ARCHITECTURE IRELAND

Aviva Stadium - STW Architects & Populous Passive House Japan- Key Architecture Irish Pavillion at Shanghai - OPW Architects Irish Architecture Awards 2010 Rearview - John Johansen

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The Journal of the Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland

36 months Location . Landscape Consultants . Quantity Surveyors .Michael Slattery Associates Planning Consultant . underpasses under the railway line which allow the level crossing gates to remain closed on match day and new entrances off Shelbourne Road and Bath Avenue. Eoin O’Keeffe. Raffaella Roncoroni.01 AVIVA STAdium Architects Scott Tallon Walker Architects: Niall Scott .e360m (construction cost) Duration . This podium allows spectators access the stadium at level 03 via a series of ‘grand’ stairs west of the railway line.Gross Max Catering Consultants . was built beside an extended and refurbished Lansdowne Football Club clubhouse. Deirdre Whelan. Oliver Gatzki. Rich De Palma.John Sisk and Son Ltd Photography .Buro Happold Services Engineers . Demolition commenced in June and the stadium was completed on time in April 2010. Adam Rowbotham. Space for the redevelopment of the site was created by minor realignment of the pitch and the creation of a new access podium over the railway line. After a lengthy An Bord Pleanala oral hearing Planning Permission was eventually granted in April 2007.63. planting and signage designed to subtly guide movement. with paving. A new building.ME Engineers Ltd. the oldest rugby international venue in the world. Martyna Wysocka.000 m2 Value .Lansdowne Road Stadium Development Company Ltd. Karol Conway. Site Context and Building Exterior The existing stadium site presented many challenges . CIVIL & Structural Engineers .being a restricted site in an established residential area bounded by the River Dodder to the East and bisected by the main Dublin-Wexford railway line. Karl Burton. Dublin 4 REPORT By Scott Tallon Walker Architects In 2005 Scott Tallon Walker Architects and HOK SVE (now Populous) were appointed to act as joint architects for the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road. The initial design concept for the scheme was developed by the design team at a series of workshops in Dublin and London. Populous Client . Michael Earley.Keogh McConnell Spence / Franklin Sports Ltd. Lynda Kavanagh. The form of the stadium developed as a response to the site conditions 01 Site diagram showing old (green) and new (blue) footprints Site Plan 34|35 Architecture Ireland 252 .(LRSDC) Project Managers . Rebecca Ryan. This includes a new DART station forecourt. A movement strategy was developed for safely managing the large numbers of people arriving and leaving the stadium.The Sports Turf Research Institute Fire Consultant . The former two rear pitches were also realigned and combined into one ‘back’ pitch with a North –South orientation. Philip Jackson. In addition there was also the requirement to keep both Lansdowne Football Club and Wanderers Football Club and their training pitch on the site.Tom Phillips & Associates Main Contractor . the stadium’s administrative offices and Wanderers’ Football Club. Flavio Lombardo. Bryan Roe. The movement strategy also informed the external landscape design.Project Management Ltd.Donal Murphy.Smart Design Group & QA Design Pitch Consultants . Martyna Wysocka (13) Project size . Liz Hughes. Chris Gascoigne (02 & 03). Pat Kirwan . housing a shop.Lansdowne Road.

