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NATIONALADVISORYCOMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM

No. 1169

DESCRIPTION OF RUSSJAN AIRCRAFT ENGINES “AM 35” AND “AM 38” By H. Denkmeier and K. Gross

Translation “Beschreibung der russischen Flugmotoren “AM 35” und “AM 38” Deutsche Luftfahrfforschung, Untersuchungen und Mitteilungen Nr. 690 Deutsche Versuchsanstalt f. Luftfahrt E. V., Inst. f. TriebwerkGestaltung, Motoren-PruHeld, Berlin-Adlershof . ZWB, Aug. 1, 1942

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Washington June 1947

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NATIONAL ADWSORY

COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL MEMOWilXJM NO. 11.59 DESCRIPTION OF RUSSIAN AIRCRAE’T ENGINES

By H, Denkmeier and K. Gross Only the following excerpts, which describe the Ruseian developed swirl throttle, have been translated and are presented here.

A. DESCRIPTION OF AM 35 AND AM 38 ENGINES IV. Construction of Engines & Supercharger:- The AM 35 Supercharger aildthe AM 38 supercharger ~-l~%_) are of a .single-sta~e centrifugal type. Mounted on a 16-blade half-opon impeller is a steel inducer. Adjoining the impeller is a nonbladcd annulai-casing of lar~e radial dimension to which the swirl throttle is attached (figs. 21 and 22). The technically most modern part is the swirl throttle (fig. 26) mounted on the inlet to the supercharger; the mechanical construction of this throttle is strikingly simple. Because the swirl throttle has up to the present time never been found on other engines, the assumption may be made that this throttle is a purely Russian devel.opm~nt. Twelve radial guide vanes carried by journala at the outer ends are simultaneously controlled by means of’ toothed segments and a toothed ring. Motion is transmitted by a boost-pressure regulator mouiltedon the side of the supercharger housing to one of’the guide vanes. Placement of the vanes in an oblique position imparts a spiral motion to the air in the direction of rotation of the supercharger and rcd.ucesthe supercharger driving power. The smaller amount of’su~ercharger work is accompanied by a smaller temperature rise in the compre~sor, Because the swirl throttle also has the functions of a boost-pressuxe regulating valve, its effect on the adiabatic pressure head of the supercharger is greatest near sea level lecause of the markedly oblique setting of the vanes and decreases with increasing altitude, that is, with the increase of the angle to which the blades are open.
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*“Beschreibung der russischen Flugmotoren “AM 35” und “All38.” Deutsche Luftfahrtforschung, Untersuchungen und Mittellungen Nr. 690. Deutsche Versuchsanstalt f. Luftfahrt E. V., Inst. f. TriebwerkGestaltung, Motoren-Pr~ffeld, Berlin-Adlershof, ZWB, AUG. 1, 1942.

[NAcA comment: The statement had preciously been made that “The superchargers of the two engines are of exactly the same design except for the gear ratios”j mmely 11.2 kilometers. . TEST RUNS OF AM 35 AiiDAM 38 ENGINE6 II. The influence of the swirl thrcttle. This characteristic first became fully evident in the operation of the AM 35-A engine. becomes apparent in a very conaidorable increase.OWdesign altitude of the supercharger. . it will le diacuased further in the description of investiga. B.56 atmospheres absoluto and n = 2150 rpm. which is equipped with a high-altitude supercharger.] of approxi.titucle mately 2. .6:1. to which in effect the possibility of eliminating the sea-level stage of the supercharger is due. 1169 The supercharger work aa.tiona. 0. the indicated outputs of the engjne ‘withand without the swirl throttle are calculated according to Vi x 714 x GL with throttle Ni with thrcttle = 632 where vi = 0. which is noticeable only below full pressure altitude. This arc-shaped bend at full pressuro altitude is caused by tho swirl throttlo. The swirl throttle installed in the AM 35 and the AM 38 allows very high supercharger apeeda at aea level and therefore allows the eli?nination of a gear dift for low al.ved by this method of’throttling is conaide]:alle. of output below fuil pressure al’~itude as compared to operation with the normal throttle. Test Run of Ali38 Engine The engine is a purely low-altitude en~ine equipped with a supercharger. . For example. which follows. The advantage of the swirl throttle. for indicated output with awi$?lthrottle at pL = 1. The wximum output waa reached at an al.2 kilometers. ii’for the output curve at pL = 1.05:1 and 14. tL = ’35°C.2 NACA ~hiNo. . and n = 2150 rpm.32. the full pressure altitude of which ia 2. did not appear very strongly in these teata because of the I.32 ‘i with throttle = X 714 632 X 4920 .56 atmospheres absolute.ti%udes. from there the output curve passes into the normally falling branch by way of’an arc.

