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Power Flow Control Using

Distributed Saturable Inductors

Aleks Dimitrovski ORNL

  • 1 Managed by UT-Battelle

for the Department of Energy

Power Flow Control Using Distributed Saturable Inductors Aleks Dimitrovski ORNL 1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the

Power System Flows

P Q , S S
P Q
,
S
S
V  / S
V 
/
S

Z jX

V /0  R
V
/0
R

P

S

  • 2 Managed by UT-Battelle

for the Department of Energy

V V

S R

X

sin

Q

S

2

V

S

V V

S R

cos

X

Power System Flows P Q , S S V  / S Z  jX V

Simple Example

3 x 150 MVA lines supply 250 MW load

Simple Example 3 x 150 MVA lines supply 250 MW load 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for
Simple Example 3 x 150 MVA lines supply 250 MW load 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for
  • 3 Managed by UT-Battelle

for the Department of Energy

All lines:

z = 0.125 + j0.52 /mi,

y = j6.8 μS/mi

Simple Example 3 x 150 MVA lines supply 250 MW load 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for

Simple Example

Uncontrolled Power Flow

Simple Example Uncontrolled Power Flow 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy
  • 4 Managed by UT-Battelle

for the Department of Energy

Simple Example Uncontrolled Power Flow 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Uncontrolled Flows Cause Problems

  • Overloading of lines and transformers

  • Reduced security margins

  • Power exchange contractual violations

  • Increased fault levels beyond rating

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for the Department of Energy

Uncontrolled Flows Cause Problems  Overloading of lines and transformers  Reduced security margins  Power

… and Inefficiencies

  • Increased system losses

  • Reduced power transfer capabilities

  • Opposite reactive power flows

  • “Loop flows”

… and Inefficiencies  Increased system losses  Reduced power transfer capabilities  Opposite reactive power

loop flow, reactive power

… and Inefficiencies  Increased system losses  Reduced power transfer capabilities  Opposite reactive power
… and Inefficiencies  Increased system losses  Reduced power transfer capabilities  Opposite reactive power

actual real power transfer

  • 6 Managed by UT-Battelle

for the Department of Energy

… and Inefficiencies  Increased system losses  Reduced power transfer capabilities  Opposite reactive power

Limited Flow Control

  • Switching elements on/off

  • Regulating Transformers

    • Off-nominal turns ratio

    • Phase-shifters

  • Switchable shunt/series capacitors and inductors

  • FACTS - Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    • 7 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Limited Flow Control  Switching elements on/off  Regulating Transformers  Off-nominal turns ratio  Phase-shifters

    FACTS Devices Expensive and Bulky

    TVA Sullivan S/S near Johnson City

    • 8 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    84 MVAr Cap Bank ±100 MVAr STATCOM
    84 MVAr
    Cap Bank
    ±100 MVAr
    STATCOM
    FACTS Devices – Expensive and Bulky TVA Sullivan S/S near Johnson City 8 Managed by UT-Battelle

    Air-Core Inductors Cheaper but Coarse

    PNM Norton S/S near LANL

    • 9 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    15 Ω Air-Core Series Inductor
    15 Ω Air-Core
    Series Inductor
    Air-Core Inductors – Cheaper but Coarse PNM Norton S/S near LANL 9 Managed by UT-Battelle for
    10¾ ft
    10¾ ft
    Air-Core Inductors – Cheaper but Coarse PNM Norton S/S near LANL 9 Managed by UT-Battelle for

    14,500 lbs

    Air-Core Inductors – Cheaper but Coarse PNM Norton S/S near LANL 9 Managed by UT-Battelle for

    Cost Comparison

    • Norton air-core inductor,120 MVA:

    ~ $1,000,000 (current estimate)

    • Equivalent FACTS device:

    > $10,000,000

    • This proposal:

    ~ $100,000

    • 10 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Cost Comparison  Norton air-core inductor,120 MVA: ~ $1,000,000 (current estimate)  Equivalent FACTS device: >