The interiors at levels 03 and 04 respond to the transparency of the building by treating the views as features of the interior design. The main structural curved reinforced concrete ‘blades’ to the perimeter of the floor plates are expressed. A similar palette carries up to box level but a more intimate and elegant mood is created by the smaller size of spaces. Here there are views over the city to one side and the pitch to the other with continuous circulation around the horseshoe. The General Admission concourses are naturally ventilated behind the transparent rain screen cladding and are treated as external streets with the food kiosks and bars opening off them treated as individual shop fronts. 03 and 04. The transparency of the building is most evident at premium levels and particularly at level 03 . the use of broadloom carpet throughout and the ribbed oak panelling lining the walls to the double height spaces. The Aviva is enveloped in a polycarbonate shingled skin with no defined line between wall and roof 3.The transparent ‘shingled’ skin’s organic form wraps around the concourses. The connection between inside and out is reinforced by the changing natural light and its effect on the differing textures of the natural materials selected: plain and bush-hammered stone used for an island bar. 04 05 1/2. ribbed and plain oak panelling and bronze clad bars. Ground level consists of multiple entrances. The transparent ‘shingled’ skin’s organic form wraps around the concourses. The lowered North end opens up the stadium bowl to the city 4. a burnt orange resin floor that references the brickwork of the surrounding neighbourhood. Particular attention was paid to the concrete mix. The form allows for the highest tiers and hence the maximum number of spectators to be on the half way lines yet allows the building to sweep down to a single tier at the North end allowing daylight into the adjacent residential gardens and opening up the stadium bowl to the city. At the North end there is a small public concourse under the seating tier. media and back of house facilities. The organic form and the transparency of the external treatment dictated the approach to the internal planning and design. seating tiers and the pitch to enclose the atmospheric ‘cauldron’ of the seating bowl. Levels 01 and 05 serve as General Admission concourses and are open to external environmental conditions and the enclosed premium facilities are at levels 02. Box level accommodation consists in the main of the 36 corporate boxes and the 650 seat restaurant filling the entire South Stand. The curvilinear form reduces the visual mass and apparent height of the stadium in its residential neighbourhood by having no defined line between wall and roof. Building Interior Internally the public accommodation is spread over six levels. Typical kiosk ‘shopfront’ 36|37 Architecture Ireland 252 . textured carpet tile. Accommodation is held back where possible from the external skin of the building to leave a continuous circulation around the perimeter of the floorplates. off which open the players’. Cores with their curved ends are rendered in a soft grey render at each level to add texture. fair faced blockwork and galvanized steel) with vibrancy and personality added in the choice of flooring material. These along with the simple palette of colours and materials and consistent detailing throughout result in a coherent whole that we hope will serve as a worthy venue for events both on and off the pitch. forms and shutters to produce beautiful concrete work that could remain exposed as elements of the interior throughout. Level 03 also features airy double-height spaces on East and West sides with open staircases leading up to corporate box level. The concrete frame and the rendered cores are the common thread that link all levels of the building. and in the treatment of the ‘shop fronts’. grey rendered walls. burnt orange resin floor. These levels are designed using robust materials (exposed concrete. 5. 02 03 and expresses the several limitations that the site context placed on the project. and individually lit appearing as illuminated ‘ribs’ at night contrasting with the six cores rising through the building. with a service road behind. while also providing optimal sight-lines for spectators and proximity to the pitch. seating tiers and the pitch to enclose the atmospheric ‘cauldron’ of the seating bowl. Materials on the general admission levels include exposed concrete. The use of translucent and transparent polycarbonate for the external roofing and cladding allows for maximum light penetration through the building. Materials throughout the building were selected for their longevity with attention given to their quality and detail. The building skin reflects the light and the colours of the sky giving rise to a façade appearance that is constantly changing. fair face blockwork and grey textured render to cores.

connecting to a ring truss that runs around the perimeter of the stadium. and then cantilever up to 15m beyond the primary truss to create a slim-line leading edge of the roof. connecting to a more conventional and dependent structure supporting the North stand. in a manner that the roof and façade are seamless – thereby creating the form that is already uniquely associated with Aviva Stadium. south. The results of this collaborative effort can be seen around many of the spaces. and west sides.2 An integrated holistic single model of roof and bowl was used for creative aspects and design delivery 3 4 1 5 5 2 Structural Engineers’ Account The overall form of the stadium is truly site-responsive. Major features of the frames are the inclined. and is then supported by a series of spur-trusses that run from the horse-shoe truss back to the rear of the tiers. Tertiary trusses then span between the primary truss and the ring truss. Numerous bowlgeometries were studied and modelled – to arrive at the right balance between the distribution of seats within the seating-tiers. growing to four tiers of varying heights around the east. 1 2 3 4 5 Level three plan Premium entrance General admission entrance Podium Grand stairs Double-height space 1 Section 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Plant mezzanine Plant level Upper concourse Box concourse Upper premium concourse Lower premium concourse Lower general admission concourse Service levels 38|39 Architecture Ireland 252 . The carefully chosen mix design also forms a key component of the palette of colours adopted throughout the stadium. The primary roof structure includes a ‘two part’ roof designfeaturing an innovative ‘horseshoe’ truss that spans around the East. and facilities behind each tier whilst satisfying the site constraints. These were developed as one. A massive effort to achieve high quality concrete took place between the Design and Construction Teams. The roof skin comprises two main types of polycarbonate – the major difference between them being the degree of opacity – thus providing a graded type of pitch-shadow. The shape was derived by reconciling a series of constraints that vary all around the stadium with the aspiration for a free flowing three dimensional form. The shape of the bowl. curving concrete blades that reach out to support the floor-plates towards their outer extremities. South and West tiers. The result was the unique bowl that now characterises the Aviva Stadium – featuring a single tier along the North Stand. The shape of the bowl then forms the basis for the form of the roof of the façade envelope. The horseshoe-truss is supported at the North end by a pair of tapering concrete super-columns. along with the varying requirements for backof-house facilities was major factors in the development of the dramatic geometry of the frames that support the floorplates and the tiers. the quality of viewing.