I {f .24 X 80 X 427 = 149.29 Ne-l = — X Cp At X 427 7!5 0. in accordance with Gs Ne.l = with swirl throttle 1.:: No.——. which.on to the absolute temperature. 4650 .32 X 714 632 X % with throttle = 4650 kilograms per hour.56 atmosphei-es absolute and tL ..l = 28. a gain in power of 100 horsepower..192 . Because the quantities of air ~ith and without swirl throttle at equal boost pressure vary in proportj. a power’gain of 70 horsepower Is attained.1 /. fcir’the air delivery without swirl throttle at pL & 1. 30)._ 75 without swirl throttle 1. /J i. 116° C the following results are obtained: ‘L with throttle without throttle = TL without ~tiottle % 368 = ~~x”492C and therefore ‘i without throttle = 0. 1680 horsepower At an altitude of 0. .NACA W * ..5 horsepower m . correspmlding to the te-mperatu. .re behavior of the engine. To this gain is added the reduction in power used to drive the supercharger. decreases to O at full pressure altitude (hatched area in fig.5 horsepower Ne-l = -——./ ‘i with throttle = 1780 horsepower . . is calculated. 1-169 3 ~ ~:.. ... AHw ‘ %-+” = 0.37 x 0. The reduction of temperature due to the swiri throttle was ‘measuredas 21° C.24 X 101 75—— X 427 = 178 horsepower ANC. The same power gaiilis found in actual test.? > ‘h :.

remains at the same level until above lines “Delowan altitude of 3.s vhich ‘riseat a tiillf~~m rate until curves for muliicylinder engiliesj full pressure altitude is reached.resstli-es behind. .re altitude is approached corl”espond. air consumption is plotted a~ainst altitude. 30). These pressure ct~~es have the same shape as is usual with.405 Had totel Thus with a 4@. Figme 31 shows the . The t~~iii meters show the curve of boost air temperature that would be attained of 3.5-percent reduction of the adiabatfc pressure head a saving in supercharger driving power of 19.bei”ing of tk:edata points. the impzoved .. it may be seen tha-teach curve is cGnvex dovnwartly mtil full press:~re rising agaj. The decrease in power gain aa full pressure altitude is approached is caused by the increased opening angle of the swirl throttle (fig. is gained from the reduction of temperature and about 30 horsepower from the reduction of power input to the supercharger. . which is controlled by the boost-pressure regulator.] . The parz o~:the c~li-ve usual air-quantity “ho the pressu.the su.5 = 98. For the 100 horsepower calculated Tower gain. The temperature reduction caused by the swirl throttle at full pressure altitude is shown in figure 32.TI reach the va”lues corresponding to operation with open swii-l throttle.4 NACA ~No. In the same engine.nas full altitude is ~eached.2 kilometers without the swirl throttle. [NACA ccnunent: A further power gain should result from the decreased supercharger outlet temperature.ag valves. Decreased mixture temperature will result in higher permissible power output with fuel of a given knock rating. Only at full pressure altitude is there.2 kilofull pressure altitude. like the supercharger-outletpres=ure.conventional regulati.2 percent is obtained. In figure 33. In spite of the relatively great s.ng to the altitude-power grayh. The inlet-air temperatures to the su~ercharger correspond to the Ina temperatures. of an angle in the curve. Here the temperature. a curved transition instead.?ercharger corres. an experimentally observed gain of 70 + 28. 1169 AHad —= 0. Cnly at an alti’~uiie does the actual tem’’erature difference ‘II .?o.5 horsepower. T?lepressure loss in supercharger duct and carburetor with fully opened swirl throttle a-mounts to 100 millimeters of mercury. that isj 70 horsepower.ndf. due to the nature of the swiri throttle.cat.

