Geology 50


Glossary of Terms:


A texture in igneous rocks where the crystals, if any, are too small to be seen readily with the naked eye. Andesite is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. The highest rank of coal. By definition, a coal with a fixed carbon content of over 91% on a dry ash-free basis. Anthracite coals have a bright luster, break with a conchoidal fracture, a semi-metallic luster and are difficult to ignite. Frequently referred to by the layman as "hard coal". A form of mechanical weathering that occurs when loose fragments or particles of rocks and minerals that are being transported, as by water or air, collide with each other or scrape the surfaces of stationary rocks. An erosional surface that separates rock units of differing dips. The rocks below the surface were deposited, deformed and eroded. The younger rocks above then accumulated upon the erosional surface. A secondary copper mineral frequently found in the oxidized zones of Cu-bearing ore deposits. A rock with grain size of usually no less than 256 mm A dark-colored fine-grained extrusive igneous rock composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Similar in composition to gabbro. Basalt is thought to be one of the main components of oceanic crust. The leading expert on igneous petrology in the twentieth century. Texture that is shaped like a bunch of grapes. A generally black or dark green form of mica that is a constituent of






Boulder Basalt

Bowen Bortryoidal Biotite

A mineral CaMg(CO3)2 consisting of a calcium magnesium carbonate found in crystals and in extensive beds as a compact limestone An instrument with an edged or pointed end for making holes in hard substances by revolving or by a succession of blows A rare. Each carbon atom in a diamond is surrounded by four other carbon atoms and connected to them by strong covalent bonds. A rock fragment or grain resulting from the breakdown of larger rocks. sandstone or conglomerate) or sediment (such as mud. Clastic Chalk Clasts Calcite Coral Diorite Dolomite Drill Diamond Deposition 2|Page . potassium. A soft limestone with a very fine texture that is usually white or light gray in color. magnesium.crystalline rocks and consists of a silicate of iron. or pebbles). siltstone. CaCO3. intrusive rocks that are the plutonic equivalents of andesite. Also. phaneritic. A very widely distributed crystalline form of calcium carbonate. It is formed mainly from the calcareous shell remains of microscopic marine organisms such as foraminifers or the calcareous remains from numerous types of marine algae. Occurs as nodules and concretionary masses and less frequently as a layered deposit. silt. found as limestone. sand. the precipitation of chemical sediments from mineral rich waters. and aluminum Chert A microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock material composed of SiO2. chalk and marble Comprises of a soft bodied animal (polyp) that lives in a calcareous skeleton (corallum). The settling from suspension of transported sediments. A sedimentary rock (such as shale. naturally-occurring mineral composed of carbon. An accumulation of transported weathering debris. Any of a group of dark.

tough. Contrasting rocks formed under similar conditions. copper arsenic sulfide (Cu3AsS4). Lightest stable subatomic particle known. granoblastic product of thermal metamorphism in contact metamorphic aureoles surrounding magmatic intrusions. Glassy to aphanitic ultramafic rocks composed essentially of olivine and pyroxene that form in lava flows and shallow intrusions. chemically equivalent to basalt. Mafic phaneritic rock type that contains 10–90 modal % plagioclase more calcic than An50 plus pyroxene. It occurs as heavy. characterized by rapid solidification and grains that are so small as to be barely visible to the naked eye. A translucent gemstone consisting of either jadeite or nephrite that is typically green in color. Common pelitic hornfelses may contain poikiloblastic cordierite and/or andalusite and are dark brown to black. water and ice. metallic-gray crystals and masses in veins and replacement deposits. contains >18 wt. and may have conchoidal fracture if aphanitic. Fe–Ti oxides. A common greenish or brown pyroxene with the formula MgSiO3. An igneous rock formed from lava that has flowed out onto the Earth's surface.% MgO and <1 wt. An igneous rock formed by the lithification of ash flow or pyroclastic flow deposits. Relict bedding may be present. Typically cut in the cabochon shape or carved. that is occasionally an important ore of copper. Jade is a very durable stone and is used for a variety of jewelry and ornamental objects.% Extrusive Enargite Enstatite Electron Facies Gabbro Hornfels Ignimbrite Jade Komatiite 3|Page .Erosion A general term applied to the wearing away and movement of earth materials by gravity. with or without olivine. Sulfosalt mineral. wind. Aphanitic to fine phaneritic.

A type of gabbro that has more orthopyroxene than clinopyroxene. Weak to well developed segregation layering of felsic and mafic material may enhance the foliation expressed by preferred orientation of platy mineral grains. The fine-grained volcanic or extrusive rocks that are equivalent in composition to granite. Has a chemical composition of SiO2 and a hardness of seven. Especially rich in Mg and Fe. >20 modal % quartz and a plagioclase to alkali feldspar ratio >9. exhibits high schistosity. Mnemonic adjective derived from magnesium and ferrous/ferric. pink or gray in color. One of the index minerals in Moh's Hardness Scale. Felsic phaneritic rock that contains. One of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust. generally have little or no feldspar. A sequence of variably altered oceanic rocks exposed onland in subduction zones Rocks of highly variable grain size in which individual crystals can be as much as several meters. Strongly foliated metamorphic rock.(Na2O + K2O) Lahar Refers to a flowing mass of rock material mobilized by entrained water that moves by gravity down the slopes of a volcano and to the resulting deposit. Mafic Norite Ophiolite Pegmatite Quartz Rhyolite Schist Tonalite Ultramafic 4|Page . used to describe a mineral or a rock that contains large concentrations of Mg and Fe. Occurs in sedimentary. relative to felsic minerals. commonly porphyroblastic and lineated. Normally white. metamorphic and igneous rocks.

Welding Xenolith Yield Zeolite 5|Page . A preexisting rock that has been incorporated into magma without melting. They easily lose and regain their water of hydration and they fuse and swell when heated. gold or other resource that can be produced from a deposit. Zeolites are frequently used in water softening. Corresponding fabric is vesicular. coal. Lithification process that consolidates loose vitroclasts hot enough to stick together when deposited. The quantity of water. a pipe vesicle results from movement of the volatile bubble or the magma before solidification. ion exchange and absorbent applications.Vesicle A smooth-walled. A group of hydrous aluminosilicates that are similar to the feldspars. more or less spherical cavity in a magmatic rock formed by entrapment of a volatile fluid bubble during solidification of the melt. When the magma crystallizes the preexisting rock fragment is known as a xenolith.