waterless urinals are used throughout the building to reduce demand on drinking water. Island bar in limestone with view to the stadium bowl behind 11. Sophisticated acoustic panelling and whisper quiet chilling fan technology were used to ensure the stadium would have a minimal impact on background noise – very important given its location. Each generator is fitted with large radiators and heat exchangers that pre-heat water for use in the bathrooms and kitchens and. Lighting is controlled centrally. Other elements of the services design include intelligent controls to ensure power consuming systems are only operating when required for example escalators will only run when people are using them and fans and pumps in the heating and ventilation systems will only run at the rate that is required. The premium level features a double-height space. Rainwater gathered from the roof is stored in the basement and used to irrigate the pitches. minimizing the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours. and only areas that are occupied are lit. A multi-functional corporate space 10. Nightime view of stadium 14/15/16. Bespoke graphics incorporating the Aviva branding colours 13. 40|41 Architecture Ireland 252 . Open concourse showing the bifurcated concrete blade columns 12. flooded with natural light 8. The glass and polycarbonate skin allow maximum natural daylight into the building. During construction the demolished structures were broken up for use as hardcore and sub-bases for the new ones. The client has supported the design team approach throughout. The old top soil was stripped.06 07 09 11 12 08 6/7. when necessary. Blast furnace waste slag was used in the concrete mix throughout to minimize the amount of cement and thereby reduce the energy in concrete production. The organic shape of the building is picked up in soft furniture 9. Players area 10 SUSTAINABLE ASPECTS OF THE DESIGN Minimising the impact of the stadium on the environment was uppermost in the minds of the design team and this principle was integral to the philosophy behind the project. stored and reused for the new pitch. has continued this philosophy into the operational management of the building and is actively working towards achieving BS 8901 certification. for the under pitch heating system. Level four break-out space.