By extending this power line in the usual manner as a straight line towards an altitude of O. Beyond full pressure altitude. “thec:urv’es follow a normal course. Breaks are also evident in the power and specific fuel consumption curves. pL = 1. . . 1169 5 flow coefficient at low altitudes due to the swirl throttle produces an increase fn air quantity at sea level. 1750 rpmj a power difference of approximately 100 horsepower is obsei-ved. Full pressure altitude is 6 kilometers with an output of 1240 horsepower. . The influence of the swirl throttle is particularly apparent here in tileboost air temperature. Only with the closing of the swj.* Figure 35 showe the variation of certain engine operating characteristicswith engine speed.* .. In this region the temperature rises as a function of the speed in the usual manner. Thereafter. 40). which are shown by the thin line. Below n = 1640 rpm.5kilometers with an output of 870 horsepower. . which at the usual operating speeds of 1800 to 2200 rpm is very slight. *. Due to the greater full pressure altitude [NACA comment: 6 lan]. 111. The power gain produced by the swirl throttle is made clearly evident by some data pointB obtained with the throttle disconnected (fig. The numbers printed bjside the data -pointsindicate the opening angles of the swirl throttle. these measurements could be made only at lower speeds and higher altitudes. at that point with these same opemting data. . In the same figure the respective opening angles of the swirl throttle are shown. the swirl throttle is wide open because of the low boost pressure and therefoiae has no effect. which becomes still greater for higher speed and hifjherboost pressure.the effect of the use of the swirl throttle is much greater as compared with the AM 33 engine. . . Equal pi-essuro altitude is !3. appears. Because of the high boost air temperatures.NACA TM No.35 atmospheres absolute.rlthrottle does a break appear in the temperature curve. a power gain of 150 horsepower. and n . the observed temperatures run far below the temperatures without swirl throttle. ThUS tit an altitude of 2 kilometers. . . Test Run of AM 35 Engine .

. to this operation must be attributed the deviation oi-the curves from the normal course below full pressure altitude because of reduction of supercharger power input. The effect of the marked temperature reduction produced by the swirl throttle is most cl. as contrasted with those for the AM 38 engine. In figure 53. the curves of external driving power are plotted operating against altitude. fitan altitude of H = m kil. swirl tlmottle operated in the normal uanmer. Figure 43 shows air consumption plotted against altitude. . the eaddle-shaped form of the curves below full pressure altitude may be o%served. .1 atmospheres absolute. At PI. there is a temperature reduction of 43° C.rlthrottle in these curves. At an altitude of O and n = 2050 rpm. as in the AM 38 engine. . 46) is very small between n = 1S00 to 2150 rpm.on curves the effect of the swirl throttle is again clearly evident. Here the swirl throttle acts simply as a boost pressure regulator.eariy evident in the graph of boost air temperatures plotted against altitude (fig. 1169 The respective pressures ahead of the supercharger and the euperchar&er-outletpressures measured at full throttle are shown in figure 41.. Because the high supercharger gear ratio in this engine produces even at lower engine speeds a high supercharger-outletpressure that kee~s the swirl th~-ottleconstantly in an almost closed position.cmeters.d gas throttle intersect at the points that correspond to the power necessary to overcome friction alone without any work of gas changing.6 XACA ~No. the curves with open and with clcs..*. The inputs were observed with the Iiomal The condition of the engine ar. The thin lines show air flow in the tests with the swirl throttle disconnected and correspond to the usual curves with a clack throttle. The pressure loss in the air duct and the carburetor amounts to 100 millimeters of mercury. The variation of certain oyerating characteristics with the speed (fig. Here.. The flow coefficient for the same operating condition with and without swirl throttle is plotted in figure 44.“. this range extends to 1600 rpm. 42). The supercharger pressure has no influence on the temperature level. there is no visible effect of the swj. The numbers adjoining the data points give the opening angles of the swirl throttle.dwith open and closed Gas :h-::~ttle. The air quantities for the flow coefficient without swirl throttle were extrapolated on the basis of the available data points.= 1. In these air-consumpt~.

which. . . Translation by Edward S. is reached at an altitude of 2 kilometers. . “-Thepre~ence of the swirl throttle permits a gain of .. . 1169 Iv. 100 h&seyower at sea level. as stated in the Russian manual. operation of the engine below full preEsure altitude... Shafer.. SUMWRY . . . _. is not possible without the swirl throttle. . National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.NACATM NO.