    Simple Example

    Inductor Controlled Power Flow

    Simple Example Inductor Controlled Power Flow 11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 24.9
    • 11 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    24.9 (66 mH)

    Simple Example Inductor Controlled Power Flow 11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 24.9

    Simple Example

    Different Load Distribution inductor On

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor On 12 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of
    • 12 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor On 12 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of

    Simple Example

    Different Load Distribution inductor Off

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor Off 13 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of
    • 13 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor Off 13 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of

    Simple Example

    Different Load Distribution inductor Changed

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor Changed 14 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of
    • 14 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    14.8 (39 mH)

    Simple Example Different Load Distribution – inductor Changed 14 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of

    Magnetic Amplifier

    Power line

    I ac (controlled circuit) N ac  l A  ac  dc m N dc
    I ac
    (controlled circuit)
    N ac
    l
    A
     ac
     dc
    m
    N dc
    dc bias flux
    control circuit
    DC Source
    I
    d c

    ac circuit inductance :

    L

    ac

    m

    N

    2

    ac

    A

    l

    const

    m

    controlled by dc circuit current :

    m

    f

    (

    I

    dc

    )

    • 15 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Magnetic Amplifier Power line I ac (controlled circuit) N ac  l A  ac 

    BH Curve of Ferromagnetic Core

    B

    1~2 T μ large < I dc1 I dc2
    1~2 T
    μ large
    <
    I dc1
    I dc2
    B – H Curve of Ferromagnetic Core B 1~2 T μ large < I dc1 I

    μ small

    H

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    for the Department of Energy

    B – H Curve of Ferromagnetic Core B 1~2 T μ large < I dc1 I

    Symmetrical Connection

    • Equal performance in both half-cycles

    • Cancellation of the induced voltage in the dc circuit

    I ac N ac /2 N ac /2  ac  dc  dc  ac
    I
    ac
    N ac /2
    N ac /2
     ac
     dc
     dc
     ac
    N dc /2
    N dc /2
    17
    Managed by UT-Battelle
    for the Department of Energy
    DC Source
    I
    d c

    Single-Core Symmetrical Connection

    • Three-legged core

    • No induced voltage in the dc circuit

    I ac N ac /2 N ac /2  dc  ac N dc 18 Managed
    I
    ac
    N ac /2
    N ac /2
     dc
     ac
    N dc
    18
    Managed by UT-Battelle
    for the Department of Energy
    DC Source
    I
    d c
    Single-Core Symmetrical Connection  Three-legged core  No induced voltage in the dc circuit I ac

    Single-Core with Swapped Windings

    • Exclusive path for ac flux instead of dc through the middle leg

    • Bias dc flux not impeded by gaps in the core

      • I ac

    gaps  dc  ac N dc /2 N dc /2 N ac 19 Managed by
    gaps
     dc
     ac
    N dc /2
    N dc /2
    N ac
    19
    Managed by UT-Battelle
    for the Department of Energy
    DC Source
    I
    d c
    Single-Core with Swapped Windings  Exclusive path for ac flux instead of dc through the middle

    DC Source

    Local DC Saturation

    • I ac

    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc

    ac

    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc

    gaps

    N dc

    /2

     

    l

    gaps N dc /2 l
    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc
    • I dc

    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc
    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc

    N dc

    /2

    N ac

    dc

    • 20 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    DC Source Local DC Saturation I ac  ac gaps N dc /2 l I dc

    Conclusions

    • Magnetic amplifier based device for continuous power flow control

    • Combination of proven and familiar concepts with new technology

    • Cheap enough for system-wide deployment and comprehensive power flow control

    • Makes the grid part smart in “smart grid,” besides generation and load

    • 21 Managed by UT-Battelle

    for the Department of Energy

    Conclusions  Magnetic amplifier based device for continuous power flow control  Combination of proven and