A huge flat screen against the end wall will allow coaches to show tactical replays before the game and at half time and these will be edited and fed in from the sizeable video analysis room that is just off the players’ area. These are similar to those on Croke Park. VIP’s. enhancing their variety. These are more spectacular the higher you go. To assess this project properly would take a month rather than a day or two. The outer transparent screen creates a coherent but ever changing whole. Murrayfield every year). delivered in a tight programme of five years. is further enhanced by the opened louvers at the north end of the stadium. Secondly. underneath the west stand. when viewed from key points such as the gasholder. like some sort of giant sheep-dip. and much greater coordination with Iarnrod Eireann for access to the station. however.000 spectators. up a grand staircase to the wide podium at Level 3. Exploitation of the sponsor’s branding could have affected the essential clarity of signage and colours but these challenges are met with a simple palette of finishes. But don’t be seduced by the elegant lines of the Aviva Stadium’s exterior and the discreet luxury of is interior. able to match this aspect of Cardiff’s purpose-built-for-rugby arena. and built-in seat will require as much coaxing to get players out! Once down the tunnel. Subtle changes of joinery. Cardiff’s Millennium Stadium achieves this sense of intensity more than any other but I believe the AVIVA stadium will be. shared between both teams. at the very least. which by chance orientation. Like with all modern stadia. Exposed concrete of very high quality and concrete block walls are contrasted with rendered cores. which also expose the strong curves of the main concrete structure. By allowing the breeze blow through and onto the surface. but which must also be met by management. I was. “A True Home for Irish Sport” REVIEW By Denis Hickie Three years ago. A huge screen divides a large shower area from two sunken communal bath areas. The Aviva has a very restricted urban site which creates serious constraints. A service route for trucks arcs around much of the ground floor. entertaining and other events is an additional challenge with catering on a very large scale spread around the whole arena. delighted and curious about the prospect of walking through the players changing rooms. in any stadium in the world. Exploiting the full potential of the structure for conference meetings. number facing out. what a team is looking for is a ‘home-ground’. Further external challenges. the closeness of the seating. and pull up outside the changing room door. (I am well aware of those constraints. changing area. as part of the recovery process. Relatively low floorto-floor heights in some areas are met with double-height spaces at key points. The low west end. strengthening the grass. which had set new levels for stadium design. as it opens up views of the interior structure. Such a project. and more crucially. The lighting in these spaces remains to be resolved. it is unlikely that there is enough height for line-outs to be done indoors which is a shame but somewhat inevitable when considering the overall height restrictions imposed on the entire stadium. particularly access across the railway – a major problem with the old stadium – have been met with additional access from Shelbourne Road. Firstly it allows those playing rugby who seek to kick the ball to touch much greater spatial reference point where the touch-line is. The first difference is that the home changing room is to the left of the tunnel and not on the traditional right-hand side. Once inside. However. giant screens or luxurious jacccuzi baths.13 14 15 16 REVIEW By James Pike This is a vast and very complex project. the architectural challenge is answering a complex brief for 50. The limitations on the stadium height with a very low northwest elevation and a somewhat lower south-east one has dictated an irregular framework to the main structure with huge trusses resting on only two columns at the north end of the arena. It will continue to be the bane of many a visiting team for years to come. Tests that I am sure the Aviva will meet. with its piping hot water. Irish teams can expect a much better playing surface than their Welsh counterparts’ experience in Cardiff. where each jersey will hang. but probably more diverse and challenging. the light and the view point. especially the upper tiers. Appealing as they will both look when full. The shower and recovery area are the biggest and most well thought out I have been in. We must avail of the first matches to test this great achievement. I think STW and Populous have delivered a true home for Irish sport and when the crowds roar. essential for such a complex structure. A massive kitchen at ground level feeds service kitchens on higher levels. I’m sure we will all realise what has really been accomplished. The design team and the contractors have presented them with an achievement of the highest level. From a player’s point of view. it gives a feeling of closeness and intensity to the game. as a high water table limits basements. Unfortunately. The changing rooms’ have large medical areas for pre and post-match treatment and are served by a dedicated central medical facility for more serious injuries. By general consensus from players. the media on a huge scale. more than any amount of oak-panelled changing rooms. any player will be struck by just how much light fills the playing area thanks to the thousands of polycarbonate panels that cloak the stadium. the intensity is relieved by views of the city centre. due to restricted availability. This danger is very imminent. This solution would not have been possible even ten years ago. the slightest advantage counts and creating a stadium that facilitates an intimidating atmosphere seems. On the way through to the toilets (welcomingly significantly increased from two urinals and three toilets in the old ground!!) there is a rubber-turfed space that players can do preliminary warm-up in before the team heads out onto the pitch. it took about two hours to visit briefly most of the key elements. exposes the necessarily distorted nature of the main truss. texture and colour define different areas. epitomises the very high level achieved by Irish design and construction. the bay and the mountains. bright. corporate entertainment. “changing room 1” is a vast. the team bus will be able to drive right into the stadium. both within the stadium and around the city. The quality of the surface. in many cases to be down the list of priorities in the architect’s brief. depending on your distance from the stadium. These are constrained by horizontal trusses. with impacts on neighbouring sites and the wider city. In professional sport. I joined the masses that care much more about how much legroom there is for spectators and how long the toilet queue is at half time then I do about the warm-up area or how much space the players need to get changed in. the designers have also restored one of the historical advantages that Irish teams have enjoyed in Lansdowne Road – the ‘howling gale’. From a player’s point of view. is crucial. We must not let the industry collapse to such an extent. but has to be supplemented by other kitchens at key locations. Within the outer screen. thousands of pints and a wide range of food. dissolving close up. Inside. increasingly a problem in international rugby grounds (recall Twickenham last year. as I did preliminary designs for a stadia on this site and the RDS seven years ago. The ingenuity of the engineering partnered with the subtleties of the architectural design have created unique solutions which solve nearly all the challenges. thanks to the transparent roof and the resulting availability of natural light. one will require a fitness coach to corral reluctant players into its ice-filled freezing waters. the teams and trainers. Each player has his (or her!) oak-panelled cubicle complete with drawer and storage shelf clothes hanger. 42|43 Architecture Ireland 252 . Most distant external views are spectacular. that its ability to retain and develop these skills is lost. It’s a great challenge to any architect to deliver both a facility and an arena that gives the home team an advantage before a ball is even kicked. down the tunnel and out onto the (edge of the) pitch once again in Lansdowne Road. Hopefully we will never be threatened again with being crushed to death at the level crossing gates. are much more spectacular than Croke Park. connected to and stabilised by the massive concrete structure of the stands. a pedestrian underpass.) The impacts generated by the building size and the thousands of people accessing it are enormous and challenged the design team and contractors in a way which could only be solved by the latest technology. The continuous glazed skin exploits the views from the interior spaces. The other.