistance high than from ohms law current will be small. but with much lower turn on voltage. 2. Figure : Schottky diodes  V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHOTTKY DIODE : The I-V characteristic is shown below. The mechanism is similar to the ionisation breakdown in a PN junction. .allowing the current to pass through the structure more readily with one polarity than the other. OPERATION IN REVERSE BIASED : When reverse biased it follows a high resistance current path. In the reverse direction breakdown occurs above a certain level. It can be seen that the Schottky diode has a typical forward semiconductor diode characteristic. At high current levels it levels off and is limited by the series resistance or maximum level of current injection.

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while a p-n junction diode conducts current both due to majority and minority carrier devices.  The Schottky diodes can be switched either from on to off and from off to on much faster than p-n junction diodes .  The V-I characteristics of Schottky diodes are purely similar to that of p-n junctions.Figure : Tendency of forward voltage drop with different types of voltage and barrier height  COMPARISON OF SCHOTTKY DIODE AND P-N JUNCTION DIODE :  A Schottky diode is primarily a majority carrier device.  They often have faster switching times than p-n junction diodes of comparable size.

.  It is used extensively as output rectifiers in switching mode power supplies. Low heat dissipation  APPLICATIONS :  They are widely used in ICs such as decoupling devices in digital circuits (silicon bipolar and gallium-arsenide MOSFET ) because they are majority carrier devices.Here a load is driven by two power supplies. High frequency. This increased efficiency means that less heat is to dissipate. In this case it is necessary that the power from one supply does not enter the other and is achieved by using diodes.Solar cells are connected to rechargeable batteries because power may be required 24 hours a day. Low forward voltage drop.Their high current density and low forward voltage drop means that less power is wasted as compared to ordinary p-n diodes.  It is also useful in solar cell applications. ADVANTAGES :     High speed. A diode is required in series with the solar cells.  It is used in high switching applications. such as motor drives. Figure : An N-P-N transistor with schottky diode clamp  They are used as a switch to speed up operations. Any drop in voltage results in a reduction in efficiency and therefore a low voltage drop diode is needed. switching of communication device.  They are used as clamping devices to prevent heavy saturation of bipolar transistors.  It is an important power device such as OR circuits. industry automation and electronic automation.

..schottky-diode.asp  www...com/./17640-difference-between- normal-diode-schottky-diode.answers.pdf  www. REFERENCES  powerelectronics./What_are_the_advantages_and_disa dvantages_of_Schottky_diode –  www.com/.mpdigest...com/ ./Default.html  wiki.com/mag/405PET31.com/issue/Articles/2009/feb/.electro-tech-online.

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