. 3 Figure 3. 1169 Fig. >.NACA TM No. - View of accessories and supercharger of AM 38.

View of swirl throttl e. . Figure 22. 21.NACA TM No. - Supercharger with impeller. - Supercharger. I 169 Figs. .22 -. Figure 21.

I 169 Fig. 26 Figure 26.> . - Swirl throttle.NACA TM No. . .

C. A. 5 km 6 1 \I =’ fo . . C. .9 . u o . 20 0 B. tj20 ~.3 T y/yO engine (Russian captured engine.D. . . work NO.4 0 L /. Es. 1 . .6.6 density ratio.66 I iters E. .C. ‘. B. T. (n q o . . be Shp-hrl I I . - Altitude-power graph for AM 38 65J. 7 .? . ‘H. T. . I 1 2 5 I 4 Altitude. 1:7 A.5 Ill .2 -. I 00 II ~ . 1 . B.8 Air . EO.C. tj2° z o q Aw”200 ic fuel pt ion. g. 1 # A 1. 1 . I . B. Figure 30.

- - --I -““ ““’ - 1 I -_ .— I ... .’” m x 1 I— t f .----. .-%+> < “:” _-. ..—.. . ‘-’ .:. .‘“ – ““ . : . .. L 1’ T I -:”” ““--’ - I . ... .‘1 <. — --:— -. 65). -. 1 I I --1 n I J -4 I .. . ‘ “ ... :. 7-7----4. . I I .. -—. 0 iw 2 3 Altitude. .. . — .—. :’~” ~ “.— .——.: .% .I rpm 2150 ._.: -. .-j--’ :L :. -.: . —.>— ..- 1 _.— ‘“aPre~~ur~ ~ I ‘i ‘f- i ‘~:~”.. 4 km 51 6 7 8 9 I 600 5LW 400 ----3k- Pressure Figure ahead of supercharger..... ... :.L. :-. work No.. ‘“-” “:: “’”“7 “--4-”v I-L. - Pressure behind supercharger (Russian captured engine AM 38.+_ .-._ ___ .. I 1 -—. . . L– I .. ‘ i. . . -/ “~ ““ - “- ]“-: t-+.-. - v D-” :- 200(/ ““i ! ii.. .--”‘-’ u+ “: -% 1= ‘“7 ““” 1 k. . \ I I I t- v~ I u r I —.[ [ I -—l-l I -— : ‘~~ - . .1 i I r I --l-iI I -+4 1 :-I lUI I -w--!-””% Ix. .“.. mm H9 31..

# 201 L 1- l-- 20 I r 32. I I I 1 1 t 1 t 1 111 Ill . 1 I 1 \ . I (Russian I I I I I I 1I I I I 1 captured engine AM 38. .[: 1 Illr I Speed 1 irnml ‘ .!/0 I ! 1 I I I 1 ! Temperature 1 . I I I I I I I Figure behind work . I . J- increase without swirl throttle I I 1 II I I I 1 ‘‘“’’”’~ u o L . ..0 /. . I 1 I ! 1 1 1 I I [ 1> II Temperature I II Ill supercharger No. I I I . . [I I . Q 60 v c . I Ii’ !. .Ml qI . . I I I I 65).C 50 a n a L 40 30 .

. . (n b 33. km u Figure I 9 8 Air den{ity rati&’~ Y/Y.Ai r flow at various (Russian captured boost pressures engine AM and speeds as function of altitude’ 38.— z I PL sped. n lrpm) I . 65).+ .—2000 —-1850 D 0 / J? 3 4 5 6 78 .5 /0 Altitude.3 .56 q #lm . .l? -n -. work No.

power. of 760 I 5° millimeters ahead I –1 .3 . p.. consumption engine of engine.. .: .. n. . .. 1169 valves. temperature.. . . . as AM 38. .. . . : ‘ . I ! . . ahead Full 35.Uc UI . .. i : . i. . : !. : . .:. ! .! n \ I . *SJ 1. 35 Pressure NACA ahead fa tm of TM No... . ‘ ‘ 1 m /“ v o * 7& L al a E I@ @ CL u) . (Russian temperature 65)... ‘ ~ ! — . . boost air of No. . I d. .. b /1? .. I I i . 1 .. . I I . 1 ! .:.. engine specific of functions work c.: ..Fig... . ~ .. engine. .. rpm and speed Pressure mercury.* . ..:.“ .. Engine Figure fuel captured and behind speed. . .i ‘ . .1.

9 Ai”r density angles altltude of ratio.9 7 8 . n (rpm) z q Im 1. swirl [Russian Y/Y.z Tahwff PL= fw power at 1. H5ek+ 2050 I 900 1750 8 o 1 P\I IN I o * 1.35 q 1.3 /2 .6 6 . . work I I Figure pressures No- 40.1 q : * Speed. In . pL latm ab~ ) 1. P resau re. 5 km .415 .69 qtm sibs. throttle captured with various AM boost 35-A. + Q . 3853).4L 9 10 .m L— !.0 I i? 3 . -..8 .7 4 Altitude.. - Power and outputs as and functions opening of speeds engine .

+ of ““7 “-”. . ... . . F —-—..-. ._ .-: . . .. . -+— .. . Zal “ — . —. 1 - 1 t :.-. ... . 1 [ I I I I I I I I & q 1 1 w.\ a —. - . ——. . s f 3“ : ahead . z (Russian captured . . . ___ .1“: --”” ‘“-”’‘---” “:”‘: t Pressure . . z km ~ _7. . —-.—L.. ..—. .. — .. as function work No.-. o Figure 41.Q = I 900 ~ . .‘-” f~Altitude. of 38531. ... . . . . — . .. :. \ . i-.. a a! 0.:. .--— .. .. ..- u— -—. . —.J. I supercharger.:_ ~ox c ..&x) s n al -.-. -.— . —.. .. . 1750 m 1 Ii .— — .. ““( “z.-. . . . . -. .: ~ :.---- —. . . . .—. - Pressure behind supercharger engine AM altitude I 35-A. . .... i : .! i ‘3Peed i rpm) ~.. .-.—. E t- La m L la - -i---L.. * al L bv -. _. . i -. . . ) 4 #I . .-~ - — ! : .: .. . — ..“! mm Hg “---.

Z z . . Figure 42. outlet work No. 0 n -. - Boost air temperature captured at engine supercharger AM 35-A. as function of altitude a g + N (Russian 3653).

4 .-n -.5- .9 Altitude. AI r“7density z rat’?o. as function 3853). .8 3 + 5 km 6 7 8 9 10 II /2 1 to 1 . and speeds work No. of altitude . - Ai r flow at (Russian various captured boost pressures engine AM 35-A. u ~ Air delivery at ttie-off power q I n I z . Y/Ye.3 o t Figur e 43.

3853).6 . pa/p Altitude. km altitude (Russian captured engine AM 35-A.Z5 L .5 . .)5 Pressure ratio. Flow coefficient as a function work of No.4 . . Figure 44.35 3 .2 .I .7 .

AM engine. millimeters c. 15° power. Full consumption engine behind of engine. *O ~w a .Fig.- ~ u. boost as functions 35-A. rpm re. u o vL 3 % L al a.- a C. p. E al w L . . 1169 pressure. 46 NACA TM No. n. and specific [Russian ahead temperature temperatu engine capof 3853).Uc . speed pressures of mercury.JL . 760 work speed.- Engine Figure fuel tured and ahead 46. ai r of NO.

9 External gas throttle . 2 ‘3 ‘4 5 6 Altitude.0 Figure 53.6 . L al m c . . . ~ U w .5 ratio.1 o n -.> . open 3853). 78 KM 10 /2 /4 16 ”/8” ‘~ /.4 YIYO of AM .L v . and with ciosed.7 Air .e z * o . driving power as captured [Russian a function engine altitude 35-A.. wrk with No.3 ..2 .6 density . / .

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